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First appearing in China in late 2019, the novel Coronavirus COVID-19 has become the most significant global pandemic event in a century. As of October 28, 2020 the total number of cases worldwide was 44 million with 1.17 million deaths. The United States has had an extremely politicized response to the virus, and despite having less than five percent of the world’s population, the U.S. has had more than 20 percent of the world’s COVID-19 cases with 8.85 million cases and 227 thousand deaths. Currently, it seems unlikely that COVID-19 will be under control and people able to resume their normal lives until late 2021. In this essay, we discuss what Coronavirus is, what COVID-19 is, where it originated, the health impact of the disease, risk factors, efforts to contain the spread of the disease, the economic impact of the disease, and how COVID-19 may be impacting…
Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). “Herd Immunity. APIC.org. 3 September 2020. https://apic.org/monthly_alerts/herd-immunity/. Accessed 17 October 2020.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “People at Increased Risk.” CDC. 11 September 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/index.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fneed-extra-precautions%2Fpeople-at-increased-risk.html . Accessed 17 October 2020.
Cucinotta, D. and Vanelli, M. “WHO Declares COVID-19 a Pandemic.” Acta Biomed, 91(1):157-160. 19 March 2020. doi 10.23750/abm.v91i1.9397. https://www.mattioli1885journals.com/index.php/actabiomedica/article/view/9397 . Accessed 17 October 2020.
DeMarco, C. “COVID-19 and the Flu Vaccine: What You Need to Know.” MD Anderson Cancer Center. 20 August 2020. https://www.mdanderson.org/cancerwise/should-you-get-the-flu-vaccine-during-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.h00-159384312.html . Accessed 17 October 2020.
Kelly, C. “White House Listing Ending COVID-19 Pandemic as an Accomplishment Despite Cases Spiking to Record Levels.” CNN. 28 October 2020. https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/27/politics/white-house-ending-covid-19-pandemic-accomplishment-record-cases-spike/index.html . Accessed 28 October 2020.
Meyer, R. “The Coronavirus Surge that Will Define the Next Four Years.” The Atlantic. 22 October 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2020/10/coronavirus-election-day-surge/616822/ . Accessed 28 October 2020.
Rods, D. “When WWI, Pandemic, and Slump Ended, Americans Sprung into the Roaring Twenties.” History. 24 April 2020. https://www.history.com/news/pandemic-world-war-i-roaring-twenties . Accessed 17 October 2020.
Viglione, G. “How Many People Has the Coronavirus Killed?” Nature. 1 September 2020. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02497-w . Accessed 17 October 2020.
The novel coronavirus spreading the COVID 19 disease first appeared in Wuhan, China, in 2019 and quickly spread around the world. The infectious disease is a new form of a previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS) and has led to nationwide lockdowns from the East to the West. Coronavirus-19 Severe Acute Respitory Syndrome Coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)n is a Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Primarily lung problem. Autopsy results showed on 12 people that most common pre-existing conditions making them susceptible to dying were coronary heart disease and asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease making them more vulnerable to the disease/death (Hansen, 2020).
The etiology of COVID 19 is still unknown. It was initially suspected that animal to human transfer took place at a Wuhan wet market in China (BMJ, 2020). However, scientists have since come to suspect that coronavirus may have escaped from a biological weapons lab in Wuhan…
Baier, B. & Re,G. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.foxnews.com/politics/coronavirus-wuhan-lab-china-compete-us-sources
BMJ. (2020). COVID 19. Retrieved from https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-us/3000168/aetiology
Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., ... & Yu, T. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet, 395(10223), 507-513.
Hansen, M. (2020). 12 Autopsy Cases Reveal TRUTH About How Patients Die From Coronavirus. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6h8TIxeg1g
Herman, S. (2020). Trump Defends Use of Hydroxychloroquine. Retrieved from https://www.voanews.com/covid-19-pandemic/trump-defends-use-hydroxychloroquine
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2015). Improving diagnosis in health care. National Academies Press.
Biomedical Ethics: Should There be a Mask Mandate?
In ethics there are three major ethical systems that serve as the main approaches for viewing the morality of actions. These are virtue ethics, duty ethics or deontology, and utilitarianism (Cahn & Markie, 2011). Virtue ethics is associated with the philosophies of Aristotle and Confucius and has a universal characteristic to it—meaning that virtue is defined universally and exists as an objective fact. Duty ethics posits that one’s actions are moral insofar as they correspond to the duty that the person is meant to perform. Utilitarianism posits that one’s actions are moral insofar as they promote the greatest common good of society (Holmes, 2007). In today’s world of COVID panic, the most common approach to the issue of a mask mandate is the utilitarian approach. People generally believe that the mask promotes the greatest common good. For others, the mask is…
Cahn, S. & Markie, P. (2011). Ethics: History, Theory and Contemporary Issues, 5th Edition. UK: Oxford University Press.
