Corporate Finance Essays (Examples)

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Corporate Qs Generally Speaking the

Words: 531 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24122942

Political upheavals can work in a similar fashion, increasing the perceived risk of an investment without a direct corresponding increase in the potential rewards, as well as directly threatening the ability to transport goods, access and move capital, etc. (Peterson & Fabozzi 2002).

Differences in tax laws could also make it advantageous for firms to restructure their capital budget to show income and expenditures in the nations that have the most favorable tax incentives for such transactions, and can also heavily influence where capital is stored based on interest growth tax rates (Peterson & Fabozzi 2002). Transfer pricing also takes place with both parties attempting to maximize their return, agreeing on certain currencies of exchange, adjustment procedures, etc., contributing in no small way to the strategic budgeting and financing of a firm (Peterson & Fabozzi 2002; Vishwanath 2007). Strategic decisions that take into account non-financial consideration can also greatly influence…… [Read More]

References

Peterson, P. & Fabozzi, F. (2002). Capital budgeting. New York: Wiley.

Vishwanath, S. (2007). Corporate finance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Finance Cost of Capital the Capital Which

Words: 807 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39569548

Finance

Cost of Capital

The capital which is used by a firm, and shown n the balance can be divided into two main classifications; debt and equity. When a firm assesses its total cost of capital, this will usually be calculated on a weighted basis, using the costs of the different types of capital (Elliott and Elliott, 2011). An understanding of this can be appreciated by looking at some of the main sources of capital and the costs associated with each type of capital.

Debt

One of the most common forms of capital is debt. Debt is capital that is obtained through borrowing. There are many kinds of debt, which may include long-term debt such as structured loans from banks or other financial institutions, and short-term debt, such as overdraft facilities and credit agreements with suppliers. The cost of debt is relativity simply to calculate, with most debts having an…… [Read More]

References

Collins, Bill; Mckeith, John (2009), Financial Accounting and Reporting, McGraw-Hill Higher Education

Elliott B, Elliott J, (2011), Financial Accounting and Reporting, London, Prentice Hall

Hillier, David; Ross, Stephen A.; Westerfield, Randolph W; Jaffe, Jeffrey, (2010), Corporate Finance, McGraw-Hill Higher Education
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Finance Terms

Words: 478 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51358470

Corporate Finance

Defining the term "good company" on the terms of it recently experiencing rapid growth may be premature in realizing its worth as an investment. apid growth is a tricky idea and may lead many investors down the wrong path if they are unaware of the basics of stock valuation and determining what is right, prudent and wise. Although rapid growth may be an indicator of in fact a very good company to invest in, this criteria alone does not serve the successful investor in all cases.

Value is what is most important in this equation, as the risks involved in the market are unforgiving in those who ignore this idea in its entirety. Hough (2011) agreed with this idea when he wrote "esearchers have long studied the relationship between "value" and "growth" stocks. The difference mostly has to do with price. Value stocks are cheap relative to fundamental…… [Read More]

References

Business Dictionary.com (nd). "Total Risk." Viewed 3 July 2014. Retrieved from  http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/total-risk.html 

Hough, J. (2011). Why Value Will Beat Growth. The Wall Street Journal, 29 Oct 2011. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970204505304577003822965852682
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Finance 1a Capital Structure Can

Words: 766 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56107349

5x -- 50,000

200,000 / 7.5 = 26,6667 units

1e) the ROE for the first scenario is 140,000 / (0.85*350,000) = 47%

the ROE for the second scenario is 140,000 / (0.65*350,000) = 61.5%

The difference is 61.5 -- 47 = 14.5%

1f) the dividend payout structure is going to be as follows. The taxable income will be as follows:

($200,000 * .35) = $70,000 of debt. The interest will be (70,000)(.105) = $7,350

So taxable income will be $200,000 -- 7350 = $192,650

Tax at 30% is $57,795

Thus, net income is $192,650 - $57,795 = $134,855

The equity needed for the capital budget is (.65)(150,000) = $97,500

The dividends are therefore calculated as $134,855 - $97,500 = $37,355

The payout is therefore $37,355 / $134,855 = 27.7%

2. a) the company faces some risks if it tightens the credit policy. It will reduce its accounts receivable if it…… [Read More]

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Finance Such as Present Value

Words: 2876 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28062634

This in turn gives the financial professional better idea of the stock's risk behavior.

