Corporal Punishment Essays (Examples)

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Durkheim Modern Society and Punishment

Words: 1784 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84366367

Whereas, in the original thesis, the main contrast was between repressive and restitutive sanctions, in the later article the contrast involves a classification of crimes into those that are fundamentally religious in character -- offences against shared moral tenets that constitute the collective conscience -- and those that are "individual," in the sense of involving the essentially private interests of increasingly autonomous individuals. Penal sanctions also change in quantity and quality, with a movement away from corporal punishment and toward depriving the individual of possessions or freedom, i.e. fines and imprisonment. This development corresponds to the increasing differentiation within society, and the increasing focus on the individual, in this case as criminal or victim. Durkheim makes an interesting point about prisons only coming into existence when a society reached a sufficiently advanced stage of material development to permit the existence of secure and fortified establishments, such as castles or other…… [Read More]

Id. At 85.

Emile Durkhiem, the Division of Labour in Society, trs. George Simpson, New York, Free Press paperback edn, 1964.

John Horton, "The Dehumanisation of Anomie and Alienation: A Problem in the Ideology of Sociology," British Journal of Sociology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 283-300
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Retribution for Criminal Punishment Every

Words: 2005 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11890880

1446) and it also reinforces that the offender's actions are not taken seriously by the government. A retributive system for criminal punishment accomplishes the ideal of equal liberty under law (Markel, 2004). When an individual commits a crime, they not only assert superiority over their victim, but also claim superiority, however implied, over the government body and practice of legal liberty.

Acts of wrongdoing are paired with consequences -- it is this principle in which crime and punishment have been paired as means for justice. etributive punishment for criminal behavior is rooted in the history of early civilizations as the sole deterrent of wrongdoing. In current American government, the use of "an eye for an eye" is limited to capital punishment and is believed by some to be a significant deterrent for homicide. The deterrence theory and incapacitation theory of punishment both fail at matching the punishment with the severity…… [Read More]

References

Cahill, M. (2007). Retributive justice in the real world. Washington University Law Review, 85, 815-870.

Carlsmith, K. (2006). The roles of retribution and utility in determining punishment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 437-451.

Golash, D. (2005). The case against punishment: retribution, crime prevention, and the law. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Markel, D. (2004). Against mercy. Minnesota Law Review, 88, 1421-1480.
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Prison Punishment Should Prison Be Punitive or

Words: 2477 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52781814

Prison Punishment

Should Prison be Punitive or Rehabilitation in Nature?

A question that has existed since the beginnings of the modern prison system has been that of whether prison should be an unbearable punishment for an action committed, or rehabilitation for the accused to rid them of a particular behavior. In ancient times, a violent crime was usually responded with a violent verdict, resulting in torture and pain, and the concept of 'an eye for an eye' that led human law for thousands of years. Recently, however, civilization has rejected the outward torture of prisoners, and has tried to implement a system based on fairness, both during the trial and during the punishment. hile prisoners may not feel like their jail time is fair, modern civilization has elected judges to make these decisions for society. There is still the question, however, of what in today's world is the goal of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Larrabee, A., (2006). Punishment vs. Rehabilitation in the Criminal Justice System. Retrived from, http://voices.yahoo.com/punishment-vs.-rehabilitation-criminal-justice-119962.html.

Multiple authors. (2010). Should Criminal Justice Focus More on Rehabilitation or Punishment. IDebate. Retrieved from  http://idebate.org/debatabase/debates/law-crime/house-believes-criminal-justice-should-focus-more-rehabilitation .

Peak, K., (2012). Justice Administration: Police, Courts and Corrections Management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson: Prentice Hall.

Turner, A., (2012). Work Programs for Texas Inmates Go High Tech. Chron. Retrieved from,  http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Prison-factories-train-inmates-and-save-the-state-3450137.php .
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Honestly the Readings on Praise and Punishment

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39054789

Honestly, the readings on praise and punishment would not greatly affect the way I raised my child. I grew being disciplined by corporal punishment by parents who were also disciplined by corporal punishment when they were raised. I actually believe that there are a number of virtues associated with corporal punishment including humility, self-esteem, and an understated form of perseverance that is fundamental to a well-rounded individual. More than likely, if I ever were to have children I would incorporate corporal punishment into the ways that I disciplined them. I would utilize this form of discipline especially for younger children, and would more than likely subside this approach as the children became teenagers and morphed into adults. I actually believe that the virtues extracted from corporal punishment exceed the negatives associated with it, especially when it is administered with love and temperance.

The readings on praise might certainly affect the…… [Read More]

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History of Punishment Critically Assess

Words: 4559 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95135347

Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).

Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…… [Read More]

References

Alford, C.F. 2000, "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years," Theory and Society, vol. 29, no. 1,

pp. 125-146.

Barratt, E. 2002, "Foucault, foucauldianism and human resource management," Personnel

Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 189-204.
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Punishment Program

Words: 1860 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22230280

Punishment Program

This punishment program is a middle ground between incarceration and traditional probation and parole. The individuals participating in this program are released into the community, however, they are subject to very strict guidelines and conditions; failure to meet the requirements leads to a jail term in one of the state's jails to serve their sentence. The punishment program is divided into three types; house arrest, day reporting and intensive reporting. Individuals on house arrest are required to wear ankle bracelets along with a tracking device at all times, which electronically monitors their whereabouts. Any eligible individual can be placed on house arrest, however, those individuals serving mandatory D.U.I. sentences are by law, required to be on house arrest with electronic monitoring. In addition, individuals on day reporting are required to report in person to the respective I.P.P. office on a daily basis. Once at the office, all individuals…… [Read More]

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Child Discipline

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56331140

Corporal Punishment, Time-Out, And Other Forms of Child Discipline

This paper is presented in the format of an outline. It discusses the issue of child discipline including corporal punishment, time-out, and other methods.

The issue of child discipline has been a topic of hot debate for many years.

