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Consumer Behavior - Analysis of Coca-Cola
Consumer Behavior - Analysis of a Product or Service
The objectives of this report are to discuss what consumer behavior is, why consumer behavior is vital, and how consumer behavior is influenced by the needs, goals, and motivations of the consumer. The purchase and use of a product by the Coca-Cola Company will provide support for this report. The consumer behavior of consumers of soft drinks will be analyzed in order to determine their demographics, influencers, and why they prefer one drink over another. Customer segmentation will also be presented in the report. The segmentation will be based on the Coca-Cola Company and how they have segmented their consumers. The company's marketing mix will be discussed with an aim to determine if it is effective, and how it impacts the consumer behavior.
In the current times, the marketplaces have become extremely competitive. It…
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BRINKMANN, J. 2004. Looking at Consumer Behavior in a Moral Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 51, 129-141.
FORNELL, C., ROLAND, T.R. & DEKIMPE, M.G. 2010. The Effect of Customer Satisfaction on Consumer Spending Growth. Journal of Marketing Research, 47, 28-35.
GRUBB, E.L. & GRATHWOHL, H.L. 1967. Consumer self-concept, symbolism and market behavior: a theoretical approach. The Journal of Marketing, 22-27.
New Zealand Consumer Behavior
This research paper has to do with the consumer behavior of the people of New Zealand. The structure of the paper is broken down into how consumer buying behavior is affected by "income status, occupation, Education, geographic, demographics, lifestyles and culture, possessions and level of influence" in their desire to purchase a product such as Hennessey Cognac. Income status means a great deal when looking at whether a person will purchase a high priced specialty item such as cognac, and New Zealanders vary by their ability to purchase the product because of wealth. Occupation is not as great a factor because people in different occupations have differing levels of pay. Education does not seem to matter a great deal either except for the fact that people who are better educated earn more over their lifetimes. This could be more of a factor in other…
Bauman, C., Barton, S., & Elliot, G., 2007, Predicting consumer behavior in retail banking. Journal of Business & Management, 13(1), 79-89.
Booth, L., 2008, Factors that affect consumer behavior. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/list_7655527_factors-affect-consumer-behavior.html
Boyd, T.C., & McConocha, D.M. (1996). Consumer household materials and logistics management: Inventory ownership cycle. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 30(1), 218-235.
Ecotours New Zealand. (2012). About. Retrieved from http://www.ecotours.co.nz/html/philos.htm
In the wake of the London 2012 Olympics, discount airliner Easyjet recorded a boost in its business. The company reported that demand for flights from London was strong after the Games, boosting profit expectations for the year from £280m-£300m to £310m-£320m (BBC, 2012). The company noted several factors that contributed to the boost, many of which relate to the concept of consumer behaviour. For example, the article cites that flights out of London increased to beach markets in particular. It also noted that there were fewer delays at London airports during the summer.
Hoyer and Macinnis (2009, p.3) define consumer behaviour as "The totality of consumers' decisions with respect to the acquisition, consumption, and disposition of goods, services, time and ideas by human decision-making units (over time)." This definition highlights that all consumer purchase decisions are comprised of a number of different inputs. Early research on consumer behaviour…
BBC. (2012). Easyjet lifts profit after post-Olympics boost. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 12, 2012 from http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
Dholakia, U., Kahn, B., Reeves, R., Rindfleisch, A., Stewart, D. & Taylor, E. (2010). Consumer behavior in a multichannel, multimedia retailing environment. Journal of Interactive Marketing. Vol. 24 (2010) 86-95.
Gardner, M. (1985). Mood states and consumer behavior: A critical review. Journal of Consumer Research. Vol. 12 (Dec 1985) 599-618.
Goel, S., Hofman, J., Lahaie, S., Pennock, D. & Watts, D. (2010). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. Vol. 107 (41) 17486-17490.
Consumer Behavior and Purchase Decisions:
In today's society shoes are regarded as footwear products that are geared towards protecting the human foot while providing comfort to carry out several activities. In addition, they are seen as fashionable items that are used to improve self-image through providing decoration. Generally, consumer behavior and purchase decisions for these items are usually affected by various factors such as material selection, attractiveness of the store, shoe design, sales person, and pricing. As part of market research on consumer behavior when buying shoes, observations of consumers was carried out at a local Nike footwear store. The observations indicated that consumer behavior and purchase decisions are influenced by many factors in addition to those mentioned above.
Polyvore Shop is a store that provides various products to customers such as shoes or footwear based on its concept of providing a new way to identify and shop…
Consumer behavior analysis is an important element in relationship marketing that focuses on examining the role of the customer across various aspects. This element basically emphasizes on effective reaching out of customers and potential markets. Consumer behavior analysis is regarded as a data-centered marketing technique that is used to directly reach out to individuals with customer data assessment that help in improving an organization's business profits. Consequently, one of the major ways of enhancing an organization's bottom line is through knowing how to effectively perform customer behavior analysis. As the marketing manager of a company that is seeking to launch a new product line of personal care goods in the U.S. market, consumer behavior analysis will play a crucial role in the marketing process. The proposed target market for the company will be males between 18 and 35 years and price points will incorporate lower to mid-level income ranges.
Bearden, W.O. & Etzel, M.J. (2001, November 2). Reference Group Influence on Product and Brand Purchase Decisions. Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 183-194. Retrieved from https://www2.bc.edu/~woodsiar/nov%202%20reference%20grp.pdf
Gayatri, S.A. (2008, August). Advertising Appeals in Magazine: A Framing Study. Retrieved from San Jose State University website: http://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4532&context=etd_theses&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3DPropose%2Ba%2Btype%2Bof%2Bmessage%2Bappeal%2Bto%2Bbe%2Bused%2Bin%2Bthe%2Badvertising%2Bpersonal%2Bcare%2Bproducts%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26cad%3Drja%26ved%3D0CCUQFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fscholarworks.sjsu.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D4532%2526context%253Detd_theses%26ei%3D-CYOU8aDMsuc4wTDy4CQDg%26usg%3DAFQjCNHfm5xRYCweSNRkYrwQRoyJxC1XrA%26sig2%3DUMJ-yiXDKICHryePTLV2yQ%26bvm%3Dbv.61965928%2Cd.bGE
Kaufman, C. (n.d.). Consumer Behavior Search Notes. Retrieved from Rutgers University
Consumer ehavior -- the Impact of Advertising
"rands should redouble their efforts in using advertising to grow brand advocacy through the integration of online and offline branded consumer contact points…[and moreover since] brand advertising stimulates website visits…" understanding the online and social media sites and applications can go a long ways to creating successful advertising campaigns… (Graham, et al.).
Purpose and Expectations
Advertising in the current global marketplace requires a great deal more than simply preparing entertaining, informative and attractive advertising campaigns. This paper points out that along with a good product or service, the marketing company needs to fully understand the dynamics and cultural realities of the targeted consumer. There are consumers that are worldly and others that are more parochial in their outlook, and still others that will resist buying anything made in a foreign country. Hence, the outlook and cultural make-up of the potential consumer ranks as…
Abbasi, Aamna Shakeel, Aqeel, Ali Muslim Bin, and Awan, Ali Naseer. 2011. 'The Impact of Advertising on Brand Loyalty with the Moderation of Consumer Buying Behavior; a Conceptual Framework', Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1-6.
Agarwal, Ashish, Hosanagar, Kartik, and Smith, Michael D. 2011, 'Location, Location, Location: An Analysis of Profitability of Position in Online Advertising Markets.' Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1057-1073.
Chiang, I-Ping, and Hsieh, Chung-Hsien. 2011, 'Exploring the Impacts of Blog Marketing on Consumers,' Social Behavior and Personality, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1245-1250.
Graham, Jeffrey, and Havlna, William. 2007, 'Finding the 'Missing Link': Advertising's Impact on Word of Mouth, Web Searches, and Site Visits,' Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 427-435.
