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First appearing in China in late 2019, the novel Coronavirus COVID-19 has become the most significant global pandemic event in a century. As of October 28, 2020 the total number of cases worldwide was 44 million with 1.17 million deaths. The United States has had an extremely politicized response to the virus, and despite having less than five percent of the world’s population, the U.S. has had more than 20 percent of the world’s COVID-19 cases with 8.85 million cases and 227 thousand deaths. Currently, it seems unlikely that COVID-19 will be under control and people able to resume their normal lives until late 2021. In this essay, we discuss what Coronavirus is, what COVID-19 is, where it originated, the health impact of the disease, risk factors, efforts to contain the spread of the disease, the economic impact of the disease, and how COVID-19 may be impacting…
Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). “Herd Immunity. APIC.org. 3 September 2020. https://apic.org/monthly_alerts/herd-immunity/. Accessed 17 October 2020.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “People at Increased Risk.” CDC. 11 September 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/index.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fneed-extra-precautions%2Fpeople-at-increased-risk.html . Accessed 17 October 2020.
Cucinotta, D. and Vanelli, M. “WHO Declares COVID-19 a Pandemic.” Acta Biomed, 91(1):157-160. 19 March 2020. doi 10.23750/abm.v91i1.9397. https://www.mattioli1885journals.com/index.php/actabiomedica/article/view/9397 . Accessed 17 October 2020.
DeMarco, C. “COVID-19 and the Flu Vaccine: What You Need to Know.” MD Anderson Cancer Center. 20 August 2020. https://www.mdanderson.org/cancerwise/should-you-get-the-flu-vaccine-during-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.h00-159384312.html . Accessed 17 October 2020.
Kelly, C. “White House Listing Ending COVID-19 Pandemic as an Accomplishment Despite Cases Spiking to Record Levels.” CNN. 28 October 2020. https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/27/politics/white-house-ending-covid-19-pandemic-accomplishment-record-cases-spike/index.html . Accessed 28 October 2020.
Meyer, R. “The Coronavirus Surge that Will Define the Next Four Years.” The Atlantic. 22 October 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2020/10/coronavirus-election-day-surge/616822/ . Accessed 28 October 2020.
Rods, D. “When WWI, Pandemic, and Slump Ended, Americans Sprung into the Roaring Twenties.” History. 24 April 2020. https://www.history.com/news/pandemic-world-war-i-roaring-twenties . Accessed 17 October 2020.
Viglione, G. “How Many People Has the Coronavirus Killed?” Nature. 1 September 2020. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02497-w . Accessed 17 October 2020.
The novel coronavirus spreading the COVID 19 disease first appeared in Wuhan, China, in 2019 and quickly spread around the world. The infectious disease is a new form of a previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS) and has led to nationwide lockdowns from the East to the West. Coronavirus-19 Severe Acute Respitory Syndrome Coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)n is a Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Primarily lung problem. Autopsy results showed on 12 people that most common pre-existing conditions making them susceptible to dying were coronary heart disease and asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease making them more vulnerable to the disease/death (Hansen, 2020).
The etiology of COVID 19 is still unknown. It was initially suspected that animal to human transfer took place at a Wuhan wet market in China (BMJ, 2020). However, scientists have since come to suspect that coronavirus may have escaped from a biological weapons lab in Wuhan…
Baier, B. & Re,G. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.foxnews.com/politics/coronavirus-wuhan-lab-china-compete-us-sources
BMJ. (2020). COVID 19. Retrieved from https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-us/3000168/aetiology
Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., ... & Yu, T. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet, 395(10223), 507-513.
Hansen, M. (2020). 12 Autopsy Cases Reveal TRUTH About How Patients Die From Coronavirus. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6h8TIxeg1g
Herman, S. (2020). Trump Defends Use of Hydroxychloroquine. Retrieved from https://www.voanews.com/covid-19-pandemic/trump-defends-use-hydroxychloroquine
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2015). Improving diagnosis in health care. National Academies Press.
