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Each day I will work with the group of students using activities that is designed to improve writing fluency. By working in groups to evaluate one another's writing, students will learn to recognize mistakes on their own. By me giving them feedback, I can help them see difficult errors such as language usage and grammar errors that other students might not see. During these sessions data will be collected by way of note taking and observations. Student artifacts will also be collected. Although the focus here will be on the small group activities, the students will also be participating in class writing assignments as well.
Observation/field notes: I will take notes daily while completing fluency improvement activities.
Students' artifacts: I will collect samples of the students writing.
Daily reflection on lessons and responses from students.
Discussions with peers about daily activities and outcomes.
Pre-assessment of students'…
Size/Cooperative Learning & it's effects on participation
Action Research Question
Will cooperative learning have a significantly positive impact on smaller or larger classes?
The purpose of this study was to investigate if cooperative learning will have a significantly positive impact on smaller or larger classes. In order to have valid results, I used both my largest and smallest classes as my sampling. I also incorporated a variety of teaching styles with cooperative learning to promote student participation and achievement. Results will be based on quiz and test scores, as well as cooperative assignments.
As educators in middle school and high school classrooms, content specialty teachers often work with a variety of class sizes. Yet, with such an assortment of class sizes, there are also extraneous variables that each teacher must consider in order to foster individual achievement. Participation and achievement are variables of the individual students that weigh heavily on…
Alex Molnar. (2000). Vouchers: Class Size Reduction & Student Achievement. Phi Delta Kappa International Publishers.
Charles M. Achilles. (1999). Let's Put Kids First, Finally: Getting Class Size Right. Corwin Press.
Cooper, J.L., Robinson, P.R. And McKinney, M. (1994). Cooperative learning in the classroom. In D.F. Halpern & Associates Changing college classrooms: New teaching and learning strategies for an increasingly complex world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Enerson, Diane M., R. Neill Johnson, Susannah Milner, and Kathryn M. Plank. (1997). Teaching with Collaborative Activities and Small Groups. The Penn State Teacher II: Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn. University Park: CELT, 57-72.
In particular, they specify the need for students to be good listeners, team players, and to make compromises to work toward mutual goals (Scheuerell, 2010).
Group work must be a time for students to engage in productive and accountable collaboration around a task or problem that causes them to rely on one another's part or participation to ensure successful completion. Successful group work can be designed and presented to the students, following three principles. The first, and most obvious, characteristic of successful group work is to design tasks that cause students to talk with one another, to hear how their peers approach the content and then to be able to compare this with their own approach. Second, the task must provide a stimulus question or problem that causes students to cooperate as they formulate, share, and compare ideas with one another. Finally, all tasks should be broad enough to involve…
Berridge, E. (2009). Peer Interaction and Writing Development in a Social Studies High
School classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, CA.
Chou, M. (2011). The influence of learner strategies on oral presentations: A comparison between group and individual performance. English for Specific Purposes, 30(4),
The main concentration of this study was on the various approaches that were adopted in numerous educational institutes and universities and how their incorporation of cooperative learning strategies proved constructive. The demographics or spectrum of this study was very vast and carried out analyses and comparisons of universities from Australia, UK and the U.S.A. This particular study highlighted the CL strategies employed in the MIT Graduate School of Business and the potential paths that the future practitioners can take when they choose to focus on the academic functioning of similar CL tools. The results of this study showed that, in comparison to other educational techniques, the students' regular participation in a group activity results in higher understanding and comprehension of a subject or problem even when the subject at hand is not of their interest. Furthermore, student performance, student satisfaction with their education and social communication/interaction is higher after the…
Becker, W.E. (2004). "Quantitative research on teaching methods in tertiary education," in Becker, W.E. And M.L. Andrews (eds) the scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education, contributions of research universities, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Beckman, M. (1990). "Collaborative Learning: Preparation for the Workplace and Democracy," College Teaching, 38(4), 128-133.
Davis B.G. (1993). Collaborative Learning: Group Work and Study Teams
From the hard copy book Tools for Teaching by Barbara Gross Davis; Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco, 1993]
Enhancing Instruction Through Constructivism, Cooperative Learning and Cloud Computing
The author's major thesis in "Enhancing instruction through constructivism, cooperative learning, and cloud computing" which was written by David Denton, is that cloud computing technologies are beneficial to incorporating various aspects of constructivism and cooperative learning. The author's research question for this study was to determine what sort of effect cloud computing would have on these two different principles of learning. He presented research that indicated that his hypothesis would demonstrate a favorable correlation between the cloud computing and constructivism and cooperative learning. His principle means of persuading the reader of his thesis was through utilizing a research study in which cloud computing (specifically various components of Google Docs and other applications created by this manufacturer) proved to have a beneficial effect in these two areas of learning, as well as through citing other research studies that came to the same…
Denton, D.W. (2012). Enhancing instruction through constructivism, cooperative learning, and cloud computing. TechTrends. 56, 4: 34-41.
Among the last advantages of cooperative learning in the classroom is the increase in competition that every student experiences as s/he collaborates with other students/teammates in the process of accomplishing a particular task or activity. There is one caveat, however, in stating this observation about cooperative learning: increased competence is induced only in learning processes wherein information used by students are similar or identical with each other (uchs, 2004:310-1). An increase in the competitive nature of learning using the cooperative learning technique stimulates students' greater desire to perform better, and to outdo other students in accomplishing the task at hand.
While there are advantages to cooperative learning as a teaching and learning tool, there are also disadvantages that can become impediments or hindrances to the students' further learning and the teacher's role as a moderator or to serve as the students' guide to learning.
Among the enumerated disadvantages to cooperative…
Bandiera, M. (2006). "Active/cooperative learning in schools." Journal of Biological Education, Vol. 40, Issue 3.
Buchs, C. (2004). "Resource interdependence, student interactions, and performance in cooperative learning." Educational Psychology, Vol. 24, Issue 3.
Coke, P. (2005). "Practicing what we preach: an argument for cooperative learning opportunities for elementary and secondary educators." Education, Vol. 126, Issue 2.
Laatsch, L. (2005). "Cooperative learning effects on teamwork attitudes in clinical laboratory science students." Clinical Laboratory Science, Vol. 18, Issue 3.
390). It seems likely that components of IMPROVE assists the students in learning especially in a mathematical classroom. If this is true, then implementing some or all of the components may be a good choice for educators. Learning how to integrate those components along with the other aspects of cooperative learning will enhance all classrooms and especially "have positive effects on students' mathematical achievement'. Positive achievements is what should be sought on every level and those teaching methods that assist in accomplishing this goal should be integrated.
One recent article touted the fact that a variety of teaching methods should be sought out in order to allow all students to benefit from the variety and creativity it takes to implement such methods.
