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Modernism, and how the literature that is considered to be Modernist literature is representative of the period. Then explain how contemporary world literature comes from Modernism
Discuss three Modernists and their work.
Then discuss two contemporary authors. Explain how they represent NOW (or the contemporary world which is from 1968 on.)
Then discuss the differences between Modernism and contemporary literature.
James Joyce, Franz Kafka, and DH Lawrence are three examples of three different modernist writers. Each of them represents a different facet of Modernism. Kafka is most renowned for The Metamorphosis, The Trial, and The Castle. Each of these books probe reality and existence as man understands it and questions our existence on this world. Respect for traditional hierarchy is questioned and the value of man, itself, is at stake. In "Metamorphosis," for instance, a boy turns into a cockroach and is rejected by his parents. We have the philosophical…
English writing has taken a new evolutionary path in its development since Independence. India was observed post-colonially by English writers of Indian origin. While new ideas were being developed, emphasis was placed on religious, socio-economic, filial, and political problems as talking points; these issues captured the national movement sensation and attracted the attention of creative writers. Events like the partition and the resulting communal riots following it, coupled with the problems of caste discrimination, misogyny and the squalor in which the proletariat lived, were the major issues of the time. The clamour raised over these issues is massive, with many budding writers boosting the perception of literature as time passes. This paper seeks to evaluate and provide insight into the progress of English writing over a time period ranging from the post- independence period till the present time. Writing veterans who displayed the fifties' realism in their works are…
, 2009, p. 80). Even the smallest museums in some of the most out-of-the-way locations "can and do participate in the globalized arena," Holo explains. The leaders of these remote museums, for example the "indigenous communitarian museum leaders in the remote mountains of Oaxaca," who have zero staff, somehow go to meetings at very obscure locations, just to link up with others in the world of art (Holo, 80).
However, when globalization becomes what Holo calls "conventionalized homogenization," that is, everything in museums in remote places in the world become mirrors of "the estern perspective of modern art," there is a necessary response to that negative dynamic. That's not to say that militant nationalism automatically comes into play in this situation, but as Holo explains, globalization can bring "negative baggage" and when it does, as Manuel Borja-Ville explains (he is the director of the Reina Sofia, Spain's national museum of…
Gharebaghi, Ali-Asghar. The Globalization of Art? The Same Old Story? Tavoos
Online / Art Quarterly / Iran's First Bilingual Art Magazine. Retrieved October 6,
2011, from http://www.tavoosonline.com . 2008.
Holo, Selma, and Alvarez, Mari-Tere. Beyond the Turnstile: Making the Case for Museums and Sustainable Values. Landham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.
Letter," by Mariama Ba, "Devil on the Cross," by Ngug" wa Thiongo, and "July's People," by Nadine Gordimer. Specifically, it will discuss and explain gender and family in "So Long a Letter," the aspects of Colonialism and Imperialism in "Devil on the Cross," and cultural freedom and integrity in "July's People."
THREE AFRICAN NOVELS
In "So Long a Letter," Mariama Ba writes of Ramatoulaye, a Senegalese schoolteacher in her 50s, whose husband decides to take a second wife without Ramatoulaye's knowledge. Of course, the new wife is younger and prettier than Ramatoulaye, and her husband's selfish move devastates her. The book is written in the form of a touching and emotional letter to her best friend from childhood, someone she feels she can trust. "e walked the same paths from adolescence to maturity, where the past begets the present" (Ba 1).
Family and gender are two of the most important…
Adeeko, Adeleke. "Plotting Class Consciousness in the African Radical Novel." Critique. 38.3 (1997): 177-192.
Ba, Mariama. So Long a Letter. England: Longman, 1979.
Folks, Jeffrey J. "Artist in the Interregnum: Nadine Gordimer's July's People." Critique. 39.2 (1998): 115-126.
Gordimer, Nadine. July's People. New York: Viking, 1981.
Ireland has a rich literary tradition with a legacy of authors who have each contributed something to the creation of a cultural identity. For centuries, the authors of Ireland have utilized the beautiful landscape as a counterpoint to the violent political history of the Emerald Isle. Quite literally, the whole history of Ireland can be traced through the literature of the country's writers, both the good and the bad. This tradition lives on in contemporary Irish authors and poets. Two such poets, Ciaran Carson and Allan Gillis, have used their chosen literary type to illustrate their own understanding of Ireland's history. Through their poetry, readers can simultaneously travel back in time and also listen to the eye witness of Ireland's current historical moment. This can be traced through Carson's "Belfast Confetti" and Gillis's "The Ulster ay" in the poetic form, the techniques that the poets utilize, and then…
Carson, Ciaran. "Belfast Confetti." The Poetry Archive. 2010. Web. March 2012.
Gillis, Allan. "The Ulster Way." Somebody Somewhere. Ireland: Gallery Press. 2004. Print.
American Poet Laureate obert Hass to lift European impact from American English thus making the latter a truly original and authentic language. The paper also cites examples from his collection, Sun Under Wood (1996) and shows how the poet accentuates simplicity to reveal the beauty of American version of English language.
obert Hass: shedding European influences from American English
obert Hass is the former United States Poet Laureate who is known for his simple yet beautiful verses, some of them translations of Japanese Haiku while others simple expressions of his deepest sentiments. In his fourth collection of poems, Sun Under Wood (1996) Hass tried to encompass all his past experiences in 20 beautiful pieces, which moved back and forth in history. These poems reveal something truly amazing about the poet's command over the English language. Coming from a truly modern West Coast, he refused to use traditional or conventional poetic…
Wronsky, Gail, Sun Under Wood.(book reviews). Vol. 55, The Antioch Review, 06-22-1997, pp 381(1)
Robert Hass, Sun under Wood Ecco Press, 1996 77 pp.
Venise Wagner, Poet laureate plans to leave small, tangible legacy., Minneapolis Star Tribune, 05-18-1995, pp 12E.
Culture and Advertising
The traditional meaning of culture refers to the way of life for a society or community. Culture comprises of beliefs, value, laws, ideas, and knowledge governing the living condition of individuals within the context of the society. In the contemporary world, this meaning of culture is losing its course. This is because of emergence of numerous components of culture in the modern world. These components include corporate culture, culture of journalism, and culture of poverty to mention a few. This trend shifts the definition of culture to describe the emotional context or setting and organizational character in relation to the word bearing the term culture. For instance, corporate culture describes the atmosphere or activities within the context of the corporate world. The way things happen within the context determines the meaning of culture. Advertisement involves the promotion of products or services with the aim of increasing consumer…
Ruihley, Brody J., Rodney C. Runyan, and Karen E. Lear. "The Use of Sport Celebrities In
Advertising: A Replication And Extension." Sport Marketing Quarterly 19.3 (2010):
132-142. Business Source Complete. Web. 4 July 2012.
Ibrahim, A.M. Alnawas. "The Influence of Using Celebrities On Consumers Buying Behavior."
Spanish and American Democracy
The United States of America and Spain are both now industrialized nations and modern democracies, but their paths to democracy and global influence were quite distinct. The United States of America was formally founded in 1776 by a group of early American politicians who envisioned the young nation as an alternative in democratic governance in contrast and opposition to the monarchies still in ruling power throughout Europe. Spain was one of these European countries under monarchial rule in the 18th century and remained a monarchy for 201 years after the official adoption of the democratic Constitution in the United States of America. Spain's transition to democratic rule is largely considered to have begun in 1975 when the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco passed away, although there are other dates in the 1970s that are also said to mark the transition as well.
The philosophical foundations of the…
Conversi, Daniele. (2002) 'The smooth transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the nationalities question', National Identities, vol. 4, no 3, pp. 223 -- 244
Crapol, Edward P. (1992). "Coming to Terms with Empire: The Historiography of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Diplomatic History 16: 573 -- 97
Fry, Joseph A. (1996) "From Open Door to World Systems: Economic Interpretations of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Pacific Historical Review 65:277 -- 303.