Biomedical Ethics: Should There be a Mask Mandate?
In ethics there are three major ethical systems that serve as the main approaches for viewing the morality of actions. These are virtue ethics, duty ethics or deontology, and utilitarianism (Cahn & Markie, 2011). Virtue ethics is associated with the philosophies of Aristotle and Confucius and has a universal characteristic to it—meaning that virtue is defined universally and exists as an objective fact. Duty ethics posits that one’s actions are moral insofar as they correspond to the duty that the person is meant to perform. Utilitarianism posits that one’s actions are moral insofar as they promote the greatest common good of society (Holmes, 2007). In today’s world of COVID panic, the most common approach to the issue of a mask mandate is the utilitarian approach. People generally believe that the mask promotes the greatest common good. For others, the mask is…
Cahn, S. & Markie, P. (2011). Ethics: History, Theory and Contemporary Issues, 5th Edition. UK: Oxford University Press.
Durden, T. (2020). Top Pathologist Claims COVID-19 Is “The Greatest Hoax Ever Perpetrated On An Unsuspecting Public.” Retrieved from https://www.zerohedge.com/medical/top-pathologist-claims-covid-19-greatest-hoax-ever-perpetrated-unsuspecting-public
Holmes, A. (2007). Ethics: Approaching moral decisions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Velasquez, M., Andre, C., Shanks, T. & Meyer, M. (2020). Justice and fairness. Retrieved from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/ethics-resources/ethical-decision-making/justice-and-fairness/
The CoV was responsible for the spread of respiratory illness during 2002-03. Phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple incongruent association linkages between the phylogenies of rhinolophid bats and their CoVs which indicated that hosts shifts have happened in the new evolutionary history of this group. These shifts might be because of either virus biological traits or host behavioral traits. These revelations "have insinuations for the emergence of SAS and also for the potential forthcoming outbreak of SAS- CoVs or associated viruses." (Cui; Han; Streicker; Li, et. al, 2007) SAS CoVs was identified as the etiological agent. These incidents and the identification of SAS-CoVs in animals linked with the wildlife trade in southern China have resulted in revival of interest in CoVs of different types. This revival resulted in the finding of 2 new human CoVs and presence of CoVs like SAS in horseshoe bats. (Cui; Han; Streicker; Li, et. al, 2007)
Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina. (2007) "Virology: Corona Viruses,
Colds and SARS" Retrieved 8 December, 2007 at http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/virol/coronaviruses.htm
Cavanagh, Dave. (2005, Dec) "Corona Viruses in Poultry and other birds" Avian Pathology, vol. 34, www.informaworld.comno. 6, pp: 439-448.
Compton, S.R; Barthold, S. W; Smith, A.L. (1993, Feb) "The cellular and molecular pathogenesis of coronaviruses: Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven" Lab Animal Science, vol. 43, no. 1, pp: 15-28.
Mock Research Proposal
Coronavirus had redefined the way people now live, work, and socialize. For this reason, people had to strictly follow safety measures so that pandemic ends soon, which has forced them to stay at home and rethink how they should spend their lives with the sources of earning they used to have. The purpose of this report is to propose a method for reusing the office buildings that have been standing empty since the advent of the current pandemic due to increased working from home.
Recently, the pandemic has changed the way our lives operate. A survey of the precious flu spreads in the world conducted in 2016 suggested that virus spreads occur mostly in offices among well-developed strong adults (Richtel, 2020). It has already been predicted that when the pandemic is over, the workers would be allowed to work from home, making the office buildings only the…
Berg, N. (2020, July 17). Coronavirus had emptied out office buildings. Could they help solve the housing crisis? Fast Company. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/90528263/coronavirus-has-emptied-out-office-buildings-could-they-help-solve-americas-housing-crisis
Bergold, J. & Thomas, S. (2012). Participatory research methods: A methodological approach in motion. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 13(1). http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1201302
Day, N. (2020, July 29). Unused buildings will make good housing in the world of Covid-19. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/unused-buildings-will-make-good-housing-in-the-world-of-covid-19-142897
Fairfax County. (2017, December 6). Converting empty office buildings into new uses. Retrieved from https://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/news2/converting-empty-office-buildings-into-new-uses/
Harrison, H., Birjs, M., Franklin, R. & Mills, J. (2017). Case study research: Foundations and methodological orientations. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 18(1). http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701195 .