Are we concerned with developing creativity in relevant teachers, students, processes, and/or curricula; with pedagogic practice and/or theory; with institutional practice and/or public policy? The answer turns out…
Battersby, D., (2007) Improving subject teaching, British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 377-378
Becker, W.E., and M. Watts. 2001a. Teaching methods in U.S. undergraduate economics courses. Journal of Economic Education, Vol 32, pp. 269-80.
Becker, W.E., and M. Watts. 2001b. Teaching economics at the start of the 21st century: Still chalk-and-talk, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 91, No. 2, pp. 446-51
Chin, P., Bell, K.S., Munby, H., Hutchinson, N.L., (2004) Epistemological appropriation in one high school student's learning in cooperative education, American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 401-417
Making Cooperative Learning Work:
Response Journal: Do you agree or disagree with the common criticism that cooperative learning is unfair because it slows down the progress of the academically gifted?
Every student in today's day and age, barring those from extremely conservative school system, or perhaps those who have been home schooled, have probably engaged in some form of cooperative learning. Cooperative learning assignments, as discussed in the essay "Making cooperative learning work," from Kaleidoscope: Readings in Education, have many benefits to them that may seem to outweigh the potential pitfalls of the constructions of such learning environments. Ultimately, these assignments are thought to better prepare students to live and work in a real world and work environment where teamwork is valued, rather than pure individual achievement. But perhaps the best argument for cooperative learning in the classroom is not only that it is commensurate with today's workforce,…
It prepares kids for the type of thinking essential to living and working in a very social world. Through this involvement, a teacher can make a huge impact in a student's life, (ong 2002).
Spencer Kagan believes that the levels of student participation should be equal in order to maximize student potential. ith all students actively engaging at the same level, each student will increase their capability of understanding the subject material. He provides several techniques to incorporate students participating with each other. By using techniques such as worksheets encouraging communication between students, each individual student engages in a cooperative style of learning the material at hand, (Fortenburg 1998). Spencer Kagan spreads his own idea of cooperation learning through technique workshops throughout the country.
Like Harry ong, Kagan encourages cooperation not only between teachers and students, but most importantly, between student and student. By using group activities, Kagan's method forces…
Fortenberry, Gary. "Kagan Cooperative Learning Techniques." Woodrow Wilson
National Leadership Program for Teachers. Found at http://wwwWoodrow.org/teachers/bi/1998/presentations/fortenberry
Kagan, Spencer. Cooperative Learning. Kagan Publishing. 1993.
Wong, Harry. "Effective Practices Apply to All Teachers." Teachers.Net. October
Cooperative Learning or Competitive Interaction.
In my opinion cooperative learning is when a group of people decide to get a certain solution by solving the basic problems together. Competitive learning, I believe is when one depends on one's own abilities and intelligence to get to the desired solution to a problem. This brings out the confidence and the belief in a person that whatever his individual dreams are, can be achieved with determination and enough conviction to go through and pass various hurdles.
A personally have been in both competitive and cooperative circumstances. I have had times when even trying to achieve my own goals, I have had to ask for help from others more capable under those circumstances. And there have been times when I have done on my own that which others could not have achieved without "cooperation." I believe that the environment necessary for healthy learning is…
Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.
Learning Theory and Its Importance
A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://moodle2.cs.huji.ac.il/nu14/pluginfile.php/179670/mod_resource/content/1/Bandura_2001.pdf
Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1506936575?accountid=12085
Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203654515?accountid=12085
Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205061045?accountid=12085
Teacher could also have class come up with a name for the substance.
Please list five words that you think will describe the texture of the "Mystery Substance"
After the Activity
Please list five words that actually did describe the texture of the "Mystery Substance" (you can use some of the same words, but ONLY if they are accurate)
Science- Grade 2
Key Concepts: _Estimation
Students will learn the basics of scientific methods for science inquiry: i.e. state the problem, formulate the hypothesis, conduct the experiment and analyze and verbalize the results
Basic: Students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of new vocabulary words related to the lesson. This will provide a foundation for future scientific lessons using similar vocabulary words.
Higher: Students will be able to articulate their discoveries verbally and in writing.
Large, clear cup
Gunter, M.A., Estes, T.H., & Schwab, J. (2003). Instruction: A models approach (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Kagan, S. (1994) Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm
" Specifically, it seems to me that this statement is largely self-evident. After all, it is a basic truth that the more effort someone contributes toward a task, they will realize their goal more efficiently and provide greater productivity. Conversely, a student who does not work to the best of their ability will not be productive and will be unsuccessful. I still do not understand how the authors were able to quantify effort, or how exactly one would validate such a claim. While I can certainly understand a correlation between effort level and a classroom that motivates students to perform at their highest level, quantifying effort level seems as though it would be an impossible task.
However, the techniques provided in the chapter are helpful for motivating students in the English language learning classroom. The statement that asking "why" questions is a useful method for enhancing students' curiosity is understandable…
Lightbown, Patsy M., and Spada, Nina. How Languages are Learned. London: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Hill, Jane D., and Flynn, Kathleen M. Classroom Instruction that Works with English Languae Learners. Alexandria: ACSD, 2006.
The obvious implication is that the pairing of hands-on, inquiry-based active-learning teaching methods with cooperative learning holds tremendous potential for improved learning and social development of grade school students. Naturally, that would be an appropriate and likely productive area for future research in the area of effective teaching methodologies.
Cooperative learning has demonstrated tremendous beneficial potential as a modern educational method capable of increasing learning. Evidence also strongly suggests that cooperative learning is an equally valuable tool for increasing the educational value of academic programs for mildly disabled student populations, as well as for their integration into the mainstream student population. Beyond academic achievement, cooperative learning seems to benefit students emotionally and in terms of their development of communications and cooperation skills. Ultimately, its greatest value may be in conjunction with the more general shift toward active learning instead of the traditional focus on passive learning that has long…
Adams D. And Hamm M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting
Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Huber RA. And Moore CJ. "A Model for Extending Hands-on Science to Be Inquiry
Based." School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 101, No. 1 (2001): 32-35.
Cooperative Lesson Plan: Journal
The first lesson plan being discussed here is regarding the journal written by Douglass S.Massey on racial segregation and the creation of the underclass. Massey (1990) states that the racial segregation during the 1970s was a major reason that poverty levels were high in some areas of the city. This is basically explained by the fact that the rising incidence of segregation went on to reflect the economic and class different that arose in the society. It was noted that the poverty concentration of the minority were also linked with the socioeconomic character of the neighborhood. In other words, it was noted that segregation and poverty combined led to other acts like bad schooling, increased crime rate and poor family life in those neighborhoods.
One of the strategies that can be used to discuss this journal is positive interdependence and face-to-face promotive interaction. Because this is…
Logan, J. And Schneider, M. (1984). Racial segregation and racial change in American suburbs, 1970-1980. American Journal of Sociology, pp. 874 -- 888.
