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Mohism and Neo-Confucianism the Interest
Words: 2070 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26373429
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Mo Tzu, just like Confucius did, spend time and ducats travelling from one part to another, and advising leaders and those in authority of the importance of his universal love revolutionary implementation. They were even thought to be working totally apart, yet the two shared ancestral Chinese heritage. It is clear that the Confucius disciples were from different classes of society, and they searched for individuals who would be easily enlightened to be their follower, and adopt there doctrines. The history of the Mohists is however unclear, with suggestions relating to them slaves and detained prisoners, due to the fact they were ascetics (Chan, p. 212).

Current condition of human kind

In psychology, change has always been a factor of concern, as it defines the difference between the ancient and current human being. This change is brought about by the continuous universe changes and is usually due to the global…

Work Cited

Chan, Wing-Tsit. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1963. pp 1-883.

Christian and Confucian Values Bible
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89191078
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Gospel of Luke / Confucius REVISED

Although Jesus and Confucius are both seen as sources of wisdom in major religious traditions, it is useful to distinguish between the two of them. For a start, Confucianism is not a religion per se -- it offers no particular view of God or the afterlife, and instead concentrates on social relationships, aiming at rules of proper behavior. A comparison of certain well-known sayings by each sage -- taken from the Gospel of Luke and the Analects -- might clarify some of the differences between these two ethical worldviews.

Confucius notes "While your parents are alive, you should not go too far afield in your travels: if you do your whereabouts should always be known" (Lau 74). As Confucius is mostly concerned with principles of social organization and behavior, the right relation of children to their parents quite nearly provides the basis for his…

Individuals Take Over the World
Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66974411
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The more important someone's rank in society was, the bigger the obligations became and thus, the responsibility increased.

Mesopotamia was a region between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates where the swing of world's first civilization emerged. Various cultures occupied the region and were brought together solely by their customs and religion. Trade came in as the result of agriculture, it brought prosperity and urbanization. The rise of cities led to economic and political developments, one city being conquered by another until the establishment of the first Mesopotamian empire by Sargon that lasted about 150 years until outside powers such as the Hittites (who raided Babylon) gained control over some areas. During the Middle Bronze Age, the Assyrians conquered much of Mesopotamia and, with the rise of the Babylonian dynasty, trade was once again favoured and brought along warfare.

The Alexandrian Empire was favoured by a number of its king's…

Pillars The Religious Common Thread
Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90723311
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The association drawn between the leader's teachings and the principled disposition of his followers appeals to a modern Judeo-Christian vantage as well. As the documentary proceeds to its discussion on figures such as Jesus and Mohammed, the constancy of world religion becomes that much clearer. In many ways, Jesus and Muhammed may be perceived as twin pillars on a single continuum. Indeed, "Muhammed regarded himself as the last prophet of the Judaic-Christian tradition. He adopted aspects of these older religion's theologies while introducing new doctrines." (Katz, 1) Thus, it is not surprising that upon its inception into the world at around 570 CE, the Islamic religion produced a legal code which was monotheistic, centered on the prescription of ethical law and applicable in both the theocratic and civil arenas.

This law would likewise predispose the Muslim people to many rituals which echoed those of the Judeo Christian ethic. Like Jesus…

Works Cited

Films Media Group (FMG). (1998). Three Pillars: Confucius, Jesus and Mohammed. Films for the Humanities & Science.

Katz, J. (2001). The Prophet Mohammed. Eretz Yisroel.

Zhuangzi and the Dao the Period Between
Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 198837
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Zhuangzi and the Dao

The period between 480 and 221 BCE was technically a part of the Zhou Dynasty. But in reality, the disintegrating power of the dynasty's kings had led to a period of relative governmental disarray for China. According to DeBary & Bloom (1999), the impotence of the Zhou throne had caused China to descend into an array of conflicting feudal states. It is thus that the period became known as the arring States period. The relative instability of this time would prompt a host of philosophical responses, included among them the highly spiritual teachings of Zhuangzi. As DeBary & Bloom note, Zhuangzi is often lumped together in historical interpretations with Laozi, owing largely to their shared advocacy of the Dao (or The ay). (p. 1) However, the two figures are quite distinct in their espoused ideologies, with Laozi offering solutions for achieving conquest in the material realm…

Works Cited:

De Bary, W.T. & Bloom, I. (1999). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press.