Humberd, B. Salon, D. & Latham, S.F. (2020, July 24). The office is dead! Long live the office in a post-pandemic world. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/the-office-is-dead-long-live-the-office-in-a-post-pandemic-world-138499
Jamshed, S. (2014). Qualitative research method- interviewing and observation. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy, 5(4), 87-88. DOI: 10.4103/0976-0105.141942
Kaur-Gill, S. & Dutta, M.J. (2017). Digital ethnography. In C.S. Davis & R.F. Potter. The international encyclopedia of communication research methods (pp. 1-10). New Jersey: Wiley.
Connection Between Class Learning and an Article
The development of a COVID-19 vaccine is considered critical in curbing the spread of this virus and dealing with the global pandemic. Companies like Moderna have embarked on efforts to develop an effective coronavirus vaccine. The development process involves conducting extensive research through clinical trials. These clinical trials involves using different concepts of scientific research to ensure the effectiveness of the vaccines. Grady (2020) published an article on the effectiveness of Moderna’s coronavirus vaccine based on early data.
One of the connections between the article and lessons learnt in the classroom is the use of two groups of study participants i.e. an experimental group and a control group. In this regard, the study employed a between-participants design for the experimentation to determine the difference between conditions among people who contracted the virus. The experimental group of five people were vaccinated while the control…
Grady, D. (2020, November 16). Early Data Shows Moderna’s Coronavirus Vaccine Is 94.5% Effective. The New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2021, from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/16/health/Covid-moderna-vaccine.html
Section 1 – Typical Case
Research the characteristics of a typical case associated with the pathogen you have chosen to analyze.
Coronaviruses represent a family of single-stranded, enveloped, positive-strand, Nidovirales RNA viruses. The family encompasses human pathogens and pathogens of several animal species, such as the latest-isolated SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) (Weiss & Navas-Martin, 2005). COVID-19 or coronavirus disease 2019 surfaced for the first time towards the end of 2019 and, ever since, has affected over two-hundred nations. In a matter of a mere five months, over 4,890,000 individuals worldwide were diagnosed with the illness. Over 100,000 individuals tested positive for the disease within a single day (Yang, Li, Sun, Zhao, & Tang, 2019).
The first patient to contract the disease was a Chinese man aged 31 years, hailing from Wuhan, hospitalized at the Parisian Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital while on holiday in Paris, France, with his wife.…
Asrani, P., Eapen, M., Chia, C., Haug, G., Weber, H., & Hassan, I. (2020). Diagnostic approaches in COVID-19: clinical updates. Taylor and Francis Online.
Clark, A., Jit, M., Warren-Gash, C., Guthrie, B., Wang, H., & Mercer, S. (2020). Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modeling study. The Lancet, E1003-E1017.
ECDPC. (2020, August). Clinical characteristics of COVID-19. Retrieved from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19/latest-evidence/clinical
Kumar, S., Nyodu, R., Maurya, V., & Saxena, S. (2020). Morphology, Genome Organization, Replication, and Pathogenesis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). National Center for Biotechnology Information, 23-31.
Ouassou, H., Kharchoufa, L., Bouhrim, M., Daoudi, N., Imtara, H., Bencheikh, N., . . . Bnouham, M. (2020). The Pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Evaluation and Prevention. Journal of Immunology Research.
Rosenthal, M. (2020). Why Are Bats the Perfect Coronavirus Reservoir? Infectious Disease Special Edition.
