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" Moreover, since America has outlawed beating military personnel, military detainees, wives, prisoners, and the aged, it makes sense that we should extend such protection to children. In fact, it more than makes sense; it seems to be the only viable option for a first world society such as ours that values freedom, equality, and justice for all.
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Psycho-social Aspects of Child and Family Health Policy Statement, Guidance for Effective Discipline, 101(4) PEDIATRICS, 723-28 (1998).
Irwin a. Hyman, Reading, RITING and the HICKORY STICK: The Appalling Story of Physical and Psychological Abuse in American Schools 30-34 (1990).
Kalwary, Nancy. "Ruling Carries Clout to Kids." Clearwater Sun [Florida] 21 Apr. 1977. Print.
Merlis, George. "The Updated Hickory Stick." The Nation Nov. 1975: 1. orld Corporal Punishment Center. eb.
Middleton. J. "Thomas Hopley and Mid-Victorian Attitudes to Corporal Punishment." History of Education 2005.
"Pro…… [Read More]
IX. REPORT of the UN STUDY on VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN
The United Nations Secretary-General's Study on Violence Against Children states twelve specific recommendations as having arisen from their study on violence against children which include the following recommendations:
1) Strengthen national and local commitment and action: This refers to establishing a national focal point on violence against children by the end of 2007, to coordinate actions, and especially to ensure that actions to stop violence against children are integrated into national planning processes by 2009;
2) Prohibit all violence against children: This refers to legal reforms including implementation of laws to stop all forms of violence against children, in all settings, including all corporal punishment, harmful traditional practices, such as early and forced marriages, female genital mutilation and so-called honor crimes, sexual violence, and torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, as required by international treaties.
3)…… [Read More]
Strauss emphasized his interpretation by saying, "Corporal punishment... was associated with an increased probability of a child assaulting the parent a year and a half later. Thus, while it is true that corporal punishment teaches the child a lesson, it is certainly not the lesson intended by the parents." (Strauss, 2001). The assumption that corporal punishment "taught" the children to assault their parents may not have been valid either. Perhaps these children were already prone to such behavior, and the parents used corporal punishment in an failed attempt to turn the child's behavior around. Another study cited by Strauss correlated corporal punishment with dating violence later, while fourth study used children of mothers seen hitting their children during interviews (Strauss, 2001). Once again the important issues were blurred. Hitting and spanking are not the same thing.
One of the criticisms of corporal punishment is that it "is not used merely…… [Read More]
However, there may be cases when a mild form of corporal punishment such as spanking on buttocks in a reasoned and caring manner, under certain conditions, may have beneficial effects. It is also my opinion -- and for this I am heavily indebted to Cleverley and Phillips -- that no rival model should be rejected outright. All our paradigmatic assumptions must be critically analyzed before we come to a decision as important as the one related to child rearing. Only through a careful analysis of all models, can we avoid the excesses of uncritically following a model built on unexamined assumptions.
Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009) NurtureShock: New Thinking About Children. New York: Twelve.
CHUA, A. (2011, January 8). WHY CHINESE MOTHES AE SUPEIO. Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition. pp. C1-C2. etrieved from EBSCOhost.
Cleverley, J., & Phillips, D.C. (1986) Visions of Childhood: Influential Models from Locke…… [Read More]
The data supported the conclusion that children subjected to parental discipline in the form of normative corporal punishment exhibited a small but statistically significant increase in negative behaviors as compared with children at the same ages who were not subjected to corporal punishment. Further, the research results also indicated that the negative outcomes associated with corporal punishment were increased in children with difficult temperaments. On the basis of those data, the researchers concluded that, contrary to other studies supporting the use of normative corporal punishment, that form of discipline is a causal factor in perpetuating behavior problems among children.
elevance to the Issues and Implications
The findings of the study are highly relevant to the issue of whether or not any use of corporal punishment is appropriate and beneficial. The researchers suggest several specific implications: First, that despite the relatively small magnitude of negative consequences, they might be substantially detrimental…… [Read More]
Corporal Punishment Death Penalty
The death penalty, as well as corporal punishment in general is one of the most controversial issues in America today. It cannot fail to elicit mixed responses within individuals, especially those with very strong convictions about life, right and wrong and also faith. Few people are neutral on the subject even though many people think that it is simply a fact of life associated with the nature of the penal system in this country. The example having been set centuries ago, many people think of it as a simple expression of history, and dismiss it in kind because of its historical nature, falsely believing it to be a deterrent for heinous acts of brutality and unaware that the United States is one of the only developed nations that still employs the death penalty.