Massey, D. (1990). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. American Journal of Sociology, pp. 329 -- 357.
During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.
Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…
Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3
Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:
Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
" The advantages of such a curriculum is that the material stays with the student longer than mere memorization; the students experience prevails over the teachers (thus the student teaches themselves); and the information learned is customized to the needs of the individual learner. Disadvantages of such an approach is frustration on the part of the student for their being a lack of a "right and wrong answer (or instant gratification); there is immense responsibility on the individual student and therefore requires a certain level of maturity; and there is not defined start and finish to the learning process.
However, Bonoma cites numerous examples of case studies, in both administrative and health care situations, in various fields where the statistics show a higher level of learner comprehension of the subject. Bonoma then concludes his paper by laying out instruction on how to set up, implement, run and evaluate a marketing-based…
Learning to read and write are complementary skills. While in the younger years, writing depends on reading skills, by middle and high school, they are complementary skills: reading is necessary to do writing assignments, while writing about what has read increases comprehension of the reading materials. For this reason, separating reading and writing instruction from content areas is arbitrary and will eventually interfere with the students' progress in those content areas.
From the day children are born, parents are told by doctors, teachers and other experts to read to them, and to read to them every day. They are told to do this because hearing language that contains story lines, rich language and vivid imagery facilitates language development and develops a desire to read. From "The Poky Little Puppy" to Rudyard Kipling, children's literature exists that uses language in exciting and colorful ways. Good children's literature doesn't sound the same…
Erickson, Lawrence.Jan. 11, 1998. "Informational literacy in the middle grades." The Clearing House.
Foley, Regina M. Winter, 2001. "Academic Charateristics of incarcerated youth and correctional educational programs: a literature review." Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Gardill, M. Cathleen, and Jitendra, Asha K.April 15, 1999. "Advanced Story Map Instruction: Effects on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities." Journal of Special Education: Vol.33.
Nourie, Barbara; Livingston, Lenski, and Davis, Susan.July 17, 1998. "The (in)effectiveness of content area literacy instruction for secondary preservice teachers." The Clearing House: 71: 372-375.
The criteria for successful Alliances in Emerging Country Economies
Economic shifts and globalization caused by the development of emerging economies and the recent financial crisis have affected various industries. Firms must adapt appropriately to the new standard where time to market is shortened even with their shrinking capital bases and growing global competition. At a period when alliances and partnerships are fundamental, particular emerging economies are subject to become critical partners. This paper seeks to give a theoretical foundation for analyzing the prevalence, the nature, and the location of global strategic alliances of firms in emerging economies. The focus will be on the criteria for alliances in these economies compared to alliances in developed countries. Propositions will be posted with respect to Small Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs).
Emerging economies previously used for contract manufacturing are evolving at a rapid speed. In a number of industries propelled by local…
Arogyaswamy, B. (2008). The Asian miracle, myth, and mirage: The economic slowdown is here to stay. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
Chang, S.-J. (2013). Multinational firms in china: Entry strategies, competition, and firm performance. S.l.: Oxford University Press.
Corbo, V., Krueger, A.O., & Ossa, F.J. (2010). Export-oriented development strategies: The success of five newly industrializing countries. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.
Dalal-Clayton, D.B., Swiderska, K., Bass, S., & Aguilar, A. (2012). Stakeholder dialogues on sustainable development strategies: Lessons, opportunities and developing country case studies. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.
Otherwise, there is probably considerable flexibility with respect to the manner in which specific group collaboration scenarios can be used to promote cooperation.
In one configuration, the group can be required to devise a detailed methodological approach to solving a problem by surveying the respective members of the group and then establishing a problem-solving strategy based on specific elements contributed by all of the different social constructs of individual group members.
In other configurations, the group collaboration process can also be used to promote effective learning. pecifically, both learning groups and working groups can often increase the ability of individuals to learn by expanding the range of the intellectual tools and perspectives in their skill sets (Myers & pencer, 2004). Exposure and structured practical application of problem-solving strategies using approaches other than those upon which individuals usually rely can improve learning in both educational and vocational contexts (Myers & pencer,…
Aronson E., Wilson T., and Akert R. (2003). Social Psychology. New York: Longman.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2009). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Pinker S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York:
epeat and rephrase is a technique that benefits not only students with little or few English speaking ability, but also students with English as their primary language. epetition is a learning tool that allows students to memorize information and then translate it into a context that is understandable and applicable to their social and educational environment.
Lastly, music is a universal form of expression. Many researchers have emphasized music's ability to enhance student learning. Some believe the music of certain composers including Mozart stimulate centers of the brain known to promote greater learning. The reasons for this are not certain, but music is tool-integrated classrooms can use to boost self-esteem among students and encourage students to interact with each other and share with each other by sharing their own cultural heritage.
The English language is something often learned through rhymes and riddles, in traditional classrooms, as well as in integrated…
Colvin, G. (2002). "Designing classroom organization and structure." in, K.L. Lane, F.M.
Gresham, & T.E. O'Shaughnessy (Eds.), Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders, pp.159-174, Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Givner, G.C., Lane, K.L. & Pierson, M.R. (2003). Teacher expectations of student behavior: Which skills do elementary and secondary teachers deem necessary for success in the classroom? Education & Treatment of Children, 26(4):413.
Hall, K., Marchenkova, L., & Vitanova, G. (2004). Dialogue with Bakhtin on second and foreign language learning: new perspectives. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Roles can be rotated regularly to give all team members experience; and 5) Task or sequence interdependence
This occurs when one group member must first complete his/her task before the next task can be completed. For example, collecting water samples might be assigned to two group members, while research on how to collect samples is done by two other group members. (Foundation Coalition, 2009)
Cooperative learning according to the University of Wisconsin cooperative learning group is stated to be structures that "...generate ideas for open-ended questions or problems. The instructor poses an open-ended question and asks groups of students to generate multiple responses. Groups then summarize their responses and report in one of several ways: in writing, random calling, groups reporting to each other, etc. A faculty member might apply one of these structures at the beginning of a new topic by briefly describing the topic and then asking groups…
Berquist, WH and Phillips, SR (1975) Getting Students Involved in the Classroom: A Handbook for Faculty Development. Council for the Advancement of Small Colleges. (pp.114-117)
Chickering, a., and Gamson, Z. (1987) "Seven Principles for Good Practice," AAHE Bulletin, 39:3-7, ED 282-491, 6pp, MF-01; PC-01.
Diesel, Elizabeth, Allen, Michael, Schreiber, Madeline, and Borrego, Maura (2006) Improved Student Learning in Large Classes by Incorporating Active Learning with a New Design of Teaching Studies. 36th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference 18-21 Oct 2006. San Diego, CA.
Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K. (1991) Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom, Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.
Background and Overview.
The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…
Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.
Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.
Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.