Weiss, S., & Navas-Martin, S. (2005). Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews.
WHO. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). World Health Organization.
This paper discusses the economic effect of COVID-19 on healthcare. It shows that COVID-19 had caused much damage in both the health and economic sectors. As of March 28, 2020, the disease had contributed to the loss of 10 million jobs, and this data was for just two weeks. The damage that had happened before the two weeks was not captured in this duration. During the second quarter, the United States economy will shrink by 10% to 25%. The economy's slow growth is already happening in the USA, with main economic activities being affected. Economy damage is occurring worldwide, with the health sector being the most hit. Financial markets that depend on other sectors, including health, are also losing huge profits daily. All these damages put together are expected to cause a loss of approximately $1 trillion in the world economy by the end of the year 2020. This…
Blumenthal, D., Fowler, E., Abrams, M., & Collins, S. (2020). Covid-19-Implications for the health care system. N Engl J Med, 383, 1483-1488. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsb2021088.
Brodeur, A., Gray, D., Islam, A., & Bhuiyan, S. (2020). A literature review of the economics of COVID-19. Discussion Paper Series. Institute of Labor Economics.
Chudik, A., Mohaddes, K., Pesaran, H., Raissi, M., Rebucci, A. (2020). Economic consequences of Covid-19: A counterfactual multi-country analysis. VOXEU. Retrieved from https://voxeu.org/article/economic-consequences-covid-19-multi-country-analysis
Cutler, D. (2020). How will COVID-19 Affect the health care economy? JAMA, 323(22), 2237-2238. DOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.7308
Donthu, N., & Gustafsson, A. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on business and research. Journal of Business Research, 117, 284-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.06.008
Gopalan, H., & Misra, A. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and challenges for socio-economic issues, healthcare, and National Health Programs in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr, 14(5), 757-759. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.041
Hashmi, P., Pidani, A., Momin, S., Khamiso, R., Aftab, N., & Noordin, S. (2020). Socio-economic impact of Covid-19 pandemic on outpatient healthcare services of musculoskeletal and sports medicine services in LMIC. Journal of Hospital and Healthcare Administration.
Kabir, M., Afzal, M., Khan, A., & Ahmed, H. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and economic cost; impact on forcibly displaced people. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 35. DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101661
Technology and the Development of Modern Medicine
The 20th century saw a seismic change in the perception of the human body, and the relationship of patients to physicians and other aspects of modern medicine. With the recent coronavirus pandemic, of course, the focus upon technology and medical developments has become a matter of global importance. Vaccines and innovative drugs were not solely innovations of the past century, but they extent to which they were proven safe and effective is relatively new. The relationship between providers and patients has likewise changed, as well as expectations about treatment.