Long Tradition of East Asian Political Thought
Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69590992
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Explain three quotes from ether Confucius, Mencius, or Xun-Zi

Mencius is in the privileged position of providing political advice to King Xuan of Qi. Mencius offers a clear political philosophy rooted in ethical principles. The core ethical principles are humanitarian in nature, based on Mencius's core belief in the essential goodness of human nature. Mencius's political philosophy is grounded in just and humane leadership. There are several core tenets of Mencius's political philosophy, and he advises the king accordingly. The first primary tenet is that leaders need to ensure equitable wealth distribution because poverty and injustice breed criminality and other social problems. The second tenet is that righteousness is important in its own right; that even though the leader ensures his own continued power and respect by being a good king, self-serving interests are insufficient to ensure one's efficacy as a ruler. It is more important to be genuinely…


de Bary, W.T., et al. 1999. Sources of Chinese Tradition. Vol I: From Earliest Times to 1600. Columbia University Press

Lecture Notes.

Richey, J. (n.d.). Mencius. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:

Email Me Any Questions Comments
Words: 3775 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21055301
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Plato: Ok then maybe it does not matter if people are inherently good or
bad, but how does all this matter into the things in life that matter?
Confucius: But this does matter because the way people act towards each
other- the way people govern or treat others with selfishness is what
matters in this world.
Plato: But how can virtue then be taught if people are selfish, or
dictatorial leaders.
Confucius: hat do you mean? I thought we agreed that people can become
virtuous and that people can be in touch with heaven.
Plato: So are you saying people are good?
Confucius: No, I did not say that. hat are you saying?
Plato: That virtue is not something we can find, and it is not something
that is innate. It is something that is given (Cahn 19).
Confucius: Given by who?
Plato: Given by what you call the heavens,…

Works Cited
Cahn, Steven M., ed. Classics of Western Philosophy. 6th ed. Indianapolis:
Hackett Company Inc, 2002.

Plato. The Republic. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. The Internet Classics Archive.
5 May 2007 .

Stevenson, Leslie, and David L. Haberman. Ten Theories of Human Nature. 4th
ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2004.

Political Thinkers Throughout the Ages Have Considered
Words: 1695 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83719215
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Political thinkers throughout the ages have considered the meaning of citizenship and the relationship that does and/or should exist between the citizen and the state. The meaning of citizenship has been addressed in different ways by various schools of thought, beginning with the Greeks. Citizenship means the state of belonging to a collective, a state, and an important element that emerges from Greek, Roman, and early Christian thinkers is that citizenship both confers rights and requires the fulfillment of responsibilities for an individual to be considered a good citizen. Definitions of being a good citizen include clarifying the relationship between the individual and his or her society, as can be seen in the political writings of Plato and the philosophical and ethical writings of Confucius. Plato identifies the good man with the good citizen, and what makes the individual good also makes the individual a good citizen. Confucius would agree…

Justice Has Different Meanings in
Words: 2164 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69017132
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'" (p. 42). This clearly indicates that Thrasymachus was not won and while Socrates ended the argument on a good note but it was more his own approval of his views than Thrasymachus'.

We can thus say with confidence that Thrasymachus was also a wise man of considerable sagacity. He knew that Socrates could move people with the power of his speech and was thus completely prepared to meet his barrage of arguments.

I do not think that Socrates won himself a friend or even an admirer in Thrasymachus because the latter looked significantly bored and uninterested. He even said that he was agreeing where he agreed only to make Socrates happy. It seems that Socrates was more interested in pleasing the others on the scene and winning his approval than he was in Thrasymachus because he had come to know very early in the discussion that Thrasymachus could not…


Plato. Republic. (1994). Translated by Robin Waterfield; Oxford University Press. Oxford Nicolo Machiavelli. The Prince Written c. 1505, published 1515 translated by W.K. Marriott

Mencius' Theory Different Than That
Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71997208
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Confucius had mentioned filial concern, but Mencius places emphasis on this filial concern prioritizing between special concern for and obligations towards family that is closest to oneself gradating down to others, and stated proper attitude to family as essential to order in society (au, 1970).