The author did not limit his study to researchers who supported one side of an argument but included both, those for and against any idea, bringing more understanding to the reader.
The article is further strengthened by the fact that the author identifies the side where she belongs in an argument that had contradictory statements from other authors. For instance, when she discusses objectivism and constructivism she presents both ideas but states that she is for constructivism. She also brings more understanding of the methods of learning by stating how helpful they are and the limitations associated with them and how to make the methods more effectively including practical examples in every case. In fact, she concludes by suggesting that the integration of two or all of the methods is the best practice.
Discussion of the strengths
Inclusion and proper utilization of different resources was a very positive step the…
Yi, J. (2005). Effective ways to foster learning, Performance Improvement, 44(1).
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…
Explaining the way structure organization works will help shape them in their adult lives. Through allowing student participation in major decision making, many students feel empowered. They gain a position of power in their own lives when they help make decisions concerning academic matters, which are essentially the most important in their young lives.
Another benefit of open discussion of the learning process is the trust which the student places in the hands administrators and parents. Authority figures are not daunting and do not act secretly, rather they are trusted figures which help guide the students decisions. This opens up opportunities to better suit the true needs of the student in question. With more student honesty comes better attention to that students actual needs within their current academic environment.
It is essential that students are involved with at least some part of the learning process they go through on a…
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Topic:Technology to Enhance Learning: Distance & Online Applications
Application: Online Course Design Online education offers convenient and effective means by which nurses, nursing students, and other populations can gain valuable learning experiences. In this Application, you will design an online learning environment on a nursing-education topic of interest to you. If you would like to put your course online, you are invited to try Moodle, a free course management web application, but this is not a requirement of the assignment.To begin, review Chapter 6, EuroDesigning the Online Learning Environment," in Developing Online Learning Environments in Nursing Education (OEuro(TM)Neil, Fisher, &…
brain development opens up tremendous opportunities to improve education. In some aspects, the education community has embraced this research and used it to develop profoundly different approaches to learning. At the same time, the research conflicts with many systemic practices among school administrators and education policy-makers.
Five significant conclusions about the developing brain affect education. First, the capacity for lifelong learning begins during "critical periods" (temporary windows of opportunity for development). Once a critical period is over, it is too late to develop that part of the brain. Throughout, optimal learning occurs when the brain is appropriately challenged. Second, music and art help children develop brain functions related to logic/spatial abilities, illustrating that subject disciplines previously thought to be mutually exclusive are not. Third, emotions experienced while learning affect brain development for that particular type of knowledge. A more meaningful experience with which a student can identify results in more…
Begley, Sharon. "Your Child's Brain," Newsweek, Inc. 1996.
Hancock, LynNell. "Why Do Schools Flunk Biology?" Newsweek, Inc. 1996.
Learning Styles." Exceptional Children, Vol. 49, No. 6, April 1983
Self-Efficacy: A Definition
Social Cognitive Theory
Triangulation Data analysis
Problems for the researcher
Data Analysis and Related Literature review.
Comparison of data with other literature in the field.
Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience
arriers to use
Co-oping and Project design.
Teacher Integration Education.
Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.
Data Analysis and Comparison
Recommendation for Further Research
Data Review Report
Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.
andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:
Through cognitive experiences
Through motivational experiences
Their affective interactions with environment
Through selectional experiences and choices.
Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)
Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.campuscomputing.net/
Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.
Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
Students would be graded upon their own, individual contributions, but they could not let down their fellow group participants. They would have to complete their task, and as the task was within their framework of ability, this would not seem too daunting. Another suggested method of behavior management to ensure student compliance with assignments is to instate a points system, whereby a student can earn a maximum number of points for performing specific diverse tasks relating to a unit, which they can select themselves and tailor to their own interests and levels of ability (Childs, 2007).
To teach a reading unit to a third grade class making us of the popular E.B. White classic Charlotte's Web, a teacher might assign a vocabulary list to the students, from which they would be tested. However, students would only have to look up words they did not know. Students could be…
Childs, Peggy. (2007). "Holes." Help4Teachers.com. Retrieved 2 Jun 2007 at http://www.help4teachers.com/holes.htm
Differentiating instruction." (26 Apr 2004). Enhance Learning With Technology. 2004.
Retrieved 2 Jun 2007 at: http://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/differentiating.html
Fuller, Donna. (2007). "Charlotte's Web: Chapter 1." Alta Murrieta Elementary School.
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…
Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.
Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.
Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
(Singer, 2003, p. 36) Education should be a constructive process. Palinscar states that the teacher must assume an active and directive role by establishing the pace, content, and goals of the lesson. (Palincsar, 1998) Byra also described such a process of "task progression" through which content is broken down and sequenced into meaningful learning experiences. (Byra, 2004) the lesson learned from receiving fifty percent credit on a late assignment is not necessarily the lesson intended.
Each step in the academic process contributes to the learning process. An assignment is not merely research. It is not merely a grade. It is the sum total of the student's entire experience vis-a-vis that experience. (Bailey, Hughes & Moore, 2004, p. 32) a student who receives a grade of fifty percent because he or she completed an assignment late sees that arbitrary judgment of his or her work as a "lesson" too. Studies show…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=104841091' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Evolution of RTI and Its Purpose
The response to intervention (RTI) initiative is a multi-tiered program that is designed to facilitate the early identification of students with special educational and behavioral needs (What is RTI?, 2016). The purpose of the RTI initiative is two-fold, with the first being the provision of high-quality educational services and the second being the screening of all young learners in general education classrooms (What is RTI?, 2016). The evolution of the RTI initiative was based on early experiences with differentiated instruction as an alternative to conventional practices. In this regard, Fisher and Frey (2010) report that, "In many schools, instruction and time are constant -- they do not vary on a student-by-student basis. RTI was designed as a way to encourage teachers to vary instruction and time to create a constant level of learning" (2010, p. 15). The RTI program also includes the key assumption…
eflection on Logistics Module
Logistics is a critical consideration in strategy development; creating and marketing the greatest products, and stimulating a high demand with an effective strategy will provide a firm with little value unless there is the ability to satisfy the demand created. The satisfaction of that demand requires a suitable logistics strategy, with the firms' ability to manage the inflow of inputs required to create products and then manage the outward flow so that the customers will be able to access the finished goods. The study of logistics has highlighted the degree to which this is often overlooked as a key competition of strategy formulation, with the logistics processes taken for granted.