The second was a Cafe study of cash vs. credit, which was completed in a lab setting, the respondent base included 147 undergraduates between the ages of 20 to 46 years of age with a median monthly income of $1,000 or less. The objective of this lab study was to determine the elasticity of demand for desserts when the respondents were given $10 in cash and told they could spent it on any item of their preference. The third study, also a Cafe-based lab experiment, was based on a recruited base of 229 undergraduates in the 19- to 28-year-old age group with a monthly income of $1,000 or less.(Bagchi, Block, 2011). All three studies had data captured using observation and also self-reporting by respondents. esearchers also observed trade-offs the respondents made in selecting one dessert over another.
The results showed that when the respondents had more cash, they opted for…
Bagchi, R., & Block, L.G. (2011). Chocolate cake please! why do consumers indulge more when it feels more expensive? Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 30(2), 294.
Eastman, J.K., & Eastman, K.L. (2011). Perceptions of status consumption and the economy. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 9(7), 9-19.
Janaki, P., & Premila, S. (2012). A study on customer involvement in purchase of home appliance. International Journal of Marketing and Technology, 2(1), 169-185.
Williams, K.C., Page, R.A., Petrosky, a.R., & Hernandez, E.H. (2010). Multi-generational marketing: Descriptions, characteristics, lifestyles, and attitudes. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 11(2), 21-36. R
Consider decision making
ational consumer behavior: What can organizations learn?
The consumer decision-making process can be conceptualized as a rational, economic model or a subjective, psychological model. The first stage involves the recognition of a need, followed by a search for information, evaluation of alternatives, the purchase, and is concluded by the post-purchase evaluation (Buyer behavior, 2012, tutor2u). This process can be long and laborious or relatively short in duration, depending on the nature of the good or service. For example, a consumer buying a hamburger recognizes a need of hunger; compares the selections on the menu at McDonald's; compares the prices, nutrition and taste of various types of burgers; makes the purchase, and then decides whether he likes the burger and would buy another. A consumer buying a refrigerator notes that his refrigerator is broken, surfs the net for product reviews and looks locally for deals; makes…
Buyer behavior. (2012) tutor2u. Retrieved:
Shugan, Steven M. (2006). Are consumers rational? Experimental evidence. Marketing Science,
25 (1): 1-7 Retrieved:
Three types of needs are biological needs, utilitarian needs and hedonic needs. Biologic needs are those needed to sustain life (shelter, food, water). Utilitarian needs are those that "emphasize the objective, tangible attributes of products" (Miller, 2010). These are practical products that provide a specific function (toiletries, clothes, pots and pans). A third type of need is hedonic needs, and these are products that are "subjective and experiential" (Ibid). These are products that we buy because we enjoy them, and derive pleasure from their use. Some products can combine attributes -- such as paying more for better clothes because we like them.
Aisner and Fournier (1999) outline the concept of brand relationships. These are one-way sentiments that a consumer has with respect to a brand, and perhaps the relationship also consists of attributes in the brand that reflect back on the consumer as a mirror. A meek accountant…
Aisner, J. & Fournier, S. (1999). More than a name: The role of brands in people's lives. Harvard Business School Working Knowledge. Retrieved February 23, 2012 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/2598.html
Miller, A. (2010). Types of needs. PB Works. Retrieved February 23, 2012 from http://mktg343.pbworks.com/w/page/9973742/Types%20of%20needs
Consumer Behavior and Shopper Marketing
Analysis of Concepts and Frameworks
The foundational elements of consumer behavior and shopper marketing are based on the foundations of motivational theories including their supporting concepts and frameworks. The intent of this analysis is to provide insights into how Herzberg's Motivation Hygiene Theory and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory contribute to greater understanding of consumer behavior. Based on these insights, analysis of how consumer motivation affects shopper marketing strategies both off- and online is presented.
Analysis of Consumer Behavior Concepts and Frameworks
In order to have a solid foundation for analyzing, influencing and tracking shopper marketing, consumer heavier concepts and the theories that support them must first be understood. Motivation is a critical construct in consumer behavior and is defined as the series of psychological processes that provides contextual definition, intention and insight to the internal drive and intentions of people to meet satisfy their…
Brand Papers: Challenging Maslow. 2003. Brand Strategy, December 1,
Christoph Burmann, Marc Jost-Benz, Nicola Riley. 2009. Towards an identity-based brand equity model. Journal of Business Research 62, no. 3
(March 1): 390.
Consumer Behavior Project
Skatetastic Skate Park Marketing Strategy
Skatetastic is a new skate and BMX park that will be located in the city of Brookings, South Dakota. This skate and BMX Park offers two separate courses for customers to use, a concession stand for food and beverages, as well as instructors for scheduled lessons. This will be the only skate park within 50 miles of the city of Brookings, South Dakota. Since there is no nearby competition, this park will give both children and adults a space further their talent, skills and creativity on skateboards and bikes. Skatetastic's mission is to create the ultimate skateboarding and BMX outdoor facility in South Dakota, appealing to all age ranges and skill levels. It is Skatetastic's goal to make every customer comfortable and satisfied each time they visit.
Skatetastic has three main criteria that will make them successful. Most importantly is…
Anonymous. "Park Costs -- General Information." SPAUSA: Skate Park Association of the United States of America. November 20, 2011. Retrieved from http://spausa.org/park-costs.html
Coyne, Kevin. "The Customer Satisfaction Survey Snag." Business Week. June 19, 2009. November 20, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com /managing/content/jun2009/ca20090619_272945.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Realizing that the sense of smell is extremely important in shaping perceptions about the quality of a good, techniques such as "scent-sory" branding have been developed to engage with shoppers on a sensory level and encourage emotional buying.
Flavor trends are evolving as consumer demands become more complex)
Other ways of implementing "emotional branding" is with what is known as 'sonic branding'. This process is designed to trigger an emotional response by association with pleasant memories.
The study of consumer behavior has taken greater cognizance of the way that emotional factors are related with certain behavior patterns. The impact of emotional aspects on consumer behavior is summarized clearly and succinctly by Zajonc (1980). Zalonc states that,
There are practically no social phenomena that do not implicate affect in some important way. Affect dominates social interaction and it is the major currency in which all social intercourse is transacted"…
Chaudhuri a. Emotion and Reason in Consumer Behavior. January 31, 2008. http://searchcrm.techtarget.com/general/0,295582,sid11_gci1232374,00.html
Flavor trends are evolving as consumer demands become more complex. 2007.
January 31, 2008. http://www.food-business-review.com/article_feature.asp?guid=B983C47E-6AE6-44C4-8640-57F846A07559
Cognitive vs. Affective. January 31, 2008. http://www.ciadvertising.org/sa/spring_04/adv382j/mgbarber/website/CognitivevsAffective.htm
Nearly every society has some type of social class arrangement. Social classes are comparatively permanent and ordered partitions in a society whose affiliates share like principles, interests, and behaviors. Social class is not determined by a solitary factor such as income but is calculated as a mixture of profession, earnings, learning, riches, and other variables. Marketers are concerned with social class for the reason that people within a particular social class tend to demonstrate like behavior, including purchasing behavior. Social classes demonstrate distinct product and brand favorites in such area as clothing, home furnishings, spare time activity, and cars (Consumer Markets: Influences on consumer behavior, 2008).
Cultural factors have an important force on consumer actions. Culture is the majority fundamental cause of an individual's needs and actions. Growing up, kids learn fundamental values, insight and needs from their family and other significant groups. Marketers are forever trying to…
Buyer Behavior - Cultural Factors. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2011, from Web site:
Consumer Behavior. (2008). Retrieved January 29, 2011, from Web site:
Consumer ehavior (Marketing)
The Role that Personality and Motivation Play in Consumer ehavior: A Case Study of Hongkong and Shanghai anking Corporation (HSC)
In today's information-oriented society, research and development, particularly information research, has become an important activity for business companies, institutions, and organizations, who want to know more about the consumer market, people who consider consumption as embedded and part of their everyday lives. Initially, commercialism of goods and services through advertising mainly focused on extant products and services that people need; nowadays, persuasive messages are extended through advertising, informing people about the goods and services that they should and ought to know and buy for themselves.