Mencius extended yi to refer not only to propriety of conduct, but also to self-dignity / self-respect. For instance, he provides the example of a beggar who, starving to death, would, and should, rather die than accept food given to him in a contemptuous manner. 'Yi', as are the other traits, are innate in the individual. One has to cultivate this trait so that one lives one's life according to a certain modicum of self-respect and ethical standards (Shun, 1997).

Mencius retained 'li's connotation to proper conduct but he extended it to the formulation that tendency to accord to 'li' and its nuances (or rules)…

Lau, D.C. (1970) Mencius. London: Penguin.

Nivison, D.S. (1996). The ways of Confucianism: Investigations in Chinese Philosophy. Ill: Open Court.

Shun, K.L. (1997). Mencius and early Chinese thought. CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

Bantu This Term Can Be
Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51569633
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Known as the Median kingdom, centered in what is today northern Iran, this powerful alliance of Mesopotamian kingdoms and nations emerged in the late 8th century B.C.E. with its mighty army joining that of Babylon to destroy the Assyrian Empire. In 546 B.C.E., Cyrus the Great, after conquering Lydia and subduing its king Croesus, quickly acquired domination over many of the Greek polis or city-states on the western coast of Anatolia, a region which King Croesus of Lydia had previously subdued.

In 539 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great invaded the Babylonian Empire and annexed all of Chaldea, taking its king Nabonidus captive and then naming himself as the king of Babylon, Akkad and Sumer. Soon after, Cyrus the Great gained control of the vast Arabian Peninsula and attempted to invade the Egyptian Kingdom. Not surprisingly, all of this expansion of the Persian Empire was not taken very lightly by Cyrus' numerous…

Rosa's Ethics Ever Since December
Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63676332
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The most convincing interpretation might be that, as she contended, she did not foresee the consequences. Parks stated that "it was not a time for me to be planning to get arrested." (Reader 2005). So, if she was not considering the consequences, then she was not thinking rationally; if she was not thinking rationally, according to Aristotle, then she was not behaving virtuously. Since we should probably use Parks' own words as the best evidence, we should conclude that Aristotle would not consider her a particularly virtuous individual.

Confucius, alternatively, maintained that all human morality was held together by a single concept: ren, or natural humanistic love. Simply put, ren is a love and respect for all things human. To Confucius, a person can only achieve ren if they undergo an attainment of knowledge to the point where they reach a workable grasp of the place for each form of…

Works Cited

Confucius. The Analects. Reader 2005.

Ross, David. Aristotle: the Nichomachean Ethics. New York: Oxford, 1998.

Unknown. "Rosa Parks, 92, Founding Symbol of Civil Rights Movement, Dies." Reader 2005.

Chinese Civilization
Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69941200
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Chinese eligious & Philosophical Leaders


Confucius sought for himself and his disciples to become a superior man. This perhaps his most outstanding attribute -- a continuous striving for a perpetually unattainable perfection. Although this construct refers to superiority as measured against a man's peers, it is more focused on becoming superior to one's own self both in the present and in measure of the past. Striving for perfection, or a "perfect virtue" (Analects, bk.ix., c.i.), was a goal for Confucius but he did not teach a perfectionist doctrine. He evidently understood that "They who know virtue, are few" (Analects, bk. xv., c.iii.) and such a doctrine would consist more of striving than of attaining. Confucius valued the perpetually relative. That is, with superiority cast as a constantly moving target, a human being must face the condition that facilitates being superior within one's own sphere -- being superior to that…


Ebrey, P.B. (1993). Chinese civilization: A sourcebook. (2nd ed. rev.). New York, NY: The Free Press.

Nylan, M. And Wilson, T. (2010). Lives of Confucius: Civilization's greatest sage through the ages. New York, NY: Doubleday.

