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If a client is determined to be unfit to plead, and mental health issues result in the special category specification, involvement from various mental health professionals is required to determine if and when that inmate may be fit.
Prison Legal Service (2012). Classification: special category and major offenders, Retrieved
17 February 2012 from http://prisonerlaw.org/prisoner/index.php?option+com_countent&view=article&id
Career in Corrections Today
As with many other careers, there are a host of factors to consider when determining the right career choice for an individual. hat makes the decision to choose corrections different is the level of personal risk involved in working within the prison system. Corrections is a life and death job and corrections officers are 'in the belly of the beast' on a daily basis. There is a heightened level of stress associated with this kind of career choice, and any individual considering must understand how they personally deal with stress…
Jacobs, J. (1983). New perspectives on prisons and imprisonment. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
What contemporary problems exist within the U.S. corrections system? Explain.
The first issue that exits with the U.S. corrections system is that of priorities. The system is inherently reactive as oppose to proactive in regards to preventing future offenses. I believe the U.S. corrections system can do much more in regards to education, follow up, and subsequent matriculation into general society. More emphasis should first be placed on properly educating those in the corrections system. It is very common for individuals to repeat crimes due in part to lack of skills to enter the workforce. This is now becoming especially true as individuals are now competing for fewer jobs within the overall U.S. economy. Last month, only 69,000 jobs were added to the economy. The jobs added last month don't even keep pace with the U.S. population growth. If individuals with no prior criminal activity are finding it…
Corrections Accreditation and Privatization
In recent times, the field of corrections has been seeking to address quite a number of emerging issues as a result of a wide range of catalysts including but of course not limited to privatization and accreditation. In this text, I explore a number of issues to do with corrections accreditation and privatization.
According to Stinchcomb (2011), corrections accreditation can be taken to be "an official recognition that a correctional program or facility has met certain national standards following an on-site audit." In the United States, the body charged with corrections accreditation is the American Correctional Association (ACA). As Stinchcomb (2011) notes, just as is the case with universities and hospitals or other organizations seeking to enhance their performance levels, the relevance of accreditation for corrections cannot be overstated.
In regard to how the development (professional) of corrections officers is impacted on by corrections…
Foster, B. (2006). Corrections: The Fundamentals. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Segal, G.F. (2005). Comparing Public and Private Prisons on Quality. Retrieved October 12th, 2011, from http://www.burnetcountytexas.org/docs/6-Segal-Commission-on-PrisonAbuse.pdf
Stinchcomb, J.B. (2011). Corrections. Taylor and Francis.
To date, there has been a great deal of reluctance to adopt a harm reduction approach in the United States for two fundamental reasons:
The first reason stems from the argument that if harm were reduced for users the result would be an increase in the prevalence of drug use and, therefore, increased harm to society in terms of health care costs and violent crime. Those taking this position present as supporting evidence the fact that improved automobile safety features have led to increased speeding by drivers. In addition, it has been suggested that because drug users are risk takers to begin with, they may increase use or risky behavior to compensate for the harm reduction assumptions that substance use is part of the human condition.
The second reason is based on concerns about "sending the wrong message." If harm reduction were implemented, it might be interpreted as condoning…
About CCA. (2008). Corrections Corporation of America. [Online]. Available: http://www.correctionscorp.com/about/.
Brocato, J. & Wagner, E.F. (2003). Harm reduction: A social work practice model and social justice agenda. Health and Social Work, 28(2), 117.
Camp, S.D. And Daggett, D.M. (2005). Evaluation of the Taft Demonstration Project: Performance of a private-sector prison and the BOP. Federal Bureau of Prisons. [Online]. Available: http://www.bop.gov/news/research_projects/published_reports/pub_vs_priv/orelappin2005.pdf .
CCA. (2008). Corrections Corp. Of America (CXW). [Online]. Available: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=CXW .
Jonathan Franzen's the Corrections
What made correction possible also doomed it." (Franzen, 2002, 278)
In Jonathan Frazen's novel The Corrections, the reader is taken into the heart of a dysfunctional American family. Although the novel transpires in real time as well as in flashback, it is fundamentally a novel of memory. The memory of the past reaffirms the inability of the use of an idealized past to correct the future, or to give children and parents a new memory of an idealized family past. One cannot remember something truly and perfectly and recreate a memory, without either erasing some painful truths, or accepting that the past was not as perfect as one might hope.
The idea of 'correction' is usually applied in the singular rather than in the plural. Correction inspires the idea of erasing what was wrong and easily replacing what was right -- even though this might…
Gius, Mark. (1999). The Economics of the Criminal Behavior of Young Adults:
Estimation of an Economic Model of Crime with a Correction for Aggregate Market and Public Policy Variables. The American ournal of Economics and Sociology. October 01. Retrieved November 07, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Mark Gius uses a combination of individual-level and county-level data to estimate an economic model of crime for young adults. This data is similar to that used by Becker in 1968 and Trumbull in 1989, and in order to estimate a model of crime in both areas, researchers took into account the bias introduced by using aggregate-level data in conjunction with individual-level data. In order to eliminate this bias, researchers used a technique derived by Moulton in 1990.
Results from a logit regression model indicate that race, sex, and peer pressure have statistically significant effects on the probability that a young…
Jacobs claims that Johnson has written about he most invisible of these incarcerated women, the African-American women. She cites statistics from the Bureau of Justice that reveal that the number of women incarcerated in the United States increased by 75% between 1986 and 1991, and of these a disproportionate number are African-American.