Selling these products and services through persuasive advertising messages, however, are the products of advertising research. More specifically, consumer research tries to identify not only the socio-demographic, but also psychographic profile of consumers, understanding how people can be persuaded to buy a…
Arnould, E., l. Price, and G. Zinkhan. (2004). Consumers. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Benady, D. (June 2004). "It's time to get personal." Marketing Week.
Brown, S., R. Kozinets, and J. Sherry. (July 2003). Teaching old brands new tricks: Retro branding and the revival of brand meaning. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 67.
HSBC Corporate Social Responsibility Report 2003.
Consumer Behavior and Countries of Origin (COO)
Countries of origin (COO) effects dominates other effects in influencing consumer buying patterns
Importance of COO
Consumers transfers imagined qualities of COO to product
COO is used as heuristic in regards to expensive products.
COO impacts brand name
COO influences consumer's impression of brand name.
Negative COO may require different marketing techniques for brand name.
Percepts that Impact COO
Emotions / Ideology Influence Perception of COO
Political / moral
Consumers tend to be influenced by developed country of origin (with quality cues) as a competitive advantage when it comes to buying particular luxury goods, but certain exceptions may nullify that rule.
Consumer Behavior and Countries of Origin (COO)
The purpose of this essay is to examine the country of origin as it pertains to buying behavior. The thesis statement of this research is that consumers tend to be influenced by country of…
Ahmed, Z.U., Johnson, J.P., Yang, X., Fatt, C.K., Teng, H.S., & Boon, L.C. (2004). Does country of origin matter for low-involvement products? International Marketing Review, 21, 102 -- 120
Balabanis, G., Mueller, R., & Melewar, T.C. (2002). The human values' lenses of country of origin images. International Marketing Review, 19, 582 -- 610
Broniarczyk, S.M., & Alba, J.W. (1994). The role of consumers' intentions in inference making. Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 393-407
Hong, S.T., & Wyer, Jr., R.S. (1989). Effects of country of origin and product attribute information on product evaluation: An information processing perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 16, 175-187.
Some may argue that consumerism isn't fueling the rampant consumer debt; the real problem is that wages have been stagnant and consumers just can't keep up with the cost of living. ut, following Keynes' line of reasoning, consumption should at least be decreasing as incomes are falling, but, instead, consumption is increasing and now accounts for two thirds of our GDP.
Some are beginning to question, just like Galbraith, if creating wants through the market is really leading to greater well-being. In 1989, the average American consumed twice as much as in 1969, while the average worker labored 160 more hours, the equivalent of an extra month of full-time employment. The expectation that productivity increases would eventually translate into greater leisure clearly hasn't materialized.
Communities are more fragmented and status has intensified instead of decreasing. And, unnecessary consumption with low or zero marginal utility is straining our natural resource.
Advertising." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising
Bennet, Jessica. "Spend Cycle." Newsweek 8 Aug. 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14251360/site/newsweek/
Galbraith, John Kenneth. Consumer Behavior and the Dependence Effect."
Kiron, David. "Consumption in the Affluent Society." http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/publications/frontier_series/consumer_society_oe2.html
" We just got our steps done and that was a big project. The contractor would talk to my husband and would not talk to me." And I said, "Excuse me, I'm here too." (This question is worth
What type of decision making does the above statement represent?
Rather than allow her status as a woman to be patronized, the customer in question decided to exercise her consumer's right to make her voice heard by the individual she was employing. Even though she was a female, she did not rely upon the conventional, passive role of the wife at the side of the husband in the decision-making process regarding construction on the home. It was her home as well as her husband's home. Thus, the contractor's decisions had effects upon her feelings and financial status as a homeowner. The contractor should not have ignored the size of the…
Since I did non-find a product with a fragrance that I could have liked more, I returned to the initial choice.
The packaging of the product was also important in influencing my choice. The size, shape and color of the product's recipient were attractive from my point-of-view and that helped the act of the acquisition.
The price of the product was also important for my final decision. First of all I need to mention that it was a bit higher than the average price I normally pay. That made the choice a bit difficult. In addition, the price for the two versions were also different (eau de parfum costs more). I am happy when I can get a good product of this type for a small sum, but I am also generally willing to pay for a perfume that I find to be very good. In this case however, I…
Consumer Behavior: Segmentation, Targeting, And Positioning
Key External Factors. The airline industry is susceptible to changes in the environment that stem from natural causes and man-made causes. As with any transportation industry, a fundamental and consistent external factor that influences the airline industry is weather. Many other external factors can be ameliorated to one degree or another by direct action of the airline companies. Weather triggers unavoidable adjustments and accommodations, many of which are the bane of airline customers and airlines alike. Additional external factors that the airline industry cannot influence to any great degree include the cost of fuel and the cost of labor. The Air Transportation Association reports that the primary expense of running an airline is the cost of paying the wages and salaries of pilots, flight attendants, reservations or check-in and ticketing staff, baggage handlers, customer service representatives, dispatchers, marketing and sales, IT staff,…
Mouawad, J. (2104, January 30). Southwest and JetBlue buy Washington airport rights. Business Day. New York, NY: The New York Times. Accessed http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/31/business/southwest-and-jetblue-add-flights-at-reagan-national-and-la-guardia.html?ref=southwestairlinescompany
Rothman, A., & Jasper, C. (2011). The unbearable heaviness of business class. Business Week (December 19)1. Available 5/4/12 through EBSCO database. Structure of the airline industry (n.d.). Littleton, CO: Avjobs. Available 5/4/12 at: http://www.avjobs.com/history/structure-of-the-airline-industry.asp
Stellin, S. (2012, September 12). Budget airlines fly south. Travel -- The Getaway. New York, NY: The New York Times. Accessed http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/16/travel/budget-airlines-fly-south.html?ref=jetblueairwayscorporation
Wen, C-H. And Yeh, W-Y. (2010). Positioning of international air passenger carriers using multidimensional scaling and correspondence analysis. Transportation Journal (Winter):10. Available 5/4/12 through ProQuest database.
As Farrell (June 14, 2000) states: "The idea is to make milk the "cool" drink. The "mustache" still runs, with current stars such as Britney Spears." The success of such milk advertising to teens, it seems, represents an especially skillful endeavor, since milk is otherwise so much (and traditionally) associated with babyhood and early childhood, life stages (and self-images and reflections by others) that teens in particular generally yearn to leave far behind. Moreover, the considerable success of the "milk mustache" campaign proves very well the fact that just about anything can be successfully marketed to teens, as long as it is marketed to them with enough imagination, research, and skill (and with plenty of advertising dollars).
Some advertising for teens is also currently undergoing some interesting media changes, internationally. Within one global mega-conglomerate, Coca Cola, according to Foust (March 1, 2004):
Coke has diverted money into new initiatives that…
Farrell, G. (June 14, 2000). Milk does a body good, but ads do the industry even better. USA today. Money Section. 7b. Retrieved October 14, 2005, from www.usatoday.com/educate/college/business/casestudies/20010831-
Foust, D. (March 1, 2004). Coke: Wooing the TiVo generation. Business week online. Retrieved October 15, 2004, at http://www.businessweek.com / magazine/content/04_09/b3872088.htm.
Grimaldi, V. (2005).What is branding? Brandchannel.com. Retrieved October
What is fascinating in this regard is the contention that Gladwell makes of "thin slicing" through a significant portion of the book also aligns with theoretical models of how consumers interpret and act on promotional and advertising content as well. The author also points to examples of how what he calls "rapid cognition" actually has prejudices and preferences already interpreted as part of the perceptual filters each person uses to interpret their environment. Gladwell points to both prejudices for specific types of products, messages, values and preferences for them as an example of how these attributes are part of every person's rapid cognition set of responses. These perceptual filters form the foundation of how a person also interprets advertising and promotional stimuli as well.
In summary, Gladwell (2005) has presented a fascinating set of precepts marketers need to keep in mind to earn and retain consumers' trust. The basics of…
Gladwell, M (2005). Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. New York, NY: Little.Brown & Company (Back Bay Books Imprint).