Christianity Confucianism and Buddhism Religious
Words: 1685 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49811141
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Confucius, likewise, although scholars say that Confucianism is not a theistic religion, stresses the will or mandate of heaven having an influence upon the lives of all, but focuses on the obligations of individuals in a society, not upon isolated religious acts of goodness. Buddhism, another cross-national religion also focuses on acts, such as the importance of meditation, rather than individual spiritual perfection, but focuses on such acts in a trans-national focus and stresses 'right understanding' as opposed to social relationships as in Confucianism. Confucianism does not stress the distinction between earth and the dead. It creates a network of continuity between ancestors of the past and one's present shows of respect, through good conduct, towards ones ancestors. Unlike Christianity, which stresses the better place of the Father in heaven, Buddhists do not believe in any type of God, the need for a savior, prayer, or eternal life after death.…

Works Cited

Confucius. The Analects. MIT Classics Archive. Last updated 2000. 

Hoad, Colin. "Chapter One: Confucianism and Christianity." 2005

Matthew: Chapter 5 The Sermon on the Mount." The New American Bible. USCCB.

Traditional Chinese Thoughts Human Nature
Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61548267
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In contrast Mozi argued that people should always care for others equally.

Linking the thoughts of different philosophers

The ancient Chinese sacrificial practice was very common whereby the historical dynasties had carried out human sacrifices quite extensively. However there was the disappearance of this ritual during the periods of spring and autumn as well as the warring periods. Though it was practiced privately this ritual of sacrificing humans was replaced at the state level by clay puppets. The reason why this ritual was discontinued was not known. All these philosophers ignored the blood letting ritual but instead put emphasis on ritual morality to form the foundation of ritual state. Xunzi came up with a funeral ritual which was an ancestral right which required blood sacrifice in the ancient time. This according to him was to form the basis for good citizenship and morality when it came to rituals (Plutschow, 2002).…


Plutschow, H. (2002). Xunzi and the Ancient Chinese Philosophical Debate on Human Nature. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from (2010). Mohism (Philosophy of Mozi). Retrieved May 23, 2013 from

Brindley, E. (2011). Individualism in Classical Chinese Thought. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from 

Piblius. (2007). Comparing Mohism and Confucianism. . Retrieved May 23, 2013 from

Gentleman and Benevolence Confucian Benevolence
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83535096
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He was also severing his bond to his subjects like Antigone, whose rights to act in a morally pious fashion were part of their rights as his citizens.

A good king thus must act with benevolence, and according to the rules that are put upon him in his position, just like a subject must act kindly towards the king. Creon's actions also put his own son in a terrible position. His son forced to choose between his obligations to his father and his bride. In violating his proper duties as a father as well as a king, Creon is also violating the dictates of being a gentleman in the spirit of benevolence.

Demonstrating benevolence is honoring one's obligations and also allowing others to perform their obligations to you and to others. Antigone attempts to do this by encouraging her sister to join her in burying her brother and also defying…

Political Science Comparison of Leadership
Words: 3091 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3700418
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(Ng, 1994, p. 93)

The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.

Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…


Bassnett, S. (1988). Elizabeth I: A Feminist Perspective. Oxford: Berg Publishers.


Hanh, T.N. (2000). Three Zen Buddhist Ethics. In Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values (pp. 98-140). New York: Seven Bridges Press.

Olmec Although Scientists Found Artifacts and Art
Words: 5404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63467824
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Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."

At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…


1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: 

2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: 

3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: 

4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008

How Is Heaven Tian Portrayed in the Analects
Words: 1391 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57847657
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This is a theory that originated in China. This is a political theory in which the rulers received the right to rule over their subjects from a heavenly source. The Mandate of Heaven (a philosophical) concept originated between 1046-256 BCE (Marshall 2002). The Zhou Dynasty ruled over the people of China during this time. The Mandate of Heaven determines if an emperor of China is virtuous to rule. It determines if an emperor has received divine recognition from the gods to rule. This mandate outlines that if an emperor had no virtue to rule then he had no powers and another person takes the role of the emperor (Marshall 2002). This mandate concerns itself with the legitimacy of rulers in China. The conduct of the emperor profoundly influenced the support of the ruler by the gods. If another individual overthrew an emperor, then the people said that the overthrown…

Work cited

Confucius. Eno, R. (Trans). The Analects of Confucius. 2012. Web.