Logistics is an interdependent competent of general strategy creation, a little research on the topic shows that it has the potential to play an important supporting role in major strategies; the Toyota method of…
Fiestras-Janeiro, M.G; Garcia-Jurado, I; Meca, A; Mosquera, M.A. (2011), Cooperative game theory and inventory management, European Journal of Operational Research, 210(3), 459-466
Wheelen, Thomas L; Hunger, David L, (2008), Strategic Management and Business Policy: Concepts and Cases, Pearson
Technology Learning Environ
New technology has become an integral part of the learning environment, and not just an adjunct to it. This article demonstrates the limitations of using technology in the educational profession. First, technology depends on human input and guidance in order to be properly and relevantly developed. Second, technology must be fully integrated with the learning environment; it can't and shouldn't float on top of it. Rather, technology needs to be as mundane as books in order to be an effective media. Third, technology is not limited to the use of computers and their peripherals. Rather, technology gives rise to a multitude of varied media formats that can be used to stimulated enthusiastic learning and critical thinking.
The development of new technologies for the educational sector should ascribe to the ultimate philosophical goals of learning. Educational professionals and engineers should collaborate on the end-user needs, and the technologies…
Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation
Differentiated instruction and assessment recognizes that the individual needs, strengths and weaknesses of students must drive learning (Wormeli, 2007). Changing the outcomes of traditional lesson plans to account for differentiated learning is a fundamental part of ensuring student success. Each student's readiness, interest and learning profile is at the core of this approach. Students are diverse; therefore, instructional and assessment practices should be as well, to improve student outcomes in all content areas.
Many teachers design lessons that have a set of specific learning objectives and standardized assessments for students. However, today's learning models ask teachers to adopt multiple objectives and use different levels of assessment for more individualized learning (Dobbertin, 2012). Differentiation of process, then, refers to the way in which a student accesses material (i.e., one student may explore a learning center, while another may conduct an online search for information).…
Dobbertin, C. (2012). Just How I Need to Learn It. Educational Leadership, 69(5), 66-70
Forsten, Char, Grant, J., & Hollas, B. (2003). Differentiating Textbooks: Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension & Motivation. New Hampshire: Crystal Springs Books.
Heacox, Diane. (2002). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom: How to Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12. Minnesota: Free Spirit Publishing.
Painter, D.D. (2009). Providing Differentiated Learning Experiences Through Multigenre Projects. Intervention in School & Clinic, 44(5), 288-293.
Contract learning is a form of learning (and teaching) that involves the student or mentee far more than usual in the formulation of assignments and curriculum. The teacher and student work together to come up with a series of assignments that the student agrees to complete, thus tailoring the course to their specific needs while giving them more motivation to complete the assigned tasks. Like any (relatively) recent development in education, contract learning has its supporters and detractors, and is likely not useful in every situation. However, contract learning has been successfully deployed in the nursing field, because it allows nurses and nurses-in-training to organize their own learning regimens and tailor their experience to their own learning needs. By examining critical literature regarding the function and success of contract learning, especially as it relates to nursing, it will become clear that contract learning is a highly effective form of learning…
Hiller, T.B. & Hietapelto, A.B. (2001), "Contract grading: Encouraging commitment to the learning process through voice in the evaluation process," Journal of Management
Education, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 660.
Kafel, K.W. (2007), "A Nuts-and-Bolts Approach to Teaching Nursing," The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 191.
Schrader, V. & Davis, S. (2008), "Opinions of Adult Learners About Negotiating Syllabi Rules
In addition, the structure and presentation of required, basic course material are more goal-oriented and motivating to meet the needs of students.
While critics initially charged that Net-based learning was vastly inferior to traditional classroom settings, some now wonder if traditional education will survive as the transformational possibilities of Net-based learning, teaching and developing course content are fully realized. he answer is a resounding 'yes'. he reason is that net-based learning can be designed to include some elements of socialization, but not all. Physically attending college is a great experience. Colleges shape students' lives and teach values, ethics and cultures that are unique to schools. Often, one can tell which school a person has attended just by listening to the person's communication style. Going to an online school is different. Students can have a great learning experience in an online school, but students may not get a chance to fully…
Teachers will have to adapt to the new role of the student on the Net. For instance, the teacher role must shift from being a leader to being a coach as student autonomy in the learning process increases. The traditional methods of oral and written review of assigned textual material will no longer be the way to measure learning. Instead, students will measure and document their own learning progress. Within the knowledge building community, teachers will be one expert of many and must now function as a "team of experts" rather than as a sole source of expertise.
With regards to course development, technologies in Net-based learning such as multimedia, hypertext, and search engines for ubiquitous information access "are creating non-linear and multidimensional learning environments" to support student autonomy. In addition, the structure and presentation of required, basic course material are more goal-oriented and motivating to meet the needs of students.
While critics initially charged that Net-based learning was vastly inferior to traditional classroom settings, some now wonder if traditional education will survive as the transformational possibilities of Net-based learning, teaching and developing course content are fully realized. The answer is a resounding 'yes'. The reason is that net-based learning can be designed to include some elements of socialization, but not all. Physically attending college is a great experience. Colleges shape students' lives and teach values, ethics and cultures that are unique to schools. Often, one can tell which school a person has attended just by listening to the person's communication style. Going to an online school is different. Students can have a great learning experience in an online school, but students may not get a chance to fully immerse themselves the culture of the college they are attending. Colleges offer interactive environments and encourage students to participate in extra-curricular activities. Students join different clubs and student unions at the colleges, and participate in debates, games and sports. These activities help shape students' lives and characters. Online learning communities can offer only some of a college's social environment; it can never replicate the same degree of face-to-face interactions. According to Peters (1998), "Although distance education and Net-based learning will significantly impact university learning, the traditional university will not be lost because it provides experiences that are unavailable to the distance learning student. As a result, "the university of the future will be a mixed mode university and distance education will be a prominent if not the fundamental element in it."
Adult Learning: Andragogy
Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).
Adult Learning Principles
Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…
Chen, I. (2008). Constructivism. College of Education: University of Houston. Retrieved on June 6, 2011 from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichn/ebook/et-it/constr.htm
Corley M.A. (2008). Experiential learning theory. California Adult Literacy Professional
Development Project. CALPRO: California Department of Education. Retrieved on June 13, 2011 from http://www.calpro-online.org/documents/AdultLearningTheoriesFinal.pdf
Kolb, D.A. et al. (1999). Experiential learning theory. "Perspectives on Cognitive
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…
Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml
Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml
Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
Virtual Schools: Personalizing Learning Online," Julie Young asserts that distance education offers a "more personalized type of instruction," (2004 p.1). Virtual schools are becoming increasingly more sophisticated and in some instances prove to be superior to their traditional counterparts. Overcrowding of classrooms and shortages of teachers make distance learning opportunities particularly attractive for students of all ages and learning abilities. High schools in as many as twenty-five states offer virtual classroom environments for their students. Distance learning has enormous advantages over classroom alternatives. Students can select from a wider range of courses, according to Young. Many rural schools simply do not have the facilities or teachers for specialty courses or advanced placement (AP) courses. Therefore, using the Internet may be the only means by which students from rural areas can compete with other students from around the nation in the hopes of entering a university. At the university level, students…
Young, Julie (2004). Virtual schools: personalizing learning online." Media and Methods. Sept/Oct 2004, Vol 41, Issue 2, p.11 (2).