The 1960's brought about a revolutionary change in the way children were disciplined. Today there are many methods to chose from and it is an extremely personal and individual decision.

Many variables are involved including the way the parents were disciplined, the cultural influence involved and the way the parents friends discipline their children.if one's parents used corporal punishment then they may see it as a useful and effective tool for the purpose of discipline. If parents did not use corporal punishment the adult may decide against it because they were not raised with it. The use of corporal punishment is also…… [Read More]

References

Parisa Baharian, COLUMN: Corporal punishment thrives in America., University Wire, 05-17-2001.

Staff writers, Sparing the rod: A survey., The Dallas Morning News, 08-21-2001, pp 15A.

Staff Editorial, EDITORIAL: Corporal punishment a poor way to parent., University Wire, 04-19-2001.

Associated Press, Dad's right to corporal punishment upheld., The Dallas Morning News, 12-06-1996, pp 37A.
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Validity of the Argument and the Counterargument

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79695144

validity of the argument and the counterargument for corporal punishment on children and adolescents. The paper furthermore attempts to view this issue from the perspective of the adults administering and questioning this issues as well as from the perspective of the young people on the receiving end of punishment. In this way, the paper aims to provide holistic context by arguing for both sides of the issues from more than one perspective.

Corporal punishment is an issue that is debated often with respect to local and global issues. Corporal punishment is most often applied to children in the home and as part of their formal education. Corporal may be experienced in other institutions, including in situations where adults experience corporal punishment such as in the military, prison, fraternities, and in the home as part of domestic abuse. There is often a spectrum of perspective with regard to the issue of…… [Read More]

References:

Durrant, Joan E. "Evaluating the Success of Sweden's Corporal Punishment Ban." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 23, No. 5, 435 -- 448, 1999.

Straus, Murray A., & Stewart, Julie H. "Corporal Punishment by American Parents: National Data on Prevalence, Chronicity, Severity, and Duration, in Relation to Child and Family Characteristics. Clinical Child and Family Psychology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1999.

Turner, Heather A., & Finkelhor, David. "Corporal Punishment as a Stressor Among Youth." Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 155 -- 166, 1996.
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Domestic Violence Analysis

Words: 818 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83661087

Parental Discipline Methods in Public Places

In the past, the biblical imprecation to "spare the rod, spoil the child" (Proverbs 13:24) has been replaced by a more enlightened view of discipline and corporal punishment is becoming increasingly rare. To determine the current state of affairs in this area, this paper provides a record of empirical observations of the discipline methods used on children by parents in public places, including a shopping mall, a park and an amusement park. An analysis of the frequency of physical punishments to discipline children and in what situations is followed by an assessment concerning the effects of differing locations, situations and social classes of the parents influenced their public behavior. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the discipline methods used by parents in public places are provided in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Disorderliness and misbehaviors in children have been a…… [Read More]

References

Ewald, M. (2004, June 4). To spank or not? Let the town vote. The Christian Science Monitor,

11.

Hassan, T. & Titilayo, A. (2012, March). Differential effectiveness of self-management and token reinforcement in the treatment of adolescents' disorderliness. Ife Psychologia,

20(1), 134-139.
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Teacher Intervention in School How

Words: 2517 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54896337



Now, teachers are complaining that they feel abused and harassed with the young students.

The students tend to become abusive. They do not respect the teachers. They swear and shout at the teachers. They throw things at the teachers and in some instances, the students physically assault the teachers.

This is the reason why most teachers feel threatened and would want to resign from their works.

Thus, without the corporal punishment, the students do not learn the real value of discipline and they do not maintain proper conduct. The students who did not receive any corporal punishment when they were still on their younger years tend to have deviant behaviors as they grow older.

Meanwhile, there are also studies which have proven that corporal punishment offers nothing but negative effects to both the psychological and emotional aspects of a child. Some of the proven negative impacts of corporal punishment are:…… [Read More]

Reference List

Curry, Lisa M. Effective Teaching through High Expectation and Class Management. 2000. USA Gymnastics. http://www.usa-dymnastics.org/publications/technique/2000/4/effective-teaching.html

Effective Instructional Strategies. http://www.flstw.fsu.edu/integrate/efins.html

Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew. 2004. "The effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior in children." Social Work Research

Lombardo, Lucien X. And Polonko, Karen A. 2000. "Comparative Analysis of the Corporal Punishment of Children: An Exploration of Human Rights and U.S. Law," International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. Vol. 29, No.2, Fall 2005 pp. 173
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Function of This Study Is

Words: 3518 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84974468

In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.

Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…… [Read More]

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Family Deliquency and Crime Nowadays

Words: 1521 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67975477

"While biological and psychological factors hold their own merit when explaining crime and delinquency, perhaps social factors can best explain juvenile delinquency" which "is a massive and growing problem in America." (http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html)

eference:

Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure" http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika's%20paper.htm

Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985.

Social Disorganization at the micro level:

Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?"

Owner: obert O. Keel. Last Updated: Monday, October 3, 2005. http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/socdisor.html

Miller, a.(2005) Every Smack is a Humiliation-- a Manifesto

http://eqi.org/amiller.htm

Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice-Hall. "Social Learning Theory" http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html

Schegel, K.(1998) Lecture Notes. http://www.indiana.edu/~theory/Kip/Control.htm

Juvenile Delinquency.Family Structure" http://family.jrank.org/pages/1006/Juvenile-Delinquency-Family-Structure.html

Causal Theories of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Perspectives" http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html

Control Theory 2" http://www.homestead.com/rouncefield/files/a_soc_dev_6.htm… [Read More]

Reference:

Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure"  http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika 's%20paper.htm

Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985.

Social Disorganization at the micro level:

Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?"
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How to Discipline a Child

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6890436

child refuses to take a nap, punishment is one option of creating the desired behavior. A parent may rely on several classical behavioral learning techniques to gradually encourage the child to nap. The technique of punishment is one of many methods of reinforcement, based on basic operant conditioning and behaviorism.