The equation used in this security market line relationship is as follows:

Mathis, CAPM, par. 3)

The measure of systematic risk is considered Beta or bi while E[Ri] is equal to the expected return on asset I and Rf is the risk-free rate. E[Rm] is the expected return on the market portfolio and E[Rm] - Rf is the market risk premium for the stock. Once the Beta is known then the risk and rate of return can be found.

APT is different because not only can forecast for the long-term, it can also work for the short-term scenario. This fact makes it the better of the two theories because it gives the financial professional more tools to assess risk and the rate of return. APT does this by using a model that captures all the data.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anonymous. "Risk and Return." The Economist (1991): 1-2.

APT: Risk Models and Portfolio Analytics. 22 Dec 2004 http://www.apt.com/..

Capital budgeting needs vision." Business Line. Islamabad: Jul 21, 2003. pg. 1.

Johnson and Johnson Financial Summary. Yahoo Finance. 22 Dec. 2004 http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=JNJ&d=t..
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Finance and Financial Entrepreneurship The Basis of

Words: 11684 Length: 34 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49018616

finance and financial entrepreneurship. The basis of the article is on a discussion that was held on this subject among four leading lights of financial entrepreneurship in the United States - Michael Milken, Lewis Ranieri, Richard Sandor and Myron Scholes. These people are famous in their own right and have had a sizeable role in financial entrepreneurship in the U.S. over the last 20 years. We have first discussed their achievements to get a clear idea about their personal achievements. This would certainly give a clear idea of what is possible in the U.S. today. They are of course interesting characters and one has to remember that the ideal entrepreneur of the 21st century cannot be thought of as an updated version of Henry Ford. After the discussion of the people, the meeting and the discussions held there are summarized. ased on the total information collected, we have come to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Altman, E.I., ed. The High-Yield Debt Market: Investment Performance and Economic Impact, 41-57. 1990.

Atkinson, T.R. Trends in Corporate Bond Quality. Hardingson, 1967.

Goodfriend, Marvin; Parthemos; James, Summers, Bruce J. Recent financial innovations: courses, consequences for the payments system, and implications for monetary control, Economic Review, March 14-27, 1980

Schneider, S.H. Laboratory Earth: The Planetary Gamble We Can't Afford to Lose. Basic Books New York, NY. 1997.
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Corporate Merger Between Delta and Northwest Airlines

Words: 4722 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5539022

corporate merger between Delta and Northwest airlines in order to find out the possible reasons why it was necessary. We evaluate the merits associated with corporate mergers and the challenges that might be faced in the process. A recommendation on how mergers should be carried out is also provided

Mergers and acquisitions form a very integral part of the contemporary corporate landscape. Kolker (2010) points out that initial six months of the year 2010 witnessed the total value of global acquisitions increase to 2.7% to a monetary value of $915 billion. This was an increase for the initial six months of 2009. 2010 however was off to a rather slow start as compared to 2006 which recorded an excess of $3.8 trillion in transactions related to acquisitions (Yeary, 2007). It is worth noting that it is never the volume of the deals that matter but their size. Averagely, there were…… [Read More]

References

Appelbaum, S., Lefrancois, F., Tonna, R. And Shapiro, B. (2007). Mergers 101 (part one):

Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17, 99-120.

Bijlsma-Frankema, K. (2001). On managing cultural integration and cultural processes in mergers and acquisitions, Journal of European Industrial Training, 25/2/3/4, 192-207

Brigham, EF & Houston, JF (2009).Fundamentals of Financial Management
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Finance Question 1 A Bond Ratings Encompass a

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87720726

Finance

Question 1.a) Bond ratings encompass a wide range of elements related to the credit risk of the firm. Moody's notes that bond ratings include elements of default probability, loss severity, "financial strength" and "transition risk" (Cantor & Fons, 1999). The authors note that within the same sector, bonds of the same rating tend to be comparable both with respect to overall credit quality and specific credit quality characteristics. Over different segments of the bond market, this is not necessarily the case. Bond ratings tend to take in factors like the balance sheet strength of the firm, as well as the expected loss in the event of a default. Thus, the type of assets that the firm holds is an important characteristic. The transition risk reflects the likelihood that the firm will experience outright default without transitioning down through the different risk categories. Firms that are almost assuredly going to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cantor, R. & Fons, J. (1999). Rating methodology: The evolving meaning of Moody's bond ratings. Moody's. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from http://www.moodys.com/sites/products/AboutMoodysRatingsAttachments/2000400000300541.pdf?frameOfRef=corporate

