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This is the first step of learning -- seeing that there is more to the world than selfish thoughts, needs, and desires. Even in schools today, by inviting parents to join in the process of their own child's education, through the PTA, through parent-teacher conferences, and through other methods that open up the school to parents, and vice versa, the school affirms this principle of Confucian social connectedness, of right behavior in family and in school as being symbiotic, rather than in conflict.
According to the Confucian scholar Tu ei-ming, Confucius even has a great deal to say to persons involved in the modern debates revolving around multiculturalism. Despite Confucius' place in his own Chinese tradition as a transmitter of culture and a teacher of long-shared values, ei-ming stresses that "to truly find one's roots, to find inspiration in one's ethnicity and cultural tradition, one must go beyond a closed…
Wei-ming, Tu. "Core Values in Confucian Thought." Lecture to Trinity College. [22 Oct 2006] http://www.trinity.edu/rnadeau/FYS/Tu%20Wei-ming.htm
Socrates and Confucius
Socrates died 2,400 years ago. To be more specific, he was put to death, a criminal destined on a capital allegation. How gravely Athens took her philosophers! It plugs the contemporary intellectual by way of resentment more than fear that one may well die for such a reason (1).
Of Confucius, it was, on one occasion, asked: "Is he the one who knows that what he does is in vain yet keeps on trying to do so?" One really does not know if Confucius ever felt a sense of despair in the self-styled job of trying to put right the nature of other men; but in view of the fact that he was a dedicated teacher, had he been there to respond; he would have said: "Yes, I am the one who is true to himself (3)."
However, the official allegation that cost Socrates his life --…
1) P.A. Vander Waerdt. Socratic Justice and Self-Sufficiency: The Story of the Delphic Oracle in Xenophon's Apology of Socrates. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 11 (1993), 1-48.
2) G. Vlastos, Socrates on The Parts of Virtue in his Platonic Studies. 2nd edn. Princeton, NJ, 1981.
3) Hu Shih. The Development of the Logical Method in China. Shanghai, 1928.
4) Thomas, Elbert Duncan, Chinese Political Thought: A study Based upon the Theories of the Principal Thinkers of the Chou Period. New York, 1927.
Filial piety and fraternal submission -- are they not the root of all benevolent actions?" The superior man does not innovate, but is judged upon how perfectly bows to the conventions that were established, to what moral truths and ideals have come before his existence on earth and in heaven. (the Analects, Chapter 1)
The superior also is deferential to his subordinates -- and aloof from those beneath him. Even when the student Tsze-kung asks Confucius "hat do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "they will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety." In other words, even a poor man who is not socially aspiring should be cheerful in his or her deference. Furthermore, although the…
Confucius. The Analects of Confucius. Readings From Ancient China. Website maintained by Tony Beavers. http://eawc.evansville.edu/anthology/analects.htm[10 Jun 2005]
It is universally accepted that each person should follow the direction that suits her best, that is, everyone should try to develop their abilities and talents in order to succeed.
Confucius believed that it is better to concentrate upon the efforts meant to lead to a long and happy life and not upon the immediate satisfaction of short-term pleasures. Even if during history there were philosophers and other various voices praised the immediate pleasures, claiming that it is the best way of going through life, the contemporary philosophical perspectives still include the conception according to which the road to happiness is not the shortest one, nor the one which lacks obstacles and difficulties.
One of the fundamental principles that are to be found in today's society is that of the respect in relation to the others. The respect for the family is an essential principle which can be observed everywhere…
Old Age: Confucius
Confucius, the great Chinese sage, was known for his stand on culture, old age, respect and admiration for one's parents and ancestors and tradition. Chinese revere tradition and everything old is also considered wise and better. For this reason Confucius felt that respecting one's elders and learning from them was the wisest and most admirable thing a young person could do. This he referred to as filial piety. He equated old age with wisdom and is known for having said that: "Old age, believe me, is a good and pleasant thing. It is true you are gently shouldered off the stage, but then you are given such a comfortable front stall as spectator."
This means that old age is not something to be afraid of. Instead it is something one can actually enjoy if only man had the wisdom to change his perspective and see his aging…
Although there are a few philosophical differences between Confucius and Mencius, the most significant is Mencius' insistence on the goodness of human nature. For Mencius, humanness (ren) is an innate moral character that can unfortunately be corrupted by society or bad leadership. Mencius views all persons as inherently equal and inherently good. hen he pleads with Kings in his dialogues (in The Essential Mengzi), the philosopher urges the King to rule with "benevolence and righteousness," (p. 1). This is because Mencius is primarily concerned with moral character. Mencius emphasizes the active role a human being can take in order to achieve moral righteousness as well as philosophical wisdom.
Confucius was concerned with ethics, and also emphasizes ren as a core component of a strong moral character. However, Confucius did not emphasize ren as much as Mencius would. Moreover, Confucius did not postulate much on human nature and whether human…
Confucius. Analects. Retrieved online: http://classics.mit.edu/Confucius/analects.html
Mencius (Mengzi). The Essential Mengzi. Ed. Van Norden. Hackett, 2009.
Leadership in Terms of Confucius
Analytical Essay: Oprah in via a Confucian Perspective
When one looks at some of the greatest leaders in history, one thinks of courageous people like Abraham Lincoln, George Washington and Bill Gates. However, this paper seeks to determine what the most important qualities of a leader really are with regards to the standards set forth by Confucius. The standards set are the ones set by Confucius in regards to what makes an effective leader in terms of the small picture (getting people to do what one wants) and the larger picture (making real change that world needs and requires). This paper will examine the work and life of a living figure: someone who has touched a tremendous number of lives and who has used her advantage and influence to promote good. This paper will examine the life and work of Oprah Winfrey and assess just…
Overton, William. (2011). "World Literature Anthology: Through the Renaissance Volume II. La Vergne: APUS Press.
difficult for a person to be able to accept cultural values from a community that he or she is not familiar with. A person's cultural identity represents part of that person and shapes the way that he or she reacts to particular situations. The Chinese culture is very complex and entails a great deal of ideals and beliefs that are characteristically Chinese when considering the way they are put into practice.