Higginbotham, Don. (1983) The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763 -- 1789.
records court transcripts from "The Trials of Oscar ilde," when the opposing council at the trial asks the defendant, Oscar ilde, if he kissed one of the boys whom ilde was supposed to have engaged in homosexual practices, ilde appears unfazed. hen asked if he kissed the boy, ilde, with customary wit, responded that he did not, because "he was a very ugly boy." This kind of exchange forces the reader to ask the question not so much why ilde was found guilty of gross indecency, but why ilde ever believed he could be found innocent of the love that "dare not speak its name." (Longman Anthology 2125)
Throughout both of his trials, ilde adopts a kind of insouciant, provocative pose that seems, to the modern eyes, to be a 'typical' portrait of a flamboyant male homosexual. Because Oscar ilde's artistic medium has become synonymous with such a posture it…
Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester University Press, 2002.
Longman, Addison Wesley. The Longman Anthology-British Literature-Compact Edition-Volume B2. University of Southern California Press, 1999
tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)
rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.
The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…
Furthermore Locke's writings are lauded for their cultural and historical importance rather than their literary style. Being very prominent in educational and artistic circles I find this hard to believe. Certainly a man who has been educated in the highest of quality schools should be able to produce something of purely literary merit.
Despite these issues which are admittedly a matter of opinion, it is very significant that Locke's influence extends to modern literary circles in this way. Locke's influence in the areas of education, culture and empowerment also remain to this day in terms of recognized Black culture and the promotion of cultural pluralism. The ALLS has been officially recognized by the American Philosophical Association in a letter from Secretary-Treasurer, William Mann, on November 26, 1997.
Locke's influence thus reaches far beyond his lifespan in order to not only empower and inspire, but also to enlighten and to entertain. Locke was the epitome of the New Negro.
Jane Austen's Persuasion: Anne Elliot's Coming Out The writings of Jane Austen are often considered to be the representation of an excessively conservative era. Though this may truly be the case especially in regards to the formal and informal interactions between the opposite genders. A woman's reputation could be made or broken by a simple turn of events. The challenge of maintaining these standards for conduct, where even the minutest misunderstanding might cause years of disassociation seems to be as formidable as any. The story is one of the personal growth of the heroine Anne Elliot. She branches out into a world, limited by her position but much less so than before.
Though waters of social understanding were often murky the reality of Persuasion is such that the heroine, Anne Elliot is assuming the role of "director" of her own life. Austen is telling the story of a woman learning…
Austen, Jane Persuasion. Hertfordshire, UK: Wordsworth Ltd., 1993.
It deals with many of the same themes that Modernist writers like James Joyce dealt with, nationalism, religion, and class. Thus, contemporary Irish literature is highly reflective of the values of Modernist literature.
Contemporary Irish literature, however is distinct from modern Irish literature because of this focus on non-mainstream themes. Contemporary Irish literature demonstrates many characteristics of what is termed in academic circles as "Post-Modernism."
Self-Reflexivity and Self-Parody
Contemporary Irish literature also demonstrates the Postmodernist feature of parody and general irreverence. This features is illustrated in "The Cripple of Inishman," where a cripple in Ireland moves to an island off of Inishmore, a town known for its "Irishness," in order to audition for a Hollywood movie. The play is undoubtedly a comedy, yet it deals with the notion of Nationalism and the notion of national character. pokes fun at the mythicization and presentation of Ireland and the Irish by depciting…
McDonagh, Martin. The Cripple of Inishmaan. New York: Vintage Books, 1998. Print.
Barry, Sebastian. The Steward of Christendom. London: Methuen Drama in association with the Royal Court Theatre, 1995. Print.
American Ethnic Literature
There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.
American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…
Anzaldua, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Borderland / La Frontera. Web. http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage International. 1995.
Franco, Dean J. Ethnic American Literature: Comparing Chicano, Jewish, and African-American Writing. University of Virginia Press. 2006.
Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/a and Asian-American Fictions. University Press of Mississippi. 2003.
Thisclearly implies that this sort of perception was more of a weakness than an advantage.
Samuel Johnson's "The Vanity of Human ishes"
In this poem, the author demonstrates to the audience the reality of struggle in life. The author, just like, he mentions in the poem's title demonstrates how human wishes are, in many cases egoistic and useless. According to Meyers (p 1), Johnson had his reflection long years of human struggle, unavoidable fates, and theerroneous hopes. The author demonstrates some of the common situations that ordinary human being experience under the authority of certain political powers, which seem to have a hand in the sealing of their destinies. The author, in exploring this demonstrates how cruel, humiliating, and unwarranted such treatments are. The actions that the persona witnesses in the society make life to him more of a tragedy than anything else does. He in fact states that the…
Chaucer, Geofrey. & Purves, Laing, D, the Canterbury Tales, Auckland: The Floating Press, 2012
Cunningham, J. S, Samuel Johnson: The vanity of human wishes and Rasselas, London: Edward Arnold, 1982
Flohr, Birgitt, Swift's Attitude to Reason in Book IV of Gulliver's travels "Swift Was a Rationalist with No Faith in Reason." Retrieved August 5, 2013, http://www.itp.uni-hannover.de/~flohr/papers/m-lit-18-century1.pdf
The Life and Death of Julies Caesar Shakespeare homepage | Julius Caeser | Entire play, Retrieved, August 5, 2013, http://shakespeare.mit.edu/julius_caesar/full.html
what is multicultural literature? What are the characteristics of quality multicultural literature?
Within the latter part of the twentieth century, a pattern referred to as multiculturalism acquired popularity in American education (Almerico et al., 2006). Gay (1994) within an intensive research of the very commonly used meanings of multicultural literature recognized 13 particular explanations involving the idea and mentioned that a number of factors had been typical out of all definitions for the reason that all of them concur that the content material of multicultural literature ought to include:
Cultural pluralism, ethnic identities, unequal division of resources as well as
Opportunities along with other socio and political issues arising from extended track records of oppression
Multicultural education like a school of thought, a strategy for education transformation, along with a collection of particular subject material within just educational courses. (p. 3)
In her own book, Affirming Diversity, Nieto…
Almerica et al. 2006:
The authors in this research carried out a content evaluation of children's literature college books to find out the way the phrase multiculturalism had been interpreted within just the perspective of children's literature. They established the way the idea had been outlined, the degree to which various subcultures within the America had been depicted, the quantity of textual content dedicated to every depicted cultural group, and also the quantity of suggested trade books for every group.
• The racial foundation involving the classroom has and also will continue to transform.
Because schools matter so greatly in shaping the destiny of each child, they have always been the focus of intense, often unfriendly, attention. Criticisms of the system have always been abundant, and the targets of dissatisfaction have remained virtually the same over generations (13).
By properly utilizing children's literature to identify and then to address social issues, more equity can be engendered within a social system in which those from "privileged backgrounds" are favored.
An analysis of present and previous literature on the methodology of most prudently employing children's literature to address social issues readily indicates that the most successful, thought-provoking manner for doing so lies in utilizing an approach of cultural literacy. This principle denotes an active exploration on the process of both children and their teacher to bring their viewpoints to the literary works they are engaged in, in order to "construct meaning" (esponding to Literature, 419). Critical…
Pinnell, G.S., Fountas, I.C. (2007). The Continuum of Literacy Learning, Grades K-8. Portsmouth: Heinneman.
Energizing Ontario Education. (2008). Reach Every Student. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/energize/
For the Love of Learning. (1994). Ontario: Queens Printer.