Constructivist Computerized Learning
Constructivist theories of knowledge development and learning have been around since the turn of the 20th century. But it may well be the advent of computerized and e-learning educational opportunities that offer this perspective its real chance to make a difference in the virtual world of learning and instruction. From Piaget to Papert, the core precepts of the constructivist understanding have been affirmed by what technology has to offer, even though researchers are just beginning to see what that means in practice. The current work reviews this transformation and what it might mean for the future of knowledge making and learning.
One of the most exciting aspects of the technological invasion of education is that the interactive and creative abilities of these tools allow students and teachers to design and develop their own relationship with knowledge. Computerized technologies of all sorts are simply fundamentally changing the game…
Ackermann, E. (n.d.). Piaget's Constructivism, Papert's Constructionism:What's the difference? Viewable at http://learning.media.mit.edu/content/publications/EA.Piaget%20_%20Papert.pdf .
Concept to Classroom (2004). Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. Thirteen Online. Viewable at http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub4.html .
Cox, J. And Cox, K. (2009). Constructivism and Integrating Technology in the Classroom. Boise State University. Viewable at http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/coxk/eportfolio/EdTech%20504%20Final%20Synthesis%20K&J.docx.pdf.
Doolittle, P. And Hicks, D. (n.d.). Constructivism as a Theoretical Foundation for the Use of Technology in Social Studies. Viewable at http://www.itma.vt.edu/modules/spring03/learnth/DoolittleHicks5.pdf .
WOKPLACE LEANING AND MANAGE'S PEFOMANCE IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTY
elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry
elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry
Manager's ole as a Leader
Why is Workplace Learning Important
The 'ideal' Workplace Learning Situation
Methods of Workplace Learning
Hospitality Industry Supports and Values Training and Learning
Management Skills in Workplace Learning
Manager's ole in the Hospitality Industry
Optimize Communication between Managers and Employees
Effective Managers in Hospitality Industry
elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry
Impact of Managers' Performance
Why Should Managers be Involved in Workplace Learning in Hospitality Industry?
Skills Learnt in Workplace Learning in Hospitality Industry 13
There is a direct relationship between workplace learning and manger's performance in a hospitality industry. This paper deciphers the roles and responsibilities of the manager in…
Lucas, R.E. (2003). Employment Relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries. New York: Routledge.
Lucas, R.E. (2003). Employment Relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries. New York: Routledge.
Theresa, B., Blackbourn, S., Hussey, D., & Linda, N. (2009). Developing the Local Workforce: Is Work-Based Learning the Solution? British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 18-28.
Ahu, T., & Ozbilgin, M.F. (2009). Understanding Diversity Managers' Role in Organizational Change: Towards a Conceptual Framework. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 45-52.
Some of the pedagogical methods in the Group Approach are: " team tasks and group problem solving; creative group activities (e.g. brainstorming); group case studies; group critical analyses; group role play; collective games; dialogues and debates; forum discussions and chat; joint projects and research; multipoint videoconferences. The appropriate technology and a moderator with appropriate skills and knowledge combined with enough time make the efforts of e-learning successful.
II. Teaching Methods
There must be more than a simple provision of learning materials made available in e-learning. The design of an education course or subject in distance education requires definitive goals and objectives be stated in advance. Considered as well in this learning initiative is the participant's previous knowledge and skills, as well as expectations and motivations of participants must be considered as well as the knowledge and skills which the participants seek to acquire. Further addressed should be the measures that…
Teaching Methods and Communication in E-education (2005) Carnet Website http://www.carnet.hr/referalni/obrazovni/en/m kod/syncwork' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
teacher perceives a student has strong impact on the latter's learning, interest and accomplishment (Hattie & Timperley, 2007 as qtd in Thomas et al., 2012). A social cognitive theory framework demonstrates this strong influence. Psychologist Albert Bandura identified social persuasions as one of the major sources of self-efficacy, or one's self-confidence to accomplish a task. Students with higher self-efficacy have been observed to achieve more than others academically and persistently. Positive perception or feedback from the teacher, therefore, raises a student's level of self-efficacy while a negative or critical perception discourages it. Teacher feedback of positive, ability-focused and effort-focused are associated with higher academic accomplishment in Mathematics. Studies also show that positive feedback from the teacher is evenly distributed between boys and girls in the area of Mathematics. But, in general, boys receive more negative feedback than girls (Burnett, 2002 as qtd in Thomas et al.).
Perceived Teacher Caring…
Kaufman, S.R. And Sandilos, L. (2015). 'Improving students' relationships with teachers to provide essential supports for learning,' American Psychological Association, pp. 1-
Rowe, A. (2011). 'The personal dimension in teaching: why students value feedback,"
Vol. 5 # 4, International Journal of Educational Management, pp. 119
Cognitive Approach to Teaching with Technology
Throughout the history of the study of education and educational philosophies, many different approaches have been employed. The educational theories developed by John Dewy, Lev Vygotsky, Jerome runer, and Jean Piaget have culminated to create an approach that is known today as the Cognitive Approach to learning. This particular approach proposes that learning takes place in what is referred to as "the zone of proximal development." It is within this zone that a teacher explores what the child needs assistance with and what he does not. Ideally, the teacher provides a challenge which is slightly harder than the preceding challenge, thus creating a "intellectual scaffolding" which the student will use to climb through their developmental phases.
Generally this approach employs real life problem solving, cooperative groups, and projects which require solutions instead of those which focus on instructional sequences. The cognitive approach feels as…
Conway, Judith. (1997) Educational Technology's Effect on Models of Instruction. Retrieved February 12, 2003. Website: http://copland.udel.edu/~jconway/EDST666.htm
Huitt, Bill. (1997) Educational Psychology Interactive: The Cognitive System. Retrieved February 12, 2003. Website: http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whitt/col/cogsys/cogsys.html
Wilson, Brent (1996) Cognitive Teaching Models. Retrieved February 12, 2003. Website: http://carbon.cudenver.edu/'bwilson/hndbkch.html
Cole, Peggy (1991) Cognitive Teaching Models. Retrieved February 12, 2003. Website: http://carbon.cudenver.edu/'bwilson/cogapp.html
The problem being researched or evaluated
The presenting problems are inattentive and non-cooperative behavior in two special education students during classroom instruction. The teacher needs to get the attention of the students and get them to sit in their seats in order to engage them in instruction. The teacher will need to determine how to reward the students for attending and engaging in the lessons being presented to them.
• The design label and overview of what the design might look like (example, if I use mixed-methods, is it sequential or concurrent? If a program evaluation, what kind?)