"The Mother of Mencius" brings on concepts that are likely to be surprising for Westerners but that seem perfectly normal for the Chinese and one can easily observe how the writer introduced a series of sentences meant to emphasize how much the Book of Poetry appreciated the woman's thinking. This women acts in agreement with Confucian laws and does not hesitate to promote such ideas in order for her son to be able to get a better understanding of…
Thee is something so poetic about the image of violence in the flowes, and made me think how even duing a beautiful time like sping, tagedies can still occu. It also shows how we don't think vey much about the weathe, and what weathe means, unless thee ae some violent implications in its intensity. In tems of Dada being anti-ethical, though, I have to say that I don't eally 'let go' of my ethics when eading a Dada poem, athe I tend to econstuct a new ethical system fom the fagments of the piece, but in a new and unexpected way that is eally exciting. I like the efeences to stuctues like tees, which painted a pictue fo me, athe than encouaged a linea eading of the infomation -- although I don't think that you can completely abandon the need fo logic, because it's so had-wied within ou bains o…
references to structures like trees, which painted a picture for me, rather than encouraged a linear reading of the information -- although I don't think that you can completely abandon the need for logic, because it's so hard-wired within our brains or at least our culture, shifting from a stress on the verbal to the visual can be a positive intellectual exercise. This work helped me understand this truth.
In my life, I have tried to distinguish between healthy and tasty foods. The quote can also be taken symbolically, to refer to our ability to discern. Confucious is suggesting that we learn how to discern between ethical actions and even between people." Another quote from The Doctrine of the Mean, which applies to my life, is as follows: "The way which the superior man pursues, reaches wide and far, and yet is secret." I have never wanted to become famous, but have wanted to achieve great things. The most important thing is to achieve goals with an ethical foundation and not to become a celebrity.
Confucius's writings teach us how to best hone our minds and behaviors. The teachings also illustrate what Chinese culture was like during the time of Confucius. For example, in The Great Learning, Confucius refers to kingdoms and rulers. He refers to specific rulers: "Yao…
Confucius (500 BCE). The Doctrine of the Mean. Retrieved on the Internet Classics Archive. http://classics.mit.edu/Confucius/doctmean.html
Confucius (500 BCE). The Great Learning. Retrieved on the Internet Classics Archive. http://classics.mit.edu/Confucius/learning.html
Confucius & Business Management
Confucius and Confucianism as a Model for Business Leadership
'What you do not want done to yourself, do not do unto others ... " "The injuries done to you by an enemy should be returned with a combination of love and justice
Confucius was among the earliest political and philosophical thinkers; and though he actually lived in the 5th Century BC, his impact and his vision have made a profound impression on the Chinese population, and upon all well-read, intelligent and informed peoples throughout the world for approximately 2,300 years (Mitter, 20043). The philosophies of Confucius stressed ethics, order, stability and morality. These are among the concepts that the business leader, the manager, should aspire to, and this paper will focus on that approach to business and management.
Confucius as Teacher and Statesman: Establishing a vision; stimulating people to gain new competencies.
Confucius had a…
Bledsoe, Helen Wieman. "Confucius: Teacher and Statesman." Calliope Magazine 10
Dominguez, J. "World Religions and 101 Cults: Confucianism, Confucius, symbols, the Jen." 2004. 2 Oct. 2004 http://religion-cults.com/Eastern/Confucianism/confuci.htm .
Gard, Carolyn. "The Analects." Calliope 10 (1999): 28.
Construction of an 'Analects of Confucius' knowledge base including pragmatics information. (Yang, 2011)
One study proposes an approach to constructing a knowledge base for the Analects of Confucius, which aims to promote a correct understanding of this text. The content of the Analects has not been categorized by topic and it always contains broader meanings. Thus, it is necessary to create a framework that can be used to manage and build the knowledge base for the text. Therefore, the present paper sets up a categorization system for the Analects, which is used to create a knowledge base by using pragmatics information, based on the utterance interpretation method in pragmatics.
Knowing to Act in the Moment: Examples from Confucius' Analects. (Lai, 2012)
Many scholars note that the Analects, and Confucian philosophy more generally, hold a conception of knowing that more closely approximates 'knowing-how' than 'knowing-that'. However, this author argues that…
Lai, K. (2012). Knowing to Act in the Moment: Examples from Confucius' Analects. Asian Philosophy, 347-364.
Yang, Y.T. (2011). Construction of an 'Analects of Confucius' knowledge base including pragmatics information. Electronics & Communications in Japan., 1-8.
Yao, X. (2012). INTRODUCTION: CONCEPTUALIZING VIRTUES IN THE ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 3-7.
On the other hand, a good individual will be open towards knowledge and learning as a premise to making a contribution and using his knowledge in order to improve the society in which he leaves. Plato does not make this remark, as his main focus is the individual rather than the integration of the individual into organizational forms as a society would be. However, connecting this with the discussion at hand, wisdom, knowledge and truthfulness can be melded not only into an individual product, but also into one at societal level.
Finally, a good individual will need to be harmonious, not necessarily only in his own construction and build, but rather in his perceptions, his approaches towards the surrounding world and his capacity to pass things through his mind before reacting to them into society. Such a harmonious approach, at society level, will bring about a moderate perspective on things…
They are, never taking anything for granted; never being over-confident ("over positive"), of course never being "obstinate" (for that is a truly shameful attitude to take in any personal or social circumstance); and never being egotistic (self-love, or narcissism is akin to egotism, and in Confucian thought it is repugnant).
In Book IX (28) the Master says that "he that is really Good can never be unhappy." That doesn't mean one supposes that the truly jen person, the very Good person, goes around with a smile all the time and everything always goes right. It just means, the sense of being at peace comes when one achieves a level of goodness in life, and peace in this context relates to happiness, not to overt joy or ebullience.
Book XII offers a great deal of information about Goodness, jen. Ritual plays a pivotal role here, as the Master insists that sticking…
Whaley, Arthur. The Analects of Confucius. New York: Random House, 1938.
"Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, say that you know it; when you do not know a thing, admit that you do not know it. That is knowledge." [II:17]
"A young man's duty is to be filial to his parents at home and respectful to his elders abroad, to be circumspect and truthful, and, while overflowing with love for all men, to associate himself with humanity (ren). If, when all that is done, he has any energy to spare, then let him study the polite arts." [I:6]
"Perhaps the word 'reciprocity': Do not do to others what you would not want others to do to you." [XV:23]
"To be able to practice five virtues everywhere in the world constitutes humanity. Courtesy, magnanimity, good faith, diligence, and kindness. He who is courteous is not humiliated, he who is magnanimous wins the multitude,…
Bary, W. And et al. (1960). "From the Analects of Confucius" Sources of Chinese Tradition.