Bienen) "Abolitionists claim that although the death penalty was considered an acceptable practice…… [Read More]
From this point-of-view, the human rights have been breached and in many situations without effect.
It is rather hard to point out what could actually replace the use of torture in today's world, where information is extremely difficult to retrieve from individuals. The fact that the U.S. is engaged in a war which is waged not in the traditional way but most of the times with tools which are in the form of information the debate is whether it is more important to protect the life of the human being or to ensure the security of a country and of a system. Even so, in a world which is considered to be the most advanced global community in the history of civilization, regardless of the threats perceived, the respect for human rights, dignity and humanity must prevail.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. 1994. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
CNN.…… [Read More]
Not all children will respond to positive reinforcement, but sometimes even drastic negative reinforcement such as corporal punishment does not work on these children. In general, however, positive reinforcement is only one way to teach children discipline very quickly and make sure that the lesson remains with them in the future. In the past, it was thought that corporal punishment was the way to do this, and some schools still appear to hold this opinion while others are changing the way that they handle student discipline.
Review of Literature
Healthy learning environments and positive attitudes are vital to classroom learning, regardless of the age of the students. It is for this reason that appropriate management techniques must be used within the classroom setting. Educators must look at having both healthy environments and safe environments if they want their students to enjoy their learning experience and if they want the programs…… [Read More]
We must analyze any new study or article. Each article or study provides new information or a new angle of looking at the issue in case, or new opinions that we have not yet taken into consideration.
Analyzing multiple points-of-view
There are several parties affected by corporal punishment in schools whose points-of-view must be taken into consideration in this analysis. These points-of-view are:
Experts in the field
The opinions of most of the experts in the field are divided. Some of them have concluded that corporal punishment is an old practice that has proved to be efficient in building solid, long-term discipline among students. However, there are many experts, psychologists in particular, that state that such type of disciplinary measures have long-term negative effects on students.
Teachers have similar opinions with those of the experts described above. Some of them approve and practice corporal punishment, others…… [Read More]
However, many of Gershoff's studies did control for these social, demographic, and psychological factors. Still, regarding its use in schools, where it is practiced it is justified by many supporters that "teachers may have overcrowded classrooms and lack resources such as counselors to assist with particularly disruptive students or classroom dynamics" and thus it is necessary (More than 200,000 kids spanked at school, 2008, CNN.com).
Little data exists upon issues of race and corporal punishment -- is corporal punishment in schools mainly administered by white administrators against black students? Against same-race administrations against same-race students? This dynamic could increase its pejorative institutional effects. Also, questions of race and religion, if certain races or religions are more apt to spank demands further analysis, although most 'pro-spanking' groups tend to be evangelical, southern, and Protestant in focus, reflecting the demographic composition, in short, of states where spanking is still tolerated in schools.…… [Read More]
While the mildest form of spanking has not yet proved to be harmful according to the studies the results also indicate that spanking is not more effective than other forms of discipline that do not involve hitting a child (Harder, 2007).
There are several reasons that experts believe spanking should never be used as a form of punishment.
Spanking can and sometimes does escalate to become physical abuse which in turn can harm the child.
Studies in the past decade have shown that children who are spanked often display more behavior and emotional problems than children who are not spanked show.
In a 1997 study in the Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, for example, Straus and two colleagues found that 6- to 9-year-olds whose mothers spanked them at least weekly were more likely, two years later, to behave antisocially than were kids whose moms didn't spank (Harder, 2007)."…… [Read More]
reason I had time was that it was summer and we don't have as much work in the summer.
In fact I urge you to double-check the salary numbers because even with a magnifying glass they were very hard to read.
In the future I would urge you to send full-sized pages of everything, or you may find that at the last time a model paper writer has discovered that he or she cannot read your fax and will have to cancel doing your model paper. A page shrunk to 50j% of its size has 25% of the legibility of full size, not 50%, and faxes degrade legibility also.
No one wants to do that, but I had to do it just last week because of a very poor quality fax. We do not write these papers in the same way most students do. That's the only reason we can…… [Read More]
estrictive Course, Self-Control & Idealism
Describe the Most estrictive Course/Classroom
The most restrictive course I have taken would have to be Critical Thinking. As noted, in the text, as a pupil, my responsibility is to learn. Not only am I to discover knowledge that I think I should know, but also what it is important for me to know. For this reason, the position of the teacher is critical.