No author. (2010). "Literacy Statistics." Canada.com. Retrieved from http://www2.canada.com/national/features/raiseareader/statistics.html
The folkloric tradition was so popular because people were able to relate to it. Although Ferdowsi wrote his text with the intention that people of all backgrounds would be able to celebrate the history of the land, the folkloric tradition derived its appeal from the fact that everyone could relate with the characters in a very real, first-hand way. Most of the stories simply had stock characters, similar to the Commedia Del Arte theatrical tradition in Italy. These characters were archetypes rather than actual historical figures. Although the everyday events depicted in these stories were fictional and made up by the person who happened to be telling the story, the stories were used as a form of entertainment that would offer some form of momentary escape from the cares of their everyday lives. This context represents a major difference from the Shehmaneh, which generally attempts to represent history and actual…
Davis, Dick. "Introduction." The Shahnameh: The Persian Book of Kings. Trans. Dick Davis. Korea: Mage, 2004. 7-15.
Doostkhah, Jalil. "Shahnameh and the Oral Epic Traditions: A Brief Note." Iran and the Caucasus 5 (2001): 157-162.
Gay, David Elton. "The Oral Background of Persian Epics: Storytelling and Poetry, and: Sunset of Empire: Stories from the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi. Vol. 3." Journal of American Folklore 119.472 (2006): 243-245.
Karaomerlioglu, Asim. "The Peasants in Early Turkish Literature." East European Quarterly 36.2 (2002): 127-154.
Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson
Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.
Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).
Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…
references to at least two of the texts read
Less than three sentences per response and mentioning one or none of the texts read so far
Strong use of creativity. The poem or short story breaks three or more of the gender stereotypes learned
Simply rewriting a previously published story or poem. Only two or less gender stereotypes were broken by the female character
Human esources Literature eview
In an article titled "Management Derailment: Personality Assessment and Mitigation," which was published in the American Psychological Association Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology in 2010, the research team of Joyce Hogan, obert Hogan and obert B. Kaiser conduct a thorough literature review on the subject of management derailment. By examining over 100 scholarly articles and case studies, the reviewers sought to determine why a curious phenomenon within the study of human resource practices has consistently emerged. As the authors of the literature review observe in their Introduction, although "the economic literature clearly shows that good management enhances organizational performance and that some managers are better than others & #8230; there is little consensus in the psychological literature regarding the characteristics of good managers & #8230; (while) the research on bad managers converges rather well" (Hogan, Hogan & Kaiser, 2010). The thrust of the authors' research…
Hogan, J., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R.B. (2010). Management derailment: Personality assessment and mitigation. American Psychological Association Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 555-575.
In comparing a number of literary elements in one story, Smith and Wiese (2006) contend that at times, when attempting to transform an old story into a modern multicultural version, cultural meanings of the original story may be lost. In turn, the literature does not subject the reader to another culture. For instance, in the story about the fisherman, that Smith and Wiese access, the plot remains similar plot, however, significant changes transform the reported intent to make the story multicultural. Changes included the fisherman's daughter's stated name, being changed from one common to her culture to Maha. Instead of God, as written in the original version, the reference notes "Allah." Other changes Smith and Wiese point out include:
& #8230;The admonition to retrieve the fish or "be sorry" instead of the threatened curse, the reference to the golden shoe as a sandal instead of a clog;
Anderson, Connie Wilson. (2006). Examining Historical Events through Children's Literature.
Multicultural Education. Caddo Gap Press. 2006. Retrieved May 03, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1229798181.html
Banned Book Quiz. (2009). Retrieved May 03, 2009 from http://www.shetland-library.gov.uk/documents/BannedBooksWBD09quiz.pdf
Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (2008). Stories of heaven and earth: Bible heroes in contemporary
Classic Literature for a New Generation
When one watches "Rambo: First lood Part II" are we actually watching a contemporary version of the Iliad about the ferocity of Achilles on and off the battleground? When we watch Francis Ford Coppola's "Godfather" trilogy, are we really watching Aeschylus's Oresteia trilogy? Is today's "Jerry Springer" yesterday's Euripides' Hippolytus? Is Rodney Dangerfield's "ack to School" really Aristophanes's The Clouds? Could flicking through the pages of Playboy be tantamount to listening to Plato's Symposium, a discourse on sex and love, or reading Castiglione's Renaissance courtesy novel The ook of the Courtier? (Spectrum, Australia, 1)
Richard Keller Simon, in his book Trash Culture advocates the simultaneous study of classic literature through its traditional forms and contemporary interpretation, highlighting the importance of promoting popular culture in conjunction with classic literature in order to comprehend the crucial perspective in which the books materialize. (R. K. Simon, California,…
Bloom, Harold (1994) The Western Canon: the Books and School of the Ages. New York, Harcourt Brace.
Burgess, Anthony (1984) "Modern Novels: the 99 Best." The New York Times, late city final edition, section 7, p. 1, col. 1, Book Review Desk.
Fiedler, Leslie (1982) What Was Literature? Class Culture and Mass Society. New York, Simon and Schuster.
Kernan, Alvin. (1992) The Death of Literature. U.S., Yale University Press.
In order for the study to be conducted properly, it would be expected to use the literature review method of examination. This is the logical way to conduct this type of study. However, there is not that much literature available. ecause of this, the method that will be used will instead be similar to a case study method, but will be expanded to study more than one case. In other words, the study will not just examine Forrest Gump, for example, but will look at books, stories, television shows, and movies over the last 20 years in order to determine the way that handicapped characters evolve, the way that they are treated, and whether there are more handicapped characters now than there were. While the handicapped characters' evolution and the way that they are portrayed is important, also important is whether more handicapped characters are being seen in fiction today…
Bibliography hero sits next door. (2005). Episode Guide. Family Guy Main. http://familyguymain.bravehost.com/EpGuide.html
AnxietyPanic.com (2006). http://www.anxietypanic.com/
Forrest Gump. (n.d.). UMBC. English 347. http://userpages.umbc.edu/~landon/Film%20Summaries/Summary_ForrestGump.htm
Perry, Gregg. (2004). Confessions of a handicapped man. World Net Daily. http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=37143
Snakes on a Plane (2006). Plot Summary. IMDB. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0417148/plotsummary
HUM/105 World Mythology Contemporary Hero's Quest Presentation (Robin Hood Prince Thieves 1991 Starring Kevin Costner) Pick a contemporary story form a, movie, video game inspired a mythological epic journey a hero's quest.
The character of Robin of Locksley in Kevin Reynolds' film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves goes through a complex set of events as he tries to discover his personal identity. In his journey he realizes that it is essential for him to get actively involved in taking on a hero-like attitude in order to save numerous individuals from falling victims to an oppressive system. As a nobleman, one would expect Robin to react differently in the face of danger, taking into account that it was characteristic for people during the era to put across attitudes that had nothing to do with the general public's well-being.
In contrast to how most would expect, Robin takes on a rebellious nature…
Dir. Kevin Reynolds. Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves. Warner Bros., 1991.
Buhle, Paul, "Robin Hood: People's Outlaw and Forest Hero: A Graphic Guide," (PM Press, 01.01.2012)
Thomas, Leitch, "Adaptations without Sources: The Adventures of Robin Hood," Literature/Film Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1.
Pierre Bourdieu, "The Field of Cultural Production" from David Finkelstein and Alistair McCleery, the Book History Reader, London: Routledge, 2002.
Bordieu's work is interesting in terms of analyzing contemporary media production. It is interesting that a person's profession defines and narrows is or her perspective. To wit: Bourdieu spoke about 'culture'. Now, even though his intention was culture in the conventional sense, fields including science (which in turn includes social science), law and religion, as well as expressive domains such as art, literature and music, when he spoke about culture he onerously focused on the expressive-aesthetic fields, namely literature and art. These were his occupations and this is what the man thought about. It is possible that another, perhaps a scientist, writing about culture, would extract th scientific aspect of it. Since Bourdeau was an author, he approached it form that tangent and, thereby, gave culture his own p-articular meaning.…
American and European Literature
Suggesting that there is a fundamental difference between American and European literature means much more than acknowledging that the culture produced by geographically distinct regions is similarly distinct, because it suggests that there are much deeper underlying symbols and tropes which mark these cultural productions as distinctly American or European regardless of the wide variety of genres and themes present in the literature of either region. hile the claim of an identifiable distinction between American and European literature feels accurate due to the clear differences between American and European culture, this claim requires critical examination because of the potential for stereotype and condescension inherent in it. Examining some of the more important factors which might produce a recognizable difference between these two canons, as well as the processes responsible for the formation of literary canons in the first place, reveals that the differences between American and…
Guillory, John. Cultural capital: the problem of literary canon formation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Kronick, Joseph. "Writing American: Between Canon and Literature." CR: The New Centennial
Review. 1.3 (2001): 37-66. Print.