Vol.1. New York: Columbia University Press.
Stanford Education (Accesses 2005) "Confucius" [Online] Available at:
" (Confucius, The Analects p.63 2, 2.5). Confucius had also taught, that filial piety was one of the two threads that held his whole teaching together. It could be said to symbolize the inner and outer, the yin and yang dimensions of human conduct. A person needs to be faithful to both the family and the larger world (Confucianism, 62). Ancestral veneration is not something we only see in Chinese religion, in fact it is practiced in many different religions in different types of ways (Li, 594). Perhaps it could be said then that the ancestor cult might have arisen out of psychological needs or attitudes, including the fear of the deceased, as well as feelings of piety towards them.
The Chinese word for ritual is Li and it is one of the five main virtues taught. Hsun-tzu, is best remembered for his doctrine of ritual action. He provides the…
Nuyen, A.T. (2000). Confucianism, the idea of min-pen and democracy. Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies. 14:130-151
Hasen, C. (1972). Freedom and Moral Responsibility in Confucian Ethics. Philosophy East and West, 22:2, 169-184.
Liu, H. (2001). Confucianism in the eyes of a confucian liberal. New York: Peter Lang, (Chapter 2).
Li, C. (2006). The confucian ideal of harmony. Philosophy East & West, 56(4):583-603.
Confucianism, in other words, provided structure to various sets of ideals existing at the time. Central to this structure was compassion in human relationships.
According to the eligious Tolerance Website, social harmony was achieved by means of regulating human relationships upon the basis of compassion. Most interesting in these terms is the political aspect of such relationships. Confucius held that internalized human behavior was a better regulator of the law than punishment and laws that citizens do not fully understand. In this way, the philosopher believed that an understanding of the reasons behind compassionate behavior was a better political tool than the law itself. This is a very idealistic view, but perhaps somewhat unrealistic when today's paradigms are taken into account. Human behavior is simply not based upon compassion; particularly in Western society. Furthermore, there is a profusion of belief systems and philosophies in existence today. equiring an entire society…
Hays, Jeffrey. History of Confucianism. Facts and Details, 2008. http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=89&catid=3
Religious Tolerance. Confucianism: Beliefs, teachings, and relationships. 2010. http://www.religioustolerance.org/confuciu2.htm
Ross, Kelley L. Confucius, K'ung-fu-tzu or Kongfuzi. 2007. http://www.friesian.com/confuci.htm
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Confucius. 2006. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/confucius/
A more complete reading of the Analects places these requirements for contentment and piety in a much different context that shows the true righteousness and even equanimity of the suggestions, however. When questioned about humanity, Confucius lists the qualities of "reverence, generosity, truthfulness, diligence, and kindness" as necessary in a "man of humanity" (Sourcebook, 19). While it might be easier for a wealthy and powerful man to not think of his salary and to continue perpetuating the system of authority in which he finds himself, it is no easier for the wealthy man to be truly reverent, honest, or diligent, and it is far harder for many wealthy individuals to be truly generous and kind in their dealings with others. To lead a truly good and well-purposed life, the wealthy and powerful must actually bear extra internal burdens to make sure that their wealth and power are wielded correctly.
Confucius was a Chinese philosopher and his thought is referred as Analects of Confucius composing of his ideas and sayings. For over thousand years after his death, his thought was still relevant in the Chinese thought. Confucius was born in 551 a couple of centuries before Socrates taught ethics and logic. Confucius was being identified as the Chinese first teacher whose his ideas had been implemented in several countries in Eastern Asia that include Korea, Vietnam, Japan and Western civilization. The Analects is the selected sayings and ideas of Confucius, which he used to preach his philosophical thoughts. The Analects composed of more than 500 independent passages, which were divided into 20 books, and some of these books had separate bundles with the dominated themes.
There are a group of the key contexts in the books that consist of Ren, Junzi, and Li. The literary meaning of Ren is revered…
Confucius is regarded as one of the most innovative and intellectual philosophers of all time. Confucius and his teachings, even today, command a very large following. For one, Confucius relies extensively on simple yet timeless principles that will endure irrespective of societal growth. His principles are just as relevant today as they were 2500 years ago. In the midst of economic turmoil, civil unrest, greed and envy, many of Confucius' more profound principles apply today. One such principle is that of innovation. Confucius himself was an innovator introducing many unique ideas to both authority and self-cultivation. It was through his belief on innovation which challenged many of the more established customers of society (Hsin-chung, 2000).
To begin, in chapter 2 verse 11, in The Analects, Confucius outlines one of his most profound teachings in regards to innovation. This principle stressed discovering new ideas from intensive study of the old…
1. Hsin-chung Yao, An Introduction to Confucianism (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 12-54.
2. Tu Wei-ming: "The Confucian Tradition in Chinese History," in Paul S. Ropp, ed., The Heritage of China: Contemporary Perspectives on Chinese Civilization. (Berkeley; Oxford:University of California Press, 1990), p.87- 113
Analects of Confucius revolves around the thoughts and teachings of Chinese philosopher Confucius and it is the foundation for Confucianism that is followed by millions of people in East Asia today. This important text was written around 500 BC by the pupils of Confucius and a good part of it was written within a period of 30 to 50 years after his death.
Confucius was born in the province of Lu at a time when the Chinese culture and way of life was at its nascent stages. He wanted to impact the Chinese way of life politically and intellectually through his philosophy and teachings. He tried to pass on to his students the guiding principles of ancient sage kings who worked to maintain harmony in the community and by emphasizing on spiritual well-being over material wealth (Confucius, Ames and osemont, 1998).
The Analects do not contain any prose, poem or…
Confucius; Ames, Roger; Rosemont, Henry. The Analects of Confucius: A Philosophical Translation. New York: Random House, 1998.
Brooke, Bruce; Brooks, Taeko. The Original Analects. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
Confucius; Leys, Simon. The Analects of Confucius. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 1997.
Lau, D.C. The Analects (Lun Yu). London:Penguin Books, 1979.
Comparison between Aristotle and Confucius on Virtue, Good Ethical Character and Conduct
Yu (1998) says that the word 'virtue' is derived from the Latin word 'virtus'. 'Vir' means manhood in literal translation from Latin. Consequently, Latin authors used it to translate 'arete'' from Greek, which referred to the perfect qualities of man. Any human action that completes and undertakes its function flawlessly can be said to be a virtue. Virtue is therefore an important human attribute that is necessary in our daily lives. This paper seeks to explore virtue by comparing how the two philosophers: Confucius and Aristotle viewed virtues and ethics.