In 1997, African-American women had an incarceration rate of 200 per 100,000 compared to 25 per 100,000 for non-Hispanic white women. Johnson interviewed over 300 women, their family members, service providers who interact with them, and criminal justice professionals. In this book she addresses multiple audiences, each with a different level of education and knowledge about the functioning of law. Most importantly, the book is directed towards the women whose life stories are relayed, as well as the hundreds of thousands of incarcerated women who have had remarkably similar experiences. Johnson uses the book to address lawyers, judges and legal scholars who, while well versed in the law, lag behind in their understanding of the conditions facing African-American women who are accused of committing crimes. She constructs the project such that everyone in society is forced to acknowledge the humanity of incarcerated black women.
There are two appendices to the book, the first is a self-study course on African-American Women's History, which is an extensive reading list of material about African-American women. The second appendix is an actual resource guide that includes listings of legal and social support organizations, health services, groups that provide information about issues of sexual orientation, advocacy groups for female inmates and their families, and educational and literary groups which focus on female inmates.
Describe the social, political, and economic factors which are expected to impact correctional hiring in the next few years.
There has been an explosion of hiring in corrections. "In addition to exploding inmate and offender populations, the number of employees in corrections, albeit often undereducated, undertrained, and underpaid for their work, has grown astronomically in the last 30 years. From 1982 to 2006, there was almost a 600% increase in direct expenditures for all criminal justice agencies" (Stohr, Walsh, & Hemmens 2013: 330). However, recent economic challenges make such unabated growth unlikely in the future. Perhaps the most critical economic and social factors likely to impact correctional hiring in coming years will be the budget cuts and financial setbacks that will restrict spending on prisons. Prisons must 'do more with less' as they face burgeoning populations yet have less money to spend on guards.
Early release programs have been…
Gideon, L. Sung, H.E. (2011). Rethinking corrections: Rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Schmalleger, F. & Smykla, J. (2013). Corrections in the 21st Century. 3rd Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Second Chance Act of 2007. Retrieved: http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/110/hr1593
The period of time that happens right after an offender is released is such a crucial time in the determination of whether a person is going to re offend or not.
If the New Jersey state sentencing laws continue to go down the path that they are on, there is never going to be any reductions seen in the recidivism rates and the goal of public safety is never going to be met. There are always going to be offenders, but it is how we handle these people within the system that matters. The laws not only have to include punishment, but they must also give direction for both rehabilitation and reintegration. Providing rehabilitation programs and making these mandatory, I feel will help to greatly reduce the number of offenders who're offend. There also needs to be a strong reintegration program set up in order to facilitate the re entry…
Blakely, Curtis. "American Criminal Justice Philosophy Revisited" Federal Probation. 27.1
Statutory Changes to Sentencing under the NJ Code of Criminal Justice: 1979 to Present." The New Jersey Commission to Review Criminal Sentencing. 2007. 11 March 2009. http://sentencing.nj.gov/downloads/pdf/Statutory_Changes_to_Sentencing.pdf
Michael, Marcus. "Sentencing for Public Safety What's Wrong and How Sentencing Support
Corrections Accreditation and Privatization
Privatization and accreditation are some of the emerging and largely contentious issues in the corrections field. In this text, I concern myself with a number of issues relating to prisons privatization and corrections accreditation.
The American Correctional Association (n.d.) defines corrections accreditation as "a system of verification that correctional agencies/facilities comply with national standards promulgated by the American Correctional Association (ACA)." When seeking to be accredited, facilities must undergo a number of audits, critical evaluations and reviews.
It is important to note that corrections accreditation does have an effect on not only the facilities being accredited but also on corrections officers themselves in relation to their professional development. For instance, as ACA (n.d.) notes, one of the main benefits of correctional accreditation specifically to facilities has to do with the implementation of all the relevant procedures and policies. Further, to be accredited, facilities have…
American Correctional Association (). Standards and Accreditation: Overview of Accreditation. Retrieved November 26th 2011, from: https://www.aca.org/standards/faq.asp
Reid, S.T. (2011). Criminal Justice Essentials. John Wiley and Sons.
Segal, G.F. (2005). Comparing Public and Private Prisons on Quality. The Reason Foundation
I thought it was very interesting to read the section on the misconceptions in regards to the Florida State Prisons. There is always talk about how prisoners have cable TV and don't do a lot of work. It was nice to see that these things are not really true. I also like the idea that they are helping to grow part of the food that it takes to sustain them. This is a great cost saving measure that should be implemented when ever possible.
Department of Corrections Institutional Programs a Positive Impact on Inmate Lives. (n.d.).
etrieved May 24, 2010, from Florida Department of Corrections Web site:
Martin, ebekah. (2010). Different Types of Correctional Facilities. etrieved May 24, 2010,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5749234_different-types-correctional-facilities.html
McFarland, Stephen, McGowan, Chris and O'Toole, Tom. (2002). Prisons, Privatization, and
Public Values. etreived May 24, 2010, from Web site:
Punishment - From…
Department of Corrections Institutional Programs a Positive Impact on Inmate Lives. (n.d.).
Retrieved May 24, 2010, from Florida Department of Corrections Web site:
Martin, Rebekah. (2010). Different Types of Correctional Facilities. Retrieved May 24, 2010,
What is the best solution for jail overcrowding?