Messent, Peter, and Louis Budd. A companion to Mark Twain. Malden: Blackwell, 2005.
Vintage Book Contemporary American Poetry. Those: - Mark Strand's "The Story Our Lives" - Robert Pinsky's "The Hearts," - Frank O'Hara's "Having a Coke ith You," - Galway Kinnel's "After Making Love e Hear Footsteps," - J.
"Having a Coke ith You"
Frank O'Hara's poem "Having a Coke ith You" presents audiences with an intriguing look into the poet's world as he focuses on discussing a topic that appears to be related to love, but that is actually more confusing that one might be inclined to believe. It seems that the poet is partly joking and partly passionate about the topic of love, considering that even though he compares his lover to some of the world's most beautiful concepts, he does not hesitate to introduce humorous lines as being related to the subject that he is discussing.
O'Hara cleverly addresses ideas such as art and life with the purpose of…
O'Hara, Frank, "Having a Coke With You"
Beauty & Sadness in Japanese Literature
My Dear Friend,
I applaud you ambition to visit Japan for a summer session of study, and your focus on the distinct works of literature and art to emerge from Japanese culture is admirable. Having devoted much of my own studies to Japanese literature, both in historical and contemporary form, I can honestly say that you are embarking on a personal quest for knowledge that, while beginning on the Japanese mainland, will remain a valued part of your life for years to come. During my own readings of classic Japanese literary works like Natsume Soseki's Kokoro (1914), and Jun'ichir? Tanizaki's Naomi (1947), I have found that the seemingly opposing concepts of beauty and sadness are inextricably linked throughout much of the Japanese cultural experience. From the late 19th through the early 20th centuries, the Japanese people experienced a collective social transformation known as the…
Hitori, Nakano. "Densha otoko (Train Man)." Tokyo: Shinchsha (2004).
Murakami, Haruki. Hard-boiled Wonderland and the End of the World. Vintage, 2010.
Shirane, Haruo. Traditional Japanese literature: an anthology, beginnings to 1600. Columbia University Press, 2008.
Soseki, Natsume. Kokoro. Penguin Classic, 2010.
Teaching classic literature as the focus of a language curriculum for high school is an issue that has enjoyed considerable attention. ome critics feel that there is little purpose in focusing on ancient works of literature when attempting to cultivate a love of reading in children. Others again feel that an important part of human history and culture is lost when these works are ignored. According to the latter group, the way in which literature is taught determined whether it is useful or not, rather than the content of the literature as such. An argument stemming from the same basis relates to some negativity towards the way in which classics are taught. ome critics claim that authors such as hakespeare are being used to further dogmatic political goals. These views will be examined to determine whether using the classics as a focus for language education is a valid educational tool.…
Cantor, Paul A. "Shakespeare-"for all time"? - politicizing the teaching of Shakespeare's works." In Public Interest, Winter 2004. The National Affairs, 2004.
Donelson, Ken. "The Student's Right to Read." http://www.ncte.org/about/over/positions/category/cens/107616.htm
Kern, Andrew. "Teaching Classical Literature Classically." Memoria Press, 2004. http://www.memoriapress.com/articles/classicallit.html
La Vigne, Michelle. "Firing the Canon: Teaching Literature in Secondary Schools." Notes from the Hartland, 2004.
Myth, Literature, and the African World
The book Myth, Literature, and the African World, was published in 1976, twenty years before the author, Wole Soyinka, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In his Preface, he clearly wants to convey that African academia has created a kind of "intellectual bondage and self-betrayal" by not facing up to truths about the fact that African literature must not be merely "an appendage of English literature." This was written twenty-eight years ago, of course, and because the instructions ask that "only this reference" be used, one cannot know if indeed African universities now have a section for "Comparative Literature" -- which would presumably allow for the inclusion of literature about Africa, by Africans. And that literature would, hopefully, be reflective of what African cultures were like during the continent was dominated by European colonial powers -- something that Soyinka clearly would like…
Soyinka, Wole. Myth, Literature and the African World. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1976.
. Wole Soyinka, Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), ix.
In spite o the accusations of being a misogynist and encouraging the young minds to embrace such theories related to gender stereotypes, Polly and Diggory, the first two children to populate the series, are far from impersonating stereotypes. Polly appears to be a smart and sensitive young girl, wiser to some degree than her friend, Diggory. In opposition to the children who regardless of their gender, seem to share similar degrees of intelligence, courage and common sense, the adults they describe as part of their reality are more likely to express what to some degree could be the result of certain personal convictions of the author in the two fields of gender that are not very flattering for women in general.
Nevertheless, the novels of the Chronicles are valuable, among other things, because of their potential to enchant, keep the reader interested and intrigued all the way up to the…
Lewis CS. Dorsett LW. Mead, ML C.S. Lewis' Letters to Children. Simon and Schuster, 1996
Hooper W.C.S. Lewis: A Complete Guide to His Life & Works. HarperCollins, 1998
Lindsley a.C.S. Lewis: His Life and Works. C'S. Lewis Institute. Discipleship of Heart and Mind. Last updated on Tue, 2009-09-29. Available at: http://www.cslewisinstitute.org/cslewis/index.htm
Pride in Literature
As a universally human characteristic, pride plays an important part in world literary themes. However, pride can be defined and perceived differently, and the term also has many different definitions. For example, pride can refer to a dignified type of satisfaction, as comes from taking pride in one's work. More often in literature, though, pride is depicted in a negative light and is usually featured as a tragic flaw that, if not overcome, brings about the hero's downfall. Moreover, the implications and meaning of pride in literature has changed over the course of time. Pride was portrayed as a necessary but dangerous trait of powerful leaders in the ancient epics of Greece and Mesopotamia like Gilgamesh, the Iliad, and the Odyssey. The trait of pride reached a sort of thematic culmination in the Old English work Beowulf, in which the title character's pride contributes positively to his…
In iesel, we find a great deal more will power and individuality. Yet, we find that the historical circumstances for the subject and his family are yet that much more irresistible. A victim of the German-perpetrated Holocaust, iesel describes the experience of being moved by history as one which came about quite unexpectedly. Their subterfuge, iesel shows in his text, would be a valuable tactic for the Nazis as they gradually entrenched themselves, in preparation for the eventual deportation and wholesale murder of the Jews. As iesel explains it, "the Germans were already in town, the Fascists were already in power, the verdict had already been pronounced, yet the Jews of Sighet continued to smile." (iesel, 7-8) His family and his neighbors were ultimately vulnerable to the mass herding and encampment of the Jews because they, like millions of others, doubted that the power afforded to the Nazi government could…
Wiesel, Elie. (1982). Night. Bantam Reissue Edition
Ishiguro, K. (1986). An Artist in the Floating World. Faber and Faber.
Allard, Harry and James Marshall. Miss Nelson Is Missing. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1977. Print.
Miss Nelson is a non-threatening instructor whose students take advantage of her gentle personality by misbehaving. One day Miss Nelson disappears and is replaced by an ill-tempered substitute, Miss Viola Swamp, who makes the children appreciate their good-natured teacher. The book is designed for primary and early elementary readers.
Beaumont, Karen. I Ain't Gonna Paint No More! Florida: Harcourt, Inc. 2005. Print.