Virtue, Good Ethical Character and Conduct
According to Confucius and Aristotle, virtue extends beyond knowledge. Confucius says that humans are good, by nature and that such goodness only requires nurturing to perfect it. On his part, Aristotle thinks that human function is naturally rational. He says that the…
Mo Tzu, just like Confucius did, spend time and ducats travelling from one part to another, and advising leaders and those in authority of the importance of his universal love revolutionary implementation. They were even thought to be working totally apart, yet the two shared ancestral Chinese heritage. It is clear that the Confucius disciples were from different classes of society, and they searched for individuals who would be easily enlightened to be their follower, and adopt there doctrines. The history of the Mohists is however unclear, with suggestions relating to them slaves and detained prisoners, due to the fact they were ascetics (Chan, p. 212).
Current condition of human kind
In psychology, change has always been a factor of concern, as it defines the difference between the ancient and current human being. This change is brought about by the continuous universe changes and is usually due to the global…
Chan, Wing-Tsit. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1963. pp 1-883.
Gospel of Luke / Confucius REVISED
Although Jesus and Confucius are both seen as sources of wisdom in major religious traditions, it is useful to distinguish between the two of them. For a start, Confucianism is not a religion per se -- it offers no particular view of God or the afterlife, and instead concentrates on social relationships, aiming at rules of proper behavior. A comparison of certain well-known sayings by each sage -- taken from the Gospel of Luke and the Analects -- might clarify some of the differences between these two ethical worldviews.
Confucius notes "While your parents are alive, you should not go too far afield in your travels: if you do your whereabouts should always be known" (Lau 74). As Confucius is mostly concerned with principles of social organization and behavior, the right relation of children to their parents quite nearly provides the basis for his…
The more important someone's rank in society was, the bigger the obligations became and thus, the responsibility increased.
Mesopotamia was a region between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates where the swing of world's first civilization emerged. Various cultures occupied the region and were brought together solely by their customs and religion. Trade came in as the result of agriculture, it brought prosperity and urbanization. The rise of cities led to economic and political developments, one city being conquered by another until the establishment of the first Mesopotamian empire by Sargon that lasted about 150 years until outside powers such as the Hittites (who raided Babylon) gained control over some areas. During the Middle Bronze Age, the Assyrians conquered much of Mesopotamia and, with the rise of the Babylonian dynasty, trade was once again favoured and brought along warfare.
The Alexandrian Empire was favoured by a number of its king's…
The association drawn between the leader's teachings and the principled disposition of his followers appeals to a modern Judeo-Christian vantage as well. As the documentary proceeds to its discussion on figures such as Jesus and Mohammed, the constancy of world religion becomes that much clearer. In many ways, Jesus and Muhammed may be perceived as twin pillars on a single continuum. Indeed, "Muhammed regarded himself as the last prophet of the Judaic-Christian tradition. He adopted aspects of these older religion's theologies while introducing new doctrines." (Katz, 1) Thus, it is not surprising that upon its inception into the world at around 570 CE, the Islamic religion produced a legal code which was monotheistic, centered on the prescription of ethical law and applicable in both the theocratic and civil arenas.
This law would likewise predispose the Muslim people to many rituals which echoed those of the Judeo Christian ethic. Like Jesus…
Films Media Group (FMG). (1998). Three Pillars: Confucius, Jesus and Mohammed. Films for the Humanities & Science.
Katz, J. (2001). The Prophet Mohammed. Eretz Yisroel.
Zhuangzi and the Dao
The period between 480 and 221 BCE was technically a part of the Zhou Dynasty. But in reality, the disintegrating power of the dynasty's kings had led to a period of relative governmental disarray for China. According to DeBary & Bloom (1999), the impotence of the Zhou throne had caused China to descend into an array of conflicting feudal states. It is thus that the period became known as the arring States period. The relative instability of this time would prompt a host of philosophical responses, included among them the highly spiritual teachings of Zhuangzi. As DeBary & Bloom note, Zhuangzi is often lumped together in historical interpretations with Laozi, owing largely to their shared advocacy of the Dao (or The ay). (p. 1) However, the two figures are quite distinct in their espoused ideologies, with Laozi offering solutions for achieving conquest in the material realm…
De Bary, W.T. & Bloom, I. (1999). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press.
Explain three quotes from ether Confucius, Mencius, or Xun-Zi
Mencius is in the privileged position of providing political advice to King Xuan of Qi. Mencius offers a clear political philosophy rooted in ethical principles. The core ethical principles are humanitarian in nature, based on Mencius's core belief in the essential goodness of human nature. Mencius's political philosophy is grounded in just and humane leadership. There are several core tenets of Mencius's political philosophy, and he advises the king accordingly. The first primary tenet is that leaders need to ensure equitable wealth distribution because poverty and injustice breed criminality and other social problems. The second tenet is that righteousness is important in its own right; that even though the leader ensures his own continued power and respect by being a good king, self-serving interests are insufficient to ensure one's efficacy as a ruler. It is more important to be genuinely…
de Bary, W.T., et al. 1999. Sources of Chinese Tradition. Vol I: From Earliest Times to 1600. Columbia University Press
Richey, J. (n.d.). Mencius. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/mencius/
Plato: Ok then maybe it does not matter if people are inherently good or
bad, but how does all this matter into the things in life that matter?
Confucius: But this does matter because the way people act towards each
other- the way people govern or treat others with selfishness is what
matters in this world.
Plato: But how can virtue then be taught if people are selfish, or
Confucius: hat do you mean? I thought we agreed that people can become
virtuous and that people can be in touch with heaven.
Plato: So are you saying people are good?
Confucius: No, I did not say that. hat are you saying?
Plato: That virtue is not something we can find, and it is not something
that is innate. It is something that is given (Cahn 19).
Confucius: Given by who?
Plato: Given by what you call the heavens,…
Cahn, Steven M., ed. Classics of Western Philosophy. 6th ed. Indianapolis:
Hackett Company Inc, 2002.
Plato. The Republic. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. The Internet Classics Archive.
5 May 2007 .
Stevenson, Leslie, and David L. Haberman. Ten Theories of Human Nature. 4th
ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2004.