In this course, the teacher had a very hands-off approach to teaching. Students were left to control much of the classroom, directing interactions and discussions. It was not a teacher-centered course, but a student centered one. For this reason, it is probable that we did not learn the most important information on the subject matter. Although pupil experience and interest was utilized in the classroom, it was hard to determine if the teacher truly knew the subject fully, as he simply…… [Read More]
1446) and it also reinforces that the offender's actions are not taken seriously by the government. A retributive system for criminal punishment accomplishes the ideal of equal liberty under law (Markel, 2004). When an individual commits a crime, they not only assert superiority over their victim, but also claim superiority, however implied, over the government body and practice of legal liberty.
Acts of wrongdoing are paired with consequences -- it is this principle in which crime and punishment have been paired as means for justice. etributive punishment for criminal behavior is rooted in the history of early civilizations as the sole deterrent of wrongdoing. In current American government, the use of "an eye for an eye" is limited to capital punishment and is believed by some to be a significant deterrent for homicide. The deterrence theory and incapacitation theory of punishment both fail at matching the punishment with the severity…… [Read More]
Should Prison be Punitive or Rehabilitation in Nature?
A question that has existed since the beginnings of the modern prison system has been that of whether prison should be an unbearable punishment for an action committed, or rehabilitation for the accused to rid them of a particular behavior. In ancient times, a violent crime was usually responded with a violent verdict, resulting in torture and pain, and the concept of 'an eye for an eye' that led human law for thousands of years. Recently, however, civilization has rejected the outward torture of prisoners, and has tried to implement a system based on fairness, both during the trial and during the punishment. hile prisoners may not feel like their jail time is fair, modern civilization has elected judges to make these decisions for society. There is still the question, however, of what in today's world is the goal of…… [Read More]
Honestly, the readings on praise and punishment would not greatly affect the way I raised my child. I grew being disciplined by corporal punishment by parents who were also disciplined by corporal punishment when they were raised. I actually believe that there are a number of virtues associated with corporal punishment including humility, self-esteem, and an understated form of perseverance that is fundamental to a well-rounded individual. More than likely, if I ever were to have children I would incorporate corporal punishment into the ways that I disciplined them. I would utilize this form of discipline especially for younger children, and would more than likely subside this approach as the children became teenagers and morphed into adults. I actually believe that the virtues extracted from corporal punishment exceed the negatives associated with it, especially when it is administered with love and temperance.
The readings on praise might certainly affect the…… [Read More]
Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).
Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…… [Read More]
This punishment program is a middle ground between incarceration and traditional probation and parole. The individuals participating in this program are released into the community, however, they are subject to very strict guidelines and conditions; failure to meet the requirements leads to a jail term in one of the state's jails to serve their sentence. The punishment program is divided into three types; house arrest, day reporting and intensive reporting. Individuals on house arrest are required to wear ankle bracelets along with a tracking device at all times, which electronically monitors their whereabouts. Any eligible individual can be placed on house arrest, however, those individuals serving mandatory D.U.I. sentences are by law, required to be on house arrest with electronic monitoring. In addition, individuals on day reporting are required to report in person to the respective I.P.P. office on a daily basis. Once at the office, all individuals…… [Read More]
Corporal Punishment, Time-Out, And Other Forms of Child Discipline
This paper is presented in the format of an outline. It discusses the issue of child discipline including corporal punishment, time-out, and other methods.
The issue of child discipline has been a topic of hot debate for many years.
The 1960's brought about a revolutionary change in the way children were disciplined. Today there are many methods to chose from and it is an extremely personal and individual decision.
Many variables are involved including the way the parents were disciplined, the cultural influence involved and the way the parents friends discipline their children.if one's parents used corporal punishment then they may see it as a useful and effective tool for the purpose of discipline. If parents did not use corporal punishment the adult may decide against it because they were not raised with it. The use of corporal punishment is also…… [Read More]
validity of the argument and the counterargument for corporal punishment on children and adolescents. The paper furthermore attempts to view this issue from the perspective of the adults administering and questioning this issues as well as from the perspective of the young people on the receiving end of punishment. In this way, the paper aims to provide holistic context by arguing for both sides of the issues from more than one perspective.