With punishment, an aversive stimulus is added to decrease the behavior (Heffner, n.d.). The idea is that the subject associates the undesirable behavior with negative consequences and therefore avoids that behavior in the future. If it is applied immediately and directly after the behavior is exhibited, and applied consistently and clearly after each instance, punishment may be effective.

However, punishment can also lead to suppressed emotions like anger or resentment, and may create other undesirable behaviors if not used properly (Heffner, n.d.). Therefore, the punishment for not taking a nap must be consistent and appropriate. Examples of types of punishments…… [Read More]

References

Beck, H.P. (2001). General psychology. Retrieved online: http://www1.appstate.edu/~beckhp/reinforcementdefinitions.htm

"Corporal Punishment: Key Issues," (n.d.) Australian Institute of Family Studies. Retrieved online: https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/corporal-punishment-key-issues

Heffner, C.L. (n.d.). Reinforcement and reinforcement schedules. AllPsych. Retrieved online: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/reinforcement/#.VdtPE9OrSRs
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Resocialization Total Institution

Words: 2195 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38614237

esocialization and Total Institutions

esocialization Total Institutions

ecycling: esocialization and Total Institutions

esocialization and Total Institutions

esocialization is a process in which the identity and personality of the individual is radically changed by placing that individual in an environment or institution, which is controlled and monitored strictly. Total institutions are such institutions that utilize resocialization process in order to bring significant changes in the personality of individuals living there. The goal of these institutions is to eradicate personal identity of the individual and then, create a new identity through reward and punishment system.

esocialization and Total Institutions

Introduction

esocialization is a process in which the identity and personality of the individual is radically changed by placing that individual in an environment or institution, which is controlled and monitored strictly. Total institutions are such institutions that utilize resocialization process in order to bring significant changes in the personality of individuals living…… [Read More]

References

John J. Macionis and Linda M. Gerber (2011).Sociology Seventh Canadian Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.

Llewellyn, Jennifer J. (2002). "Dealing with the Legacy of Native Residential School Abuse in Canada: Litigation, ADR, and Restorative Justice."University of Toronto Law Journal. 52.3 (2002): 253-300. Print.

Patrick Donnelly. (2013). Scapegoating the Indian Residential Schools. Ottawa Cover Story.
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Effective Discipline for Children

Words: 4828 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48897121

Discipline for Children

Understanding effective parental discipline, defined as social projection of parents' concepts onto their children, their impact and hence its development in the children's mind, comes under a number of mechanisms and paradigms of research literature. They range from learning theories, morality theories, and parental styles of social delivery to socio cultural cum environmental approach (Halpenny, et al., 2010).

According to Clinton and Sibcy (2006), it is deemed that children are emotionally sensitive parts of the society who need parents, care, leadership, love and nurturing from someone whose primary duty is to take care of the child. According to the authors, it is possible that some decisions undertaken by the guardians in the name of love may result into deteriorative outcomes detested by the children and may form a bad effect on their lives. Following is a table (p. 6) extracted from Clinton and Sibcy defining different traits…… [Read More]

Wissow, L.S. (2001) 'Ethnicity, income and parenting contexts of physical punishment in a national sample of families with young children', Child Maltreatment, Vol. 6, pp. 118-29.

Woodward, L.J. And Fergusson, D.M. (2002) 'Parent, child and contextual predictors of childhood physical punishment', Infant and Child Development, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 213-36.

Wolfner, G.D. And Gelles, R.J. (1993) 'A Profile of Violence towards Children: A National Study', Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 197-212.
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American School Counseling Association ASCA Holds Various

Words: 1124 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43887037

American school Counseling Association (ASCA) holds various positions when it comes to professional school counselors and their conduct with students. The paper will look at three of these positions carefully and compare with my own view, opinion and expectations of what school counselors actually do.

The professional school counselor and child abuse and neglect prevention

ASCA position on school counselor and child abuse and neglect prevention is that; it is the professional school counselor's ethical, legal and moral responsibility to ensure that they report any case or suspected case of child abuse/neglect to proper authorities. They are also supposed to recognize that child abuse is not only limited to their homes but corporal punishment by school authorities is as well considered to be child abuse. ASCA is in support of any legislation which bans using corporal punishment as a tool for disciplining students in schools. The rationale behind ASCA's position…… [Read More]

References

American School of Counselor Association, (n.d). ASCA Position Statements.
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Legal Issues in Family Law

Words: 2033 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37707723

Orthodox Jewish family consists of the mother, father, and four daughters whose home was raided by law enforcement officers on suspicion that the family was engaged in child pornography. Following the raid, naked pictures of young girls was found on one of the cell phones of the parents. Pursuant to a search warrant, the officers recovered computers, cameras, and cell phones and later called a case into ACS child protective services. The ACS caseworker obtained several photographs of the children while naked including one in which a 5-year-old girl sleeping in her bed with her underwear removed and legs spread apart. While the mother admitted to the ACS caseworker that she took that photograph, the case was referred to Kings County Family Court for legal direction and intervention.

Family Law Legal Issues in the Case

As evident in the case, this is an example of a situation involving family law…… [Read More]

References

Bloomberg, M.R. & Bell, W.C. (2003, July). Parents' Guide to New York State Child Abuse and Neglect Laws. Retrieved from New York State Government website:  https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/acs/pdf/stateguide_english.pdf 

Gilmer, G.M. (2014, February 18). Corporal Punishment in New York City: Discipline vs. Abuse. Retrieved December 20, 2016, from http://gilmerlegal.com/lawyer/2014/02/18/ACS-Cases/Corporal-Punishment-in-New-York-City-Discipline-vs.-Abuse_bl11810.htm

HG Experts. (n.d.). Child Pornography Law. Retrieved December 20, 2016, from  https://www.hg.org/child-pornography.html 

Schechter, S.P. (2013). New York family law (3rd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning.
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Child Abuse Many Parents Believe

Words: 764 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50622716

These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of children older than 2 years but extend these findings to children who are spanked beginning at a relatively early age (issow Pp).