From the author's analysis and historical narrative, it became apparent that food is also a commodity, not unlike manufactured objects or things sold and available commercially. Food is likened to a commodity because it is culture-specific and responsive to the economic state of societies at the time it became popular or highly patronized by the elite, the working class, and the peasants.
An interesting finding from Pilcher's investigation on the history of nouvelle cuisines is a detailed account of how popular food such as sushi and coffee became staples not only in Japan and Western countries, respectively, but also influenced the "landscape" that nouvelle cuisines currently dominate. Coffee and coffeehouses are examples of how a gastronomic product such as coffee became a 'commodity,' in the sense that it became a social habit that both elite and working classes cannot live without everyday (38). In the same vein, sushi became popular…
Badami, a. (October 2000). "Turkey and tamarind chutney: the spices of one's birthplace can cast a magic spell over immigrants to the land of Thanksgiving turkey, muses." The Globe and Mail.
"Globalization of the Processed Foods Market." (October 1996). United States Department of Commerce. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/Summaries/process.htm .
"Ham and Food Safety." (March 2007). United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service. Available at: www.fsis.usda.gov.
(Pilcher text). "Nouvelle cuisines."
Advertisements are a great way to try and reach those consumers whom you are trying to get to buy your product. And keeping in mind the stages those consumers go through when making buying decisions can be very helpful in having a successful marketing campaign. There are several things that a company can look at when trying to determine if an advertisement was a success or not. They can look at satisfaction levels of the consumers or their share of the market for a particular product. Some experts feel that these are not the things to be focusing on but instead they should be looking at consumer loyalty and advocacy. It is thought that companies need focus on creating customers who not only come back time and time again to buy their product but also don't mind telling people about it (John Blasberg, Vijay Vishwanath, and James Allen, 2007).
Blasberg, John, Vijay Vishwanath, and Allen, James. "Turning Your Consumers into Die-Hard Fans." 2007. 10 March 2009. http://www.bain.com/bainweb/PDFs/cms/Public/Turning%20your%20consumers%20into%20die%20hard%20fans.pdf
Zahorsky, Darrell. "Break the Resistance of Consumer Buying Behavior." About.com. n.d. 10
March 2009. http://sbinformation.about.com/od/advertisementisingpr/a/behavior.htm
Links to Advertisements
Product use is usually a great interest to those in marketing, as this information can be used to best position a product for increased sales (Lars Perner, 2008). Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and the idea of perceived behavioral control, you can see how these advertisements hope to influence the consumers purchasing decisions. They are hoping that they will buy their product not based upon the idea of simply just buying the product, but the feelings that they will have about buying the product. They want the consumer to buy the product in order to have a nice smelling house. All three of these products have the same end result, a nice smelling house. It is the delivery of the nice smell that is different among each product.
The manufacture is counting on the fact that the consumer will buy the product because it will produce the end result…
Mehrmann, John. Executive Blueprints. 2007. 9 March 2009. "Why People Buy. http://www.executiveblueprints.com/tips/080210_whypeoplebuy.htm
Perner, Lars. USC Marshall. 2008. 9 March 2009. "Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing. http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/
Links to Adverts
Consumer Behavior -- Country of Origin Factors
The newcomer to marketing reality might suppose that consumers tend to be influenced by country of origin competitive advantage when it comes to buying particular luxury goods; in fact, our contemporary penchant for the very latest in gimmicks, as well as the current demand for swiftness of operation, disproves that theory. This is not to deny Marieke de Mooij's insistence that, if one realizes that people are different, then extensions reinforce those differences. Cultural values have been at the root of consumer behavior in the past, and in some domains, they remain so -- but not in all (p. 1).
esults of Experimental esearch
Students in my course, "Writing for the Markets of Tomorrow" at the university, had their preconceived notions turned upside down by a recent survey they took based on the shopping trends of tourists to Nassau Square in…
Anonymous. "The Global Wine Industry." Marketplace. (2010). Web site:
Cho Lee, MW, Jeannie. (2009). "Asian and European palates: Language of Tastes." Web site: http://www.decanter.com/people-and-places/wine
De Mooij, Marieke. (2010). Consumer Behavior and Culture, a Handbook for Marketers and Researchers. New York: Sage Publications, Inc.
Current Events in Consumer Behavior
I choose to write about the first video on Youtube to reach over one billion views, as of very recently this year. The video comes from South Korea, and is an example of K-Pop, a genre of music and popular culture that has become increasingly popular around the world during this decade. The named of the video is "Gangham Style" by a South Korean artist named Psy. The video is a music video for a song and the video was only posted in July of 2012. Within less than six months, the number of views on this video have surpassed all of the greatest all time leaders in views on Youtube, mostly notably, pop star, Justin Bieber, who became famous because of the sheer number of views on his videos. Bieber went from a nobody, just an aspiring singer, to one of the…
BBC News. (2012). Gangnam Style hits one billion views on Youtube. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-20812870 . 2012 December 21.
Maxwell, A. (2012). PSY's 'Gangnam Style' hits 1 billion views. USA Today, 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.usatoday.com/story/life/people/2012/12/21/psy-gangnam-style-breaks-youtube-record/1784645/ . 2012 December 21.
Through the use of better marketing strategies and advertisements that are appealing to the customer, the executives use stimuli to grab the attention of the customer ("Consumers Behavior," n.d.). In most cases, such kinds of efforts by the executives are usually vividly clear and identified by the customers. Furthermore, executives can make better marketing and advertising decisions by understanding that customers are sometimes influenced by indiscernible stimuli which is also known as subliminal message. This is regardless of the fact that a customer only pays attention to few of the stimuli that he/she comes into contact with and usually interprets the messages he/she can recall.
Secondly, perception is important to executives in making better marketing and advertising decisions since it helps in devising marketing strategies. Executives make better marketing and advertising decisions by the use of a perceptual map which helps them to identify the characteristics that customers associate with…
Babitski, I.V. (n.d.), What Is Perception?, Articleweekly.com, viewed 12 December 2010,
Consumerpsychologist.com (n.d.), Consumer Behavior: Perception, Consumerpsychologist.com, viewed 12 December 2010,
Icmrindia.org (n.d.), Consumer Behavior: Chapter 5, Icmrindia.org, viewed 12 December 2010,
The belief that the determinants of social class are occupational prestige, income, and education is borne out by both a wide body of research as well as one's own personal experience. However, while I agree that these factors play an important, even primary, role in determining social class, I believe there are several other criteria that need to be taken into consideration to arrive at an in-depth understanding of the motivational drives within each social class. For instance, personality differences as well as racial and ethnic backgrounds can, and do, influence consumer buying behavior. Therefore, it follows that these variables can also effectively segment behavior within a social class. Indeed, the role played by personality differences, cultural and ethnic factors explain why marketers define target segments by both demographic and psychographic variables: "Social classes display distinct product and brand preferences in such areas as apparel, automobiles, home furnishings,…
Michman, R.D. "Lifestyle Market Segmentation." New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991.
Alternative evaluation: At this instance, the customer evaluates the brands and products that are in their suggested set. Customers appraise substitutes in terms of the practical and psychological reimbursement that they present. The marketing association wants to recognize what benefits customers for what they are looking for and then which features are most significant in provisions of making a choice. The related inner psychological procedure that is linked with the alternative evaluation phase is attitude configuration. Note that attitudes are studies tendency towards an item. Attitudes include both cognitive and affective fundamentals that are together what an individual think and how they become aware of something. The multi-characteristic attitude form clarifies how customers evaluate alternatives on a series of characteristics. For a firm, identification for a number of tactics is necessary which can be worn to control it. Lastly, there are a variety of methods that customers relate to this…
Grunert, K.C. (1988). Research in Consumer Behavior: Beyond Attitudes and Decision Making. European Research.
Chisnall, P.M. (1992). Marketing: A Behavioral Analysis. London: McGraw-Hill.