Corporal punishment is an issue that is debated often with respect to local and global issues. Corporal punishment is most often applied to children in the home and as part of their formal education. Corporal may be experienced in other institutions, including in situations where adults experience corporal punishment such as in the military, prison, fraternities, and in the home as part of domestic abuse. There is often a spectrum of perspective with regard to the issue of…… [Read More]
Parental Discipline Methods in Public Places
In the past, the biblical imprecation to "spare the rod, spoil the child" (Proverbs 13:24) has been replaced by a more enlightened view of discipline and corporal punishment is becoming increasingly rare. To determine the current state of affairs in this area, this paper provides a record of empirical observations of the discipline methods used on children by parents in public places, including a shopping mall, a park and an amusement park. An analysis of the frequency of physical punishments to discipline children and in what situations is followed by an assessment concerning the effects of differing locations, situations and social classes of the parents influenced their public behavior. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the discipline methods used by parents in public places are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Disorderliness and misbehaviors in children have been a…… [Read More]
Now, teachers are complaining that they feel abused and harassed with the young students.
The students tend to become abusive. They do not respect the teachers. They swear and shout at the teachers. They throw things at the teachers and in some instances, the students physically assault the teachers.
This is the reason why most teachers feel threatened and would want to resign from their works.
Thus, without the corporal punishment, the students do not learn the real value of discipline and they do not maintain proper conduct. The students who did not receive any corporal punishment when they were still on their younger years tend to have deviant behaviors as they grow older.
Meanwhile, there are also studies which have proven that corporal punishment offers nothing but negative effects to both the psychological and emotional aspects of a child. Some of the proven negative impacts of corporal punishment are:…… [Read More]
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.
Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…… [Read More]
"While biological and psychological factors hold their own merit when explaining crime and delinquency, perhaps social factors can best explain juvenile delinquency" which "is a massive and growing problem in America." (http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html)
Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure" http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika's%20paper.htm
Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985.
Social Disorganization at the micro level:
Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?"
Owner: obert O. Keel. Last Updated: Monday, October 3, 2005. http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/socdisor.html
Miller, a.(2005) Every Smack is a Humiliation-- a Manifesto
Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice-Hall. "Social Learning Theory" http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html
Schegel, K.(1998) Lecture Notes. http://www.indiana.edu/~theory/Kip/Control.htm
Juvenile Delinquency.Family Structure" http://family.jrank.org/pages/1006/Juvenile-Delinquency-Family-Structure.html
Causal Theories of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Perspectives" http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html
Control Theory 2" http://www.homestead.com/rouncefield/files/a_soc_dev_6.htm… [Read More]
child refuses to take a nap, punishment is one option of creating the desired behavior. A parent may rely on several classical behavioral learning techniques to gradually encourage the child to nap. The technique of punishment is one of many methods of reinforcement, based on basic operant conditioning and behaviorism.
With punishment, an aversive stimulus is added to decrease the behavior (Heffner, n.d.). The idea is that the subject associates the undesirable behavior with negative consequences and therefore avoids that behavior in the future. If it is applied immediately and directly after the behavior is exhibited, and applied consistently and clearly after each instance, punishment may be effective.
However, punishment can also lead to suppressed emotions like anger or resentment, and may create other undesirable behaviors if not used properly (Heffner, n.d.). Therefore, the punishment for not taking a nap must be consistent and appropriate. Examples of types of punishments…… [Read More]
esocialization and Total Institutions
esocialization Total Institutions
ecycling: esocialization and Total Institutions
esocialization and Total Institutions
esocialization is a process in which the identity and personality of the individual is radically changed by placing that individual in an environment or institution, which is controlled and monitored strictly. Total institutions are such institutions that utilize resocialization process in order to bring significant changes in the personality of individuals living there. The goal of these institutions is to eradicate personal identity of the individual and then, create a new identity through reward and punishment system.
esocialization and Total Institutions
esocialization is a process in which the identity and personality of the individual is radically changed by placing that individual in an environment or institution, which is controlled and monitored strictly. Total institutions are such institutions that utilize resocialization process in order to bring significant changes in the personality of individuals living…… [Read More]
Discipline for Children
Understanding effective parental discipline, defined as social projection of parents' concepts onto their children, their impact and hence its development in the children's mind, comes under a number of mechanisms and paradigms of research literature. They range from learning theories, morality theories, and parental styles of social delivery to socio cultural cum environmental approach (Halpenny, et al., 2010).
According to Clinton and Sibcy (2006), it is deemed that children are emotionally sensitive parts of the society who need parents, care, leadership, love and nurturing from someone whose primary duty is to take care of the child. According to the authors, it is possible that some decisions undertaken by the guardians in the name of love may result into deteriorative outcomes detested by the children and may form a bad effect on their lives. Following is a table (p. 6) extracted from Clinton and Sibcy defining different traits…… [Read More]
American school Counseling Association (ASCA) holds various positions when it comes to professional school counselors and their conduct with students. The paper will look at three of these positions carefully and compare with my own view, opinion and expectations of what school counselors actually do.