In the January 2002 issue of "Journal of Counseling and Development," Lisa Fontes states that Latino parents who engage in harsh physical discipline need help, however, they are far from homogeneous and their needs vary (Fontes Pp). She believes that many are "loving and devoted parents who practice traditional forms of child rearing that may include an authoritarian style and harsh corporal punishment, side by side with high levels of intimacy and support" (Fontes Pp). Fontes states that some Latino parents are often "incorrectly accused of abusing or neglecting their children because non-Latino professionals are puzzled by their unfamiliar yet harmless practices" (Fontes Pp). hile other Latino parents, like parents from other groups, punish their children in ways…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Straus, Murray a. "Spanking and the making of a violent society." Pediatrics;

10/1/1996; Pp.

Fontes, Lisa Aronson. "Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: reducing violence and misunderstandings."

Journal of Counseling and Development; 1/1/2002; Pp.
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Graham vs Florida Focal Point Analysis There

Words: 3201 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93398211

Graham vs. Florida Focal Point Analysis

There are many issues involved in the Supreme Court decisions especially with regard to the Constitution. One important assumption is that the court is moving to create a situation where the rights of humans are being protected and arbitrariness being curbed. In the light of the fact that human rights are now a universal concept and is globally acknowledged, the fact that constitutions and laws that abridge the human rights have to go or be amended cannot be argued against. While the constitution may be supreme, the rights of humans take priority, especially in the global context. In such a case the case of Graham vs. Florida can be seen as a landmark judgement so far as the way prisoners have to be treated is concerned.

The problem is more of legal rationality because the laws are rules that a society creates for the…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, James; Byrne, Dara N. (2004) "The Unfinished Agenda of Brown v. Board of Education." Wiley: Hoboken, NJ.

Ashworth, Andrew; Wasik, Martin. (1998) "Fundamentals of Sentencing Theory: Essays in Honour of Andrew von Hirsch." Clarendon Press: Oxford.

Cornell. Edu. (2010) "Supreme Court of the United States Graham v. Florida. certiorari to the district court of appeal of florida, 1st district No. 08 -- 7412. Argued November 9, 2009 -- Decided May 17, 2010." Retrieved 10 August 2011 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/08-7412.ZS.html

Cornell University Law School. (2010) "Thomas, J., dissenting Supreme Court of the United
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Child Abuse in the United States Today

Words: 431 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60689702

Antecedents and Implications of Child Abuse in the United States

In spite of increased attention to the problem in the United States, child abuse continues to take place across the country. When children are abused and neglected, their lives can be adversely affected in severe ways that can last a lifetime. Therefore, identifying the antecedents and implications of child abuse in the United States represents a timely and valuable enterprise as discussed further below.

Despite corporal punishment being outlawed in a majority of the United States, child abuse remains a major problem across the country (Lambie, 2005). For instance, according to Lambie (2005), "Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem" (p. 249). Child abuse is generally defined as involving the infliction of ongoing physical harm or psychological damage to a minor (Lambie, 2005). Not surprisingly, when children are subjected to this type of treatment on a sustained basis, the…… [Read More]

References

Adwar, C. (2014, May 18). These are the 19 states that still let public schools hit kids. Business Insider. Retrieved from  http://www.businessinsider.com/19-states-still-allow-corporal-punishment-2014-3#ixzz3fMyzACDO .

Hmurovich, J. (2009, June). Child abuse and neglect prevention: Is more than a funding stream. Policy & Practice, 67(3), 11-19.

Lambie, G.W. (2005, February). Child abuse and neglect: A practical guide for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 8(3), 249-254.
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Ingraham v Wright This Case

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79129113



The Court went on (1. b) to assert that using the Eighth Amendment to apply to an issue in a public school would amount to "wrenching " it from "its historical context" -- which is actually a safeguard against criminals. The plaintiffs had also used the Fourteenth Amendment to argue that James Ingraham was not given due process, but the High Court (2.) stated that the Fourteenth Amendment does not require notice and a hearing prior to delivering blows from a wooden paddle (corporal punishment) in a public school environment since that punishment is authorized by "common law" (Cornell Law School).

The justices that ruled with the majority and refused to grant relief to the Ingraham family: Powell, Burger, Blackmun, Stewart and Rehnquist. Those justices dissenting from the majority opinion: hite, Brennan, Marshall and Stevens. As to his dissenting opinion, Justice hite asserted that because the "Framers" of the Constitution…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cornell University Law School. (2010). Ingraham v. Wright (No. 75-6527). Syllabus, Supreme

Court of the United States / Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth

Circuit. Retrieved March 28, 2011, from http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0430_0651_ZS.html.

Cornell University Law School. (2010). Ingraham v. Wright (No. 75-6527). White, J. Dissenting
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Child Abuse From All Angles

Words: 4974 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44047446

The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.

Sexual Abuse

The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…… [Read More]

References

Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.

Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.

Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childabuse.html

Child Abuse Statistics. Available at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics.Internet
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Model Parental Training

Words: 3433 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82589844

Parental Training

Statistics show that incidences of juvenile criminal behavior are on the rise in the United States. In the year 2000, for example, over 2.3 million juveniles were arrested for various criminal offenses ranging from petty theft and drug abuse to crimes of violence. This figure alone represents a 64% increase from juvenile delinquency statistics from 1980. More disturbing is the fact that the greatest increases are in the areas of violent crime such as rapes, assaults and even homicide (Everett, Chadwell and Chesney 2002).

This trend did not happen overnight. Experts agree that the seeds of youth delinquency are planted at an early age, and that juvenile crime has complex socio-economic and psychological roots. Furthermore, many crime experts argue that delinquency is also the result of a combined failure of families, schools and the greater community.