Consumer Learning and Product-Harm Crisis
Define a product-harm crisis
A product-harm crisis refers to a situation that can trigger serious damages to a company. A crisis can threaten an organization's system and cause drastic changes in a manner that that the firm's system operates. A crisis often has a disruptive impact on organizational, social, and environmental systems. In most cases, can lead to extensive damage accompanied by significant costs imposed upon the organization, individuals, and society. A succinct definition of a product harm crisis is best understood when the causative factors are identified as seen in this study. Besides comparing various studies on the phenomenon, the study offers recommendations on how the problem can be mitigated as it can severe the operations of even successful organizations.
For organizations, crises are higher consequences and lower probability events that can jeopardize the most important organizational objectives. However, the ability for an organization…
Chen, Y, Ganesan, S., & Liu, Y. (2009). Does a Firm's Product-Recall Strategy Affect Its Financial Value? An Examination of Strategic Alternatives During Product-Harm Crises. Journal of Marketing, 73(6), 214-226
Lei, J., Dawar, N., & Gurhan-Canli, Z. (2012). Base Rate Information in Consumer Attributions Of Product-Harm Crisis. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(3), 336-348
Vassilikopoulou, A., Lepetsos, A., Siomkos, G., & .Chatzipanagiotou, K. (2009). The Importance of Factors Influencing Product-Harm Crisis Management Across Different Crisis Extent Levels: A Conjoint Analysis. Journal Of Targeting, Measurement, and Analysis For Marketing, 17(1), 65-74
Yannopoulu, N., Koronis, E., & Elliot, R. (2011). Media Amplification Of A Brand Crisis And Its Effects On Brand Trust. Journal Of Marketing Management, 27(5/6), 539-546.
Thus, the marketing message has impacted on consumer behavior in a specific and deliberate way. Marketers typically have significant control over the marketing message in the advertising, the packaging and sometimes even the placement of the product (ensuring Corona is available at every major beach resort around the world, for example).
In conclusion, there are a number of different ways in which firms can exert influence over consumer behavior. Among the most important levers are control over information, merchandising and control over the marketing message. That firms have so many powerful levers at their disposal reflects the nature of the impact of the firm on consumers. Consumer behavior is often not the direct outcome of a singular action on the part of the marketer, but as the outcome of a set of cumulative actions, each of which influences the consumers' behavior is a specific way. The ways in which marketers…
Law, D. & Yip, J. (no date). The impact of visual merchandising on the consumer decision process for intimate apparel. Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from http://elearning.lib.fcu.edu.tw/bitstream/2377/3942/1/ce05atc902007000065.pdf
Mullen, B. & Johnson, C. (1990). The psychology of consumer behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Nelson, P. (1970). Information and consumer behavior. The Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 78 (2) 311-329.
Vinson, D., Scott, J. & Lamont, L. (1977). The role of personal values in marketing and consumer behavior. Journal of Marketing. Vol. 41 (2) 44-50.
Suppot fo global phones
Medium to High. Social events ae pevasive duing skiing season
Medium to High; on Tous thee is much planned out and taken cae of; a chance to enjoy the sites and visit histoic places
High fo shopaholics; boing fo anyone who doesn't enjoy this type of activity
Fom $2,000 to ove $10,000 pe peson
Less than $100 fo camping out in a tent to ove $2,000 fo a cabin ental
Fom $3,000 to ove $10,000 each depending on the package selected
$2,000 to $4,000 depending on the package selected
$650 to $1,000 fo high taffic aeas including London o Pais;
Fom $2,000 to ove $10,000 pe peson
A full week including flights up and back
Fom a weekend to ove a week
A minimum of a week o moe due to tavel
Fom one week to a month
Fom one week to a month…
references. The need for self-actualization, consistent with applicability of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs to the travel industry as studies previously have successfully done (Huang, Hsu, 2009) illustrate how powerful the need for self-actualization and peak experiences are in differentiating one travel experience form another. Segmentation of travel alternatives by the layer of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model is critical for travel providers to be effective marketers and speak in terms their clients can understand and act on. The provider of Alaskan cruises would be wise to discuss how the cruise is a "trip of a lifetime to reward the decades of service to others" as the Asian women has most likely given huge blocks of her time and effort to her family and the family business. The self-actualization and "grand experience" of the Alaskan cruise is exceptionally successful as a marketing and messaging strategy that aligns to the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model, hence the very high participation rates on these events from senior citizens who are empty nesters.
Likewise the Maslow Model when applied to the university student and successful businessman has comparable analysis and results. For the university student the need is less on self-actualization, more on safety and psychological needs to challenging one's self against foreign countries and getting a glimpse into what traveling globally in freedom are. The university student may aspire for a self-actualized and exceptional experience, yet their focus the majority of the time will be on the development of their own self-confidence in tackling challenges of getting around and potentially staying in a foreign nation for a period of time. In studies that have applied the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs to travel programs and initiatives, insights have been gained into which demographic and psychographic groups have the greatest need for self-actualization, self-esteem, love & belonging & safety (Huang, Hsu, 2009).
While the Asian woman is clearly most interested in self-actualization and the sense of accomplishment and reward that comes from the cruise to Alaska, the students are looking for the esteem and confidence of being able to navigate through foreign nations. For the business man and the exotic diving trip to Thailand the need for esteem of conquering or mastering the specific region or waters of interest, combined with self-actualization of confronting uncertainty and risk underwater and still being able to see incredible sights, the businessman is unique in his mix of Maslow Needs Assessments. Yet for travel marketers to excel in their selection and marketing of travel destinations and experiences, these factors all must be taken into account and communicated with clarity and focus. This is in effect best practices in travel marketing today; the integrating of needs assessment of behavioral models including the Maslow Hierarchy of needs and the relative market positioning of travel experiences relative to potential clients.
The Herzberg Two Factor Theory that integrates Hygiene Factors and Motivators into the same model has also successfully been integrated into the travel industry's knowledge base of research (Chan, Baum, 2007). Specifically concentrating on how to most effectively satiate or satisfy travelers with the Hygiene Factors to meet minimum expectations of travelers has proven to be critically important in the development and fine-tuning of marketing messages. The aspirational values of the Motivators of the Herzberg Model are what the Asian woman and the businessman are looking for. Herzberg primarily completed research on
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…
Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.
Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.
Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.
Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
Consumer Behavior for Marketing
Understanding Consumer Behavior
Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…
Cherry K (2012) Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classical-vs.-operant-conditioning.htm
Pavlov IP. (1927) Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.
Skinner BF (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
1. Propose a type of message appeal to be used in the advertising, making sure to explain the rationale behind the appeal
Advertising message appeals purpose to impact the manner in which consumers perceive themselves and how purchasing particular products can end up being advantageous to them. The message communicated through advertising appeals impacts the buying decisions and patterns of consumers. The type of message appeal to be used in the advertising is the masculine/feminine appeal. This appeal is deemed to be the most ideal for the reason that it seeks particularly to depict the ideal male or female to consumers who aspire to attain society’s and their individual ideal view of being a man or woman. Secondly, this appeal is particularly common when the product being sold, such as this one is purposed to either men or women. In addition, more often than not, this appeal has a tendency…
consumer behavior models: decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, Trait theory, learning process.
eflect individually on how your understanding and interpretation of the consumer decision-making process might influence your thinking when applying marketing principles in future business roles.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, all human beings are driven to fulfill certain needs and desires, but some needs are perceived as having priority over other needs. Until basic needs such as food and shelter are met, the individual cannot think about higher-level needs like social approval and self-actualization (Simmons et al. 1997). When consumers are making choices about what to buy and what not to buy, Maslow's hierarchy often seems to be operating in a clear and logical fashion. During a recession, most consumers cut back on luxury items designed to impress others, like restaurant meals and name-brand clothing. Consumers who are struggling with their budget…
Oxoby, Robert J. (2004, October). Cognitive dissonance, status and growth of the underclass
The Economic Journal, 114: 727 -- 749. Retrieved March 24, 2011 at http://people.ucalgary.ca/~oxoby/Oxoby%20EJ.pdf
Simons, Janet A., Donald B. Irwin and Beverly A. Drinnien. (1987). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychology: The search for understanding. West Publishing Company, New York, 1987. Excerpt retrieved March 24, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
Consumer Behavior Models:
Decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, trait theory, learning process models
Do consumers mainly use logical or emotional thinking when making decisions? This is the essential problem with which all marketers must grapple. Some models of consumer behavior, such as the seven-step decision model, suggest that consumers make decisions very logically, carefully weighing the pros and cons. Others suggest that when consumers make decisions about purchases, they do so in an instinctual fashion, based upon emotions.