Marshall, SJ. Mandate of Heaven: Hidden History in the I Ching. New York: Columbia Univ

Press, 2002. Print.

Throned in Splendor Deathless O
Words: 1437 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41650743
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The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair?

Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical.

If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently? Explain.

The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.

Catullus ends up calling his lady…

Crito Is a Short Dialogue
Words: 904 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24935369
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If somebody has been accused of something that is punishable whether civilly or criminally, he will do everything just to be able to surpass the trial, even resorting to escape.

Concerning the value of the law, Socrates has shown his strong standpoint about respect to its decisions. For him, if one has the ability to choose whether to obey a law, then it is a way of destroying the power of the law. He considered disobeying the law as unjust because the people and the law should go together. The law will not exist without the people and vice versa. If he will escape, then, he will disobey the law. He believed that this will bring him in a wobbly position in his life after death. Again, if we are going to read the New Testament, the duties towards state authorities is mentioned in Romans 13:1-7,

Everyone must obey state…


Beck, Sanderson (n.d.). "Confucius and Socrates: Teaching Wisdom." Retrieved November 30, 2006 at

Jowett, Benjamin (n.d.). "The Crito." Exploring Ancient World Cultures. Retrieved on November 30, 2006 at

Plato, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo" (n.d.). Retrieved on November 30, 2006 at 

The Holy Bible.

Religious Reflections Please Respond Identify 3 1
Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43669389
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Religious Reflections." Please respond: Identify (3) 1) Judaism, 2) Shinto, 3) Buddha, things discussed fully, explain learned (3) things Identify (3) surprising things learned quarter, explain surprised.

Religious reflections

The phrase 'Judeo-Christian ethic' is often used as a broad-based term to describe the philosophy of most residents of the United States. But this is rapidly changing. It can no longer be assumed that the majority of United States residents grew up in a household where either Judaism or Christianity was the predominant faith. As a member of a workplace where there is a high percentage of Asian and Asian-American employees who were brought up in households with Buddhist, Confucian, and Shinto traditions, I would liked to have learned more about these different faith and philosophical perspectives. However, what I did learn has proven useful in seeking to understand and empathize with my colleagues' worldviews.

It is often said that Buddhism…

Mencius' View That Human Nature
Words: 1049 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94894872
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Mencius saw Tian as the source of morality and social sanction (if the king was good, Heaven enabled him to rule). Hsun Tzu, on the other hand, perceived heaven as dispassionate and unresponsive at best to human predicament and existence, He therefore advocated that man should not look to Tian for assistance or attempt to placate or please tian, but rather endeavor to craft his own fate (Watson, 2003). The intellectual conflict between Mencius and Hsun Tsu reminds one of the differences between an atheist and theist, and, indeed, tian was given associations that are reminiscent of God. It was from this premise that Mencius who perceived Tian to be benevolent affirmed that human nature was intrinsically good, whilst Hsun Tzu who saw Tian as the reverse perceived human nature to be born faulty and replete with greed, strife, and Freudian attributes that if not curbed and socialized would lead…

Lau, D.C. (1970) Mencius. London: Penguin.

Shun, K.L. (1997). Mencius and early Chinese thought. CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

Watson, B. (2003). Xunzi: Basic Writings. Columbia University Press.

John Kotter Confucious Machiavelli and
Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39141893
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He had an opportunity to utilize his theories when he became head of the Florentine militia and helped overthrow the de Medici family rulers. His byword was "force and prudence," and he believed that demonstrating a combination of these two things is the mark of an effective leader. Kotter may agree that prudence is a valuable characteristic in a leader, but disagrees with the outdated principle of force, saying that change cannot be forced, it must be incorporated into one's life and future:

Change sticks only when it becomes "the way we do things around here," when it seeps into the very bloodstream of the work unit or corporate body. Until new behaviors are rooted in social norms and shared values, they are always subject to degradation as soon as the pressures associated with a change effort are removed (Kotter, 1996, 14).

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an influential philosopher, artist and…

Works Cited

Kotter, John. Biography. Harvard Business School, 2007. Website: .

Kotter, John. Leading Change. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.