This paper argues that many social difficulties, from delinquency in school to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cassel, Russell, Peter Chow, Donald F. DeMoulin and Robert C. Reiger. 2002. "Comparing the cognitive dissonance of 116 juvenile delinquent boys with that of 215 typical high school students." Education 121(3). ProQuest Database.

Everett, Charlie; Chadwell, Jason and McChesney, Jon. 2002. "Successful programs for at-risk youth." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 73(9). Proquest Database.

Fontes, Lisa Aronson. 2002. "Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: Reducing violence and misunderstandings." Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1): Winter. ProQuest Database.

Neeley, Steven. "The Psychological and Emotional Abuse of Children." Northern Kentucky Law Review. 2000. 27(4). EBSCO host database.
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Epistle of Paul to Philemon

Words: 20604 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75843868

The divisions ere as such:

1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.

2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.

3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.

4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]

works cited at the end.

If I were to conclude the significance of Paul's letter to Philemon and his approach to demand Onesimus' hospitality and kinship status, I can say that it was clearly his approach towards his demands that has made the letter such a major topic of discussion with regards to slavery. If Paul had taken an aggressive approach and straight away demanded the release and freedom of Onesimus, the letter would not been preserved in the history books for the generations to follow; that is a surety. I say this because it was Paul's approach and choice of language structure that caused for a large amount of debate to follow. It has been this debate, whether it has been on slavery or the various interpretations of his language structure, that has allows this letter and the relevant history to live on through the centuries. Of course, it is important to understand Philemon's role here as well, because it was his choice to treat the letter with a certain amount of respect and dignity that contributed to the letter's longevity as well. If Philemon had chosen to disregard Paul's requests and thrown away the letter as one that was not worthy of consideration, nobody would've even had the chance to debate the letter's significance in history. This again takes me back to the language structure adopted by Paul as he was able to soften his approach of the numerous demands as well that helped Philemon play his part of respecting what was demanded. Interestingly enough, Onesimus did go on to take on the duties as a bishop! To think that this line of action came about with only a choice of softening one's demands is extra-ordinary and the credit goes solely to Paul!

Bibliography

JM.G. Barclay, Colossians and Philemon, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997

Bartchy, S.S. (1973). First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBLDS 11; Atlanta: Scholars Press) 175.
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Hume -- Morals Crasto in

Words: 7194 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69137741

Parenting is a challenging occupation. Indeed, how a parent raises his or her child is the cumulative result of the mental and emotional character of the parent, the background of the parent, the financial circumstances of the parent, how the parent was raised as a child, and also the emotional character of the child or the actions of the child. Consider a situation where the parent indulges in corporal punishment. As an action agent, the parent firmly believes that this punishment is of a corrective nature, meant to discipline the child. For the child receiving this punishment, certainly it is momentarily painful. The child might resent the punishment; alternatively, the child might recognize that the punishment is in response to instances of mischief.

The spectator might as the moral purveyor of this scenario might see this as a virtue or a vice. The spectator might believe that the corporal punishment…… [Read More]

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Correction Institutions Administration and Leadership Maintaining Order

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24836246

Correction Institutions

Administration and Leadership

Maintaining order and control in correctional facilities -- while also presiding over well-managed facilities from a fiscal and ethical perspective -- is the goal of every conscientious administrator. The Center for Innovative Public Policies (CIPP) published a list of "core competencies" for leadership in correctional facilities. Among the skills most vital to a competent prison leader are: a) to be able to "anticipate, analyze, and resolve organizational challenges"; b) to build and "maintain positive relationships with external stakeholders"; c) to "communicate effectively" and to "comprehend, obtain, and manage fiscal resources"; d) to create a diverse organizational that "promotes respect"; e) to be visionary and to engage in "strategic planning" and develop a vision for the mission of the institution; f) to enhance "self-awareness and maintain proactive professional commitment; g) to "establish organizational authority" and design roles and responsibilities; h) to make sound decisions, manage change,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Center for Innovative Public Policies. (2010). Core Competencies for Jail Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from  http://cipp.org/jail/core.html .

Trulson, Chad R., Marquart, James W., and Kawucha, Soraya K. (2009). Gang Suppression and Institutional Control. Corrections One News. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from  http://www.correctionsone.com .

United Nations. (2010). Handbook for Prison Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.iccir.law.ubc.ca.

Wortley, Richard. (2002). Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional
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Understanding the Criminal Justice System

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39584410

criminal justice system and the historical foundations of the system. The study has discussed the current criminal justice system and how it has evolved during the years. The various functions of the criminal justice system are also discussed briefly to get clear understanding on the topic.

Criminal Justice System is a system of institutions and practices employed to uphold crime, deterring and social control or to put sanctions on those who are violating the laws by imposing criminal penalties and through rehabilitation efforts. The accused criminals also have some protections against the misconduct or abuse of prosecution and investigatory powers.

The criminal justice policy in the United States is guided by a ground breaking report that was presented to the President's Commission in 1967 on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. This commission had advised a systematic approach in dealing with criminal justice through a coordinated effort among courts, correctional…… [Read More]

References:

Kelling, George L., Mary A. Wycoff (2002). Evolving Strategy of Policing: Case Studies of Strategic Change. National Institute of Justice.

Mayo, K. (1920). Justice to All: The Story of the Pennsylvania State Police. Houghton Mifflin.
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International Protection of Human Rights

Words: 7675 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88133859

UK Immigration Act of 1971 and Its Enforcement with espect to Administrative emoval/Deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are Engaged

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many observers stated that "nothing would ever be the same again" and in some ways they have been absolutely correct. While the United Kingdom continues its inexorable march to become fully integrated into the burgeoning European Union, a number of obstacles remain firmly in place that relate to the perceived need by the UK government to better control movement of foreigners within its borders. The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the UK Immigration Act of 1971 and its enforcement with respect to administrative removal or deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are engaged. This study used a three-chapter format to achieve this research purpose. Chapter…… [Read More]

References

Apap, J. And Carrera, S. 2004, "Maintaining Security within Borders: Toward a Permanent State of Emergency in the EU?" Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 29(4): 399.