Vaccination and Immunization Technology
Infectious disease was once an accepted part of modern life. However, the first smallpox vaccines were developed as early as the late 18th century. Safety of vaccines could not always be guaranteed, however. Inactivation of bacteria via heat or chemical treatment to confer immunity status was developed by the very…
Earl, Leslie. “How Sulfa Drugs Work.” National Institute of Health. March 12, 2012. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/how-sulfa- drugs-work
Gaynes, Robert. “The Discovery of Penicillin—New Insights After More Than 75 Years of Clinical Use.” Emerging Infectious Diseases vol. 23, 5 (2017): 849–853. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5403050/
Palca, Joe. “The Race For A Polio Vaccine Differed From The Quest To Prevent Coronavirus.” NPR. May 22, 2020. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.npr.org/sections/health - shots/2020/05/22/860789014/the-race-for-a-polio-vaccine-differed-from-the-quest-to- prevent-coronavirus
Plotkin, Stanley. “History of vaccination.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 111, 34 (2014): 12283-7. December 20, 2020. Web. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151719/pdf/pnas.201400472.pdf
Quianzon, Celeste C, and Issam Cheikh. “History of Insulin.” Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, vol. 2, 2 10.3402/jchimp.v2i2.18701. July 16, 2012. Web. December 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714061/
Are Vaccines Safe or is There a Link to Autism
The rapidity with which the novel coronavirus believed to cause COVID-19 overtook the world caused alarm among leaders and media leading to an urgent demand for an emergency vaccine. Because vaccines typically take years if not decades to develop, manufacture and test, the rollout of a COVID vaccine seemed dubious at best. But as Arnold (2020) points out, scientists had no choice—they had to implement atypical methods to speed up the process: it would be the first time in history that a new disease was identified and a vaccine for it was developed at the same time that the initial outbreak persisted. Scientists quickly began rolling out a variety of vaccines that worked differently in the body—but not without cutting corners here and there (Arnold, 2020). The fact of the matter is that creating and testing vaccines safely takes…
American Academy of Pediatrics (2020). Immunizations. Retrieved from https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/immunizations/pages/immunizations-home.aspx
Arnold, C. (2020). Race for a vaccine. New Scientist, 245(3274), 44-47. Doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(20)30600-x
Barath, H. (2020). Vaccine transport. Scientific American, 322(6), 13.
Bowman, D. H. (2004). Federal analysis concludes vaccines, autism not linked. Education Week, 23(38), 11.
CDC. (2017). CDC Study Finds Flu Vaccine Saves Children’s Lives. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2017/p0403-flu-vaccine.html
Mnookin, S. (2011). Panic virus. The true story behind the vaccine autism controversy.
Rahul, N. W. (2020). Vaccine: A solution or a challenge? A public opinion about vaccine in 2020. Journal of Advanced Research, 11, 10-16.
Part One: Research Proposal
Problem and Purpose Statement
Despite an abundance of natural resources, a modern infrastructure, and increasingly aggressive efforts by the national government and support from multiple nongovernmental organizations since apartheid ended in 1994, more than half (about 55% or 30.3 million people) of the South Africa population still lives in poverty today and another 13.8 million South Africans do not have enough to eat each day (Poverty & equity brief 2021). Moreover, current economic development indicators show that the per capita annualized consumption growth rate of the bottom 40 percent of the South African population actually suffered a 1.34% decline during the 4-year period from 2010 through 2014 (the latest statistic available from The World Bank). In sum, the situation for the poorest people in South Africa is worsening and there are few new opportunities available on the short-term horizon that can help them achieve their full…
“Global Cases.” (2021). Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. [online] available: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html .
Kavya, B and Santhakumar, S (January 2020). “Economic Development, Financial Development, and Income Inequality Nexus.” Borsa Istanbul Review [in press].
Neuman, W (2008). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. New York: Pearson.
“South Africa economy” (2021) CIA World Factbook. [online] available: http://teacherlink.ed. usu.edu/tlresources/reference/factbook/geos/sf.html.
“South Africa Poverty and equity brief.” (2021). The World Bank. [online] available: https://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/poverty/33EF03BB-9722-4AE2-ABC7-AA2972D68AFE/Global_POVEQ_ZAF.pdf .
COVID-19 has created large disruptions to the travel, tourism, and retail industries. It has also impacted office retail as employees are now working from home to avoid virus contagion. Although a vaccine is currently in the process of distribution, many elements of cleaning and disinfection have occurred. These methods are designed to not only mitigate the impacts of the current virus, but other future occurrences. One such method is electrostatic disinfecting.
Electrostatic Disinfection is the process of cleaning surfaces with a specialized solution that effectively traps and neutralizes surfaces. The solution combines with the air and is atomized by electrodes inside the distribution sprayer. Due to the positive charge, the spray is much more effective at reaching difficult areas while also being better able to cling to surfaces. The electrically charged spray is much more effective than conventional methods as it can much more effectively coat and clean surfaces. The…
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infection control guidance for healthcare professionals about coronavirus (COVID-19). Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html . Accessed December 20, 2020.