Political thinkers throughout the ages have considered the meaning of citizenship and the relationship that does and/or should exist between the citizen and the state. The meaning of citizenship has been addressed in different ways by various schools of thought, beginning with the Greeks. Citizenship means the state of belonging to a collective, a state, and an important element that emerges from Greek, Roman, and early Christian thinkers is that citizenship both confers rights and requires the fulfillment of responsibilities for an individual to be considered a good citizen. Definitions of being a good citizen include clarifying the relationship between the individual and his or her society, as can be seen in the political writings of Plato and the philosophical and ethical writings of Confucius. Plato identifies the good man with the good citizen, and what makes the individual good also makes the individual a good citizen. Confucius would agree…
'" (p. 42). This clearly indicates that Thrasymachus was not won and while Socrates ended the argument on a good note but it was more his own approval of his views than Thrasymachus'.
We can thus say with confidence that Thrasymachus was also a wise man of considerable sagacity. He knew that Socrates could move people with the power of his speech and was thus completely prepared to meet his barrage of arguments.
I do not think that Socrates won himself a friend or even an admirer in Thrasymachus because the latter looked significantly bored and uninterested. He even said that he was agreeing where he agreed only to make Socrates happy. It seems that Socrates was more interested in pleasing the others on the scene and winning his approval than he was in Thrasymachus because he had come to know very early in the discussion that Thrasymachus could not…
Plato. Republic. (1994). Translated by Robin Waterfield; Oxford University Press. Oxford Nicolo Machiavelli. The Prince Written c. 1505, published 1515 translated by W.K. Marriott
Confucius had mentioned filial concern, but Mencius places emphasis on this filial concern prioritizing between special concern for and obligations towards family that is closest to oneself gradating down to others, and stated proper attitude to family as essential to order in society (au, 1970).
Mencius extended yi to refer not only to propriety of conduct, but also to self-dignity / self-respect. For instance, he provides the example of a beggar who, starving to death, would, and should, rather die than accept food given to him in a contemptuous manner. 'Yi', as are the other traits, are innate in the individual. One has to cultivate this trait so that one lives one's life according to a certain modicum of self-respect and ethical standards (Shun, 1997).
Mencius retained 'li's connotation to proper conduct but he extended it to the formulation that tendency to accord to 'li' and its nuances (or rules)…
Lau, D.C. (1970) Mencius. London: Penguin.
Nivison, D.S. (1996). The ways of Confucianism: Investigations in Chinese Philosophy. Ill: Open Court.
Shun, K.L. (1997). Mencius and early Chinese thought. CA: Stanford Univ. Press.
Known as the Median kingdom, centered in what is today northern Iran, this powerful alliance of Mesopotamian kingdoms and nations emerged in the late 8th century B.C.E. with its mighty army joining that of Babylon to destroy the Assyrian Empire. In 546 B.C.E., Cyrus the Great, after conquering Lydia and subduing its king Croesus, quickly acquired domination over many of the Greek polis or city-states on the western coast of Anatolia, a region which King Croesus of Lydia had previously subdued.
In 539 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great invaded the Babylonian Empire and annexed all of Chaldea, taking its king Nabonidus captive and then naming himself as the king of Babylon, Akkad and Sumer. Soon after, Cyrus the Great gained control of the vast Arabian Peninsula and attempted to invade the Egyptian Kingdom. Not surprisingly, all of this expansion of the Persian Empire was not taken very lightly by Cyrus' numerous…
The most convincing interpretation might be that, as she contended, she did not foresee the consequences. Parks stated that "it was not a time for me to be planning to get arrested." (Reader 2005). So, if she was not considering the consequences, then she was not thinking rationally; if she was not thinking rationally, according to Aristotle, then she was not behaving virtuously. Since we should probably use Parks' own words as the best evidence, we should conclude that Aristotle would not consider her a particularly virtuous individual.
Confucius, alternatively, maintained that all human morality was held together by a single concept: ren, or natural humanistic love. Simply put, ren is a love and respect for all things human. To Confucius, a person can only achieve ren if they undergo an attainment of knowledge to the point where they reach a workable grasp of the place for each form of…
Confucius. The Analects. Reader 2005.
Ross, David. Aristotle: the Nichomachean Ethics. New York: Oxford, 1998.
Unknown. "Rosa Parks, 92, Founding Symbol of Civil Rights Movement, Dies." Reader 2005.
Chinese eligious & Philosophical Leaders
Confucius sought for himself and his disciples to become a superior man. This perhaps his most outstanding attribute -- a continuous striving for a perpetually unattainable perfection. Although this construct refers to superiority as measured against a man's peers, it is more focused on becoming superior to one's own self both in the present and in measure of the past. Striving for perfection, or a "perfect virtue" (Analects, bk.ix., c.i.), was a goal for Confucius but he did not teach a perfectionist doctrine. He evidently understood that "They who know virtue, are few" (Analects, bk. xv., c.iii.) and such a doctrine would consist more of striving than of attaining. Confucius valued the perpetually relative. That is, with superiority cast as a constantly moving target, a human being must face the condition that facilitates being superior within one's own sphere -- being superior to that…
Ebrey, P.B. (1993). Chinese civilization: A sourcebook. (2nd ed. rev.). New York, NY: The Free Press.
Nylan, M. And Wilson, T. (2010). Lives of Confucius: Civilization's greatest sage through the ages. New York, NY: Doubleday.
Confucius, likewise, although scholars say that Confucianism is not a theistic religion, stresses the will or mandate of heaven having an influence upon the lives of all, but focuses on the obligations of individuals in a society, not upon isolated religious acts of goodness. Buddhism, another cross-national religion also focuses on acts, such as the importance of meditation, rather than individual spiritual perfection, but focuses on such acts in a trans-national focus and stresses 'right understanding' as opposed to social relationships as in Confucianism. Confucianism does not stress the distinction between earth and the dead. It creates a network of continuity between ancestors of the past and one's present shows of respect, through good conduct, towards ones ancestors. Unlike Christianity, which stresses the better place of the Father in heaven, Buddhists do not believe in any type of God, the need for a savior, prayer, or eternal life after death.…
Confucius. The Analects. MIT Classics Archive. Last updated 2000. http://classics.mit.edu/Confucius/analects.3.3.html
Hoad, Colin. "Chapter One: Confucianism and Christianity." 2005
Matthew: Chapter 5 The Sermon on the Mount." The New American Bible. USCCB. http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/matthew/matthew5.htm
In contrast Mozi argued that people should always care for others equally.