Barav, A., Wyatt, D.A. And Wyatt, J. 1998, Yearbook of European Law, Vol. 17. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Bello, J.H. 1995, "Community Competence to Conclude Certain International Agreements." American Journal of International Law, 89(4): 772-789.

Brown, J.M.and Louis, W.R. (Eds.). 1998, The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. 4. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press
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Detention Suspension and Expulsion Effect of Disciplinary Policy in Public School

Words: 4451 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12423838

Detention, Suspension,

AND EXPULSION:

EFFECT OF DISCIPLINAY POLICY

Instrument to be used

Participants

Future use of study results

Over the last few decades the institution of education has undergone many changes. One of the most scrutinized areas of education currently is the area of discipline. The recent rash of violence across the nation at high school has caused the focus to turn to discipline. The Columbine killings among other violent school events have caused experts to begin looking at bullies, violence, at risk students and others to discover what the key is to turning them around in their school career. One discipline method that has been used for years is removal of the offending student from the general student population. The student who is removed is done so either through suspension or expulsion. Suspension and expulsion are used in many situations as discipline. When students break zero tolerance policies, or…… [Read More]

References

Aisha Sultan; And Holly Hacker; Of The Post-Dispatch, METRO EAST SUSPENSION RATE IS TWICE THE STATE AVERAGE: PARENTS ARE ALARMED, BUT ADMINISTRATORS SAY ORDER MUST BE MAINTAINED., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 02-24-2002, pp C1.

Brian, Bumbarger. School Violence: Disciplinary Exclusion Prevention and Alternatives. Universties Children's Policy Partnership. 1999.

VOS Inger, Cambridge cuts suspensions., Waikato Times (New Zealand), 12-01-2001, pp 3.

Robert L. Morgan; Travis S. Loosli; Sebastian Striefel, REGULATING THE USE OF BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES IN SCHOOLS: A FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP SURVEY OF STATE DEPARTMENT STANDARDS. Vol. 30, Journal of Special Education, 01-15-1997.
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Social Work - Biopsychosocial Case

Words: 4418 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29831604

She did not have the benefit of a bedroom door for the last two years of high school.

Without the bedroom door, the client changed her clothes in the bathroom and was often unable to sleep at night because of her father's snoring. The first time her mother confronted her for being wide awake (and reading) in her room in the middle of the night, the client admitted that her father's snoring kept her awake. A few minutes later, her father entered her room and whipped her with the belt for "being disrespectful."

After discovering that alcohol allowed her to fall asleep and sleep through the night, she began drinking vodka at bedtime, which she chose because it was odorless and easy to hide in alternative containers in her room and among the cleaning supplies in the bathroom cabinet.

The client has always recalled the details of her childhood physical…… [Read More]

References

Butler, K. (1997). The Anatomy of Resilience; the Family Therapy Networker, 21(2):22-31

DeJong, P., Miller, S. (1995). How to Interview for Clients Strengths;

Social Work, 40(6).

Goldstein, E. (1995). Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice. (2nd
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Social Policy Family Support and Welfare Strategies

Words: 3141 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1728467

history there has been a major hypocrisy when it comes to children and the way they have been treated. On the one hand children are the most precious commodity on earth. They are the future politicians, doctors, and evangelists that will grow up to lead the world. They are the people who will eventually cure disease, invent marvelous contraptions and change the world. By all intents and purposes children are the world's most precious commodity and those in the United Kingdom are included in the lot. However throughout the history of the United Kingdom children for the most part have not had a lot of rights or protections afforded them. In more recent history this pattern began to change and as those changes took place the true nature of the wrongs of the past came to light. As the United Kingdom continued to work toward change the issue of children's…… [Read More]

References

Graham Hiscott,(2002). UK law on hitting children outdated., Birmingham Post, pp 6.

Author not available (1999). UK GOVERNMENT: UK moves to safeguard children's rights., M2 PressWIRE.

Children's rights in the UK (Accessed 5-5-2003)

http://www.unicef.org.uk/aboutunicef/issues/rights4.htm
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Childhood Neglect on Adult Relationships

Words: 1750 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69186991



EFEENCES & WOKS CONSULTED

Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,

Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family elations. 57 (3): 335+.

Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior

in Children." Social Work esearch. 28 (3): 153+.

Itzin, C. (2000). Home Truths About Child Sexual Abuse: A eader. outledge.

Jouriles, E., et.al. (2008). "Child Abuse in the Context of Domestic Violence."

Violence and Victims. 23 (2): 221+.

Lincoln, B. (NDI). BrainyQuotes.com. Cited in: BrainyQuote.com:

http://rss.brainyhistory.com/quotes/quotes/b/blanchelin168583.html

Miller, K. (2003). "Understanding and Treating eactive Attachment Disorder." Working

Papers from medical Educational Services Workshop. Arlington, Tx, February, 2003.

Minnis, H., et.al., 92006). "eactive Attachment Disorder." European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 15 (2): 336-42.

NAI. (2010, April). Definitions in Federal Law. etrieved April 25, 2010, from Defining Child

Abuse & Neglect: http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/defining/federal.cfm

"National Child Abuse Statistics." (2009). ChildHelp. Cited in:

http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics#gen-stats

Saisan, J.,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED

Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,

Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family Relations. 57 (3): 335+.

Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior

in Children." Social Work Research. 28 (3): 153+.
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Family Life With a Focus

Words: 2052 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77728106

Today, however, that is not the case and Native American children are encouraged to become bilingual at young ages.

Children are currently encouraged to speak English however because of the many different language within the Native American race (NATIVE AMEICAN ELDELY (http://cas.umkc.edu/casww/natamers.htm).

Native Americans are a very heterogeneous group, made up of approximately 530 different tribes. Of these, 280 reside on reservations, which accounts for approximately 50% of Native Americans in the United States (Wise & Miller, 1983). eservation tribes differ between themselves, in customs, language, and family structure. In addition, Native Americans, in general, differ greatly in their degree of acculturation (NATIVE AMEICAN ELDELY (http://cas.umkc.edu/casww/natamers.htm)."