Virological tests indicated that in all (64.6%) or 558 of 864 URI specimens were positive for viruses. Results from the tests showed that Adenovirus and rhinovirus were the most common viruses associated with URI. However, the results further revealed that coronavirus, RSV and adenovirus were the three most commonly associated virus types in URI complicating AOM. This result is in concurrence with previous studies by Henderson et al., Heikkinen et.al etc. Adenovirus was responsible for almost 23.6% of AOM, while RSV was implicated in 15.8% of the cases of Otitis media. The high rates of these two viruses and their association with AOM incidence offers new implications for treatment of URI in children. The Overall results from this study indicate that over 61% of the URI is OM complicating with 37% AOM and 24% OME respectively. OM complication was manifest in 50% of children with URI by adenovirus, coronovirus and…
1) Tasnee Chonmaitree, M.D., Krystal Revai & James J. Grady et.al (2008), 'Viral Upper respiratory tract infection and Otitis Media complication in Young Children' http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2744371/
Public Health Preparedness
The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…
Eisenstein, R., Finnegan, J. R., & Curran, J. W. (2014). Contributions of Academia to Public Health Preparedness Research. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 4), 5 -- 7.
Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M., & Schwartz, B. (2015). The Evidence Base of Primary Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Scoping Review and Stakeholder Consultation. BMC Public Health, 15, 432. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1750-1
Moore, S., Mawji, A., Shiell, A., & Noseworthy, T. (2007). Public Health Preparedness: A Systems-Level Approach. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(4), 282 -- 286. http://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.030783
Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl 1), S9 -- S11. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114496
From the onset, it would be prudent to point out that Asians, as Croucher, Nguyen, and Rahmani point out, happen to be America’s fastest growing population. However, the said population also happens to be one of the populations most susceptible to discrimination. This is a fact that has clearly revealed itself during the COVID-19 pandemic where there have been reports of increased discrimination against Asian Americans. This text will largely concern itself with anti-Asian American sentiment during the present pandemic. In so doing, it will not only track the nature of the said discrimination, but also chart its consequences. It will also highlight some of the solutions that have been suggested in an attempt to reign in the said discrimination. The present discussion also demonstrates that the pandemic appears to be just but an excuse to continue a well-established trend of discrimination against Asian Americans.
As Strochlic points out, from…
Balvaneda, Bryan, Lizabeth Roemer, Sarah Hayes-Skeleton, Amelia Yang, and Anna Ying. “Responding to Anti-Asian Racism During the COVID-19 Outbreak.” ADAA, https://adaa.org/learn-from-us/from-the-experts/blog-posts/consumer/responding-anti-asian-racism-during-covid-19 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Croucher, Stephen M., Thao Nguyen, and Diyako Rahmani. “Prejudice Toward Asian Americans in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Effects of Social Media Use in the United States.” Frontiers in Communication, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcomm.2020.00039/full . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Ho, Jennifer. “Anti-Asian racism and COVID-19.” University of Colorado, https://www.colorado.edu/asmagazine/2020/04/08/anti-asian-racism-and-covid-19 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Kandil, Caitlin and Yam Kimmy. “Asian Americans face dual challenges: Surging unemployment and racism.” NBC, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/asian-americans-face-dual-challenges-surging-unemployment-racism-n1235356 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Strochlic, Nina. “America’s long history of scapegoating its Asian citizens.” National Geographic, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/2020/09/asian-american-racism-covid/ . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Film Analysis: COVID’s Hidden Toll
Although it is difficult to find a community that has not suffered in some manner due to the coronavirus epidemic, certain demographics have suffered more than others. Low-wage immigrant workers in necessary jobs such as agriculture and food preparation are some of the examples of the hardest-hit communities, as depicted in the film COVID’s Hidden Toll. While the mechanical analogy of social governance conceptualizes society as working harmoniously together as a unified, mechanized structure, the film demonstrates that such workers frequently fall through the cracks (Netting, Kettner, & McMurtry, 2016). They work on crews where managers are opaque about whether other employees have COVID symptoms. They are desperate for work, so work under conditions where they are all sharing the same bathrooms and close quarters.