The best solution might be using a combination of different efficiency measures. These same efficiency measures and alternative programs have been tested in jurisdictions throughout the country. Communities across the U.S. have sought to avoid the need for larger facilities without compromising community safety, and many have been successful in doing so with this system. Some examples of these efficiency measures include:
Citation programs: Programs that give citations to offenders without booking them through the arrest process. These citations can entail a notice to appear or a desk appearance ticket, and eliminate unnecessary jail bookings. This solution has been used in the case of low-level, misdemeanor crimes (Kaplan, 2004).
Improving Release Procedures for the Pretrial and Sentenced Populations: These improvements decrease jail populations by ensuring that people are moving through the system in a timely fashion (Kaplan, 2004).
Monitoring / Expediting Detention…
Coppola, a. (2008, Mar 3). Shock it to me . Retrieved Apr 6, 2009, from corrections.com: http://www.corrections.com/news/article/18117
Kaplan, D. (2004, Feb). Why not in our county? Cost-effective solutions to jail. Retrieved Apr 6, 2009, from realcostofprisons.org: http://realcostofprisons.org/materials/jail_reform_natl.pdf
MacKenzie, D., & Armstrong, G. (2004). Correctional boot camps: military basic training or a model for corrections? Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Researchers investigate the world of female corrections officers. (2004, Nov 15). Retrieved Apr 6, 2009, from University of New Brunswick: http://www.unb.ca/perspectives/view.php?id=253
Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice
Contemporary problems within the U.S. correctional system
The rate of lock ups has greatly increased in America at a rate that is higher than most developed nations around the world. According to the human rights watch article, privately run services spiked up in the year 2000 due to the fact that federal prison systems were extremely overcrowded housing more prisoners than any other country in the world. The cost of operating a prison has also become costly. A few years ago, prisoner maintenance averaged around $9,439 a year per prisoner for adult prison and $7,041 for adult jails. These figures exceeded by $20,000 per prisoner in a few states. Construction cost per bed ranged from $25,000 to $50,000. This meant that tax payers had to part with $5 billion construction bill for 800 local state and central institutions (Fangmeier A. Robert, 2012)
Racial discrimination also clearly…
Oracle Education Foundation, (2012). The United States Prison System: A Glimpse Behind the Bars. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/00342/The%20Prison%20System.html
Fangmeier, A. Robert, (2012). Myths and Realities About Prisons and Jails. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1731
Lozoff Bo, (2012). Seven Ways to Fix the Criminal Justice System Retrieved June 7, 2012 from http://www.ru.org/society/seven-ways-to-fix-the-criminal-justice-system.html#author
Careful attention must be applied to assure that the monies are being delegated to the right fund and that all probationers are reporting in a timely manner.
IV. Advantages/Disadvantages of Administration at State & County Level
There are advantages and disadvantages of administration of Probation on the County as well as on the State level known to exist. Resources and funding is more often than not very limited in County and State Probation Offices which leads to overworked staff members and under-supervised probationers.
V. Elements Affecting the Status of Granting or Denial of Probation
Elements that are known to affect whether an individual receives probation are such things as whether the individual has a previous record. For example with the three strikes law, the third time a violent offense is committed the individual will have no probationary status granted except in extremely rare cases. Whether the individual is employed and…
Corrections and Violence
Corrections - Police
It is rare for a week to go by that there is not a media report concerning an incident somewhere in the country of excessive use of force by law enforcement.
The Rodney King incident, which sparked riots in Los Angeles, has become synonymous with the excessive use of force by police. New York City's police department has received national attention during recent years for incidents involving its police officers excessive use of force. A 1998 eight-month investigation by the ashington Post found a pattern of "reckless and indiscriminate" shootings by police officers during that decade, "the extent of which had been hidden from public scrutiny through inadequate investigations and oversight" (United pp).
In fact, shootings by DC police doubled between 1992 and 1995, even though homicides had fallen from a record peak in 1991 and from mid-1993, there were fifty-four cases in which…
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
RACE, RIGHTS AND POLICE BRUTALITY
Woods, Laurie; Zorza, Joan. Mandatory Arrest-Problems and Possibilities
The necessary 100 hours of treatment within a three-week period should offer the offender positive reinforcement for various positive behaviors exhibited during treatment. The targeted population of such programs should contain mainly high and medium risk offenders who would have a much higher chance of returning to their previous life of crime. These higher risk offenders have greater potential in returning to crime, and therefore should be highest on the list of treatment programs, this is according to the "risk principle," (Voorhis, 2004).
Correction assessment officials are responsible for determining the risk each offender offers to returning to crime, (Bonta, 2004). After the completion of the formal treatment, the program must offer supplemental treatment as needed by various offenders. Further care for offenders dealing with sex crimes and drug offenses is also a necessity, for these crimes prove to be hard to avoid once within their grasp.