The professional school counselor and child abuse and neglect prevention
ASCA position on school counselor and child abuse and neglect prevention is that; it is the professional school counselor's ethical, legal and moral responsibility to ensure that they report any case or suspected case of child abuse/neglect to proper authorities. They are also supposed to recognize that child abuse is not only limited to their homes but corporal punishment by school authorities is as well considered to be child abuse. ASCA is in support of any legislation which bans using corporal punishment as a tool for disciplining students in schools. The rationale behind ASCA's position…… [Read More]
These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of children older than 2 years but extend these findings to children who are spanked beginning at a relatively early age (issow Pp).
In the January 2002 issue of "Journal of Counseling and Development," Lisa Fontes states that Latino parents who engage in harsh physical discipline need help, however, they are far from homogeneous and their needs vary (Fontes Pp). She believes that many are "loving and devoted parents who practice traditional forms of child rearing that may include an authoritarian style and harsh corporal punishment, side by side with high levels of intimacy and support" (Fontes Pp). Fontes states that some Latino parents are often "incorrectly accused of abusing or neglecting their children because non-Latino professionals are puzzled by their unfamiliar yet harmless practices" (Fontes Pp). hile other Latino parents, like parents from other groups, punish their children in ways…… [Read More]
Antecedents and Implications of Child Abuse in the United States
In spite of increased attention to the problem in the United States, child abuse continues to take place across the country. When children are abused and neglected, their lives can be adversely affected in severe ways that can last a lifetime. Therefore, identifying the antecedents and implications of child abuse in the United States represents a timely and valuable enterprise as discussed further below.
Despite corporal punishment being outlawed in a majority of the United States, child abuse remains a major problem across the country (Lambie, 2005). For instance, according to Lambie (2005), "Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem" (p. 249). Child abuse is generally defined as involving the infliction of ongoing physical harm or psychological damage to a minor (Lambie, 2005). Not surprisingly, when children are subjected to this type of treatment on a sustained basis, the…… [Read More]
Graham vs. Florida Focal Point Analysis
There are many issues involved in the Supreme Court decisions especially with regard to the Constitution. One important assumption is that the court is moving to create a situation where the rights of humans are being protected and arbitrariness being curbed. In the light of the fact that human rights are now a universal concept and is globally acknowledged, the fact that constitutions and laws that abridge the human rights have to go or be amended cannot be argued against. While the constitution may be supreme, the rights of humans take priority, especially in the global context. In such a case the case of Graham vs. Florida can be seen as a landmark judgement so far as the way prisoners have to be treated is concerned.
The problem is more of legal rationality because the laws are rules that a society creates for the…… [Read More]
The Court went on (1. b) to assert that using the Eighth Amendment to apply to an issue in a public school would amount to "wrenching " it from "its historical context" -- which is actually a safeguard against criminals. The plaintiffs had also used the Fourteenth Amendment to argue that James Ingraham was not given due process, but the High Court (2.) stated that the Fourteenth Amendment does not require notice and a hearing prior to delivering blows from a wooden paddle (corporal punishment) in a public school environment since that punishment is authorized by "common law" (Cornell Law School).
The justices that ruled with the majority and refused to grant relief to the Ingraham family: Powell, Burger, Blackmun, Stewart and Rehnquist. Those justices dissenting from the majority opinion: hite, Brennan, Marshall and Stevens. As to his dissenting opinion, Justice hite asserted that because the "Framers" of the Constitution…… [Read More]
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.
The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…… [Read More]
Statistics show that incidences of juvenile criminal behavior are on the rise in the United States. In the year 2000, for example, over 2.3 million juveniles were arrested for various criminal offenses ranging from petty theft and drug abuse to crimes of violence. This figure alone represents a 64% increase from juvenile delinquency statistics from 1980. More disturbing is the fact that the greatest increases are in the areas of violent crime such as rapes, assaults and even homicide (Everett, Chadwell and Chesney 2002).
This trend did not happen overnight. Experts agree that the seeds of youth delinquency are planted at an early age, and that juvenile crime has complex socio-economic and psychological roots. Furthermore, many crime experts argue that delinquency is also the result of a combined failure of families, schools and the greater community.