A little boy has been caught and chastised for decorating his home with a box of paints. His mother takes the paint set away from him and tells him, "Ya ain't gonna paint no more!" He soon reacquires the box of paints and becomes busily engaged in painting himself from head to toe. Preschool children will enjoy this book.
Carle, Eric. The Very Hungry Caterpillar. New York: Collins Publishers.…
Dave, a fifth-grader, is astonished to learn in a report about India that Mahatma Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence to give his mind a rest. Dave attempts to give it a try, but being a constant talker, he finds it difficult to remain silent. He and a friend convince the entire fifth grade class to try the experiment. Despite a long-standing animosity, the boys and girls in the classroom form a bond during their periods of silence by trying to find other ways to communicate.
DiCamillo, Kate. Because of Winn-Dixie. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Candlewick Press. 2000. Print.
India Opal Buloni moves to Naomi, Florida when her father obtains a position as a preacher in a local church. Opal's mother left the family when she was only three years old and she has no friends in Naomi. One day she finds a big, ugly dog wandering around in a
Thompson "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," The Romantics.
In the article "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," author E.P. Thompson explores the restoration of literary works by Wordsworth and Coleridge. Specifically, Thompson is interested in the moment when the poet became politically aware and disenchanted with the environs around him, turning his distaste into pieces of literature. While making his argument, Thompson delves heavily into the possible psychological profile of the author and his break with Godwinism. By doing this however, Thompson makes a critical mistake which all literary scholars and critics are meant to watch out for: that is confusing the narrator of the literature with the author himself.
Remarkably, Thompson determines that the change in Wordsworth's writings came at a time when he stopped writing towards an ideal and instead directed his writings at a real person. He writes, "It signaled also -- a central theme of…
Victorian literature was remarkably concerned with the idea of childhood, but to a large degree we must understand the Victorian concept of childhood and youth as being, in some way, a revisionary response to the early nineteenth century Romantic conception. Here we must, to a certain degree, accept Harold Bloom's thesis that Victorian poetry represents a revisionary response to the revolutionary aesthetic of Romanticism, and particularly that of ordsworth. The simplest way to summarize the ordsworthian child is to recall that well-known line from a short lyric (which would be appended as epigraph to later printings of ordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality, from Recollections of Early Childhood") -- "the child is father of the man." Here, self-definition in adulthood, and indeed the poetic vocation, are founded in the perceived imaginative freedom of childhood.
Thou little Child, yet glorious in the might
Of heaven-born freedom on thy being's height,
Arnold, Matthew. "The Forsaken Merman." Web. Accessed 15 April 2012 at: http://www.bartleby.com/101/747.html
Arnold, Matthew. "William Wordsworth." In Steeves, H.R. (ed.) Selected Poems of William Wordsworth, with Matthew Arnold's Essay on Wordsworth. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1921. Print.
Arnold, Matthew. "Youth's Agitations." Web. Accessed 15 April 2012 at: http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/12118/
Bloom, Harold. "Introduction." In Bloom, Harold (ed.). Bloom's Major Poets: A.E. Housman. New York: Chelsea House, 2003. Print.
Participants filled out a Short-Form McGill Questionnaire, an Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire in order to measure their levels of pain over the past few weeks. What the researchers found through statistical analysis was self-management strategies that reduced pain over time were most effective in the group that was exposed to guided imagery techniques. The level of guided imagery therapy was not itself significant, but more of the fact of whether or not it was present in the patient's therapy or not. This helps illustrate the effectiveness of guided imagery in managing long-term chronic pain when there are no fundamental cures present within traditional therapeutic practices. Pain management symptoms improved, but the symptoms overall remained. This shows that guided imagery is not a cure in and of itself, but rather an effective way to reduce and manage the pain that is present in chronic conditions like fibromyalgia.
Ferrell, Betty R., et al. "Pain management for elderly patients with cancer at home." CANCER-PHILADELPHIA- 74 (1994): 2139-2139.
Menzies, V., Taylor, a.G., & Bourguignon, C. (2006). Effects of guided imagery on outcomes of pain, functional status, and self-efficacy in persons diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(1), 23-30.
Weydert, J.A., Shapiro, D.E., Acra, S.A., Monheim, C.J., Chambers, a.S., & Ball, T.M. (2006). Evaluation of guided imagery as treatment for recurrent abdominal pain in children: a randomized controlled trial. BMC pediatrics, 6(1), 29.
Security elements are built into buildings and their surrounding spaces. The traditional fina, or outdoor space within a private dwelling, may be shielded by branches of the local tree Al-Awshaz for privacy and security (Abu-Ghazzeh). For the more permanent dwellings in the community, stone walls were built thick to withstand not only the summer floods but also the possibility of bedouin invaders. Doorways were built not so that tall men could clear their heads but purposefully so that they must stoop down when entering. Marking the lintel at neck height meant that any women inside would have time to don their headdress or hide (Abu-Ghazzeh).
The type of building material used also signifies social and cultural issues. For example, stone and adobe are reserved for the core tribe members. More transient residents of the community build houses out of less durable materials including wood. Building materials are mainly local but…
6). Beattie, like anyone else, was a product of her times.
She is also, again like anyone else, a product of her own individual circumstances. A further interpretation of the bowl as a symbol of the feminine finds a deeper connection between the circumstances of the fictional Andrea and the real-life Ann Beattie. Though she is not especially forthcoming with personal details, there are some facts with which a correlation can be drawn.
Though (presumably) happily married for many years, Ann Beattie and her husband have no children (Frost, par. 1). Again, she has not shared the reasons for this, nor would it be a reasonable question to pose to her. It is a significant fact to note, however, given the resemblance of the bowl to the female womb. Henningfield suggests an interpretation of the bowl, especially of the husband's turning away from it and Andrea's refusal to let him…
Beattie, Ann. "Janus." The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Allison Booth, J. Paul Hunter, Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, 2005. 280-283.
Brent, Liz. "Overview of 'Janus.'" Short Stories for Students, Vol. 9, the Gale Group, 2000.
Frost, Adam. "Beattie, Ann." Literature Online bibliography. Cambridge, 2002. ProQuest Information and Learning Company. 12 Mar. 2009. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl-ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&xri:pqil:res_ver=0.2&res_id=xri:lion-us&rft_id=xri:lion:ft:ref:BIO006220:0
Henningfield, Diane Andrews. "Overview of 'Janus.'" Short Stories for Students, Vol. 9, the Gale Group, 2000.
Blurring the Gap Between Fiction and eal Life
This is a paper that outlines how modern literature integrates personal experiences of the writers into works of fiction. It has 5 sources.
It is quite interesting to note the means by which eminent writers attract attention to their ideas and literary content. On closer examination, we may come to the conclusion that the means by which public attention may be grabbed has followed a definite pattern through the years. While writers like Shakespeare and his contemporaries used fiction to project their literary geniuses, modern day writers strive to catch the attention of the masses by presenting their own personal conflicts and tragedies to the public. The modern writer has lessened the gap between a literary piece of work and real life. However, literature in the classical period is known for its often unnatural and over-dramatized perspectives on life. Today, the stories…
Wright, Richard A., Black Boy, Perennial, September 1, 1998
Williams, Tennessee. The Glass Menagerie, New Directions Publishing; June 1999
Ward, Jerry, M. "Richard Wright-Black Boy," retrieved at http://www.newsreel.org/guides/richardw.htm . On April 2, 2004
King Thomas, L. Irony and distance in the Glass Menagerie in Tennessee Williams. Ed. Harold Bloom, New York: Chelsea house, 1987, 85-94
For example, Mr. Aarons leaves his home early, every morning to drive to a construction job in ashington, D.C. The children and Mrs. Aarons milk the family's cow and grow and can fruits and vegetables to provide food for the Aaron family. In spite of all this effort, the family has little or no money for luxuries, such as art supplies for Jess. In contrast, the Burke family comes to the setting of rural Appalachia because they are dissatisfied with their comfortable life in a wealthy suburb of ashington, D.C. Despite their best intentions, they are viewed dismissively as hippies by many of their neighbors. However, much as the children seek a fantasy life in their imaginary kingdom in the book, the adult Burke family was similarly in search of an ideal existence outside of the large cities on the eastern seaboard, searching for a sense of peace and an…
Research and Documentation
Lambarski, Tim. (Jan/Feb 2005) "Forming Values Through Literature." Today's Catholic Teacher. Retrieved 2 June 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3924/is_200501/ai_n9467350
Nikolajeva, Marie. (2001) "The changing aesthetics of character in children's fiction." Style. Retrieved 2 June 2005 at Style. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2342/is_3_35/ai_97074157/pg_3
Paterson, Katherine. (1978) Bridge to Terabithia. New York: HarperCollins.