With the successful…
In order to effectively succeed, treatments must contain the necessary elements outlined within the Principles of Intervention. First off, research has proven offenders needs more extreme types of behavioral conditioning in order to fully adapt to the desired behavior, much unlike traditional methods used with normal citizens. Some behavioral models which have proven to work have been more radical behavioral treatments, such as operant and classical conditioning, as well as social learning theories implemented within treatment structure, (Smith, Gendreau & Goggin, 2004). These practices have the most efficiency based on previous research. These procedures need to be fully documented in terms of structure within a program manual. In order for these techniques to work best, they need to also be implemented at the offender's place of residence. Another major feature is the nature of the program being "multimodal," (Smith, Gendreau & Goggin, 2004), or have the flexibility to offer a variety of different related procedures in the event that one or more fail to produce positive results. The necessary 100 hours of treatment within a three-week period should offer the offender positive reinforcement for various positive behaviors exhibited during treatment. The targeted population of such programs should contain mainly high and medium risk offenders who would have a much higher chance of returning to their previous life of crime. These higher risk offenders have greater potential in returning to crime, and therefore should be highest on the list of treatment programs, this is according to the "risk principle," (Voorhis, 2004).
Correction assessment officials are responsible for determining the risk each offender offers to returning to crime, (Bonta, 2004). After the completion of the formal treatment, the program must offer supplemental treatment as needed by various offenders. Further care for offenders dealing with sex crimes and drug offenses is also a necessity, for these crimes prove to be hard to avoid once within their grasp.
With the successful implementation of these principles within treatment programs, correction facilities may see a sharp decrease in repeat offenders at their door for another stint within their walls. Many of today's treatment programs within correctional facilities all over the state have proven extremely unsuccessful. With these proven methods, released inmates have a much better chance at keeping their new found freedom. These methods have proven themselves to be sound principles based on the amount and significance of research which stands behind their origin and design. Due to the population in question, very particular methods have proven to be more successful than others time and time again. By shifting treatment programs to meet the needs of these guidelines, correctional facilities offer their freed inmates a better
Immediately, the number of probation violations dropped. The Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska imposed a similar program in 2000 for misdemeanor cases and also saw immediate positive results in probation completion and reduced recidivism (Boyd, 2010).
When probation was first used the idea was to try and give certain criminals a second chance to redeem themselves and prove that they could be law abiding citizens without having to spend time in jail. Over time it has become more of a way to deal with those criminals who have not committed very serious crimes. Due to the overcrowding of the jails that society is facing now there is simply no room for those people who have not committed a serious crime.
Jails have to preserve a safe and secure environment in order to protect their inmates, staff, visitors, and the community as a whole. In the past, a lot of jails have…
Boyd, Karen. (2010). Probation Effectiveness. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from eHow Web site:
Hutchinson, Virginia, Keller, Kristen and Reid, Thomas. (2009). Retrieved May 22, 2010, from Web site: http://nicic.gov/Downloads/PDF/Library/023882.pdf
Probation and Parole: History, Goals, and Decision-Making - Origins of Probation and
3. How well can community sanctions serve the purposes of criminal punishment?
The degree to which community sanctions serve the purposes of criminal punishment depend largely on the underlying philosophy of criminal punishment in society. Specifically, to the extent criminal punishment is intended as retributive punishment, community sanctions do not serve the purpose of criminal punishment.
Conversely, to the extent criminal punishment is intended to rehabilitate prisoners to facilitate a successful return to a productive life after their release, community sanctions may serve the purposes of criminal punishment more than absolute terms of incarceration.
In the most modern approach to reducing crime in society and recidivism among released convicts, criminologists emphasize the importance of directing efforts designed to reduce the complex underlying social and sociological factors that are considered substantially responsible for creating criminality in the first place. That approach is furthered much more by an emphasis on rehabilitation and…
The author uses lyrical prose to underscore the characters' actions and thoughts, especially Manon. For example, she writes, "I sat late in the cold room tending it, feeding it, until sparks ignited the dry tinder of my resentment, and it was as if I were sitting in a furnace" (Martin 89). The passage is extremely lyrical and symbolic, and it shows the burning anger that is flaming inside Manon, and gives the impression she will not be able to easily put this fire out. The author uses lyrical language like this throughout the novel, often using it in the way Manon speaks and thinks to indicate that she is a strong-willed and passionate woman, who does not deserve to be the property of anyone.
The author uses diction to portray the difference in the characters and their social stations. Manon speaks (and narrates) in perfect English, while Sarah and the…
Martin, Valerie. Property. New York: Nan a. Talese, 2003.
Excessive obedience to authority in defiance of moral laws may be justified because of the stresses of policing, and also because of the necessary obedience required to do the job in an effective fashion of teamwork and trust.
Walking home in a neighborhood that seems suspicious, I do feel better to see a police car than not to see one. But I have also been afraid, at times, when pulled over by an angry policeman, even if I have done nothing wrong, or committed a minor infraction. I know the power of the badge and the fact that an officer is more likely to be believed in court than myself. Trust in the police can never be absolute, so long as one is aware of the potential for abuse from individuals in such powerful positions.
What is the criminal punishment and what do you think is the basis for the…
They are not good at paying attention to future consequences. But paying attention to future consequences is essential if someone is to be deterred by the threat or even the imposition of a criminal punishment (Nagin, n.d.).
In a study done by Lynch (1999) it was shown that in the 1970's, 1980's, and 1990's there was a noticeable increase in the rate of incarceration. An examination of the incarceration and crime data from 1972-1993 revealed that there was no evidence of deterrence at the collective level for the U.S. Additional analysis of cross-sectional crime and imprisonment trends for 1980 through 1991 also failed to offer any basic support for the deterrence hypothesis. This study showed that imprisonment does not deter most criminals. In fact, over the twenty-one year period examined, crime went up along with rates of incarceration. This indicates a need to rethink the position concerning the deterrent effects…
Lynch, M.L. (1999). Beating a dead horse: Is there any basic empirical evidence for the deterrent effect of imprisonment? Crime, Law & Social Change. 31: 347 -- 362.