In other words, the caring that one might hope an employer might show for an employee is not manifest. Employers…
COVID’s hidden toll. (2020). Film.
Netting, F. E., Kettner, P., Thomas, M. L., & McMurtry, S. (2016). Social work macro practice. Pearson.
Public Health Policy Analysis: AB , as amended -- Homeless Shelters: Safety egulations.Today, there are more than 5.5 million homeless people in the United States (The state of homelessness in America, 2021), and tens of thousands of these homeless people are living on the streets in California despite increasingly aggressive attempts by the state government to provide effective solutions to this chronic problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a current health problem affecting the State of California that is being addressed by a proposed law, AB 362 and how this new law would address the problem of homelessness in the state today and in the future. In addition, an assessment concerning the severity of the health problems that are associated with Californias homeless problem is followed by an overview of AB 363, as amended (hereinafter alternatively the bill) and the respective stakeholders that will…
ReferencesAB-362 Homeless shelters: safety regulations, 2021-2022.Alarcon, J. & Tipu, V. (2021, January). Adapting backpack medicine in COVID-19 response for people experiencing homelessness in Southern California. American Journal of Public Health, 111(1), 37-44.California homeless shelters. (2021). Cause IQ. Retrieved from https://www.causeiq. com/directory/homeless-shelters-list/california-state/#:~:text=Locations-,California%20homeless%20shelters,have%20assets%20of%20%242%20billion.Elias, T. D. (2021, May 6). California focus: Is permanent housing a viable homeless solution? Sonoma Index-Tribune. Retrieved from https://www.sonomanews.com/article/opinion/ california-focus-is-permanent-housing-a-viable-homeless-solution/.Homelessness and health care. (2021). California Health Care Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.chcf.org/topic/homelessness-health-care/.Pitofsky, M. (2021, May 6). Caitlyn Jenner tells Hannity friends are fleeing California because of homeless people. The Hill. Retrieved from https://thehill.com/homenews/state-watch/552077-caitlyn-jenner-tells-hannity-friends-are-fleeing-california-because-of.Roberts, J. J. (2019, December 20). California needs to treat homelessness like the disaster it is. Business Journal, 22.The state of homelessness in America. (2021). National Alliance to End Homelessness. Retrieved from https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/homelessness-statistics/state-of-homelessness-report-legacy/#:~:text=There%20are%20an%20estimated %20553%2C742,people%20in%20the%20general%20population.Walters, D. (2021, February 26). Legislature, Newsom have another chance to act on housing. Business Journal, 22.
Economics and Healthcare:Incentivizing Better Healthcare ChoicesAlthough health is priceless, affording good health and healthcare has grown increasingly costly, particularly in the United States. Stakeholders with an interest in improving both the populations health while still keeping healthcare costs contained include patients, patients families, providers, employers who provide health insurance to employees and wish to keep employees sick days at a minimum, insurance providers, and government policy-makers. Healthcare considerations encompass reducing the pervasiveness of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, as well as reducing the spread of infectious disease. These concerns are not limited to the current concerns about coronavirus but also the spread of measles, mumps, and other diseases once thought to be eradicated by vaccination.It is true that economic incentives to encourage good health can be used to promote healthy behavior. These may include techniques using positive and negative reinforcement. In terms of positive reinforcement, offering care at…
ReferencesHale, J. (2000). What contribution can health economics make to health promotion? HealthPromotion International, 15(4) 341-348.Hostetter, M. & Klein, S. (2020). In focus: Using behavioral economics to advance population health and improve the quality of health care servicesCommonwealth Fund. Retrieved from: https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/newsletter-article/focus-using-behavioral-economics-advance-population-health-and