Investopedia. (2012). Net present value. Investopedia. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/npv.asp#axzz1tFv4YkMI
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Corporate Tax Changes There Has Been a

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29206321

Corporate Tax Changes

There has been a proposal to reduce the corporate tax rate to 25%. ased on research, the United States has the worst tax codes in the entire world. ecause of the corporate tax situation, multinational corporations are holding an estimated $1.7 trillion in earnings abroad to avoid the 35% tax rate (Yang, 2012). Policymakers are deliberating compromise in an overhaul of the tax code for the year 2013.

The Obama administration has proposed a "global minimum tax" that would apply to income earned in any country. This is the most viable plan due to the fact of U.S. GAAP is conforming to IFRS rules to form international standards. Where all corporations do not pay the same tax rates from industry to industry, even from year to year, it would make the tax rate codes more fair for all corporations whether they are a multinational or domestic firm.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Appelbaum, B. (2011, Apr 27). Corporate Tax Code Proves Hard To Change. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/28/us/politic/28tax.html

Leonhardt, D. (2011, Feb 1). The Paradox of Corporate Taxes. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://nytimes.com/2011/02/02/business/economy/02leonhardt.html

Yang, J.L. (2012, Nov 28). Companies quietly push for tax bread on foreign profits in 'fiscal cliff' debate. Retrieved from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/with-fiscal-cliff-some-promote-corporate-tax-code-reform-to-territorial-system/2012/11/28/d8588c1a-2f56-11e2-a30e-5ca76eeec857_story.html?wpress=rss_national
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Corporate Sustainability Summary of the Purpose of

Words: 2925 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14047818

Corporate Sustainability

Summary of the purpose of Corporate Sustainability Reporting

Reporting corporate sustainability is one of the best ways to ensure that a company is not only doing well financially in the present but also in securing a better and more certain future. The reporting of corporate suitability ensures that the current needs of the organization are effectively met without comprising future needs of the organization. Reporting on corporate sustainability also ensure that organization are able to keep up with all changes in the industry, with ensuring that new innovations have been developed, maintained and employed in the daily operations of the organization. Corporate sustainability is developed on a grid developed to ensure that the future is secure, and that the organization will survive for a long time.

Corporate sustainability also encompasses the assessment of current and future risks that the organization is likely to endure. As such, a majority…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chee Tahir, A., and Darton, R. C, 2010, "The process analysis method of selecting indicators to quantify the sustainability performance of a business operation." Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, 1598 -- 1607.

Kaufman, A. And Englander, E, 2011, "Behavioral Economics, Federalism, and the Triumph of Stakeholder Theory." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 102 No.3, 421-438.

Fassin, Y, August 2012. "Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 109 No.1, 83-96.

Pryor, M, Humphreys, J, Oyler, J, Taneja, S. And Toombs, L, December 2011, "The Legitimacy and Efficacy of Current Organizational Theory: An Analysis." International Journal of Management Part 2, Vol. 28 No.4, 209-228.
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Finance Questions on Capital Raising

Words: 1282 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15500782

For example, many of the large investment banks may choose to deal only with large deals will have minimum transaction sizes. Therefore, the first consideration may be the suitability of the bank given the size of the organization. There may also need to be consideration of the degree of attention and expertise that the investment banker direct with the company, even if the minimum is met, large organizations with a large number of clients may have a higher level of expertise that can be directed, but they may also be more focused on large clients. This can only be assessed by talking to the relevant investment bank.

Prior to taking on any investment bank it will be necessary to allow the investment banker to make a pitch. oss details of the organization's financial position may be given prior to this pitch, but an investment banker should be willing to sign…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, Benjamin M, (1982), The Changing Roles of Debt and Equity in Financing U.S. Capital Formation, University of Chicago Press

Miller, M. H, (1988), The Modigliani -- Miller Propositions after Thirty Years, Journal of Economic Perspectives 2(4), 99 -- 120.