The Native American population currently promotes the early introduction of children to both English and their tribal language.

CONCLUSION

The Native American population has steadily held onto its traditions and cultures through two centuries of opposition. The children of Native Americans are raised in…… [Read More]

References

Native Americans (Accessed 7-27-06)

http://www.native-languages.org/kidfaq.htm#3

NATIVE AMERICAN ELDERLY (Accessed 7-27-06)

 http://cas.umkc.edu/casww/natamers.htm
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Child Protection States of Japan

Words: 3482 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69519954

Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.

Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

BBC. Merkel in child protection plea. 2007. 7 April 2008. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7166094.stm

Clemons, Steven. "Koizumi Needs Fiscal Shot to Ring Round the World, New America Foundation. Daily Yomiuri." New American Foundation. 2002. 7 Apr 2008. http://www.newamerica.net/publications/articles/2002/koizumi_needs_fiscal_shot_to_ring_round_the_world

Deutche Welle. German Standard of Living in Decline. 2004. 7 April 2008. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1305105,00.html

Goodman, Roger. Children of the Japanese State: The Changing Role of Child Protection Institutions in Contemporary Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
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Child Abuse in the United

Words: 2728 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62744955

Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).

The eligious Theory

The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…… [Read More]

References

Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.). (1987). Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

Innaiah, N. (2003, Summer). Child abuse by religions: Children must be rescued from religion and restored to humanity. Free Inquiry, 23, 47+.

Morales, a. (1998, September). Seeking a cure for child abuse. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 127, 34+.

Newberger, C.M. (1987). Chapter 10 Time, place, and parental awareness: a cognitive-developmental perspective on family adaptation and parental care. In Child Abuse and Neglect Biosocial Dimensions, Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.) (pp. 233-251). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
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Islamic Criminal Justice System to the Criminal

Words: 3747 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11792929

Islamic criminal justice system to the criminal justice Systems of the common Law and the Civil law

Law is implied to hold a fundamental position in the societal system of the western and near eastern regions. Two customary beliefs are present in these "law-centered" societies. The custom of divine revelation is the first one. This has given rise to the Talmudic and Islamic systems of law, among which the importance of Islamic legal system is increasing in many nations. The other is the custom of involvement of the public that gave rise to either Greek and Roman models and consequently the civil law system, or the weird historical happenings in England from which the common law system has emerged. Islamic law is neither a remnant from the history nor a revisit to ancient origins, but somewhat an intricate, multithreaded cluster of thoughts and actions that the Islamic persons shaped and…… [Read More]

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American and Japanese Early Childhood

Words: 14069 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63412707

Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.

Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.

Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.

Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.

Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.

Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Governor of Illinois Not Long Ago Declared

Words: 2915 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2073921

Governor of Illinois, not long ago, declared a temporary moratorium on death penalty cases. He then commuted the sentences of all death row inmates in Illinois prisons. This was due to reports of egregious miscarriage of justice. Innocent people were unfairly sentenced. (Davey & Mills, 2003) While this was welcome news to some, it also provoked outrage among those who felt that the "blanket moratorium" was an injustice to the families of victims, especially since the perpetrators were sentenced because they were found guilty without a shadow of a doubt. Capital punishment is a difficult subject to discuss. Groups that support the death penalty and those that oppose it put forth arguments that are then refuted by those on the other side of the divide. Statistics, data and personal testimonies and eyewitness reports are used to support their respective causes. In the U.S., Crimes such as murder, treason and other…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ACLU. (1997). The Case Against the Death Penalty. Washington, D.C.: American Civil Liberties Union.

Bedau, H.A. (1982). The Death penalty in America (3rd ed.), New York, Oxford University Press.

BJS. (1992). Capital Punishment. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Jutice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.

BJS. (1995). Capital Punishment 1979. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
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Characteristics and Justifications for Sentencing

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 916667

Drives Punitive Beliefs

Brian K. Payne, Randy R. Gainey, Ruth A. Triplett, and Mona J.E. Danner present a sociological examination of punitive beliefs in the United States in their article "hat Drives Punitive Beliefs? Demographic Characteristics and Justifications for Sentencing." In particular the authors address three main research issues: how punitive citizens are and how they view certain criminal sanctions; what factors influence individuals' attitudes toward punishment; and whether differences in attitude are reflected in different races and gender. In their review of literature, the authors appropriately discuss non-scientific, philosophical studies of criminology and punishment, referring to early treatises on the subject such as Beccaria's Essays on Crime and Punishment and Emile Durkheim's mid-twentieth century beliefs that criminology. One of the greatest strengths of "hat Drives Punitive Beliefs?" is in fact the author's incorporation of philosophical points in current sociological, empirical research. Mentioning the works of .E.B. DuBois is a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Payne, Brian K., Gainey, Randy R., Triplett, Ruth A., Danner, Mona J.E. "What Drives Punitive Beliefs? Demographic Chracteristics and Justifications for Sentencing."
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Starting From 19th Century Psychology School of

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16938592

Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.

During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]

Work cited

Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.

Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN

Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223160/?tool=pmcentrez 

Diller, J.W. And Lattal, K.A. (2008). Radical behaviorism and Buddhism: complementarities and conflicts. The Behavior Analyst, 31(2), 163-177. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2591756/?tool=pmcentrez
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Prison Problem The Violence People

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83053070

A major portion of an inmate's helplessness, deprivation, depression and self-loathing etc. arises due to physical and psychological victimization that he or she has to face. Physical victimization includes homicide, assault and rape. These arise due to poor staff supervision and keeping defenseless prisoners with the violent ones. On the other hand, psychological victimization involves verbal manipulation and harsh psychological attacks of personal nature.