Linking the thoughts of different philosophers
The ancient Chinese sacrificial practice was very common whereby the historical dynasties had carried out human sacrifices quite extensively. However there was the disappearance of this ritual during the periods of spring and autumn as well as the warring periods. Though it was practiced privately this ritual of sacrificing humans was replaced at the state level by clay puppets. The reason why this ritual was discontinued was not known. All these philosophers ignored the blood letting ritual but instead put emphasis on ritual morality to form the foundation of ritual state. Xunzi came up with a funeral ritual which was an ancestral right which required blood sacrifice in the ancient time. This according to him was to form the basis for good citizenship and morality when it came to rituals (Plutschow, 2002).…
Plutschow, H. (2002). Xunzi and the Ancient Chinese Philosophical Debate on Human Nature. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap0801/xunzi.htm
Cultural-china.com. (2010). Mohism (Philosophy of Mozi). Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://history.cultural-china.com/en/49H6943H12322.html
Brindley, E. (2011). Individualism in Classical Chinese Thought. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.iep.utm.edu/ind-chin/
Piblius. (2007). Comparing Mohism and Confucianism. . Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/16546-comparing-mohism-and-confucianism/
He was also severing his bond to his subjects like Antigone, whose rights to act in a morally pious fashion were part of their rights as his citizens.
A good king thus must act with benevolence, and according to the rules that are put upon him in his position, just like a subject must act kindly towards the king. Creon's actions also put his own son in a terrible position. His son forced to choose between his obligations to his father and his bride. In violating his proper duties as a father as well as a king, Creon is also violating the dictates of being a gentleman in the spirit of benevolence.
Demonstrating benevolence is honoring one's obligations and also allowing others to perform their obligations to you and to others. Antigone attempts to do this by encouraging her sister to join her in burying her brother and also defying…
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…
Bassnett, S. (1988). Elizabeth I: A Feminist Perspective. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Hanh, T.N. (2000). Three Zen Buddhist Ethics. In Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values (pp. 98-140). New York: Seven Bridges Press.
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
This is a theory that originated in China. This is a political theory in which the rulers received the right to rule over their subjects from a heavenly source. The Mandate of Heaven (a philosophical) concept originated between 1046-256 BCE (Marshall 2002). The Zhou Dynasty ruled over the people of China during this time. The Mandate of Heaven determines if an emperor of China is virtuous to rule. It determines if an emperor has received divine recognition from the gods to rule. This mandate outlines that if an emperor had no virtue to rule then he had no powers and another person takes the role of the emperor (Marshall 2002). This mandate concerns itself with the legitimacy of rulers in China. The conduct of the emperor profoundly influenced the support of the ruler by the gods. If another individual overthrew an emperor, then the people said that the overthrown…
Confucius. Eno, R. (Trans). The Analects of Confucius. 2012. Web.
Marshall, SJ. Mandate of Heaven: Hidden History in the I Ching. New York: Columbia Univ
Press, 2002. Print.
The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair?
Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical.
If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently? Explain.
The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.
Catullus ends up calling his lady…
If somebody has been accused of something that is punishable whether civilly or criminally, he will do everything just to be able to surpass the trial, even resorting to escape.
Concerning the value of the law, Socrates has shown his strong standpoint about respect to its decisions. For him, if one has the ability to choose whether to obey a law, then it is a way of destroying the power of the law. He considered disobeying the law as unjust because the people and the law should go together. The law will not exist without the people and vice versa. If he will escape, then, he will disobey the law. He believed that this will bring him in a wobbly position in his life after death. Again, if we are going to read the New Testament, the duties towards state authorities is mentioned in Romans 13:1-7,
Everyone must obey state…
Beck, Sanderson (n.d.). "Confucius and Socrates: Teaching Wisdom." Retrieved November 30, 2006 at http://san.beck.org/C&S-Contents.html
Jowett, Benjamin (n.d.). "The Crito." Exploring Ancient World Cultures. Retrieved on November 30, 2006 at http://eawc.evansville.edu/anthology/crito.htm
Plato, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo" (n.d.). Retrieved on November 30, 2006 at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Aabo%3Atlg%2C0059%2C003&query=43a
The Holy Bible.
Religious Reflections." Please respond: Identify (3) 1) Judaism, 2) Shinto, 3) Buddha, things discussed fully, explain learned (3) things Identify (3) surprising things learned quarter, explain surprised.
The phrase 'Judeo-Christian ethic' is often used as a broad-based term to describe the philosophy of most residents of the United States. But this is rapidly changing. It can no longer be assumed that the majority of United States residents grew up in a household where either Judaism or Christianity was the predominant faith. As a member of a workplace where there is a high percentage of Asian and Asian-American employees who were brought up in households with Buddhist, Confucian, and Shinto traditions, I would liked to have learned more about these different faith and philosophical perspectives. However, what I did learn has proven useful in seeking to understand and empathize with my colleagues' worldviews.
It is often said that Buddhism…
Mencius saw Tian as the source of morality and social sanction (if the king was good, Heaven enabled him to rule). Hsun Tzu, on the other hand, perceived heaven as dispassionate and unresponsive at best to human predicament and existence, He therefore advocated that man should not look to Tian for assistance or attempt to placate or please tian, but rather endeavor to craft his own fate (Watson, 2003). The intellectual conflict between Mencius and Hsun Tsu reminds one of the differences between an atheist and theist, and, indeed, tian was given associations that are reminiscent of God. It was from this premise that Mencius who perceived Tian to be benevolent affirmed that human nature was intrinsically good, whilst Hsun Tzu who saw Tian as the reverse perceived human nature to be born faulty and replete with greed, strife, and Freudian attributes that if not curbed and socialized would lead…
Lau, D.C. (1970) Mencius. London: Penguin.
Shun, K.L. (1997). Mencius and early Chinese thought. CA: Stanford Univ. Press.
Watson, B. (2003). Xunzi: Basic Writings. Columbia University Press.