Turo, J, (2013, October 2), How to Choose The Right Investment Banker to Sell Your Business, Entrepreneur, accessed 27th April 2014 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/228671
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Corporate Capital Structure Decisions Are

Words: 1169 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21347935



Statement 3

Another important issue to consider in the contraction of debt is represented by the impact of this debt on the company stakeholders -- employees, business partners, the public, and most importantly, the share holders. The primary scope of the economic agent is that of creating value for its stakeholders, but excessive debt could jeopardize this desire, especially since debt is money that has to be repaid and it as such reduces the future levels of profitability.

At the level of value creation, a crucial aspect to be analyzed is represented by the source of the debt to be contracted. On the one hand, there is the contraction of debt through loans, which are characterized by the fact that control and ownership of the company remains intact, but payments have to be regularly made; the payments are nevertheless tax deductible.

On the other hand, there is the contraction of…… [Read More]

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Corporate Governance Shareholder Wealth Maximization

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71100744

Communities are looking for social expenditures by the business to benefit the community (hospitals, stable employment, donations, and investments). Managers face a challenge in making such crucial decisions. Therefore, corporations must be clear on how to make tradeoffs between these often inconsistent and conflicting interests from different stakeholders.

In the Shareholder Wealth Maximization model, three types of maximization exist in a company. They include total stakeholder maximization, shareholder maximization and stakeholder-owner maximization. Shareholder maximization is based on a single stakeholder maximization whereby the sole business owner is taken into account during maximization. The stakeholder owner maximization focuses on desired interests and resources important for shareholders commitment. It is crucial for the overall success of the business venture (Tricker, 2012).

Of all the three-wealth maximization of companies, shareholder wealth maximization is more significant than the other two. While most businesses presume total stakeholder maximization to be the most significant role, it…… [Read More]

References

Calder, a. (2008). Corporate governance: A practical guide to the legal frameworks and international codes of practice. London: Kogan Page.

Moffett, M.H., Stonehill, a.I., & Eiteman, D.K. (2012). Fundamentals of multinational finance (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.

Tricker, R.I. (2012). Corporate governance: Principles, policies and practices. Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Corporate Roles in Environmental Ethics

Words: 5925 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39363295

Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics

Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from:

http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/careers.

Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC

Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from:  http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_the_Global_Supply_Chain .
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Corporate Investor Over the Last Several Years

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26171222

Corporate Investor

Over the last several years, the portfolio theory has been used as a way to help corporate investors analyze different securities and determine the impact of specific investments on their total returns. This is when a firm will construct a portfolio of securities which are based upon expected returns associated with certain levels of risk. During this process, there are four steps that are involved to include: security valuation, asset allocation, portfolio optimization and performance measurement. ("Modern Portfolio Theory," 2013)

These different areas reduce volatility and enhance the total returns for corporate investors. To fully understand these ideas requires: carefully examining the effects of the theory in relation to the risks of a security and the overall costs of capital to firms. Together, these elements will highlight why this approach has become so popular with corporate investors. ("Modern Portfolio Theory," 2013)

The effect of the portfolio on risk…… [Read More]

References

Modern Portfolio Theory. (2013). Investopedia. Retrieved from:  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/modernportfoliotheory.asp 

Elton, E. (2009). Modern Portfolio Theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Francis, J. (2013). Modern Portfolio Theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Scherer, B. (2005). Modern Portfolio Theory Optimization. New York, NY: Springer.
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Finance Flexible Budget for Yum Brands Inc

Words: 953 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68776041

Finance

Flexible Budget for Yum Brands Inc.

Flexible budgeting allows a firm to look at different potential scenarios, often this may be undertaken for an optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenario. Firms will often undertake forecasting exercises; these may be based on complex approaches to assess likely demand, for example, considering past patterns of sales, the impact advertising they will have and other factors such as the influence of the economic climate, competition and social factors. However, forecasts are unlikely to be fully accurate, the development of a flexible budget allows the firm to look at different scenarios, and create a more flexible approach towards planning. This can be particularly important when the firm is planning for a longer period of time, such as a full financial year, this can be seen by preparing a flexible budget for a well-known company. Yum! Brands is a large corporation which develops, operates…… [Read More]

References

McDonalds, (2013), Shareholder Information, accessed http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/investors/shareholder_information.html on 4th Jan 2014

Trading Economics, (2014), U.S. GDP Growth Rate, accessed  http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-states/gdp-growth  on 4th Jan 2014 from Yum! Brands Inc., (2013), 10-k for 2012, Yum Brands Inc.