Durden, T. (2020). Top Pathologist Claims COVID-19 Is “The Greatest Hoax Ever Perpetrated On An Unsuspecting Public.” Retrieved from https://www.zerohedge.com/medical/top-pathologist-claims-covid-19-greatest-hoax-ever-perpetrated-unsuspecting-public
Holmes, A. (2007). Ethics: Approaching moral decisions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Velasquez, M., Andre, C., Shanks, T. & Meyer, M. (2020). Justice and fairness. Retrieved from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/ethics-resources/ethical-decision-making/justice-and-fairness/
The CoV was responsible for the spread of respiratory illness during 2002-03. Phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple incongruent association linkages between the phylogenies of rhinolophid bats and their CoVs which indicated that hosts shifts have happened in the new evolutionary history of this group. These shifts might be because of either virus biological traits or host behavioral traits. These revelations "have insinuations for the emergence of SAS and also for the potential forthcoming outbreak of SAS- CoVs or associated viruses." (Cui; Han; Streicker; Li, et. al, 2007) SAS CoVs was identified as the etiological agent. These incidents and the identification of SAS-CoVs in animals linked with the wildlife trade in southern China have resulted in revival of interest in CoVs of different types. This revival resulted in the finding of 2 new human CoVs and presence of CoVs like SAS in horseshoe bats. (Cui; Han; Streicker; Li, et. al, 2007)
Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina. (2007) "Virology: Corona Viruses,
Colds and SARS" Retrieved 8 December, 2007 at http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/virol/coronaviruses.htm
Cavanagh, Dave. (2005, Dec) "Corona Viruses in Poultry and other birds" Avian Pathology, vol. 34, www.informaworld.comno. 6, pp: 439-448.
Compton, S.R; Barthold, S. W; Smith, A.L. (1993, Feb) "The cellular and molecular pathogenesis of coronaviruses: Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven" Lab Animal Science, vol. 43, no. 1, pp: 15-28.
Section 1 – Typical Case
Research the characteristics of a typical case associated with the pathogen you have chosen to analyze.
Coronaviruses represent a family of single-stranded, enveloped, positive-strand, Nidovirales RNA viruses. The family encompasses human pathogens and pathogens of several animal species, such as the latest-isolated SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) (Weiss & Navas-Martin, 2005). COVID-19 or coronavirus disease 2019 surfaced for the first time towards the end of 2019 and, ever since, has affected over two-hundred nations. In a matter of a mere five months, over 4,890,000 individuals worldwide were diagnosed with the illness. Over 100,000 individuals tested positive for the disease within a single day (Yang, Li, Sun, Zhao, & Tang, 2019).
The first patient to contract the disease was a Chinese man aged 31 years, hailing from Wuhan, hospitalized at the Parisian Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital while on holiday in Paris, France, with his wife.…
Asrani, P., Eapen, M., Chia, C., Haug, G., Weber, H., & Hassan, I. (2020). Diagnostic approaches in COVID-19: clinical updates. Taylor and Francis Online.
Clark, A., Jit, M., Warren-Gash, C., Guthrie, B., Wang, H., & Mercer, S. (2020). Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modeling study. The Lancet, E1003-E1017.
ECDPC. (2020, August). Clinical characteristics of COVID-19. Retrieved from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19/latest-evidence/clinical
Kumar, S., Nyodu, R., Maurya, V., & Saxena, S. (2020). Morphology, Genome Organization, Replication, and Pathogenesis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). National Center for Biotechnology Information, 23-31.
Ouassou, H., Kharchoufa, L., Bouhrim, M., Daoudi, N., Imtara, H., Bencheikh, N., . . . Bnouham, M. (2020). The Pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Evaluation and Prevention. Journal of Immunology Research.
Rosenthal, M. (2020). Why Are Bats the Perfect Coronavirus Reservoir? Infectious Disease Special Edition.
Weiss, S., & Navas-Martin, S. (2005). Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews.
WHO. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). World Health Organization.
This paper discusses the economic effect of COVID-19 on healthcare. It shows that COVID-19 had caused much damage in both the health and economic sectors. As of March 28, 2020, the disease had contributed to the loss of 10 million jobs, and this data was for just two weeks. The damage that had happened before the two weeks was not captured in this duration. During the second quarter, the United States economy will shrink by 10% to 25%. The economy's slow growth is already happening in the USA, with main economic activities being affected. Economy damage is occurring worldwide, with the health sector being the most hit. Financial markets that depend on other sectors, including health, are also losing huge profits daily. All these damages put together are expected to cause a loss of approximately $1 trillion in the world economy by the end of the year 2020. This…
Blumenthal, D., Fowler, E., Abrams, M., & Collins, S. (2020). Covid-19-Implications for the health care system. N Engl J Med, 383, 1483-1488. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsb2021088.