Pearl Poet's Sir Gawain
The Arthurian Legends are one of the most mysterious of Middle English literature. For many years historians have tried to match King Arthur to one of the Early Kings of Britain, however, all attempts have met without success. It is now generally accepted that King Arthur and the other Knights of the Round table represent a composite of the behaviors and attitudes of people of that time period. The same can be said of the character of Sir Gawain in "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." As social attitudes changed, so do the ideal characteristics that exemplify virtue and purity. The character Sir Gawain appears in many versions of the Arthurian Legends. The characteristics and attitudes of Sir Gawain seem to shoe a shift over time. The most widely accepted version of the character of Sir Gawain is the version that is attributed to the poet…
Abrams, M.H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1993.
Andrew, Malcolm, and Ronald Waldron, eds. The Poems of the Pearl Manuscript. 2d ed.
London: Arnold, 1982; Gordon, E.V., ed. Pearl. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.
Bishop, Ian. Pearl in Its Setting- A Critical Study of the Structure and Meaning of the Middle English Poem. Oxford: Blackwell, 1968
The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.
A Rose Grows From Concrete
One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:
Things that make hearts break.
And people who dream with their eyes open
Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NeRtokbeXDEC&dq=social,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+ (1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008
Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=eW6RGpubQ9UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from: http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/mora_pat.php
Southwestern Humor in American Literature
Southwestern Humor in 19th Century American Literature
During the period of 1830-1860, a new genre in America literature has emerged, which is called the Southwestern Humor genre. This new form of literature illustrates and discusses issues and themes that are depicted effectively through humor and exaggeration. Technically defined, Southwestern Humor is identified as "a name given to a tradition of regional sketches and tales based in the 'old South-West': Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas." This genre is also characterized by its use of the following thematic elements: "tall tales, thick regional dialect, ironic humor, and a tradition of tricksterism in... stories and sketches" (Campbell 2003).
Aside from the characteristics enumerated above, Southwestern Humor is also remarkable in its ability to effectively mirror the social landscape of the Southwestern region of the United States. In the study and analysis of Southwestern Humor genre, important themes that…
Campbell, D. "Southwestern Humor, 1830-1860." Literary Movements. 17 May 2003 http://www.gonzaga.edu/faculty/campbell/enl311/swhumor.htm .
Getting Started with Humor 350." South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Web site. 17 May 2003 http://silver.sdsmt.edu/~jsneller/350study.htm.
The Mighty Hunter." University of Virginia Library Web site. 17 May 2003 http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/railton/projects/price/hunter.htm .
Thorpe, T.B. E-text of "The Big Bear of Arkansas." 17 May 2003 http://users.mhc.edu/facultystaff/jpierce/spring00/eng205/bigbear.html.
In "The Secret Life of alter Mitty," Mitty escapes the reality of his manhood with daydreaming. He does this because his wife emasculates him. For Mitty, daydreams are better than dealing with a bothersome wife. Mitty is a real man in his mind as he fantasizes about saving the Navy hydroplane. Mitty is not happy and he argues with his wife over such things as overshoes. He is no doubt a curmudgeon, as we see when he calls the parking lot attendant "damn cocky" (Thurber 1361). Mitty is unlucky in life but we have to wonder how much of this is his fault. Many would look at him and see nothing that resembles a real man. His imagination is his escape, which makes Mitty happy, as he declares himself "undefeated" and "inscrutable" (1364). Mitty might know how to escape his awful world but he is taking a chicken's way out.…
Thurber, James. (1981) "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty." The Norton Anthology of Short
Fiction. New York W.W. Norton and Company. Print.
Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Vol. II. Paul
Lauter, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990. Print.
history libertinism, 18th century France. In concluding paragraphs, relate research formation, conflicts characters Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons dangereuses), epistolary Choderlos de Laclos.
The notion of the libertine:
The radical and reactionary implications of libertinism in Les Liaisons Dangereuses
The novel Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons Dangereuses) has a daring storyline, even by contemporary standards. Over the course of a series of letters between the Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont, a plot is orchestrated to bring shame and scandal upon the conventional and pure Madame de Tourvel and Cecile Volanges. Valmont in particular embodies the notion of the 19th century libertine, or a man who lives without regard to conventional morality: in effect, he is 'liberated' from the conventions of society and religious dogma.
The notion of a 'libertine' was first articulated in the writings of the 17th century theologian John Calvin, who defined libertines as all that good…
Cavaille, J. "Libertine and libertinism: Polemic uses of the terms in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English and Scottish literature." Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, 12.2 (2012), 12-36,157.
Hollinger, K. "Losing the feminist drift: Adaptations of Les Liaisons Dangereuses."
Literature/Film Quarterly, 24.3 (1996), 293-300.
O'Connell, Lisa & Cryle, Peter. Libertine Enlightenment. Palgrave Macmillan 2003.
Pre-Nazi Germany exhibits the kind of delicate yet poignant tension that precipitates major calamity or revolution. Contemporary art, music, and literature capture the social and political atmosphere and all its nuances, especially as it impacts the lives of individuals from various social spheres. Heinriche Heine employs the medium of poetry to subversively satirize the seeds of political and social oppression that were being planted during this critical period in German history. In “Germany: A Winter’s Tale,” Heine draws on the age-old tradition of epic poetic narrative to frame parallels with Teutonic history, all the while capitalizing on the ability of poetic devices like metaphor and imagery to deliver effective and bitter political satire. Christopher Isherwood comes at pre=Nazi Germany from a whole other perspective and point of view. As an outsider looking in, Isherwood offers a mode of inquiry from a temporary looking glass in his collection of short stories…
Voices/omen in Literature
"hy Not Me?" and "Is Everyone Hanging Out ithout Me" are books authored by Mindy Kaling. Through these two books, Kaling weaves together her childhood experiences, her early successes into the comedy scene and her identity issues. Mindy Kaling is one of the significant authors in the present day that outlines the aspects of culture and standing within the society. Through her lifetime experiences, Kaling exemplifies feminism and diversity and exudes confidence towards the audience. Mindy Kaling is an actress and comedian for the most renowned for the sitcom The Mindy project. She is also famed for her writing scripts and acting on the sitcom The Office, in which she depicted the character Kelly Kapoor.
"Is Everyone Hanging Out ithout Me?" is a memoir that was authored by Kaling in 2012. The book is a collection of personal articles and portrays her humorous interpretations on developing as…
David, A. (2015). 8 Life Lessons I Learned From Mindy Kaling. Odyssey. Retrieved from: https://www.theodysseyonline.com/life-lesson-learned-mindy-kaling
Kaling, M. (2015). Mindy Kaling's Guide to Killer Confidence. Glamour. Retrieved from: http://www.glamour.com/story/mindy-kaling-guide-to-killer-confidence
Kaling, M. (2012). Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? New York: Ebury Publishing.
Kaling, M. (2016). Why Not Me? New York: Crown/Archetype.