Yum! Brands Inc., (2011), 10-k for 2010, Yum Brands Inc.
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Corporate Responsibility -- Nike Corporate

Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77872455



A human rights organization would vehemently disagree with the self-interested shareholder supporters of sweatshops and state that merely because workers are desperate and are willing to accept lower wages is no reason for Nike to take advantage of such desperation. Nike keeps wages low, rather than driving them up in the context of the local economy. For only a few pennies more, Nike could pay the workers a much fairer wage, and if American consumers were only willing to pay a bit more, the overall economic health of the developing world might be improved. Also, by using the developed world as a source of cheap labor, no local industry and entrepreneurship is stimulated -- local industries cannot compete against Nike, and Nike essentially uses the developing nation as a colonial outpost, rather than makes a contribution to the nation's economic progress by building its infrastructure like a local company might…… [Read More]

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Finance Fundamentals of Finance Assuming

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92817226

"

3) a. If $1.25 represents a 40% dividend payout ratio, earnings per share are $3.13. A six percent return (the required return) would put future earnings at $3.32. ((3.32-3.13)*100)/3.13 = 6.07%

b. 40% (the dividend payout ratio) of $3.32 (future estimated earnings) is $1.33

c. The price of the stock cannot be calculated accurately with the information given, however if its is assumed that the earnings per share (currently $3.13 with dividends of $1.25 and a dividend payout ratio of 40%) represent the 20% return on equity, then the price is simply five times the earnings per share, or $15.65.

d. assuming the dividend payout ratio and return on equity remain constant at 40% and 20% throughout this period, a and the same relationship for the ROE and stock price, in the first year, a dividend of $2 means EPS increases to $5, translating to a stock price of…… [Read More]

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Corporate Governance There Have Been Controversies on

Words: 2666 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70365114

Corporate Governance

There have been controversies on the subject of the governance and accountability of big corporations, but it is only recently that these issues have gained prominence. The compensation for the top management is one of the major issues of corporate governance today. The primary reason for offering stocks to executives was for raising the share prices and thereby increasing its value for both investors as well as shareholders. Though this proved to be a major success, there were a few executives who would not disclose their stock options or would not make full use of the stock options offered to them. This caused inefficiency in the financial market. Stakeholders have the freedom to check their shares and to question the management if there were any discrepancies. Despite these constant checks with financial analysts, the board of directors, the panel of regulators, auditors and managers, there has been instances…… [Read More]

References

Charkham, Jonathan. 1994. 'Keeping Good Company: A Study of Corporate Governance in Five Countries' New York: Oxford University Press.

Davies, Adrian. 1999. 'A Strategic Approach to Corporate Governance' Gower.

De George, Richard T. 1995. 'Business Ethics' New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Fort, Timothy L. 2001. 'Ethics and Governance: Business as Mediating Institution' New York, N.Y: Oxford University Press.
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Corporate Governance Under Globalization in

Words: 5529 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45396322

It should not be treated as a separate exercise undertaken to meet regulatory requirements." (ICA, 29) Here is expressed a philosophical impetus that drives the focus of this research, that such compliance which will generally concern matters such as corporate accounting, the practice of internal oversight and the practice of financial transaction must be considered inextricable from other aspects of practical, procedural and legal operation in terms of its relevance and necessity.

Chapter 3-Practice

The practice of corporate governance may perhaps best be understand from the perspective that deregulation has largely defined the processes and direction of the global economy across the two decades following the Cold ar and its inevitable opening of economic channels. This is because in practice, corporate governance is a concept which has suffered much neglect. To the point, the statistics availed by organizations such as the orld Bank and the International Monetary Fund illustrate that…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Aguilera, R.V. & Yip, G.S. (2004). Corporate Governance and Globalization:

Toward an Actor Centred Institutional Analysis. University of Illinois: College

of Business. Online at .