Brodeur, A., Gray, D., Islam, A., & Bhuiyan, S. (2020). A literature review of the economics of COVID-19. Discussion Paper Series. Institute of Labor Economics.
Chudik, A., Mohaddes, K., Pesaran, H., Raissi, M., Rebucci, A. (2020). Economic consequences of Covid-19: A counterfactual multi-country analysis. VOXEU. Retrieved from https://voxeu.org/article/economic-consequences-covid-19-multi-country-analysis
Cutler, D. (2020). How will COVID-19 Affect the health care economy? JAMA, 323(22), 2237-2238. DOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.7308
Donthu, N., & Gustafsson, A. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on business and research. Journal of Business Research, 117, 284-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.06.008
Gopalan, H., & Misra, A. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and challenges for socio-economic issues, healthcare, and National Health Programs in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr, 14(5), 757-759. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.041
Hashmi, P., Pidani, A., Momin, S., Khamiso, R., Aftab, N., & Noordin, S. (2020). Socio-economic impact of Covid-19 pandemic on outpatient healthcare services of musculoskeletal and sports medicine services in LMIC. Journal of Hospital and Healthcare Administration.
Kabir, M., Afzal, M., Khan, A., & Ahmed, H. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and economic cost; impact on forcibly displaced people. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 35. DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101661
Virological tests indicated that in all (64.6%) or 558 of 864 URI specimens were positive for viruses. Results from the tests showed that Adenovirus and rhinovirus were the most common viruses associated with URI. However, the results further revealed that coronavirus, RSV and adenovirus were the three most commonly associated virus types in URI complicating AOM. This result is in concurrence with previous studies by Henderson et al., Heikkinen et.al etc. Adenovirus was responsible for almost 23.6% of AOM, while RSV was implicated in 15.8% of the cases of Otitis media. The high rates of these two viruses and their association with AOM incidence offers new implications for treatment of URI in children. The Overall results from this study indicate that over 61% of the URI is OM complicating with 37% AOM and 24% OME respectively. OM complication was manifest in 50% of children with URI by adenovirus, coronovirus and…
1) Tasnee Chonmaitree, M.D., Krystal Revai & James J. Grady et.al (2008), 'Viral Upper respiratory tract infection and Otitis Media complication in Young Children' http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2744371/
Public Health Preparedness
The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…
Eisenstein, R., Finnegan, J. R., & Curran, J. W. (2014). Contributions of Academia to Public Health Preparedness Research. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 4), 5 -- 7.
Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M., & Schwartz, B. (2015). The Evidence Base of Primary Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Scoping Review and Stakeholder Consultation. BMC Public Health, 15, 432. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1750-1
Moore, S., Mawji, A., Shiell, A., & Noseworthy, T. (2007). Public Health Preparedness: A Systems-Level Approach. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(4), 282 -- 286. http://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.030783
Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl 1), S9 -- S11. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114496
From the onset, it would be prudent to point out that Asians, as Croucher, Nguyen, and Rahmani point out, happen to be America’s fastest growing population. However, the said population also happens to be one of the populations most susceptible to discrimination. This is a fact that has clearly revealed itself during the COVID-19 pandemic where there have been reports of increased discrimination against Asian Americans. This text will largely concern itself with anti-Asian American sentiment during the present pandemic. In so doing, it will not only track the nature of the said discrimination, but also chart its consequences. It will also highlight some of the solutions that have been suggested in an attempt to reign in the said discrimination. The present discussion also demonstrates that the pandemic appears to be just but an excuse to continue a well-established trend of discrimination against Asian Americans.
As Strochlic points out, from…
Balvaneda, Bryan, Lizabeth Roemer, Sarah Hayes-Skeleton, Amelia Yang, and Anna Ying. “Responding to Anti-Asian Racism During the COVID-19 Outbreak.” ADAA, https://adaa.org/learn-from-us/from-the-experts/blog-posts/consumer/responding-anti-asian-racism-during-covid-19 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Croucher, Stephen M., Thao Nguyen, and Diyako Rahmani. “Prejudice Toward Asian Americans in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Effects of Social Media Use in the United States.” Frontiers in Communication, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcomm.2020.00039/full . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Ho, Jennifer. “Anti-Asian racism and COVID-19.” University of Colorado, https://www.colorado.edu/asmagazine/2020/04/08/anti-asian-racism-and-covid-19 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Kandil, Caitlin and Yam Kimmy. “Asian Americans face dual challenges: Surging unemployment and racism.” NBC, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/asian-americans-face-dual-challenges-surging-unemployment-racism-n1235356 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Strochlic, Nina. “America’s long history of scapegoating its Asian citizens.” National Geographic, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/2020/09/asian-american-racism-covid/ . Accessed 1 December 2020.