Nagin, D.S. (n.d.). Deterrence Chapter 4. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/40354_4.pdf
It is difficult and almost impossible to determine whether or not punishment is effective, considering that it can actually influence felons to adopt harsher attitudes with the purpose of getting revenge for being punished. The idea of capital punishment is especially controversial, as there were a series of cases throughout history involving such measures being taken for crimes that were not necessarily severe. As a consequence, some individuals did not hesitate to commit grave crimes as long as they knew that the punishment would eventually be the same. Numerous unnecessary crimes took place before the authorities realized that they needed to reform their policies with regard to the idea of punishment.
A lot has changed when considering the concept of punishment in the contemporary society, as people have come to gain a more complex understanding of crimes and have gotten actively involved in taking on attitudes that would represent effective…
Lyons, Lewis, "The History of Punishment," (Amber Books, 2003)
Miethe, Terance D., "Punishment: A Comparative Historical Perspective," (Cambridge University Press, Nov 15, 2004)
Pollock, Joycely M., "Prisons Today and Tomorrow," (Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Oct 5, 2009)
Corrections/Police - Juvenile Justice
Crimes and Juvenile Delinquents
There are many reasons why juveniles commit delinquent acts. Some of them blame it on the unhappy childhood and home life that they have, while others have mental problems, do drugs, or are pushed into it by their peers. Because there are so many reasons, the purpose of this paper is to discuss these reasons and what causes juveniles to involve themselves in these types of criminal activities. Discussed during the paper will be reasons that deal with unhappy home lives, as well as reasons that deal with alcohol and drugs. Peer pressure and mental instability will also be mentioned as these are also reasons that juveniles might commit crimes or illegal acts.
It is no secret that there are many people in the United States that cannot afford the basic necessities that they really need to survive. They may not have…
First of all, the number of people being arrested "is far lower than the number of crimes being committed," an indication that placing repeat and habitual offenders in prison for longer periods of time has decreased the arrest rate. Second, some crime analysts have estimated that keeping repeat and habitual offender in prison has lowered crimes by individuals by as much as fifteen crimes per year which when multiplied with the 1.4 million increase in the prison population since 1984 rounds out to about 21 million less crimes per year in the U.S. ("Lock 'Em Up," 2005, Internet).
Obviously, this "prison experiment" of locking up repeat and habitual offenders for longer periods of time seems to have been a success. Kathleen Auerhahn, writing in Selective Incapacitation and Public Policy, points out that both forms of incapacitation have greatly reduced the number of criminals on the streets of America and have…
Auerhahn, Kathleen. (2003). Selective Incapacitation and Public Policy. New York:
Philosophy of Criminal History." (2008). U.S. Sentencing Commission. Internet.
Retrieved October 24, 2008 at http://www.ussc.gov/SIMPLE/crimhist.htm .
Seligman, Dan. (2005). "Lock 'Em Up." Forbes.com. Internet. Retrieved October 24, 2008 from www.forbes.com/2005/0523/216.html.
They also point out the relatively low pay compared scale with other law enforcement professionals, and the fact that officers have no law enforcement responsibilities outside of the institution where they work, unlike police officers who have a responsibility to protect the community, even when they are technically off-duty. The median annual salary of correctional officers was $35,760 in May 2006. The median annual earnings in the public sector was $47,750 for federal government officers compared with officers employed in state government institutions whose median income was $36,140 and $34,820 for local government institutions ("Corrections officers," BLS, 2009). This may reflect the higher educational requirements of the federal system and the more extensive duties of corrections officers on a federal level.
However, the types of critical thinking required in a prison environment go beyond mere technical capabilities provided by on-the-job raining. Some form of college degree can be helpful and…
The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:
Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.
Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today
Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.
VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:
The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…
Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in Technology-policeone.com 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te
Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo+Round9a%AProd%ADOC%AP11-10-04
Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http: www.staffordshire.police.uk/news306.htm
NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at http://wwwlncjrs.org/txtfiles1/173943.txt
Successful achievement of program requirements will often lead to a dropping or reduction of the charges while failure may bring back or enhance the penalties that are involved. Charges dismissed because of a diversion program will still lead to additional criminal history points under the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines if there was a finding of guilt by a court or the defendant pleaded guilty or otherwise admitted guilt in open court, provided that the deferred disposition was not a juvenile matter (Diversion Programs: An Overview, 1999).
Alternative to Incarceration Programs (ATIs) are part of the mix of factors that have allowed the City to reduce crime, reduce jail and prison populations, and help individuals and neighborhoods across the City. As an alternative to sentencing someone to jail or prison, ATIs permit a judge to sentence someone to a program where they obtain treatment, education and employment training in the community,…
Alternative to Incarceration Programs: Cut Crime, Cut Costs, Help People and Communities. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2010, from Web site:
Electronic Monitoring of Offenders in the Community. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2010, from Michigan Department of Corrections Web site:
http://www.michigan.gov/corrections/0,1607,7-119-1435-5032 -- ,00.html
Children between 4 and 6 and children who are distant will also be provided a pen pal packet.