Kotter, John. Power and Influence. New York: Simon & Schuster Free Press.1985.

Religion Class It MLA Style Answer Questions
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82716249
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religion class. It MLA style, Answer questions: Confucius thinks deliberate tradition

It is not absolutely necessary for an individual to be cognizant of and take part in some sort of deliberate tradition for the cultivation of virtuous individual lives. Nonetheless, such a tradition can be useful in propagating virtue. Alternatively, such a tradition can also be used to propagate vices and other nefarious forms of behavior. However, a deliberate tradition is not necessary to cultivate virtue. One can cultivate virtue simply by following the golden rule, which is to do unto others as one wants done unto oneself (Klempner). Such a mantra or formula for virtue is highly innate and is actually little more than common sense. Hence, individuals can discover this ideology on their own and practice it without expressly being told about it, or following some lengthy tradition dispelling other means of moral behavior. In light of this…

Works Cited

Klempner, Geoffrey. "Kant's Categorical Imperative and the Golden Rule." 2007. Web.

How Confucianism Impacted China
Words: 4732 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28788747
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Confucianism in Pre-Modern China

Confucianism comes from the Chinese philosopher Confucius, after whom the philosophy takes its name. Confucius lived from the middle of the 6th century BC to the first part of the 5th century BC and was a teacher of the values of those who lived in the days of Chinese antiquity. For Confucius, the greatest years of the Zhou dynasty had come in the three centuries prior to his birth. The dynasty itself lasted for centuries following Confucius' life, though in a much different form from what came before. Confucius viewed the lessons of the early Zhou dynasty as containing valuable nuggets of wisdom. Confucius' teachings carried on well after his day as did many other schools of thought in China, where philosophy and wisdom were highly prized and sought after by many Chinese leaders from Confucius' own time till the end of the 3rd century BC.…

Men In the World of
Words: 2583 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51147256
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Again, he does not choose his ruler, but he must still obey him. Being born to certain parents and being under the authority of a certain ruler is fate. One cannot fight against it.

Building upon the comparisons of these two relationships, Confucius then describes another, the relationship one has with one's mind:

'…[S]erve your own mind so that sadness or joy do not sway or move it; to understand what you can do nothing about and to be content with it as with fate this is the perfection of virtue. As a subject and a son, you are bound to find things you cannot avoid. If you act in accordance with the state of affairs and forget about yourself, then what leisure will you have to love life and hate death? Act in this way, and you will be all right.' (60)

It may seem as if Chuang Tsu…

Work Cited

Chuang Tsu. The Complete Works of Chuang Tsu. Trans. Burton Watson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1968. Print.

Japan and Confucianism in Art and Society
Words: 3848 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54239510
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When Neo-Confucianism arrived in Japan in the 16th century, it built on the pre-existing ideas of Confucianism that had already been imported into the island centuries earlier (Tsutsui 104). As far back as the 5th century, the Japanese had mixed with Confucian ideas about society and the role of the person in the world. Confucian ideas taught the Japanese about what it means to be a moral person. However, the Japanese also incorporated Buddhist concepts into their culture -- and these focused on the metaphysical side of nature and how to define reality (or unreality). These two systems of thought, along with Taoism, molded Japan for hundreds of years. By the time Neo-Confucianism arrived, the Japanese were ready to address the issues that the schools left unresolved. Buddhism presented life as basically unreal and that nirvana was the real reality. Confucianism taught values about society and how to respect life,…

Japan Religion
Words: 1955 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5506612
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Confucianism the Major Religion of Japan?

Religion is a cultural phenomenon and institution that involves specific behaviors and practices. Religion has been present for a great deal of human history. Religion is concerned with beliefs. Belief is a powerful tool in a person's life. People live their lives in conjunction with and in support of their beliefs. There are ways to interpret and pinpoint the ways in which religion and beliefs manifest in a culture. This paper will contemplate Japan and religion. The paper will consider what religions are present in Japanese history. With specific focus on Confucianism, the paper will ask if Confucianism is the major religion of Japan; whether it is or not, the paper will render an understanding as to why.