This paper argues that many social difficulties, from delinquency in school to…… [Read More]
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]
Parenting is a challenging occupation. Indeed, how a parent raises his or her child is the cumulative result of the mental and emotional character of the parent, the background of the parent, the financial circumstances of the parent, how the parent was raised as a child, and also the emotional character of the child or the actions of the child. Consider a situation where the parent indulges in corporal punishment. As an action agent, the parent firmly believes that this punishment is of a corrective nature, meant to discipline the child. For the child receiving this punishment, certainly it is momentarily painful. The child might resent the punishment; alternatively, the child might recognize that the punishment is in response to instances of mischief.
The spectator might as the moral purveyor of this scenario might see this as a virtue or a vice. The spectator might believe that the corporal punishment…… [Read More]
Administration and Leadership
Maintaining order and control in correctional facilities -- while also presiding over well-managed facilities from a fiscal and ethical perspective -- is the goal of every conscientious administrator. The Center for Innovative Public Policies (CIPP) published a list of "core competencies" for leadership in correctional facilities. Among the skills most vital to a competent prison leader are: a) to be able to "anticipate, analyze, and resolve organizational challenges"; b) to build and "maintain positive relationships with external stakeholders"; c) to "communicate effectively" and to "comprehend, obtain, and manage fiscal resources"; d) to create a diverse organizational that "promotes respect"; e) to be visionary and to engage in "strategic planning" and develop a vision for the mission of the institution; f) to enhance "self-awareness and maintain proactive professional commitment; g) to "establish organizational authority" and design roles and responsibilities; h) to make sound decisions, manage change,…… [Read More]
criminal justice system and the historical foundations of the system. The study has discussed the current criminal justice system and how it has evolved during the years. The various functions of the criminal justice system are also discussed briefly to get clear understanding on the topic.
Criminal Justice System is a system of institutions and practices employed to uphold crime, deterring and social control or to put sanctions on those who are violating the laws by imposing criminal penalties and through rehabilitation efforts. The accused criminals also have some protections against the misconduct or abuse of prosecution and investigatory powers.
The criminal justice policy in the United States is guided by a ground breaking report that was presented to the President's Commission in 1967 on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. This commission had advised a systematic approach in dealing with criminal justice through a coordinated effort among courts, correctional…… [Read More]
UK Immigration Act of 1971 and Its Enforcement with espect to Administrative emoval/Deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are Engaged
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many observers stated that "nothing would ever be the same again" and in some ways they have been absolutely correct. While the United Kingdom continues its inexorable march to become fully integrated into the burgeoning European Union, a number of obstacles remain firmly in place that relate to the perceived need by the UK government to better control movement of foreigners within its borders. The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the UK Immigration Act of 1971 and its enforcement with respect to administrative removal or deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are engaged. This study used a three-chapter format to achieve this research purpose. Chapter…… [Read More]
EFFECT OF DISCIPLINAY POLICY
Instrument to be used
Future use of study results
Over the last few decades the institution of education has undergone many changes. One of the most scrutinized areas of education currently is the area of discipline. The recent rash of violence across the nation at high school has caused the focus to turn to discipline. The Columbine killings among other violent school events have caused experts to begin looking at bullies, violence, at risk students and others to discover what the key is to turning them around in their school career. One discipline method that has been used for years is removal of the offending student from the general student population. The student who is removed is done so either through suspension or expulsion. Suspension and expulsion are used in many situations as discipline. When students break zero tolerance policies, or…… [Read More]
She did not have the benefit of a bedroom door for the last two years of high school.
Without the bedroom door, the client changed her clothes in the bathroom and was often unable to sleep at night because of her father's snoring. The first time her mother confronted her for being wide awake (and reading) in her room in the middle of the night, the client admitted that her father's snoring kept her awake. A few minutes later, her father entered her room and whipped her with the belt for "being disrespectful."
After discovering that alcohol allowed her to fall asleep and sleep through the night, she began drinking vodka at bedtime, which she chose because it was odorless and easy to hide in alternative containers in her room and among the cleaning supplies in the bathroom cabinet.
The client has always recalled the details of her childhood physical…… [Read More]
history there has been a major hypocrisy when it comes to children and the way they have been treated. On the one hand children are the most precious commodity on earth. They are the future politicians, doctors, and evangelists that will grow up to lead the world. They are the people who will eventually cure disease, invent marvelous contraptions and change the world. By all intents and purposes children are the world's most precious commodity and those in the United Kingdom are included in the lot. However throughout the history of the United Kingdom children for the most part have not had a lot of rights or protections afforded them. In more recent history this pattern began to change and as those changes took place the true nature of the wrongs of the past came to light. As the United Kingdom continued to work toward change the issue of children's…… [Read More]
EFEENCES & WOKS CONSULTED
Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family elations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work esearch. 28 (3): 153+.