Salesmanship the Contemporary Research
One of the most effective tools that are vital to the success of any organization is communication. This is because it has helped executives to reach out to their target audience, in order to sell more of their products and services. As time went by, this has led to a change in the way a corporation is reaching out to its customers. In the article tilted the Changing Environment of Selling and Sales Management, Jones (2005) talks about how this been continuing to evolve. As he has been discussing a number of key points to most effectively adapt to the shifts that are taking place. These include: looking at customers, competitors, ethics / legal and technological influences. This is important, because the combination of them are making firms adjust with the shifts that are occurring inside the marketplace.
As far as customers are concerned, there are…
Jones, E, 2005, 'The Changing Environment,' Journal of Personal Selling, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 105 -- 111.
Knox, J, 2003, Salesmanship and Business Efficiency, Knox Books, London.
Both Tayo and Crowe begin their journeys wandering between two worlds. Both are aware of their wandering and are constantly searching for an identity that will allow them to find the world and identity in which they are most suitable for inclusion. Similarly, both Crowe and Tayo experience a traumatic event that leaves them haunted not only by their pasts, but also guilty about their own actions in the past and sure that these actions have caused others pain. Additionally, these hauntings result in both Tayo and Crowe pushing away the ones they love. For Crowe it is his wife and for Tayo, his family. The similarities between the characters of Tayo and Crowe, therefore, suggest the truth of Saez and insbro's claims. Ethnic writers Shyamalan and Silko certainly employ a common theme of exclusion and inclusion, a theme that is encompassed by the larger theme of the presence of…
The Sixth Sense. Dir. M.Night Shyamalan. Perf. Bruce Willis, Haley Joel Osment. 1999.
Santiago, Esmeralda. America's Dream. New York, Harper: 1997.
Saez, Barbara J. "Varieties of the Ethnic Experience: A Review" the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States. 27.4 (2002): 204-207.
Elizabeth Bishop and Robert Lowell
The publication in 2008 of ords in Air: The Collected Correspondence of Robert Lowell and Elizabeth Bishop offers the reader a privileged glimpse into the long and emotional friendship between two major postwar American poets, who were each an active influence on the other's work. Bishop would enclose a poem in a 1961 letter to Lowell, claiming the draft "undoubtedly shows your influence" but also noting that "I'll probably make more changes" (ords in Air, 379). In a 1964 interview, Robert Lowell would claim Bishop as one of "the poets who most directly influenced me." (Kunitz 86). Indeed Travisano notes in his introduction to the letters that "Lowell's Life Studies and For the Union Dead, his most enduringly popular books, were written under Bishop's direct influence, as the letters make clear" (ords in Air, xviii). But those two titles mark a major shift in Lowell's…
Bishop, Elizabeth. The Complete Poems, 1927-1979. New York: Farrar Straus, 1984. Print.
Costello, Bonnie. Elizabeth Bishop: Questions of Mastery. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993. Print.
Gilbert, Sandra. "Mephistophilis in Maine: Rereading Skunk Hour." In Axelrod, Steven Gould and Deese, Helen. (Editors). Robert Lowell: Essays on the Poetry. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Print.
Hamilton, Saskia. The Letters of Robert Lowell. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux, 2005. Print.
Moonstone," a cornerstone in English literature that marks the birth of detective novels
Wilkie Collins published his novel "The Moonstone" in 1868, after a series of novels that had already consecrated him as a genius in the art of sensational fiction. The genre became popular, at that time, in England and abroad, thorough the translations of Collins' novels. "The Moonstone" is written in a narrative form of a detective novel that leads thorough the complicated but well constructed plot built around the theft of a diamond of Indian origin from "a quiet English house" (The Moonstone, p. 46).
In the preface to his novel, Collins emphasizes the fact that the narrative form took over in the construction of The Moonstone, as compared to his previous works: "In some of my former novels, the object proposed had been to trace the influence of circumstances upon character. In the present story I…
Ashley, Jr., Robert P. Wilkie Collins Reconsidered. Nineteenth Century Fiction Vol. 4, No. 4 (Mar., 1950), pp. 265-273. University of California Press
Ashley, Robert P. Wilkie Collins and the Detective Story. Nineteenth Century Fiction. Vol. 6, No. 1 (Jun., 1951), pp. 47-60. University of California Press
Loesberg, Jonathan. The Ideology of Narrative Form in Sensation Fiction. Representations. No.13 (Winter, 1986), pp. 115-138. University of California Press
Ralph aldo Emerson's Influence on the Poetry of . hitman and E. Dickinson
During 19th century American literature, orthodox teachings and values are evident in most literary works, which is an evidence of the strong influence religion has over the American society. It is noted that during this period, a new form of religion is emerging as one of the dominant religious organizations in the est, particularly the Protestant religion. Ralph aldo Emerson is one example of a 19th century literary poet that influenced his contemporaries with his highly influential works that illustrate his religious background and belief.
Emerson's distinct character of showing his personal religious beliefs in his poem will be discussed in this paper. In line with this discussion, an analysis of two poets will also be discussed in order to show how Emerson's influence has affected each poet's style and theme of poetry. Two poets that have…
Walt Whitman is an American poet who is known for his characteristic style of depicting issues that focus on the worth of an individual and humanity. Emerson's influence over Whitman's poetry is evident in his collection of poems in "Leaves of Grass." Whitman's poem collection is a response to Emerson's call for a distinct and true American culture delivered in 1842. Emily Dickinson, similarly, is an American poet that has been greatly influenced by Emerson's works and writings. Like Emerson, Dickinson subsisted to the belief of transcendentalism, a philosophy wherein people believe that there is a higher reality that is found beyond the faculties of human knowledge and experience as well as reason.
The theme of transcendentalism is evident in one of Emerson's poems, entitled, "The Amulet." In this particular poem, Emerson expresses his belief in immaterial concepts and ideas, as contradicted by the physical belief that the amulet elicits from the individual or its owner. The poet first establishes the "powers" that amulets can give to people before contradicting and illustrating the futility that humans get out of these amulets. In describing it, Emerson describes that the amulet "keeps intelligence with you / Red when you love... And when you love not, pale and blue." However, the strong power that the amulet possesses is contradicted in the last stanza of the poem. The poet develops his thought fully in the last part of the poem, where he finally states that: "... love / Died in its last expression." By saying this, Emerson shows how, despite the metaphysical powers of amulets have over forcing someone to love another, it sacrifices one important thing needed in loving, which is precisely love itself.
Whitman and Dickinson follows suit in illustrating the theme of transcendentalism in their poetry. In Whitman's "When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer," the poet expresses his dismay at the seemingly scientific and technical way of looking at Nature, one of the extraordinary wonders of the world. Dickinson, on the other hand, illustrates in her poem, "A Word is Dead," how a linguistic symbol like a word can possess 'human-like' characteristics. This point is illustrated when Dickinson expressed in her poem, "I say it just / Begins to live / That day." These two examples of poems show Emerson's influence in placing priority in humanity and abstractness over scientific and materialistic elements.
Sir Walter Scott was a writer a part of the romantic era, roughly 1797 -- 1837. Scott was born slightly before the beginning of this era, in 1771, and died nearly at the same time the period changed in 1832. Scott is known as a novelist, playwright, and poet of Scottish descent. The beginning of the omantic period is typically attributed to the publication of Wordworth's and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads, and closed with the rise into power of Queen Victoria. This is a period in literature that produced outstanding lyrical poetry, a few dramas, and several novelists that were popular, including Scott. Scott was known for the ability to blend European history into entertaining narratives. Scott happened to have mass appeal during this period, able to reach readers of various classes and places within the Victorian era. At the time of the omantic Era, authors such as Jane Austen were…
Edinburgh University Library. "Walter Scott." Edinburgh University Library, Web, 2014, Available from: http://www.walterscott.lib.ed.ac.uk/home.html . 2014 March 04.
MacKenzie, Robert Shelton. Sir Walter Scott: The Story of His Life. Kessinger Publishing, 2009. Print.