Confucius, an important figure in Chinese history, created Confucianism. Confucius was a political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru school of Chinese thought (Stanford: 2006).…

Neo-Confucianism Transmission Received Tracing the
Words: 1100 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59168686
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Confucius reiterates this when he asks "Is humaneness far away? If I want to be humane, then humaneness is here" (52).

Zhu Xi also attributes this duality to every human being, from the wisest to the least intelligent (733). In fact, he takes the intrinsic presence of the mind of the Way even further than Confucius did in his idea of humaneness. In Confucianism, the capacity for humaneness in everyone does not mean that humaneness is actually present in everyone. But for Zhu Xi, the mind of the Way exists concretely in every human being, and its apparent lack is only an internal imbalance between the human mind and the mind of the Way.

This difference sheds light on the centrality of achieving the Mean in Neo-Confucianism -- a centrality that seems to be missing in Confucianism itself. It could be argued that this distinction qualifies Neo-Confucianism as a separate…

I Ching Is a Form
Words: 2521 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76870375
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Fire (the hottest element) and metal (the hardest) both are associated with yang. Nevertheless, the Blue Dragon that symbolizes wood is a principal symbol of yang, while the hite Tiger that symbolizes metal is a principal symbol of yin. This kind of reversal turns up frequently in the I Ching..[Newborn, 1986]

The I Ching is based on the principle of a broken line, representing yin, and an unbroken line, representing yang. There are eight trigrams: The I Ching [Y" Jing1] uses the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams reuse the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams represent states of affairs, and the I Ching is consulted through the construction of a hexagram to answer one's question. The construction is carried out either through a complicated process of throwing and counting yarrow stalks, or by throwing three coins. The obverse (head)…

Works Cited

Hooker, Richard. Chinese Philosophy. Confucianism. Undated 6-6-1999. Accessed February, 2002.

Newborn, Sasha ICHING: The Book of Changes. Bandanna Books.1986

Ross, Kelley L. Ph. D. Confucius. 2000.

Accessed February, 2002.

Superior Man Both Confucianism and
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From this point-of-view, it could be stated that the reward for his attempt is to be found in this life. The adept of Taoism, in his attempt to become a superior man will dedicate himself, ore to actions which can have a strong social impact. Instead he will focus upon actions such contemplation of himself and the universal energy. The reward of the Taoist superior man is to be achieved in another life (this implies the belief in reincarnation). It must be underlined that despite these differences, the final result includes both the development of the individual and that of society (and from this all the other individual benefit as well).

All in all, it can be stated that the conceptual differences regarding the idea of the superior man in the Confucian and Taoist philosophies have more to do with form and less with substance. The ultimate goal is that…


Mason, Bill. Taoist Principles. Retrieved July 30, 2010 from 

Pay, Rex (2000). Confucius- The Superior Man, Retrieved July 30, 200 from 

The eight pillars of Tao, Retrieved July 30, 2010 from

Gender Roles in Traditional East Asia
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Confucianism is one of the major factors that influenced gender views and perception in traditional East Asia, particularly in relation to the treatment of women in these societies. Confucianism is primarily a teaching that was brought by Confucius, a philosopher, political figure, and educator. The teachings of Confucius formed the foundation of education in the traditional societies in East Asia, especially in China, Korea, and Japan. Confucius teachings affected many things in these societies including fixing gender roles between women and men. Based on these teachings, which influenced nearly every facet of life in the conventional Korean, Japanese and Chinese societies, placed women at a disadvantaged position. The teachings contributed to the development of a patriarchal environment in these societies, which worked to the disadvantaged of women. This paper examines how women exerted power and influence in a patriarchal environment in these three societies and what it teaches us about…

Religions of East Asia Including
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. The Dao is the source of all power which embodies all beings and encompasses both the yin and the yang. Remarkable quiet and serene, the Dao is rarely detected by humans, but provides invulnerability to those who posses it. Dao philosophy calls for its followers to refrain from certain foods and sexual activity, and also separates the role of the state from the lives of its citizens.