Discount transit passes will be provided for children and their chaperone from the Boys and Girls Club through a benefit held by the inmates, as well as inmate donations. Supplies for pen pal packets have been donated by the United Way. All teachers are volunteering time to increase the efficacy of the program and show the inmates that they have commitment to it.
The yearly budget for the program will be $15,000, mainly consisting of costs incurred for transportation and supplies, which will covered by donations, the United Way and contributions from inmates. Students will be returned to the transit center to meet the B&G club volunteer by 5:30 PM so they are able to return to the B & G. club in time for the nightly meal, before they return…
The Bright Side of Prison. (2003, Summer). The Wilson Quarterly, 27, 97.
Conley, a.C. (2006). Renny Golden, War on the Family: Mothers in Prison and the Families They Leave Behind. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 33(3), 192.
Golden, R. (2004) War on the Family: Mothers in Prison and the Families they Leave Behind. New York: Routledge.
Hale, T. (2001, February). Creating Visions and Achieving Goals: The Women in Community Service's Lifeskills[TM] Program. Corrections Today, 63, 33.
Not only does this result harm a woman's self-worth, but it may also obstruct with her capability to be relaxed with her sexuality.
The terror, psychological distress, and limitations on personal liberty described in this article have apparent consequences for women as individuals. Not so apparent, are the consequences suffered by civilization as a whole. In effect, the harms of street harassment extend to its impact upon the affiliation between the sexes, upon the structure of gender in society, and upon community and political relations in general. A lot of analysts have concluded that the intention of street harassers is, in fact, to remind women of their gender identity and their place in civilization. Even though it is dangerous to draw conclusions from the effects of intentions, explanations are often gained.
This was a very interesting article. Harassment of women by strangers on the street has been around for a…
Bowman, Cynthia Grant. (1993). Street Harassment and the Informal Ghettoization of Women.
Harvard Law Review, 106(3), pp. 517-580.
Louise oodward, 2008).
oodward's legal team filed motions after her conviction to the trial court for which a hearing began on November 4th. In the days following the verdict it came out that the jury had been split about the murder charge, but those who had favored an acquittal were persuaded to accept a conviction. This fact was of no legal consequence, however. On November 10th, at a post-conviction relief hearing, Judge Hiller B. Zobel reduced the conviction to involuntary manslaughter, saying that the circumstances in which the defendant acted were characterized by confusion, inexperience, frustration, immaturity and some anger, but not malice in the legal sense supporting a conviction for second-degree murder. He also said that he thought that allowing this defendant on this evidence to remain convicted of second-degree murder would be a miscarriage of justice (Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Louise oodward, 2008).
oodward's sentence was reduced to…
"Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Louise Woodward." (2008). 22 February 2010,
Commonwealth v. Woodward. 427 Mass. 659 (Mass. 1998). LexisNexis Academic. Web. 22
According to search warrants, two days before Clark was arrested, investigators found blood in plain view on the kitchen floor near the entrance to his apartment. The warrants do not specify the source of the blood. Authorities removed plastic door panels and carpeting with blood-like stains from the car in which Clark was riding in the hours after Le disappeared. Police say a green-ink pen found under Le's body had her blood and Clark's DNA on it. Police say that Clark signed into the secure building with a green pen on Sept. 8, the day Le disappeared. DNA from Le and Clark was also found on a bloody sock that was hidden in the ceiling (Yale Lab Tech Hit with 2nd Murder Charge, 2010).
The jurisdiction for this crime would be the State of Connecticut. The specific actus rea in this crime would be the act of strangling. The mens…
Arnsdorf, Isaac, Miller, Zeke, Korn, Harrison and Paul Needham. (2009). Clark Charged in Le
GRD '13 Murder. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from Yale Daily News Web site:
Dershowitz, Alan. (2009). Raymond Clark III Arrested, But Many Questions Remain. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from The Huffington Post Web site:
In fact, he did time in jail while he was the leader for arms possession and hijacking. Violence was common with this particular group, and in an effort to frighten and "intimidate" police, prison guards were killed by Hells Angel members in 1997. Eventually, Boucher was tried and convicted for orchestrating the killings (Editors).
In addition, many other criminal investigations have turned up large amounts of money, weapons, drugs, and evidence of other illegal activities, such as extortion and coercion by club members and in clubhouses across America and the world. The club Web site maintains that "1% of their members are bad, and ruin the reputation of the remaining 99%" ("Stew" & "Craig"), but the evidence continues to point to the fact that many HAMC activities are gang and crime related, and that many of its members join the organization for reasons other than a passion for motorcycles. The…
Editors. "The Road to Hell." Canadian Broadcasting Company. 2004. 19 Nov. 2007. http://www.cbc.ca/fifth/featurestories/bikers/timeline.html
Stew" & "Craig." "History." Hells-Angels.com. 2007. 19 Nov. 2007. http://www.hells-angels.com/
Wagner, Dennis. "Hells Angels: The Federal Infiltration." The Arizona Republic 23 Jan., 2005.