The research design will be action research in order to engage the practitioners in an evaluative endeavor that will encompass their behavioral and academic instruction with the students.
• ationale for the design based on the problem
The action research design will need to be designed to provide answers to…
Guskey, T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Sagor, R (2003). How to conduct collaborative action research. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Mondragon Cooperative Corporation's Basic Principles. Four main factors stand out: 1) the Mondragon Cooperative Corporation's rapidly advancing concept of Work Environment, in accordance with Finance, 2) reasons people change and the nemesis which causes the ever-growing sense of improvement (perceived as advancement) in Retail, 3) Benefits of Autonomy and elf-Reliance in Industry, and 4) the self-determination from which all knowledge is based.
By all means, knowledge poses as the central theme by which these other elements find nourishment; without knowledge, a vital sense of comprehensive awareness, that on-top-of-it characteristic paramount to Mondragon would not exist as it stands.
The move from a mechanized and industrialized culture to a digital society has fundamentally modified what we consider these key-phrases: occupation, employment, profession, career, assignment, and vocation. What's nice, of course, is that advancement and promotional encouragement is much more easily attainable, and will continue to increase as the world's…
Sturr, Chris. Steelworkers Form Collaboration with MONDRAGON, the World's Largest Worker-Owned Cooperative (27 October 2009). Dollars and sense real world economics. Web. 8 April 2011.
Finez, Javier. "Virtual Teams and Creativity in the Mondragon Cooperative Corporation" (2007). Higher Creativity for Virtual Teams: Developing Platforms for Co-Creation. IGI Global. Web. 2011.
Kasmir, Sharryn. The Myth of Mondragon: Cooperatives, Politics, and Working-Class Life in a Basque Town (1996). State University of New York. New York Press.
Rutagarama, E. & Martin, a. (2006). Partnerships for protected area conservation in Rwanda.
The Geographical Journal, 172(4), 291-293.
Summary of the content: The authors work at the International Gorilla Conservation Programme, African Wildlife Foundation and School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, respectively, who emphasize the importance of developing networks of partnerships in developing countries that include national, regional and local government agencies as well communities, NGOs and the private sector to promote sustainable biodiversity conservation initiatives. Such partnerships can avoid the tendency to adopt extreme positions with respect to sustainable uses of natural resources such as the "fortress conservation" approach that discourages resource used by human populations on the one hand and the reckless use of natural resources with little regard for future sustainability on the other.
Describe of its potential application to topic: Many of the most valuable biodiverse environments are situated in developing nations, making…
The traditional prototype was the employee driving to their place of employ and repeating the same tasks daily for thirty years. Today's workplace is dynamic and ever-changing and therefore requires the same of employees. Professional development, once an unknown and unconsidered concept, is now an integral part of any organization.
Yi has written an insightful piece. With each passing day the demands of the workplace increase. New types of jobs are created while other types of jobs disappear. For today's graduates a four-year degree is only the beginning of a person's educational experience. Training to update knowledge and skills will be continual throughout a career. For all of these reasons this makes Yi's article timely and relevant and adds to the growing body of research on the topic of adult learning. I expect this article will be both a basis for future research as well as a reference piece for…
Driscoll, M.(1994).Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Ertmer, P., & Newby, TJ. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly 6 (4): 50 -- 71.
Schwen, T.M., Kaiman, H.K., Hara, N., & Kisling, E.L. (1998). Potential knowledge management contributions to human performance technology research and practice. Educational Research and Development. 46(4), 73-89.
Negative feedbacks and criticisms cannot be avoided at this point, especially upon knowing that it is necessary for them to undergo training on how this program will be implemented, including its advantages for them as teachers.
Educators, especially those who have been practicing the profession for a long time have a greater tendency to abhor going through the learning process once more. As a principal, they should be encouraged to undergo the learning process again and become students, therefore, joining their trainings would promote confidence in learning new ideas once more.
As the teachers become students, the idea of the students becoming teachers at some point upon the implementation of the program would somehow alleviate their fear of integrating the use of technology in their learning process. ithin the 30 minutes math lad, they should be allowed to explore the program and share among their classmates what they have learned…
Franklin, J. (2002) the Importance of Instructional Leadership. The Necessary Principal.
Allen, R. (2002) Honing the Tools of Instruction: How Research Can Improve Teaching for the 21st Century.
Shu-Sheng, L. (2004) Considerations for developing constructivist Web-based learning. International Journal of Instructional Media.
Can the outcome(s) be generalized or transferred to groups outside of this study?
There is only one case. Therefore, generalizations cannot be drawn.
Implications for Practice:
Discuss ways in which you can incorporate findings from this study into your own professional practice.
I can develop a cooperative learning environment is in order to support thoughtful engagement in teaching. Using writing as an educational tool will help me complement content, interaction, cooperation and understanding. I can use good writing as good practice. I need to remember that snap decisions based on personalities lack analysis and evaluation and should not be made. In order to be a good educator I must teach the ability to teach someone that decisions should not be made without analysis and evaluation and continuing engagement of students is necessary for success.
Research Analysis -- Part 2
I. Behind the Scenes
Grade Level/Subject - 7th grade/Language Arts
The method the teacher uses encourages students to discover the answers for themselves rather than accept the right answer as a matter of rote learning. finally, the class is frequently divided into groups, both small and large. The groups vary to encourage maximum student interactions. Through cooperative learning the students share their suggestions and brainstorm. Finally, the teacher employs some self-directed learning strategies that allow students to ponder the equations on their own for brief periods of time. This helps the teacher make assessments during class while it also helps the students work independently.
D. The lesson addresses a variety of learning styles and intelligences.
Another major strength of this lesson is the way it addresses a variety of learning styles and intelligences. Algebra is traditionally taught using the abstract method; students must visualize the concept of alphabetical variables. The notation used in traditional algebraic equations might work for students…
Pan-Algebra: Pan Balance Equations." WGU Teacher's Resource Library. Retrieved July 10, 2007 at http://www.teachscape.com/ts2/lb
Successful Collaboration in Higher Ed
Achieving successful collaboration in a complex environment like that of higher education is not a simple endeavor. One could suggest all manner of tactics: Active listening, strengthening relationships through social activities (like playing golf together), and using interest-based negotiation techniques. Taken alone, each of these would be inadequate. In combination, these tactics can support movement toward successful collaboration, but certain intangibles will play an even more important part. These intangibles are discussed in the following section.