The seven-step decision model suggests that people make decisions by first identifying the exact nature of the decision (like buying a new pair of sneakers); assessing personal priorities (such as fashion vs. functionality); identifying their options (Nike vs. New Balance); gathering information and data (talking to someone at a running store or simply talking to their friends); evaluating their options; selecting the best option; and…
How to use the 7 step decision-making model. (2011). Decision making confidence. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/7-step-decision-making-model.html
Jean, E. (1999). Cognitive dissonance theory. Meta-Discourses. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Jean.htm
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (2010). Honolulu College. Teacher's Guidebook.
Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
e. questionnaires and interview questions) in a manner that allows the researcher to explore specific areas of interest. For example, if the researcher wants to know what aspects of their products or services are most valuable to consumers, the survey instruments can focus on comparisons of value perception or ask consumers directly which variables are more important to them than others (Belch & Belch, 2006). Likewise, if market researchers want to know how important their corporate reputation or values are to consumer choice, they can ask specific questions about those issues. Finally, market researchers can also use survey-based research to determine how effective or ineffective their advertising and promotional efforts are (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Domtar Marketing Efforts
The Domtar Corporation is a good example of multi-level marketing. Its corporate websites present various different web pages, some of which are intended for consumption by an adult audience and others that…
Belch, G. And Belch, M. (2006) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated
Marketing Communications Perspective. Irwin/McGraw-Hill: New York.
Domtar Corporation. (2010). Making Paper Fun. Accessed 17 October, 2010, from:
" (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010)
With a focus on Saudi Arabia it is reported that there is "no reliable local production in the fields of software or the hardware. The increased demand for ICTs is met by acquiring overseas technologies.
The trend towards increased reliance on ICTs by the Saudi people, in particular computers and internet services, is one of the highest when compared with other developing countries; however it is still far below the ownership rate in developed countries. Table 1 illustrates the ownership rate of equipment such as fixed-line telephones, cellular phone and personal computers. The ownership rate was calculated per 1000 persons in variant countries over the world." (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010) the goal of the study reported in the work of Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu (2010) is to enhancing the understanding of factors that influence adoption and usage of online services in Saudi Arabia.…
Molina, Alfonsa, Ben-Jadeed, Mohammed (2004) the Emergence and Evolution of e-Banking in Saudi Arabia: The Case of Samba Financial Group. Frontiers of E-Business Research 2004
Jasimuddin, Sajjad, M. (nd) Saudi Arabian Banks on the Web. Online available at: http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/JIBC/0103_02.htm
Agarwal, R. And Prasad, J. (1998), "The antecedents and consequents of user perceptions in information technology adoptions," Decisions Support System, Vol. 22, pp. 15-29.
Ahmed, a.M., Zairi, M. And Alwabel, S.A. (2006). Global benchmarking for internet and e-commerce applications, Benchmarking: An International Journal 13(1/2), 68-80.
diffusion and adoption of new personal electronic devices. Specifically, the marketing efforts, market penetration for DVDs and Palm Pilots in addition, the use of DVDs and Personal Data Assistants will be reviewed, and a brief analysis of early, middle, and late users will be undertaken. For the purpose of this paper, the terms PDA and Palm Pilot will be used interchangeably.
New technologies are anticipated to revolutionize how we spend our work and leisure time. Dr. Ellen artella, Dean of the University of Texas College of Communication notes, "In the 1970's, TV became the technology that colonized America's leisure time" (Microsoft.com). artella then goes on to predict that digital technologies and computers will quickly fill that gap in the years to come, and that young people will be at the forefront of that trend. This trend is expected to grow, and artella notes, "hile desktops, notebooks, cell phones and hand-helds…
Allied Business Intelligence. Residential Entertainment Technologies: Device Forecasts,
Convergence and Networking, Press Release, 2003/03/28. Global Information Inc. 26
November 2003. http://www.gii.co.jp/press/ab12615_en.shtml
Jensen, Peter. New York State Office of Mental Health. 26 November 2003.
Consumer Needs and Marketing Efforts
A need is defined as "a state of felt deprivation in a person" (Kotler, Chandler, Gibbs, & McColl 1999, p. 4). The most basic human needs are those for food, clothing, warmth, and safety. There are also needs that are more psychological, such as the need to feel loved, to feel successful, or to feel a sense of belonging. A more thorough explanation of needs can be found by considering Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory describes five levels of need that exist in a hierarchical order. In order from highest to lowest, these needs are: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization (Daft 1997, p. 530). The physiological need refers to the basic human needs for food and water. These are essentially the basic things that every individual needs to physically survive. The safety need refers…
Belch, G.E., & Belch, M.A. (1999). Advertising and Promotion. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Brown, L, & Adam, S. (1998). Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kotler, P., Chandler, P., Gibbs, R., & McColl, R. (1999). Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Consumer Behavior: Purchasing Local Baby Food vs. International Baby Food (in Ethiopia)
Companies that manufacture and/or market baby formula employ various conventional and modern (i.e., web-based) media for advertising their products and capturing a large target audience. Studies indicate that the ability of market buyers to learn and remember specific brand names and keep them at the "top of their minds" results from advertising's effects, which can't be controlled by companies, particularly in case of media like television (Mazis & aymand, 2007). Okazaki, Nishiyama and Katsukura 2007 report that positive brand image influences consumer trust. Furthermore, Ajzen and Fishbein (1975) write that the presence of a positive attitude in connection with a product/brand in consumers helps reinforce their purchase intention. Still, empirical studies also reveal that many buyers doubt the claims made concerning products in their advertisements. Consumers are aware of the fact that the aim of advertisements is persuasion,…
Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343-73.
Mazis, M. B. & Raymond, M. A. (2007). Consumer perceptions of health claims in advertisements and on food labels. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 31(1), 10-26.
Moorman, C. (1996). A Quasi-Experiment to Assess the Consumer and Informational Determinants of Nutrition Information Processing Activities: The Case of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 15, 28-44.
MANAGING CONSUME BEHAVIOS & UNDESTANDING CONSUME PECEPTIONS
Understanding consumer behavior is a pursuit that answers why, when, how, and where people buy or do not buy products. Consumer behavior is an area that combines topics such as economics, media studies, sociology, and psychology. Predicting and understanding consumer behavior is a challenge for experts and novices alike. Perception can be a biological process by which a person's brain interprets and organizes stimuli so as to gain awareness and understanding of one's environment. Perception can also be psychological and social phenomena. The paper surveys literature that proves the correlations and implications between consumer perception and consumer behavior.
Managing Consumer Behaviors & Understanding Consumer Perceptions
Perception is a large determinant or factor apart of behavior. Therefore, gaining understanding of consumer perceptions can illuminate the reasons behind certain types of consumer behaviors. With accurate data reflecting the connection between consumer behaviors and…
Christandl, F., & Garlin, T. (2011) The Accuracy of Consumers' Perception of Future Inflation Prices. Journal of Psychology, 219(4), 209 -- 216.
Schneider, B. (1973) The Perception of Organizational Climate: The Customer's View. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(3), 248 -- 256.
Schneider, B., & Bowen, D.E. (1985) Employee and Customer Perceptions of Service in Banks: Replication and Extension. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(3), 423 -- 433.
Schneider, B., Hanges, P.J., Goldstein, H.W., & Braverman, E.P. (1994) Do Customer Service Perceptions Generalize? The Case of Student and Chair Ratings of Faculty Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(5), 685 -- 690.