19 Nov. 2007. http://www.azcentral.com/specials/special42/articles/0123hellsangels23.html
Juvenile Community Corrections
Corrections in Community-Based Settings
Community-based corrections: Factors to consider when dealing with juvenile offenders
One seemingly self-evident truth regarding juvenile offenders might seem to be that socio-economic status will have a significant impact upon the individual's ability to find adequate treatment. The research does support the idea that individuals of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely commit juvenile crimes. Also, it would seem that a wealthy, well-connected suburban family who is able to offer private counseling to their child is more likely to see the teen transition out of juvenile corrections than one who does not. An overall literature review suggests that lower SES is linked with the likelihood of perpetuating juvenile crimes. In another study of 420 urban youth comparing those from high SES neighborhoods vs. low SES neighborhoods, the high SES youth were half as likely to engage in serious delinquency (Atkins et al.…
Atkins, T., Bullis, M., & Yovanoff, P. (2007). Wealthy and wise? influence of socioeconomic status on the community adjustment of previously incarcerated youth. Behavioral Disorders, 32(4), 254-266. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219677853?accountid=14872
Mincey, Barrett, Maldonado, Nancy, Lacey, Candace H. & Thompson, Steve D. (2008).
Perceptions of successful graduates of juvenile residential programs: Reflections and suggestions for success The Journal of Correctional Education 59(1).
Woolard, Jennifer L., Harvell, Samantha, Graham, Sandra. (2008). Anticipatory injustice among adolescents: Age and racial/ethnic differences in perceived unfairness of the justice system. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 26: 207 -- 226. Retrieved:
After graduating from high school, I held a number of different odd jobs. I worked as a dishwasher, a janitor, and in a factory. After coming to the realization that I needed to find a career, I applied for a job with the Department of Corrections and was fortunate enough to be hired. That was over 25 years ago and I am nearing my time for retirement.
What has been your position with the Department?
In the beginning I was a beginning level corrections officer with very simple responsibilities. I would work on the processing of new prisoners. My duties were to meet the new inmates as they arrived at the prison and have them turn in their personal belongings and issue them their prison wardrobe. It was easy work and most of the prisoners were so nervous and scared that they were very manageable. After a couple…
Franklin, T.W. (2006). Examining the empirical relationship between prison crowding and inmate misconduct: A meta-analysis of conflicting research results. Journal of Criminal Justice, 401-412.
Ogloff, J.R. (2002). Offender Rehabilitation: From "Nothing Works" to What Next? Australian Psychologist, 245-252.
Correction System in the United States
The objective of this brief study is to examine the correctional system in the United States. This system was historically a state-owned and government-operated institution however, in recent years the prison system in the United States has become privatized and this has created a new paradigm in terms of housing prisoners under the present judicial system's orders.
If It Is roken
The prison system received a wake-up call in the Spring of 2011 due to a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that the California prison system was required to reduce the inmates in its overcrowded prison system by 30,000 individuals. The court ruled that the California state's system was "incompatible with the concept of human dignity." (Thomas and eckel, 2011) The United States is reported to have roughly 2 million individuals incarcerated in local, state, and federal jails or prisons, which equals "the…
Mikkelsen, Randall (2007) U.S. Prison System: Costly and Harmful Failure. Reuters News. 19 Nov 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/11/19/us-usa-prisons-idUSN1841666120071119
Private Prisons are Back (2012 ) Corrections. Retrieved from: http://www.correctionsproject.com/corrections/pris_priv.htm
Thomas, Cal and Beckel, Bob (2011) Jailbroken: 5 Ways to Fix the U.S.A.'s Prisons. 13 Jul 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/forum/2011-07-13-prison-jail-system-america_n.htm
Administration and Leadership
Maintaining order and control in correctional facilities -- while also presiding over well-managed facilities from a fiscal and ethical perspective -- is the goal of every conscientious administrator. The Center for Innovative Public Policies (CIPP) published a list of "core competencies" for leadership in correctional facilities. Among the skills most vital to a competent prison leader are: a) to be able to "anticipate, analyze, and resolve organizational challenges"; b) to build and "maintain positive relationships with external stakeholders"; c) to "communicate effectively" and to "comprehend, obtain, and manage fiscal resources"; d) to create a diverse organizational that "promotes respect"; e) to be visionary and to engage in "strategic planning" and develop a vision for the mission of the institution; f) to enhance "self-awareness and maintain proactive professional commitment; g) to "establish organizational authority" and design roles and responsibilities; h) to make sound decisions, manage change,…
Center for Innovative Public Policies. (2010). Core Competencies for Jail Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://cipp.org/jail/core.html .
Trulson, Chad R., Marquart, James W., and Kawucha, Soraya K. (2009). Gang Suppression and Institutional Control. Corrections One News. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.correctionsone.com .
United Nations. (2010). Handbook for Prison Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.iccir.law.ubc.ca.
Wortley, Richard. (2002). Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional
Corrections and etribution
etribution is considered as the penalty that is imposed on an individual or a group of people for the crimes they committed with an aim of making them experience the same amount of pain or loss as the victim of their crimes.
etribution programs are set up to correct people who go against the law of justice. It is normally set for individuals who do something that is illegal. For this case, the offenders suffer for the wrong-doing; the aim of retribution is to take action on people who infringed the rights of other individuals. This paper analyzes the purpose of retribution programs conversely to the appropriate ways of how those purposes can be accomplished; it also illustrates some methods of retributive justice models which are applied to the offenders.