ASB. (1999). Reporting Financial Performance. Financial Reporting Council. Online at
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Corporate Governance of Finances in Major Corporations

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44211186

Corporate governance of finances in major corporations has been a major controversy during the recent recession. The scandal at Satyam is indicative of problems across the board, from CEOS, to executive boards, to independent auditors and even accounting firms such as Price Waterhouse. In this essay, the author will consider the unique problems presented in a globalised market where faith in the market is essential for international trade to function.

When the CEO assumes the entire responsibility in a corporate governance fiasco absolving everyone else (family members, board of directors, independent directors and other top management people), how should the regulatory authorities and the government proceed against the CEO who has confessed and other people who were absolved by him. Critically evaluate especially from the point-of-view of absolving all the others including the top management, board of directors and the family members, from any of the accumulated corporate wrongdoings.

What…… [Read More]

References

Caprio Jr., J. And Levine, R. (2002). Corporate Governance in Finance: Concepts and Inernational Observations. World Bank, IMF, and Brookings Institution Conference, Building the Pillars of Financial Sector Governance: The Roles of Public and Private Sectors.. pp. 1-44. Available: http://www.siteresources.worldbank.org/DEC/.../corporategover_finance.pdf.

Kumar, G, Paul, P, and Sapkota P. (2011). The Largest Corporate Fraud in India: Satyam Computer Services Limited, Proceedings of the American Accounting Association 2011 Annual Meeting pp. 1-23. Available: http://www.mendeley.com/research/largest-corporate-fraud-india-satyam-computer-services-limited/. Last accessed 24 Dec. 2011.
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Finance Management Accounting the Topic of Finance and

Words: 2385 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37607299

Finance/Management Accounting

The topic of finance and managerial accounting inclusively, are broad and incorporate a critical skill set in the modern day business student. Finance involves corporate and investment finance and managerial accounting is complimentary as it involves cost accounting and essentially stresses cost management. Together, these topics provide a comprehensive financial analysis skill set yielding capability in solving the day's most critical business financial quandaries. The literature review will seek to narrow down the literature and funnel the topic into the main financial analysis area.

According to Musvoto, (2011), "Studies in accounting measurement indicate the absence of empirical relational structures that should form the basis for accounting measurement. This suggests the lack of objectivity of accounting information. Landmarks in the development of finance theory indicate the use of accounting measurement information as a basis for their development. This indicates that subjective accounting information is incorporated in finance theory. Landmarks…… [Read More]

References

Allen, D. (1992). Financial management: The leading edge of management accountancy. Strategic Finance, 73(12), 53. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/229748882?accountid=13044 

Black, T., & Gallagher, L. (1999). Are physical capacity constraints relevant?: Applying finance-economics theory to a management accounting misconception. Australian Journal of Management, 24(2), 143. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/200627217?accountid=13044 

Brewer, P.C. (2008). Redefining management accounting. Strategic Finance, 89(9), 26. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/229763529?accountid=13044 

Coakley, J.R., & Brown, C.E. (2000). Artificial neural networks in accounting and finance: Modeling issues. Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management, 9(2), 119. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/214368060?accountid=13044
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Finance an Investor Choosing Between Two Different

Words: 3444 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19936063

Finance

An investor choosing between two different companies must undertake several steps in order to determine the best investment. In addition to understanding the industry of the company from a strategic perspective, a thorough financial analysis should be conducted. The strategic analysis will help to understand the underlying trends of the financial assessment. The financial analysis should include a ratio analysis, and should focus on the key areas of liquidity, solvency, leverage and profitability. In addition, the performance of the company's equity should be analyzed, particularly in relation to the company's financial performance. This will help to determine if the current share price is good value. This report will analyze two different companies -- Marks & Spencer and Tullow Oil -- using these criteria. There will also be a brief corporate social reporting analysis.