Scott, MD, Professor Walter. The Complete Works of Sir Walter Scott: With a Biography, and His Last Additions and Illustrations, Volume 7. Nabu Press, 2010. Print.
Artificial Intelligence / Robotics
Robot Outline Name: Complitar (aka the LoveBunny 3000).
Personal Statement: Greetings, human. I am the LoveBunny 3000, and I offer advice on relationships and also sex. You are here gazing at my glass containment because you are troubled in your relationship, or you seek advice for how to drive your lover wild, or perhaps you just need concrete advice for how to find a lover -- although in these days of social media and nonstop connectedness, if you can't find someone to sleep with you, you're doing it wrong. And that's where I come in. You can ask me any question pertaining to the relationship genre.
My form is that of a classic automaton -- a spooky sort of robotic doll that performs certain functions within a limited and circumscribed physical field. Some may recognize my appearance from a standard fairgrounds type fortune-teller or more specifically…
Geneational Gap in the Wokplace
Contempoay woking age Ameicans ae categoized into fou distinct geneations that, allegedly, have been made into what they ae and thei pesonalities fomed due to the socio-political and economic as well as histoical occuences of thei age. These fou geneations ae vaiously known as: Taditionals, Baby Boomes, Geneation X, and Geneation Y
Thee ae at least two views egading geneational diffeences in the wokplace. The fist suggests that whilst individuals ae distinct, nonetheless, shaed geneational values, events, beliefs, behavios, and occuences indelibly affected membes of a paticula geneation and impact them fom effective integeneational communication (Zemke, et al. 2000). The othe is that although, cetain geneational events do occu that influence people's behavio and beliefs, ultimately employees ae constant and geneic in what they seek fom jobs and tying to categoize them and pedict thei pefomance accoding to geneation categoy is misguided (Yang & Guy,…
references of the younger generations. Similarly, whilst discussion groups are the format of choice for the older generations, the younger generations see them as least effective and more time-consuming. Again, one can readily see historical circumstances as prompting choice. Additionally, the younger generations tend to value feedback more than the older ones do, and the various generations seem to indicate different methods in learning and internalizing skills. Computer and Internet may have a great deal to say in the diversities between the characteristics on these points.
As regards desire for greater balance between life and work, most of the evidence that the younger generations seem to incline towards the latter in comparison to the older ones, is anecdotal. It may be that the younger generations resists the influence of work on their lives to a greater extent than the older generations do, but, this again may differ according to personality and context and needs further research.
Other differences in Workplace Generation Gap
Definitions of 'success' and 'leadership' vary too between the generations with apparently generational perspectives of the constructs hinging on the paradigms of their times. The gap seems to be most pronounced between the Traditionals and the younger generations with the Traditionals connecting success to workplace conduct, and the younger generations connecting it to computer skills. As regards leadership style, the two older generations prefer a leader with credibility, whilst the younger ones prefer empathy and active listening (Deal, 2007).
All generations want to be valued and appreciated as well as receive fair treatment. In the end, definite differences may exist more in popular literature than in real life. Further empirical research needs to be conducted to demonstrate whether this is or is not the case.
components contemporary nursing knowledge. The article include: • Concept triangulation • Metaparadigms • Philosophies • Conceptual models theory.
Nursing concept: The relational theory of nursing
According to the article "A theory of the relational work of nurses" by Daniela Terrizzi DeFrino from esearch and Theory for Nursing Practice, because nursing has always been conceptualized as a 'caring' profession in a demeaning fashion, quite often some nurses are apt to deemphasize this aspect of their work. This is particularly true in the modern, time and cost-conscious healthcare environment, where the relational aspects of healthcare treatment are discounted. "The relational work exists but is, as a general rule, taken for granted as 'nice' and not valued as the skillful and effective process that it is. It is valued neither by nurses explicitly nor by management in general" (DeFrino 2010: 294). This article asks an important question: in the new world of healthcare,…
DeFrino, Daniela Terrizzi "A theory of the relational work of nurses." Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 23 (4): 294-311. Retrieved from FindArticles.com November 24, 2010 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7724/is_200912/ai_n45881708/
In fact, the local public library, increasingly threatened by competition from other entertainment sources such as expanded home entertainment systems, deluxe bookstores with cafes, and the Internet, could do well to adopt TQM principles. "A library should focus on providing the best services possible, and be willing to change to serve its customers. To determine if changes need to be made, a library administrator might ask: hat are our niche markets? hat do the customers come in for? How can I look at the efficiency of my library? How do we serve the current customers that exist today? (Masters, 2003, citing Total Quality Management, 1995). In short first learn about the customer, in this case the library patron and then solve the problems with attendance.
A library that alienated customers by being old, poorly lit, and dusty, could improve its customer service by creating more open, airy, and well-lit places…
Hansen, Dexter a. (2005). "Total Quality Management (TQM) Tutorial/Help Page." Retrieved 17 Feb 2007 at http://home.att.net/~iso9k1/tqm/tqm.html
Holoviak, Stephen. (Jul/Aug1995) "Why TQM fails to change behaviors or attitudes."
The Journal for Quality and Participation. Retrieved 17 Feb 2007 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3616/is_199507/ai_n8727227/pg_2
Masters, Denise. (2003). "Total Quality Management in Libraries." Retrieved 17 Feb 2007 from ERIC at: http://www.michaellorenzen.com/eric/tqm.html
Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction
The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…
Another study by uilloux, auzente, Kalika, and Dubost (2004) indicated that the most important aspects of successful franchising are advice as well as assistance then followed by the level of name recognition of the franchisor, the chances of eventually owning multi-outlets, support services as well as the potential profitability.
The existing literature indicate the need for more theoretical backing (Combs et at, 2011,p.102).
More studies are necessary in order to explain the reasons as to why one would be attracted to franchising as well as franchising is a wonderful opportunity for the aspiring/potential franchisees.
4. Consequences of Franchising
Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of the consequences of franchising. Combs et at, 2011,(p.102) explored the consequences of franchising. This is in line with the opinion of Busenitz et al., (2003) that the process of building a new business venture must involve the prediction of its success as well…
Guilloux et al., (2004) on the other hand found out that the quality of the sev=rvice delivery by the franchisor is an important factor in the survival of a franchise.
5. Identification of critical successful factors for franchising
Several studies have been dedicated to the Identification of critical successful factors for franchising. Ngaochay (2011,p.147) cited the need for corporation and mutual understanding between the franchisor and the franchisee.
Salvia Officinalis a Literature eview
Introduction and History of Use
Salvia officinalis, or sage, is also called garden sage or common sage. It is a perennial, evergreen shrub (Clebsch & Barner, 2003). The leaves are grayish in color, and the flowers are purple or blue (Watters, 1901). Stems are woody, and the plant is native to the Mediterranean (Clebsch & Barner, 2003). However, it has now been naturalized in a number of places throughout the world. Its history is long, mostly detailing both culinary and medicinal uses. Modern times have also seen its popularity rise as an ornamental garden plant (Kintzios, 2000). There are many other species that also carry the common name "sage." Some are related and some are not. Sage was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus, and has been grown for centuries (Sutton, 2004). Its healing properties are impressive, and it is also used in the…
Akhondzadeh, S., Noroozian, M., Mohammadi, M., Ohadinia, S., Jamshidi, A.H., & Khani, M. (2003). Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Pharmacological Therapy, 28(1): 53 -- 9.
Clebsch, B. & Barner, C.D. (2003). The New Book of Salvias. NY: Timber Press.
Dos Santos-Neto, L.L, De, V., Toledo, M, Medeiros-Souza, P, & De Souza, G. (2006). The use of herbal medicine in Alzheimer's disease -- a systematic review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM 3(4): 441 -- 5.
Iuvone, T., De Filippis, D., Esposito, G., D'Amico, A., & Izzo, A. (2006). The spice sage and its active ingredient rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 317(3): 1143 -- 9.