Hipster Consumer Behavior
Following the publication of Norman Mailer's essay, "The White Negro" in 1957, the term "hipster" has become part of the American lexicon. The image of hipsters has changed in fundamental ways since that time, though, and marketers interested in this segment are therefore faced with some significant challenges in fine-tuning their marketing mixes to appeal to young adults who define themselves as hipsters or who are attracted to the image for other reasons. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning hipster consumer behavior, including a background, a description of the lifestyle branding theoretical foundation that can be used to formulate marketing initiatives, and the findings that emerged from the research. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Although adults of any age may be regarded as "hipsters," this category is commonly regarded as…
Clark, L.S. (2007). Religion, media, and the marketplace. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
Fabre, J. (2005). Smart nursing: How to create a positive work environment that empowers and retains nurses. New York: Springer.
Greif, M. (2010, November 15). A hipster's paradise: In the late 1990s, a down-at-heel 'hood in New York's Lower East Side became an enclave for rich white kids. New Statesman,
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Consumer perspectives on the emerging culture of consumption in Singapore
The consumption style of consumers alludes to the mental approach or orientation a purchaser has towards settling on decisions. Although purchaser choice making style depicts a consistent trend of affective and cognitive responses, national culture has been demonstrated to have an effect on individual attitudes and values. In this way, culture has a noteworthy impact on consumption trend in Singapore (Mooij & Mooij, 2011). This study will embrace buyer research into consumption styles to improve comprehension of how culture shapes consumption trends across Singapore. Primarily, this study will evaluate and confirm to the identified Singaporean culture. Minimal research analyzes cultural factors shaping buyer decision making. There is confirmation of cultural aspects in the purchaser's styles of making choices for fashion although no study has covered if this impact extends to the purchase of general…
Gelfand, M.J., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (2011). Advances in culture and psychology: Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mooij, M.K., & Mooij, M.K. (2011). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Over the last several years, the issue of compulsive buying has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a number of individuals are making decisions that are not considered to be financially prudent. Instead, they are based the person feeling good about their purchase in the short-term. This is giving them a sense of emotional satisfaction. However, in the longer periods of time, is when these kinds of decisions can lead to varying financial consequences. As a result, marketers are more likely to target specific segments that are considered to be impulsive.
Two specific groups that were often perused include women and younger adults. This is because a number of studies were indicating, how these two segments are more than likely to engage in compulsive shopping. The main reason why is because women and young adults were often the focus of their surveys. This…
Men, Women have Similar Rates. (2006). Stanford School of Medicine. Retrieved from:
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BERR. (2009). China and India: Opportunities and Challenges for UK Businesses. BERR Economics Paper No. 5. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from http://www.pdfone.com/view/19_keywordchinasconsumermarketopportunitiesandrisks/china-and-india-opportunities-and-challenges-for-uk-business.html
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Ebrahimi, Helia. (2008). Will pricelings save the west? Designer driven: China is soon expected to the world's biggest buyer of luxury goods. he Mail on Sunday. P. 62.
Foster, Sarah. (1997). Buying Irish: consumer nationalism in 18th-century Dublin. History oday. 47(6):44-49.
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Ji, Richard & Meeker, Mary. (2005). Creating consumer value in digital China. China Internet. Morgan Stanley. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from…
The Daily Mail. (2008). Russians are the target of Irish home drive. The Daily Mail. P. 10
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Wright, Richard. Will globalization make you happy? Foreign Policy. P. 55
hen deciding between two schools, he or she might chose the school that offered the professional degree in nursing, even if it was more expensive, because it maximized the utility and desired aim of his or her education. 'A nurse is sure to get a job upon graduation,' the student might rationalize.
Some students take into consideration less academic considerations when maximizing the utility of their college education. The ability to live at home and to save money might be a factor, or the ability to move to a desirable area of the country. Staying with a group of high school friends or following a high school boyfriend might be a (misguided) priority of some students. Economic decision-making, after all, is not always purely rational.
There are also certain constraints on utility maximization. Some students, even if they get into their first choice university, may not be able to attend…
Utility maximization subject to an income restraint." (14 Apr 2003). Consumer behavior. Net-Textbook. Retrieved 21 Apr 2008 at http://nova.umuc.edu/~black/umax100.html
online purchases?" using the two-part approach provided below.
Description of the Participants
In most cases, the more subjects that are surveyed, the more trustworthy the results, but there are some diminishing returns involved in qualitative analyses that limit the usefulness of increasingly larger sample sizes. In this regard, Neuman (2003) reports that, "One principle of sample size is the smaller the population, the bigger the sampling ratio has to be for an accurate sample. Larger populations permit smaller sampling ratios for equally good samples. This is because as the population size grows, the returns in accuracy for sample size shrink" (p. 232). esearchers who employ survey methods for data-gathering purposes may have a general idea about how many subjects they would like to recruit, but the harsh realities of recruiting sufficient numbers of subjects to participate in surveys means that sometimes researchers must simply accept what they get…
Chaudron, D. (2008). Master of all you survey: Planning employee surveys. Organized Change.com. Retrieved from http://www.organizedchange.com/pdfs/employee surveys.pdf.
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Stories from the field.
Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Mauch, J.E. & Park, N. (2003). Guide to the successful thesis and dissertation: A handbook for students and faculty. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Online Consumer Behaviors
Consumer Perceptions of Online Shopping and how this Influences Purchasing Decisions
Exploring Online Consumer Behavior
Internet usage has increased rapidly in the past few decades. Accompanying this trend has been the increase in online retail shopping by consumers. However, many consumer behaviors, motivations, and attitudes toward shopping via this medium are still being researched and there are many opportunities for further research. This paper will examine the following research questions: (1) How do factors previously researched affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers and (2) what are the significant consumer behaviors both positive and negative that affect internet consumerism? The purpose of this research paper is to integrate the varied research information together and draw coherent linkages to how consumer thoughts, attitudes and motivational behavior affect online buying, thus building a broader framework of analysis in which to build upon. By identifying these relevant factors,…
Vazquez, D., & Xu, X. (2009). Investigating linkages between online purchase behaviour variables. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 37, 408-419. doi: 10.1108/09590550910954900
The study's findings indicate that high technology brands are exceptionally effective in defining the prestige aspects of their products and through the use of market branding, showing their value from a personal brand standpoint (Hamann, Williams, Omar, 2007). The study also showed that the more utilitarian aspects of products aren't relevant to positioning or branding, which is a point marketers have been making for decades in high technology (Hamann, Williams, Omar, 2007). The authors concluded the study with an extensive statistical analysis which is shown in the following table as well. This analysis indicates how powerful product quality is in defining the brand experience and perception of customers. Shortcomings of the study include the lack of statistical reliability of the sample, the lack of in-depth analysis of the key areas within quality and the need for greater depth of insight into the four components of quality defined in this iteration…
Hamann, D., Williams, R.L., & Omar, M. (2007). Branding strategy and consumer high-technology product. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 16(2), 98-111.
Koufaris, M. (2002). Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online consumer behavior. Information Systems Research, 13(2), 205-223.
Latour, M.S., Hanna, J.B., Miller, M.D., & Pitts, R.E. (2002). Consumer involvement with personal computer technology: A multi-sample analysis. American Business Review, 20(2), 1-11.
Williams, K.C., Page, R.A., Petrosky, a.R., & Hernandez, E.H. (2010). Multi-generational marketing: Descriptions, characteristics, lifestyles, and attitudes. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 11(2), 21-36.
marketing managers understand consumer behavior?
It is essential for marketing managers to understand two critical elements: why consumers purchase the products they do and how exactly consumers intend to use those products. In general, the consumer decision-making process can be summed up as follows: need recognition; followed by information searching (otherwise known as research, such as combing reviews online or reading Consumer Reports); an evaluation of alternatives (formally or informally through vehicles such as a cost-benefit analysis); followed by the actual purchase, and finally the post-purchase behavior whereby the consumer evaluates the decision.