Marks & Spencer Overview

M&S is a department store retailer based in the UK, but operating…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Marks & Spencer 2010 Annual Report. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://annualreport.marksandspencer.com/overview/about-us.aspx

Yahoo! Finance: Marks & Spencer. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/bs?s=MKS.L+Balance+Sheet&annual

TullowOil.com. (2011). Retrieved February 11, 2011 from  http://www.tullowoil.com 

Yahoo! Finance: Tullow Oil. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/is?s=TLW.L+Income+Statement&annual
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Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility

Words: 1946 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55901165

(Roy, 2006)

In these cases, others working in those fields are the only ones who have the ability to conduct quality check to verify instances of possible fraud. Qualified doctors can analyze the work of other doctors to attest their medical malpractice. An honest lawyer who deals with related issues can understand how a fellow lawyer could have used deceitful methods to cheat a client off his money. Proficient lecturers can set good examples for students to bring out the incompetency of others. In the managerial level, well qualified professionals are the only ones who are smart enough to figure out the plots hatched by higher executives in order to use the shareholder money for personal needs. Scams in the political sector can only be challenged by opposing political parties or powerful entities like the court. The media is highly potent in this regard as they present malpractices in front…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Description of Corporate Governance [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 August 2010]

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 August 2010]

Blundell M., Explain what is meant by the principal agent problem [online] Available at:

< tutor2u.net/blog/files/Principal_Agent_Problem.pdf > [Accessed 11 August 2010]
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Corporate Governance a Concept Which Has Succeeded

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53188563

Corporate governance, a concept which has succeeded in attracting a lot of public interest due to its perceived importance for the corporations' and society' economic health in general has been accorded several definitions. Shleifer and Vishny (737) defined corporate governance as a concept that deals with the manner in which suppliers of various financial services to corporations somehow assure themselves of getting some good return on their investment. OECD (1999) on the other hand defines corporate governance as a system by which various corporations are effectively directed as well as controlled. The structure of corporate governance specifies the form of distribution of rights as well as responsibilities among various different participants in a given corporation. The participants include the board of directors, managers, stakeholders as well as the shareholders. The corporate governance structure lays down the rules as well as procedures to be used for making various decisions on the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lisboa, Ines "Understanding the Relationship between Insider Ownership and Performance in Europe." 2008

 http://69.175.2.130/~finman/Prague/Papers/RelationshipbetweenOwandPerfinEurope.pdf 

Merchant, Kenneth & Van der Stede, Wim 2nd ed.. Management Control System: Performance Measurement, Evaluation and Incentives. Prentice Hall. (ISBN-13: 978-0-273-70801-8). April 27, 2007

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development "OECD Principles of Corporate Governance." 2004 < http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/32/18/31557724.pdf
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Corporate Governance as Some Queries About Corporate

Words: 5545 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39945568

Corporate Governance

As some queries about corporate governance were there ever since 1932 - the period of erle and Means, the expression of the concept of Corporate Governance was not found in English vocabulary until 25 years ago. However, in the previous two decades, matters relating to corporate governance have gained importance in academic literature as well as in public policy deliberations. Corporate governance came to be acknowledged as being synonymous with takeovers, financial restructuring, and activities of institutional investor's during this part of the era. Corporate Governance is now at a turning point. Several budding and up-coming economies that are on the path of development have identified by now that excellent corporate governance is vital for sustainable economic development. Furthermore, a lot are on the lookout for a novel or appropriate standard for making it relevant for their particular internal situation. (erle and Means, 1932)

The last ten years…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berle, A; G. Means (1932) "The modern corporation and private property" Macmillan, NewYork. pp.54-58

Hart, O. (1995). "Firms, contracts and financial structure" Clarendon Press, Oxford. pp.32-36

Jensen, M and Meckling, W. (1976). "Theory of the firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure" Journal of Financial Economics, Volume. 3.pp. 305-360

Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W. (1997) "A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance Volume. 52. pp. 737-83.
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Corporate Risk Management Associated Risks

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1856808

When combining the two, future market trends can be more accurately predicted by basic it upon existing trends. In this way, the risk factors associated with both areas of R&D are significantly reduced.

The most prominent risks associated with R&D, as identified above, include market research and competition. In addition to risks associated with market trends, risks posed by competitors can also be mitigated with a combination of strategies. The three remaining categories of R&D include long-term, short-term, and intermediate-term R&D.