The great philosopher Confucius, also known as Kong Fu-Xi, evolved his teachings out of Dao philosophies. Confucius, like estern philosopher Socrates, is known to modern man through the others attempting to preserve his teachings. He took Dao teachings and evolved them into an entirely different sect. Unlike Daoism and later the Shinto religion, he believed that men were the source of the secret life, rather than the cosmos. The Analects of Confucius are dialogues between his followers and he which best embodies…

Works Cited

Confucius. The Analects. Penguin Classics. New York. 1998.

Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.

Mencius and Xunzi Both These
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Mencius thought that virtue was a matter to be developed while Xunzi felt that what was required was not development, but reshaping. The first is like a sprout coming out in a tree whereas the second is like a piece of wood being shaped into an object required by humans. (Chinese Philosophy)

Apart from the argument as to whether goodness comes to man from birth or the state, man should practice goodness according to both the philosophers. In those days, living in a state was for the benefit of the state, and this philosophy certainly benefited the state. The general acceptance among them was also that men could be good if they chose to and it did not matter from where this came - birth or inclination. The difference was in thoughts as to where this morality originated from - Mencius believed that it came from the heart and not…


Adler, Joseph a. Chinese Religious Traditions. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2002. Chapter 3. Retrieved at . Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Chinese Philosophy. Retrieved at Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Gier, Nicholas F. Xunzi and the Confucian answer to Titanism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy. Vol: 22:2 (1995.06) pp. 129-151. Retrieved at . Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Mencius (c. 372-289 BCE). Retrieved at . Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Shintoism Is a Religion With
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However, this trait is magnified in Shintoism because the religion developed in close relationship to the rest of Japanese culture. While a person who, say, married a Japanese person could follow Shinto practice, it is unlikely that someone outside Japan or a Japanese family would do so (Japan-guide).


Unlike most other religions, celebrations are typically local festivals that focus on local shrines. This is because the festivals honor the kami living in those shrines (Author not given, 2004). Thus, use of festivals and ceremonies varies from location to location. Some festivals may take place over several days (Japan-guide). So, although Shinto is a unifying cultural trait throughout Japan, the expression of the religion can vary greatly from location to location.

However, some traditions are practiced nationwide, such as Kagura, or ritual dances performed to traditional music. Many people wear mamori, or charms intended to protect and heal.…


Author not given. Last updated July 2, 2004. Brief history of Shinto, in About Specific Religions, Faith Groups, Ethical Systems, Etc. Accessed via the Internet 7/12/05. "Shinto." Accessed via the Internet July 12, 2005. 


Kumagai, Fumie. 1995. "Families in Japan: Beliefs and Realities." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 26:1, pp. 135+.

Coach Lying With My Head on Pillow
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coach, lying with my head on pillow; back down with a book up in the air when I heard the clock ding six times alerting me to the hour. I had been reading for several hours straight and my eyes grew heavy. The sun was setting quickly and with each passing moment the light found a new path through the window blinds. The article I was reading was written by Zhu Ziqing, who became popular in the twentieth century. The article was apparently written as Ziqing was approaching the mid-point in his life and he was reflecting on his earlier years. He was contemplating the style of parenting that he used with his children when they were younger. Ziqing was raised by parents in an authoritarian manner which was typical of his culture and he automatically, without forethought, chose the same style to use with his children.

Finally the light…

Cloistered Virtue and Democratic Freedom Role of Education for American Christianity
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philosophy of education through a historical and then through an explicitly Christian lens, with a focus on the political role of education, and the Christian philosophy of John Milton. Milton's 1644 works Areopagitica and Of Education are invoked to justify the true Christian purpose of education as being exposure to the sort of free expression and free exchange of ideas that are guaranteed in America under the First Amendment.

What would a true Christian philosophy of education look like? The answer might actually be surprising to the majority of Americans who identify themselves as Christian and seek a Christian education. In 2014, frequently Christian education can seem retrograde, a form of ressentiment and indoctrination that derides Darwinism and has a greater interest in upholding a political consensus than in embodying the ideals set forth by Christ Himself. I propose to examine a Christian philosophy of education through a somewhat unique…


Fish, S. (1971) Surprised by sin: The reader in Paradise Lost. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gaustad, E.S. (2005). Roger Williams. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gutek, G.L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A Biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Jefferson, T. (1778) A bill for the more general diffusion of knowledge. Retrieved from