All purchases are motivated to some degree by need recognition. Needs recognition reflects the consumer's acknowledged state of imbalance between an actual and desired state. While this recognition may be consumer-driven and relatively internal (for example, a consumer with a cold deciding he or she needs to purchase tissues because he or she has 'run out') marketers…
The authors also note however that poor statistics serve as a de-motivating force, and that service companies should try harder to emphasize the positives rather than the negatives associated with working in the services industry if they want to continue to capture quality employee's interest.
Yet another problem with "service" in the service sector is "outsourcing." "Contracting out" (Postner, 1990) has long been noted as a primary problem in the service sector and related to service sector analysis because it is difficult to gather statistics on service when so many services are contracted out to agents abroad that may be willing to provide services for less money than it would cost a company to hire a traditional employee.
John (2003) proposes a simple solution to the "most obvious" problem in the services sector, which many describe as "customer service." The author suggests service institutions offer what he calls "customer-focused management"…
Clement, N. (2002 May) Strengthen school culture using a customer service audit. School Administrator, 59(5): p.35.
Gandhi, Jegadish & Ganesan, P. (2002) Services sector in the Indian economy: Macro
Dynamics - Sectoral Dynamics - Policy Issues. New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publishing.
Hogg, a. (2001) "Conducting online research." American Marketing Association, 17
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
The research into how young women perceive their own bodies -- in response to constant exposure to media images of un-naturally thin and extraordinarily beautiful females -- has been a popular topic for many years. But when it comes to male models that are nearly perfect, handsome and muscular in exactly the right places, there has not been as much attention or research. This paper reviews the potential of -- and reality of -- dissatisfaction in males based on the media's model images of males.
Body Image for Males -- Background
Annette La Greca is Professor of Psychology at the University of Miami and Gerald Koocher is the Dean of the School for Health Studies at Simmons College. As co-authors of The Parents' Guide to Psychological First Aid: Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Predictable Life Crises they assert that the research for body dissatisfaction among…
Cassell, Dana K, and Gleaves, David H. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating
Disorders, Third Edition. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Grogan, Sarah. (2007). Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women, and Children. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Koocher, Gerald P., and La Greca, Annette. (2010). The Parents' Guide to Psychological First
The success or failure of an organization unreservedly depends upon the behavior of consumers towards its products or services (Kotler, 2010). Consumers have now become more knowledgeable and conscious towards choosing and consuming products. They do not just buy a product; but make a relationship with that brand and the manufacturer of that product (Oliver, 1999). This relationship reflects their consumption patterns and brand preference. This is the fact which business organizations must recognize about consumer behavior (Farley, 1964). To stumble upon this consumer behavior, organizations use different marketing and promotional strategies to stay competitive within their respective industries. In this way, they explore what is their potential target market and what they can do to meet these consumption demands (Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans, & Armstrong, 2010).
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior of consumers towards the products offered by one of the…
Farley, J., (1964). Why Does "Brand Loyalty" Vary our Products? The Journal of Marketing, American Marketing Association, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 9-12
Kotler, P., (2010). Principles of Marketing: A South Asian Perspective, 13th Edition. India: Pearson Education
Kotler, P. Brown, L. Burton, S. Deans, K. Armstrong, G. (2010). Marketing. 8th Edition. U.S.: Prentice-Hall
Nestle.com, (2011). About Us. Retrieved on October 16th, 2011 from
Some of the environmental factors that are pertinent to Samsung include the social class in which the consumer is in. For instance if the consumer comes from a high social class then he or she will have a preference for Samsung phones which are more expensive. Another factor also includes the culture that prevails where the consumer is situated. For instance, in the United States and Europe, there is a culture of using the Samsung Galaxy S series which are usually in competition with the iPhone. There is a culture of using smartphones that have connection to the internet over i-Fi and have several mobile applications (Ahmed et al., 2015).
There are also consumer factors which are pertinent to the purchase of the Samsung telephone products. One of these factors is age, where the consumers who are much younger have a preference for phones…
Ahmed, Z., Gull, M., Rafiq, U. (2015). Factors Affecting Consumer Switching Behavior: Mobile Phone Market in Manchester- United Kingdom. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 5, Issue 7, July 2015
Perry, P., & Kyriakaki, M. (2014). The decision-making process of luxury fashion retail buyers in Greece. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management,18(1), 85-106.
Marketing Managers Need to Understand Consumer Behavior
The essence of effective marketing is defining a unique, highly defensible market position for a given product or service, supporting it with a unique value proposition that further motivates customers to buy. Marketing managers who excel in their professions have the ability to accurately interpret the consumer decision making process and align their strategies to encourage the trial and eventual purchase of their products (Foxall, 1993). Having a solid understanding of the consumer decision making process, and within that framework, understanding how behaviors are a powerful catalyst of purchasing, are critical to the success of any marketing strategy (au, Samiee, 1981).
The consumer decision making process varies by the type of product, service, level of trust a consumer has in a given brand, and the extent of substitutes that exist for a given product. All of these factors taken together create the…
Foxall, G.R. 1993, "Consumer behaviour as an evolutionary process," European Journal of Marketing, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 46-46.
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Needs and wants are identified
Needs include capacity, size, and presence of a dryer for washing machines. For oven ranges, electric vs. gas. For microwaves, wattage. ants include top or front loading, color, the size of the appliance, and its ability to fit in with the desired room. Also, energy efficiency vs. capacity -- older couples might desire more energy efficient appliances to save money, while younger couples desire capacity for washing large loads of children's clothing.
Is decision high or low involvement?
Almost all appliances are high involvement decision, given that most couples will only buy a few washing machines or oven ranges in their entire lives, yet do not wish to be burdened by costly repairs or energy costs.
Describe decision process
The Maytag Homepage depicts a white, upper to middle-class couple marveling how the Maytag has a large capacity, which saves time (for the woman) and energy…
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Psychographics of Apple Customers
Sources: (Anthes, 2011) (Barwise, Meehan, 2010).
What Apple must do is re-position the iPad Mini as a viable option for the majority of its customer base by bundling in more software applications to make this latest device indispensable to anyone who owns a Macintosh, iPhone or has music purchased on iTunes. Apple has long struggled with integration across third party platforms, so making the iPad Mini a vital link to all other areas of its product liens and service strategies will help to make this device more appealing tot the customer base. It also must go beyond its current approach of manufacturing and choose to allow slight customizations of the iPad Mini as well, which will further given the Apple customer base a reason to identify with and buy the new device.
Anthes, G. (2011). Invasion of the mobile apps. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications…
Anthes, G. (2011). Invasion of the mobile apps. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 54(9), 16.
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Barwise, P., & Meehan, S. (2010). Is your company as customer-focused as you think? MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(3), 63-68.
Mickalowski, K., Mickelson, M., & Keltgen, J. (2008). Apple's iPhone launch: A case study in effective marketing. The Business Review, Cambridge, 9(2), 283-288.
Psychology of Consumer Behaviour
The relationship between money-making motives and subjective well-being
There is presently much controversy regarding the motives behind making money and the concept of subjective well being. Most people associate finances with positive feelings and thus come to focus on making as much money as possible regardless of the risks involved. The masses needs to understand that people are not necessarily interested in money as an object, as they are actually certain that finances are likely to satisfy a series of their needs, thus meaning that people want to achieve particular states of minds and believe that having money is the only method of doing this.
Although it is difficult to determine the exact effects that money has on happiness, studies have shown that "within nations people's finances correlate with their reported well-being, but that richer nations show no greater happiness than poorer ones" (Buunk & Gibbons,…
Buunk, B.P. And Gibbons, F.X. eds.,Health, Coping, and Well-Being: Perspectives from Social Comparison Theory (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997)
Diener, E. Sandvik, E. Seidlitz, E. & Diener, M. "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING: RELATIVE OR ABSOLUTE," Retrieved February 10, 2012, from the Common Sense Atheism Website: http://commonsenseatheism.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Diener-The-relationship-between-income-and-subjective-well-being-Relative-or-absolute.pdf
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