Itzin, C. (2000). Home Truths About Child Sexual Abuse: A eader. outledge.
Jouriles, E., et.al. (2008). "Child Abuse in the Context of Domestic Violence."
Violence and Victims. 23 (2): 221+.
Lincoln, B. (NDI). BrainyQuotes.com. Cited in: BrainyQuote.com:
Miller, K. (2003). "Understanding and Treating eactive Attachment Disorder." Working
Papers from medical Educational Services Workshop. Arlington, Tx, February, 2003.
Minnis, H., et.al., 92006). "eactive Attachment Disorder." European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 15 (2): 336-42.
NAI. (2010, April). Definitions in Federal Law. etrieved April 25, 2010, from Defining Child
Abuse & Neglect: http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/defining/federal.cfm
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Saisan, J.,…… [Read More]
Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.
Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…… [Read More]
Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).
The eligious Theory
The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…… [Read More]
Islamic criminal justice system to the criminal justice Systems of the common Law and the Civil law
Law is implied to hold a fundamental position in the societal system of the western and near eastern regions. Two customary beliefs are present in these "law-centered" societies. The custom of divine revelation is the first one. This has given rise to the Talmudic and Islamic systems of law, among which the importance of Islamic legal system is increasing in many nations. The other is the custom of involvement of the public that gave rise to either Greek and Roman models and consequently the civil law system, or the weird historical happenings in England from which the common law system has emerged. Islamic law is neither a remnant from the history nor a revisit to ancient origins, but somewhat an intricate, multithreaded cluster of thoughts and actions that the Islamic persons shaped and…… [Read More]
Governor of Illinois, not long ago, declared a temporary moratorium on death penalty cases. He then commuted the sentences of all death row inmates in Illinois prisons. This was due to reports of egregious miscarriage of justice. Innocent people were unfairly sentenced. (Davey & Mills, 2003) While this was welcome news to some, it also provoked outrage among those who felt that the "blanket moratorium" was an injustice to the families of victims, especially since the perpetrators were sentenced because they were found guilty without a shadow of a doubt. Capital punishment is a difficult subject to discuss. Groups that support the death penalty and those that oppose it put forth arguments that are then refuted by those on the other side of the divide. Statistics, data and personal testimonies and eyewitness reports are used to support their respective causes. In the U.S., Crimes such as murder, treason and other…… [Read More]
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]
Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.
During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]
Drives Punitive Beliefs
Brian K. Payne, Randy R. Gainey, Ruth A. Triplett, and Mona J.E. Danner present a sociological examination of punitive beliefs in the United States in their article "hat Drives Punitive Beliefs? Demographic Characteristics and Justifications for Sentencing." In particular the authors address three main research issues: how punitive citizens are and how they view certain criminal sanctions; what factors influence individuals' attitudes toward punishment; and whether differences in attitude are reflected in different races and gender. In their review of literature, the authors appropriately discuss non-scientific, philosophical studies of criminology and punishment, referring to early treatises on the subject such as Beccaria's Essays on Crime and Punishment and Emile Durkheim's mid-twentieth century beliefs that criminology. One of the greatest strengths of "hat Drives Punitive Beliefs?" is in fact the author's incorporation of philosophical points in current sociological, empirical research. Mentioning the works of .E.B. DuBois is a…… [Read More]
A major portion of an inmate's helplessness, deprivation, depression and self-loathing etc. arises due to physical and psychological victimization that he or she has to face. Physical victimization includes homicide, assault and rape. These arise due to poor staff supervision and keeping defenseless prisoners with the violent ones. On the other hand, psychological victimization involves verbal manipulation and harsh psychological attacks of personal nature.
The stronger inmates attempt to create their own subcultures that show their dominance, rule and assertion on all prisoners (Heilpern, 1998). To fulfill the maintenance of these subcultures, they resort to rape, riots or even homicide spreading mental illnesses like stress, phobias, enhanced criminal activity, shame, guilt, etc. among the weaker prisoners.
Imprisonment: Eliminating or aggravating crime?