He had an opportunity to utilize his theories when he became head of the Florentine militia and helped overthrow the de Medici family rulers. His byword was "force and prudence," and he believed that demonstrating a combination of these two things is the mark of an effective leader. Kotter may agree that prudence is a valuable characteristic in a leader, but disagrees with the outdated principle of force, saying that change cannot be forced, it must be incorporated into one's life and future:
Change sticks only when it becomes "the way we do things around here," when it seeps into the very bloodstream of the work unit or corporate body. Until new behaviors are rooted in social norms and shared values, they are always subject to degradation as soon as the pressures associated with a change effort are removed (Kotter, 1996, 14).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an influential philosopher, artist and…
Kotter, John. Biography. Harvard Business School, 2007. Website: http://drfd.hbs.edu/fit/public/facultyInfo.do?facInfo=bio&facEmId=jkotter&loc=extn .
Kotter, John. Leading Change. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.
Kotter, John. Power and Influence. New York: Simon & Schuster Free Press.1985.
religion class. It MLA style, Answer questions: Confucius thinks deliberate tradition
It is not absolutely necessary for an individual to be cognizant of and take part in some sort of deliberate tradition for the cultivation of virtuous individual lives. Nonetheless, such a tradition can be useful in propagating virtue. Alternatively, such a tradition can also be used to propagate vices and other nefarious forms of behavior. However, a deliberate tradition is not necessary to cultivate virtue. One can cultivate virtue simply by following the golden rule, which is to do unto others as one wants done unto oneself (Klempner). Such a mantra or formula for virtue is highly innate and is actually little more than common sense. Hence, individuals can discover this ideology on their own and practice it without expressly being told about it, or following some lengthy tradition dispelling other means of moral behavior. In light of this…
Klempner, Geoffrey. "Kant's Categorical Imperative and the Golden Rule." www.electronicphilosopher.com. 2007. Web. http://electronicphilosopher.blogspot.com/2012/03/kants-categorical-imperative-and-golden.html
Confucianism in Pre-Modern China
Confucianism comes from the Chinese philosopher Confucius, after whom the philosophy takes its name. Confucius lived from the middle of the 6th century BC to the first part of the 5th century BC and was a teacher of the values of those who lived in the days of Chinese antiquity. For Confucius, the greatest years of the Zhou dynasty had come in the three centuries prior to his birth. The dynasty itself lasted for centuries following Confucius' life, though in a much different form from what came before. Confucius viewed the lessons of the early Zhou dynasty as containing valuable nuggets of wisdom. Confucius' teachings carried on well after his day as did many other schools of thought in China, where philosophy and wisdom were highly prized and sought after by many Chinese leaders from Confucius' own time till the end of the 3rd century BC.…
Again, he does not choose his ruler, but he must still obey him. Being born to certain parents and being under the authority of a certain ruler is fate. One cannot fight against it.
Building upon the comparisons of these two relationships, Confucius then describes another, the relationship one has with one's mind:
'…[S]erve your own mind so that sadness or joy do not sway or move it; to understand what you can do nothing about and to be content with it as with fate this is the perfection of virtue. As a subject and a son, you are bound to find things you cannot avoid. If you act in accordance with the state of affairs and forget about yourself, then what leisure will you have to love life and hate death? Act in this way, and you will be all right.' (60)
It may seem as if Chuang Tsu…
Chuang Tsu. The Complete Works of Chuang Tsu. Trans. Burton Watson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1968. Print.
When Neo-Confucianism arrived in Japan in the 16th century, it built on the pre-existing ideas of Confucianism that had already been imported into the island centuries earlier (Tsutsui 104). As far back as the 5th century, the Japanese had mixed with Confucian ideas about society and the role of the person in the world. Confucian ideas taught the Japanese about what it means to be a moral person. However, the Japanese also incorporated Buddhist concepts into their culture -- and these focused on the metaphysical side of nature and how to define reality (or unreality). These two systems of thought, along with Taoism, molded Japan for hundreds of years. By the time Neo-Confucianism arrived, the Japanese were ready to address the issues that the schools left unresolved. Buddhism presented life as basically unreal and that nirvana was the real reality. Confucianism taught values about society and how to respect life,…
Confucianism the Major Religion of Japan?
Religion is a cultural phenomenon and institution that involves specific behaviors and practices. Religion has been present for a great deal of human history. Religion is concerned with beliefs. Belief is a powerful tool in a person's life. People live their lives in conjunction with and in support of their beliefs. There are ways to interpret and pinpoint the ways in which religion and beliefs manifest in a culture. This paper will contemplate Japan and religion. The paper will consider what religions are present in Japanese history. With specific focus on Confucianism, the paper will ask if Confucianism is the major religion of Japan; whether it is or not, the paper will render an understanding as to why.
Confucius, an important figure in Chinese history, created Confucianism. Confucius was a political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru school of Chinese thought (Stanford: 2006).…
Confucius reiterates this when he asks "Is humaneness far away? If I want to be humane, then humaneness is here" (52).
Zhu Xi also attributes this duality to every human being, from the wisest to the least intelligent (733). In fact, he takes the intrinsic presence of the mind of the Way even further than Confucius did in his idea of humaneness. In Confucianism, the capacity for humaneness in everyone does not mean that humaneness is actually present in everyone. But for Zhu Xi, the mind of the Way exists concretely in every human being, and its apparent lack is only an internal imbalance between the human mind and the mind of the Way.
This difference sheds light on the centrality of achieving the Mean in Neo-Confucianism -- a centrality that seems to be missing in Confucianism itself. It could be argued that this distinction qualifies Neo-Confucianism as a separate…
Fire (the hottest element) and metal (the hardest) both are associated with yang. Nevertheless, the Blue Dragon that symbolizes wood is a principal symbol of yang, while the hite Tiger that symbolizes metal is a principal symbol of yin. This kind of reversal turns up frequently in the I Ching..[Newborn, 1986]
The I Ching is based on the principle of a broken line, representing yin, and an unbroken line, representing yang. There are eight trigrams: The I Ching [Y" Jing1] uses the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams reuse the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams represent states of affairs, and the I Ching is consulted through the construction of a hexagram to answer one's question. The construction is carried out either through a complicated process of throwing and counting yarrow stalks, or by throwing three coins. The obverse (head)…
Hooker, Richard. Chinese Philosophy. Confucianism. Undated 6-6-1999. Accessed February, 2002. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CHPHIL/NEO.htm
Newborn, Sasha ICHING: The Book of Changes. Bandanna Books.1986
Ross, Kelley L. Ph. D. Confucius. 2000. Friesian.com.