The stronger inmates attempt to create their own subcultures that show their dominance, rule and assertion on all prisoners (Heilpern, 1998). To fulfill the maintenance of these subcultures, they resort to rape, riots or even homicide spreading mental illnesses like stress, phobias, enhanced criminal activity, shame, guilt, etc. among the weaker prisoners.

Imprisonment: Eliminating or aggravating crime?

It is not a hidden matter that jails, even after intensive care and security, are not free of brutality, stress and violence among the inmates. The safety of each…… [Read More]

References

Cragg, W. (2002). The practice of punishment: Towards a theory of restorative justice. Routledge.

Foucault, M. (2008). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison.

Gendreau, P., Cullen, F.T., & Goggin, C. (1999). The effects of prison sentences on recidivism. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.

Gudrais, E. (2013, March). The Prison Problem. Harvard Magazine.
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Anne Hutchinson Fear of the

Words: 1970 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29721054



It is difficult to imagine the kinds of unfair discrimination that was wrought against women, witches, and anyone else who did go along with the status quo. However, in inthrop's situation, the matter of survival was so acutely important that a strong-fisted rule was thought to be necessary.

He expresses, more than once, in the trial transcript his fears that the entire colonial civilization could fall over this one woman's outspoken beliefs. Banishment was the only appropriate punishment, since it would remove her from the small, sealed world of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and ensure that she could not sway peoples' minds toward this outrageous idea of grace.

It is almost comical to consider that now, in 2008, we see crowds of Christians waving their hands in the air to feel the grace of God, an experience they believe is attainable simply through their faith. This is the exact kind…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ayto, John Dictionary of Word Origins, Arcade Publishing, New York: 1990.

Hawthorne, John the Scarlet Letter, Bantam Classics, New York: 1981

Kerber, Linda K. And Sherron DeHart Women's America, Refocusing the Past. Oxford University Press. New York: 1995

Young, Ralph, Ph.D. Dissent in America, the Voices That Shaped a Nation. Pearson/Longman, Publishers. New York: 2006
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Child Abuse the Well-Known Attorney

Words: 3228 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44725613

Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.

As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.

Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:

Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…… [Read More]

References

Besharov, Douglas J. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect. Washington, D.C. University of Maryland's Welfare Reform Academy, 2000.

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974. 23 November 2006. http://laws.adoption.com/statutes/child-abuse-prevention-and-treatment-act- capta-of-1974.html.

Dershowitz, Alan. M. Contrary to Popular Opinion. New York: Pharos Books, 1992.

Murray, Bridget. Cultural insensitivity leads to unfair penalties. Monitor 30.9, October
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Family Income Parental Attitudes and Environmental Influence

Words: 2379 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92854841

Family Income, Parental Attitudes and Environmental Influence on Children's Well-being and Achievements

Economic theory suggests that both time and money are critical resources to the well being of family members since income is used to increase well-being of children and parents. Moreover, income is used to enjoy leisure and purchase goods and services to improve well-being of family members. Typically, " less time available to the family, income constant, thus predicts lower well-being for some or all family members" (Burton & Phipps, 2011 p 396). In the contemporary environment, family income can lead to a development of children and youth's intellectual development. In other words, family income can assist in enhancing children health, educational and intellectual outcomes. Despite the general belief about relationships of family income and children development, there is still a disagreement about the causal effects of family incomes to the positive outcomes of children since unmeasured variables…… [Read More]

Reference

Blau, D.M. (2006). The Effect of Income on Child Development. The Review of Economic and Statistics. 81 (2):261-276.

Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G.J.(1997). The Effects of Poverty on Children. The Future of Children. 7 (2): 55-71.

Burton, P. & Phipps, S. (2011). Families, Time, and Well-Being in Canada. Canadian Public Policy. 37 (3): 395-423

Dahl, G. (2005).The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion. Paper no. 1305-05.
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Criminal Justice in Action

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58931766

Criminal Justice in Action:

The American prison system has throughout the years developed to become home to the increasing population of the nation's criminals. The increasing population of these criminals in the American prison system is due to the fact that incarceration has always been used even in cases where alternative punishment would be adequate. Furthermore, this growing population of inmates is due to sentence disparities that include both long and short sentences. Currently, the maintenance of these criminals in American prisons is entirely drawn from the taxes that citizens pay. The American prison system has now developed to become the largest across the globe since the number of inmates increases annually. While the purpose of American prisons is to serve as a place of punishment of criminals, they have now become places of leisure. Actually, it's widely considered that inmates in American prisons are treated like guests at a…… [Read More]

References:

Greene, J. (n.d.). Comparing Private and Public Prison Services and Programs in Minnesota:

Findings from Prisoner Interviews. Retrieved April 6, 2011, from http://archive.epinet.org/real_media/010111/materials/greene.pdf

Pray, R. T (n.d.). How Did Our Prisons Get That Way? Retrieved April 6, 2011, from http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1987/5/1987_5_92.shtml

"Prisons: History -- Modern Prisons." (n.d.). Jrank.org: Law Library -- American Law and Legal
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Attendance Policy in an Alternative School

Words: 8552 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1590486

Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis

As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.

The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…… [Read More]

References

ERIC Raising School Attendance. Education Digest, Feb2002, 67.6, pgs.54-57.

ERIC Urban Policies and Programs To Reduce Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 129.

ERIC Jay DeKalb Student Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 125.

ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management and Linn-Benton Education Service
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Fiscal Impact of the Maryland Budgetary Crisis

Words: 5056 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79562335

Maryland Prison System

Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners.

The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…… [Read More]

References

Feely, M. And Edward, R. (1998). Judicial policy making and the modern state: How courts reformed. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Hafetz, J. (1995). Tough justice. New York Empire State Report. http://216.239.57.104/search?q=cache:5haT4coRUqgJ:www.mdgreens.org/montgomery/pdf/schoolsnotprisons.pdf+maryland+state+budget+prison&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

 http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/prisons/Estelle_v_Gamble.htm 

http://www.caps.ucsf.edu/inmaterev.html