It is not a hidden matter that jails, even after intensive care and security, are not free of brutality, stress and violence among the inmates. The safety of each…… [Read More]
It is difficult to imagine the kinds of unfair discrimination that was wrought against women, witches, and anyone else who did go along with the status quo. However, in inthrop's situation, the matter of survival was so acutely important that a strong-fisted rule was thought to be necessary.
He expresses, more than once, in the trial transcript his fears that the entire colonial civilization could fall over this one woman's outspoken beliefs. Banishment was the only appropriate punishment, since it would remove her from the small, sealed world of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and ensure that she could not sway peoples' minds toward this outrageous idea of grace.
It is almost comical to consider that now, in 2008, we see crowds of Christians waving their hands in the air to feel the grace of God, an experience they believe is attainable simply through their faith. This is the exact kind…… [Read More]
Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.
As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.
Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:
Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…… [Read More]
Family Income, Parental Attitudes and Environmental Influence on Children's Well-being and Achievements
Economic theory suggests that both time and money are critical resources to the well being of family members since income is used to increase well-being of children and parents. Moreover, income is used to enjoy leisure and purchase goods and services to improve well-being of family members. Typically, " less time available to the family, income constant, thus predicts lower well-being for some or all family members" (Burton & Phipps, 2011 p 396). In the contemporary environment, family income can lead to a development of children and youth's intellectual development. In other words, family income can assist in enhancing children health, educational and intellectual outcomes. Despite the general belief about relationships of family income and children development, there is still a disagreement about the causal effects of family incomes to the positive outcomes of children since unmeasured variables…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice in Action:
The American prison system has throughout the years developed to become home to the increasing population of the nation's criminals. The increasing population of these criminals in the American prison system is due to the fact that incarceration has always been used even in cases where alternative punishment would be adequate. Furthermore, this growing population of inmates is due to sentence disparities that include both long and short sentences. Currently, the maintenance of these criminals in American prisons is entirely drawn from the taxes that citizens pay. The American prison system has now developed to become the largest across the globe since the number of inmates increases annually. While the purpose of American prisons is to serve as a place of punishment of criminals, they have now become places of leisure. Actually, it's widely considered that inmates in American prisons are treated like guests at a…… [Read More]
Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are commonly linked mental health disorders that children exhibit. This paper examines some of the challenges that both children and parents face as a result of living with these disorders. It suggests some positive approaches to parenting that parents may find useful and offers recommendations in terms of how parents can most positively help a child with ADHD or ODD. The most important conclusion that this paper provides is the notion that parents must be able to demonstrate patience over the long term while facilitating their love and support for the child with guidance, reinforcement, and education. Eliminating stress from the child’s environment can be especially helpful in allowing the child to deal in a healthy manner with the impulses he or she feels, and parents, for their part, may benefit from parental training so that they can learn what…… [Read More]
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…… [Read More]
Maryland Prison System
Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners.
The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…… [Read More]
However, they "were too few in number to provide adequate protection and were not always themselves fully committed to ensuring justice for freed blacks" (Cary Royce 67). The American public wanted reform to happen but few people were actually willing to risk their position in society by supporting black people. As a consequence, former slaves were provided with little support and were practically forced to maintain many of their attributes as slaves despite the fact that they were free.
Berlin, Ira, et al. "The Terrain of Freedom: The Struggle over the Meaning of Free Labor in the U.S. South." History orkshop Journal 22 (1986)
Cary Royce, Edward, the origins of southern sharecropping, (Temple University Press, 1993)
Fast, Howard, Freedom Road (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995)
An Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980 an Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980, vol. 1 (estport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982)
Lanza, Michael, L. Agrarianism and Reconstruction Politics: The…… [Read More]
The ancient Mexican region not only stands out as a mythological haven, but also as a culturally vibrant and technologically advanced civilization. Among the Mesoamerican civilizations, the Aztecs standout for their significant contributions in the fields of astronomy, medicine, and also for their bizarre ritualistic practices.
The Aztecs represent an important group of the Mesoamerican civilizations. They arrived from the north to the 'valley of Mexiaco' or what is currently the city of Mexico, during 1200 AD. Known as the 'Tenochca' or the 'Toltec' tribe, the Aztecs dominated the Mexican valley between the 14th and 15th centuries. Initially, confronted by the Culhuacans the Tenochcas had to flee the mainland and move towards the island. Under the command of Itzacoatl, the Tenochcas gained freedom and undertook the construction of the grand city of Tenochtitlan. As new regions in the valley of Mexico came under the Aztecs they also absorbed the…… [Read More]