Accessed February, 2002. http://www.friesian.com/confuci.htm
From this point-of-view, it could be stated that the reward for his attempt is to be found in this life. The adept of Taoism, in his attempt to become a superior man will dedicate himself, ore to actions which can have a strong social impact. Instead he will focus upon actions such contemplation of himself and the universal energy. The reward of the Taoist superior man is to be achieved in another life (this implies the belief in reincarnation). It must be underlined that despite these differences, the final result includes both the development of the individual and that of society (and from this all the other individual benefit as well).
All in all, it can be stated that the conceptual differences regarding the idea of the superior man in the Confucian and Taoist philosophies have more to do with form and less with substance. The ultimate goal is that…
Mason, Bill. Taoist Principles. Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://chippit.tripod.com/taoist_principles.html
Pay, Rex (2000). Confucius- The Superior Man, Retrieved July 30, 200 from http://www.humanistictexts.org/confucius.htm#_Toc483366191
The eight pillars of Tao, Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://www.compassionatedragon.com/eightpillars.html
Confucianism is one of the major factors that influenced gender views and perception in traditional East Asia, particularly in relation to the treatment of women in these societies. Confucianism is primarily a teaching that was brought by Confucius, a philosopher, political figure, and educator. The teachings of Confucius formed the foundation of education in the traditional societies in East Asia, especially in China, Korea, and Japan. Confucius teachings affected many things in these societies including fixing gender roles between women and men. Based on these teachings, which influenced nearly every facet of life in the conventional Korean, Japanese and Chinese societies, placed women at a disadvantaged position. The teachings contributed to the development of a patriarchal environment in these societies, which worked to the disadvantaged of women. This paper examines how women exerted power and influence in a patriarchal environment in these three societies and what it teaches us about…
. The Dao is the source of all power which embodies all beings and encompasses both the yin and the yang. Remarkable quiet and serene, the Dao is rarely detected by humans, but provides invulnerability to those who posses it. Dao philosophy calls for its followers to refrain from certain foods and sexual activity, and also separates the role of the state from the lives of its citizens.
The great philosopher Confucius, also known as Kong Fu-Xi, evolved his teachings out of Dao philosophies. Confucius, like estern philosopher Socrates, is known to modern man through the others attempting to preserve his teachings. He took Dao teachings and evolved them into an entirely different sect. Unlike Daoism and later the Shinto religion, he believed that men were the source of the secret life, rather than the cosmos. The Analects of Confucius are dialogues between his followers and he which best embodies…
Confucius. The Analects. Penguin Classics. New York. 1998.
Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.
Mencius thought that virtue was a matter to be developed while Xunzi felt that what was required was not development, but reshaping. The first is like a sprout coming out in a tree whereas the second is like a piece of wood being shaped into an object required by humans. (Chinese Philosophy)
Apart from the argument as to whether goodness comes to man from birth or the state, man should practice goodness according to both the philosophers. In those days, living in a state was for the benefit of the state, and this philosophy certainly benefited the state. The general acceptance among them was also that men could be good if they chose to and it did not matter from where this came - birth or inclination. The difference was in thoughts as to where this morality originated from - Mencius believed that it came from the heart and not…
Adler, Joseph a. Chinese Religious Traditions. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2002. Chapter 3. Retrieved at http://www2.kenyon.edu/Depts/Religion/Fac/Adler/Reln471/Xunzi.htm . Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Chinese Philosophy. Retrieved at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761568835/Chinese_Philosophy.html. Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Gier, Nicholas F. Xunzi and the Confucian answer to Titanism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy. Vol: 22:2 (1995.06) pp. 129-151. Retrieved at http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-JOCP/gier.htm . Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Mencius (c. 372-289 BCE). Retrieved at http://www.iep.utm.edu/m/mencius.htm . Accessed on 10 June, 2005
However, this trait is magnified in Shintoism because the religion developed in close relationship to the rest of Japanese culture. While a person who, say, married a Japanese person could follow Shinto practice, it is unlikely that someone outside Japan or a Japanese family would do so (Japan-guide).
HOLIDAYS and TADITIONS
Unlike most other religions, celebrations are typically local festivals that focus on local shrines. This is because the festivals honor the kami living in those shrines (Author not given, 2004). Thus, use of festivals and ceremonies varies from location to location. Some festivals may take place over several days (Japan-guide). So, although Shinto is a unifying cultural trait throughout Japan, the expression of the religion can vary greatly from location to location.
However, some traditions are practiced nationwide, such as Kagura, or ritual dances performed to traditional music. Many people wear mamori, or charms intended to protect and heal.…
Author not given. Last updated July 2, 2004. Brief history of Shinto, in About Specific Religions, Faith Groups, Ethical Systems, Etc. Accessed via the Internet 7/12/05. http://www.religioustolerance.org/shinto.htm
Japan-guide.com. "Shinto." Accessed via the Internet July 12, 2005. http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2056.html
Kumagai, Fumie. 1995. "Families in Japan: Beliefs and Realities." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 26:1, pp. 135+.
coach, lying with my head on pillow; back down with a book up in the air when I heard the clock ding six times alerting me to the hour. I had been reading for several hours straight and my eyes grew heavy. The sun was setting quickly and with each passing moment the light found a new path through the window blinds. The article I was reading was written by Zhu Ziqing, who became popular in the twentieth century. The article was apparently written as Ziqing was approaching the mid-point in his life and he was reflecting on his earlier years. He was contemplating the style of parenting that he used with his children when they were younger. Ziqing was raised by parents in an authoritarian manner which was typical of his culture and he automatically, without forethought, chose the same style to use with his children.
Finally the light…
philosophy of education through a historical and then through an explicitly Christian lens, with a focus on the political role of education, and the Christian philosophy of John Milton. Milton's 1644 works Areopagitica and Of Education are invoked to justify the true Christian purpose of education as being exposure to the sort of free expression and free exchange of ideas that are guaranteed in America under the First Amendment.
What would a true Christian philosophy of education look like? The answer might actually be surprising to the majority of Americans who identify themselves as Christian and seek a Christian education. In 2014, frequently Christian education can seem retrograde, a form of ressentiment and indoctrination that derides Darwinism and has a greater interest in upholding a political consensus than in embodying the ideals set forth by Christ Himself. I propose to examine a Christian philosophy of education through a somewhat unique…
Fish, S. (1971) Surprised by sin: The reader in Paradise Lost. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gaustad, E.S. (2005). Roger Williams. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gutek, G.L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A Biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Jefferson, T. (1778) A bill for the more general diffusion of knowledge. Retrieved from http://candst.tripod.com/jefflaw1.htm