Long-term R&D can be associated with the offensive R&D strategy, as it entails a projection of market needs in the long-term. This means that products and services are developed on the basis of prediction rather than fact. The most important reason for this is to rise above the competition. The risk associated with this is the fact that competitors may develop long-term products that exceed the company's projects, thus…… [Read More]

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Finance Financial Analysis of Morrison's PLC Morrison's

Words: 1595 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12484523

Finance

Financial Analysis of Morrison's PLC

Morrison's, the UK supermarket may be assessed as a potential investment. The firm may be considered by looking at the way that the share price is performing, comparing it to its past performance as well as benchmarking the performance against the industry

The share price will reflect the market expectations, so as well as looking a past performance it is also necessary to look to the potential future; this is often achieved by looking at the financial ratios of the firm considering the performance both vertically and horizontally.

Morrison's appears to have had a relativity mixed year; the share price stands at 277.60, closing price on the 24th August, 2012 (FT, 2012). The share price has been volatile, increasing and decreasing, over the last 52 weeks the high has been 340.00 and the low has been 261.00 (Yahoo Finance, 2012). Over the year the…… [Read More]

References

Baye Michael, (2007), Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Elliott B, Elliott J, (2011), Financial Accounting and Reporting, London, Prentice Hall.

Financial Times, (FT), (2012), WM Morrison Supermarket PLC, retrieved 25th August 2012 from  http://markets.ft.com/Research/Markets/Tearsheets/Summary?s=MRW:LSE 

Financial Times, (FT), (2012), Tesco PLC, retrieved 25th August 2012 from  http://markets.ft.com/Research/Markets/Tearsheets/Financials?s=TSCO:LSE
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Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility

Words: 2934 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28673365



"hen Congress returned in 1934 to complete the federal disclosure tapestry, it created express private causes of action for misleading reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as part of the newly enacted continuous disclosure requirements, (3) provided private recoveries for market manipulation, (4) and authorized suits on behalf of reporting companies for short-swing profits garnered by certain insiders (Cox, Thomas, and Kiku, 2003)."

The creation of the SEC as a government body for oversight arose out a recognition by the courts that private action was not enough to protect investors and consumers from the materially misleading representations of corporate America (Cox, Thomas, and Kiku, 2003). Since its creation, however, the numerous laws and regulations that have come to frame the world of corporate governance have exceeded the limits of manageable governance. By the time the SEC has identified a problem, pursued investigation of the corporate representations of…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Anderson, Jonas V. 2008. Regulating Corporations the American Way: Why Exhaustive Rules and Just Deserts Are the Mainstay of U.S. Corporate Governance. Duke Law Journal 57, no. 4: 1081+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5027008674. Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.

Angelidis, John P., and Nabil A. Ibrahim. 1993. Social Demand and Corporate Supply: A Corporate Social Responsibility Model. Review of Business 15, no. 1: 7+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001675246. Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.

Bavly, Dan A. 1999. Corporate Governance and Accountability: What Role for the Regulator, Director, and Auditor?. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114694551. Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.

Besser, Terry L. 2002. The Conscience of Capitalism: Business Social Responsibility to Communities. Westport, CT: Praeger. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106996136. Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.
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Corporate Social Responsibility I Attaching Assignment Paper

Words: 1851 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37663316

Corporate Social esponsibility

I attaching assignment paper write essay CS.

Given the heightened level of international operations and globalization, pressure is mounting for corporations to behave ethically. Corporations are forced to developing standards, policies and behaviors as a demonstration of their sensitivity to concerns of stakeholder. The policies behaviors and standards are what a European commission called corporate social responsibilities. The Commission defined corporate social responsibility (CS) as "a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis" Commission, 2001.

Complementing this definition, McWilliams and Siegel. (2001)

, said CS include all actions that are intended to forge, beyond the firm's interest, a social good, and is a requirement in law.

Composition Corporate Social esponsibility

Corporate social responsibility entails coming up with solutions specific to a society. The corporation is however, not forcefully charged with an…… [Read More]

References

Balmer, John M.T., & Dinnie, K. (1999). "Corporate identity and corporate communications: the antidote to merger madness," Corporate Communications: . An International Journal,, 4, 68-86.

Balmer, J.M.T. (2001). Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and corporate marketing European Journal of Marketing 34(4), 248-291.

Buckley, P.J., & Ghauri, P.N. (2004). Globalisation, Economic Geography and the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(2), 81-98.

Commission, E. (2001). Promoting a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility.' Green Paper, 264.