Advice to Successful Candidate:
Creating a Culture of Collaboration Between Academic and Student Affairs
The position for which you have been hired was designed specifically for the primary purpose of ensuring collaboration and cooperative learning experiences for students by creating cohesion between the learning opportunities of student affairs and academic affairs. As such, the position requires exemplary skills as a collaborator and as a negotiator among various departmental interests.…
____. (2010). ACPA / NASPA Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners.
____. (2006). Frameworks for assessing learning and development outcomes (FALDO). Washington, DC: Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS). Retrieved http://www.cas.edu/index.php/index.php/index.php
Anderson, K.A. (2010). Collaboration network formation and the demand for problem solvers with heterogeneous skills. [Seminar presentation]. University of Michigan, Department of Economics. Retrieved https://www.imtlucca.it / whats_new/job_market_seminars/_economics_and_institutional_changes_2010/0268_Publication_1_Anderson.pdf
Davies, A., Filder, D., and Gorbis, M. (2011). Future work skills 2020. Palo Alto, CA: Institute for the Future, University of Phoenix Research Institute. Retrieved http://www.iftf.org/uploads/media/SR1382A_UPRI_future_work_skills_sm.pdf
Distance learning is a new scheme or mode of transferring and acquiring learning or education through the use of modern technology between instructor and student who are separated by time and space. It can be between schools, between schools and colleges and universities, within school buildings and districts or between individuals (urke, 2002).
Is earliest prototype was the international correspondence in the 19th century. In the 1970s, it reshaped into open universities, later into the 1980's wave of technological products, such as the videotape, broadcast, satellite and cable. In the 1990s, rey (as qtd in urke) predicted that distance education programs would phenomenally grow that decade to an extent that most of the people the U.S. would be served by it at the minimal ratio of 1:1, mostly in the community colleges. Right enough by 1994, 80% of community colleges in the U.S. began offering some form of distance education…
Armstrong, L (2000). Distance Learning. Change: Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/m1254/6_32/67884312/article.jhtml
Bersch, C. (2001). Can You Go the Distance? Communications News: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/MOCMN/4_38/73533613/article.jhtml
Blotzer, M. Distance Learning. Occupational Hazards: Penton Media. http://www.findarticles.com/m4333/3_62/63269468.article.jhtml
Burke, T. (2002). (research paper) The Influence of Distance Learning on Education. http://www.hernco.com/THBURKE/THE%2INFLUENCE%200F%20DISTANCE%20LEARNING%20ON%20EDUCATION.html
Self-Monitoring in Education
Putting individuals with "intellectual disabilities" and "challenging behaviors" into regular classrooms is clearly a good idea - the educational literature supports this. But what happens once they are in the classroom? How does one then improve the social behavior and learning opportunities of these students? One idea, cooperative learning (also called peer tutoring), does show some promise; however, another idea based around the technique of self-monitoring/self-recording is specifically highlighted in the article under discussion. This method (which trains a student to identify, record and modify inappropriate behavior) was introduced to a certain thirteen-year-old girl named Pauline who had lived in a Romanian orphanage for ten years and had suffered "severe deprivation and abuse." The specific behaviors targeted in Pauline were stereotypic in quality (body-rocking and hand gazing) as well as consistent in quantity (they occurred consistently throughout the school day).
This "targeting" of behavior took the form…
Age Students With Learning Disabilities
The impact of family motivation on college age students with learning disabilities may be a deciding factor in regard to the student's success or failure. College age students with learning disabilities obviously have more immediate needs in cooperative learning settings when compared to typical students. Educators cannot just tell the student to just sit-down and read five chapters of Freud. These students have problems like dyslexia, AD/HD, or English as a second language to name a few and they may have had additional help in the past that may not be available at an older age. When there are obvious underlying issues, the family, teachers and the students themselves have to work more closely together in order to reach the desired positive outcomes. "Teaching effectiveness is inferred from the product that was created; it is the product that is the indicator of scholarship." (Cranton,…
Positive feedback is a major part of the Family Systems Theory process. Feedback in this case is a process in which the family, and possibly the teaching team involved, all work together to regulate the thinking process of the college age student with learning disabilities. This process also incorporates the notion that positive self-talk by the college age student with some form of learning disability is a necessary component of educational success. Self-talk helps them monitor their own output. In other words, the human body in this case accepts feedback from both internal and external sources to promote positive goals and objectives. A good example of a positive feedback system is how an automatic pilot system is used in most commercial airplanes. The automatic pilot process provides a computer that is actually flying the plane constant feedback about required information regarding the planes speed, altitude, direction and so on. As the plane drifts off course slightly, the computer system realigns the flight path. The college age student with a learning disability also drifts off occurs from time to time and positive feedback from family members, teachers and counselors and the student themselves all help to get the student back on course. This approach continually promotes active coping efforts and attributes positive meaning to the learning situation.
Name of Theory: FAMILY STRESS & COPING THEORY
Based on Family Stress Theory, there can be many indicators of a family's adaptation to stress induced events. "One is the adaptation of individual family members, including adolescents have noted that such factors as the perceived levels of individual and family stress serve as markers of adaptation." (McCubbin, 1993) In other words, the adaptation implies that there are a large number
Post Modernism: A Forced Impact
The objective of this work is to describe a philosophy or philosophies that the writer of this work ascribes to and to explain why specifically incorporating values and beliefs held by the writer. As well, discussed will be the personal philosophy of the writer as it relates to the purpose of education, the student's role and the role of the school in society, locally, nationally, and internationally as well as the role of students and parents as well as teachers and administrators. Also addressed in this study is where ideals are derived from and examined will be development of curriculum and instruction, classroom management issues, school management and administration issues as well as diversity of education and how education can best cope with change. Finally, this work will examine education as an integral part of lifelong learning and who should be in receipt of an…
Aronowitz, S., & Giroux, H. (1991). Postmodern education: Politics, culture and social criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Elkind, D. (1997). Schooling and family in the postmodern world. In A. Hargreaves (Ed.), Rethinking educational change with heart and mind (pp. 27-42). ASCD Yearbook.
Giroux, & McLaren, (1992). Media hegemony: Towards a critical pedagogy of Representation." In Schwoch, White and Reily: xv-xxxiv.
Giroux, H. (1996). Living dangerously: Multiculturalism and the politics of difference. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Training on the Social Interaction Skills of Four Students with Asperger Syndrome by Marjorie Bock
The study focuses on three interrelated questions. 1. Can children with Asperger Syndrome learn the SODA (Stop, Observe, Deliberate, and Act) strategy to guide information processing during non-guided social interactions? 2. If children with Asperger Syndrome can learn the SODA strategy, will they use it during non-guided social interactions? 3. If children with Asperger Syndrome use SODA in non-guided social interactions will its use help them with problem solving during these interactions?
One of the theoretical underpinnings of what is known about Asperger Syndrome is that children with Asperger Syndrome face difficulties in social interactions, largely due to a perceived inability to understand age-appropriate social customs. This failure is not believed to be due to a lack of desire to interact in socially appropriate ways, but due to an inability…
Bock, M. (2007). The impact of social-behavioral learning strategy training on the social interaction skills of four students with Asperger Syndrome, Focus on Autism and other Behavioral Disabilities, 22(2), 88-95.