Various philosophers have come up with contested arguments on the value for or arguments against retributive…
Redekop, P. (2008). Changing paradigms: Punishment and Restorative Discipline. London:
Shoham, S.G. (2007). International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice. New Yolk:
Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Criminal Justice System
Corrections, Civil Court proceedings
The role of the victim in the criminal justice system
To the victim, the processes of the criminal justice system can seem frightening and confusing. It is important for the victim to understand that the justice system unfolds in an orderly, sequential process, and while it may be frustrating at times, the multi-step nature of the justice system is also necessary. With most crimes, the first stage is the initial report. "Law enforcement officers receive the crime report from victims, witnesses, or other parties (or witness the crime themselves and make a report)" (The criminal justice system, 2013, National Center for Victims of Crime). After the initial report, then law enforcement conducts an investigation to see if a crime has been committed; who the perpetrator may be; and then they try to arrest the suspect after gathering evidence. "If they find a suspect…
The criminal justice system. (2013). National Center for Victims of Crime. Retrieved:
What are the differences between the civil and criminal justice system? (2013). National
Crime Victim Law Institute. Retrieved:
Myth 5 is that patients will never be able to stop taking medication even though studies have found that patients were able to function without medication later on in their illnesses. The challenge to Myth 5, schizophrenics are either unable to work or can only achieve at a low level of function, is poorly disputed. The authors present evidence that work is good for mental health patients, but lack empirical evidence of schizophrenics functioning at a high level. Myth 7 is that families cause schizophrenia. However, studies have failed to show that family factors are necessary and sufficient causes of schizophrenia.
In challenging myths about schizophrenia, Harding and Zahniser do a better job at showings some myths to be false than they do for others. Still, their work is valuable across evaluating the merits of all myths because it encourages mental health professionals to challenge commonly held assumptions and to…
Harding, C.M. And Zahniser J.H. (1994). Empirical correction of seven myths about schizophrenia with implications for treatment. Acta Psychiatr Scand 90(Suppl 384): 140.
Because of this ease of manipulation there are many security safeguards in place in conjunction with specific policies. hen a computer service bureau either erases or destroys records, there are procedures in place to notify a physician. If the service's relationship with the physician is terminated, all computer files must be physically given back to the physician who supplied them. The destruction/erasure of records can only be done if a physician has their own copy of the information. Any routine or needed file erasure must be verified in writing to the physician. Constant communication and checking-in between a physician and computer service bureau is essential to maintaining transparency.
6. Should individuals and organizations with access to the databases be identified to the patient?
Computerized databases can have a myriad of people with access to them, and as such should be included in any disclosures to the patient in regards to…
"Opinion 5.07- Confidentiality: Computers."Code of Medical Ethics. American Medical Association, 2010. Web. 08 June 2010. .
His own work was also published in a wide variety of literary magazines several of which were prestigious and nationally respected. His publication and involvement in publishing impressive accomplishments for an African-American man in the United States in the 1960's (Woodward, 1999).
In 1957 he moved to Greenwich Village in New York and became interested in both in jazz and the Beat Movement. he following year he began the otem Press (I have seen this referenced as Yugen).
he Beat Generation -- later just "he Beats" or the beatniks -- were a collection of writers centered first in New York and later in San Francisco. While there was a great deal of variation among the artists, they were joined to each other by a common rejection of mainstream American culture and some dabbling in Eastern religious ideas. hough counter culture and alternative religion was their focus, they became at least…
The entire above section is unrelated to your paper. You are discussing LeRoi Jones / Amiri Baraka. Though the trials of his wife and writers like her are an interesting cultural reference to the time period they ultimately detract from your paper. A more effective segue into the topic of modernism is (continuing from the last segment in red):
As Jones's views became more radical so too did his writing. One feature that remained consistent however was Jones's distinctive highly personal voice (Harris, 1991). This characteristic of his writing would always physically connect him to the idyllic bohemian roots of his success. Modernism, a style of writing which emphasized the awareness of the author that he, was writing something which represented himself, is evident throughout the body of Jones's work. But It is important to remember that Modernism itself was in many ways revolutionary. And is more connected to Postmodernism than adherents of either school would generally like to admit. (post modernism has nothing to do with your paper. It is unclear why you chose to discuss it here) Modernism (like Postmodernism) rejected the over-arching coherence that had been the provenance detachment of art and literature prevalent since the Enlightenment. Modernist prose and advocated an insistence on were defined by self-awareness, a sense that the author was intimately and immediately aware of their position as the author, the purveyor of their own voice. The author of the Modernist text is always very much aware of the power of authorship and of his or position of authority (in both a limited and a broader sense) within the text. As the literary world shifted into Postmodernity, the sense of suspended reality rationality and coherence which that had marked earlier artistic schools was discarded in favor of meta- literature, or literature immediately aware that it is literature. fragmented even further so that not only did the center not hold in terms of art and discourse but also in terms of the artist's own sense of self. When we contrast Modernism and Postmodernism, it is clear that Baraka is a Modernist author because we are always aware, as is he, of a clearly of his clearly defined sense of self and authorship within the text. We always know who is speaking to us.
Following an unsuccessful attempt at developing a youth theatre in Harlem Jones moved back to Newark NJ. There he became involved in a number of activities and organizations generally focused on the development of the "Black Arts Movement." Among the most personally important of Jones's efforts was Spirit House which was described as a community center intended to be "whatever the community wanted it to be." It was in this period of his life when Jones was first
Corrections officers serve a distinct role in the criminal justice system. They are involved in the day-to-day lives of inmates, and are responsible for maintaining prison safety, security, and integrity. In some ways, corrections officers may fulfill a role similar to that of a guard, whereby they enforce the rules and regulations of the institution, prevent problems such as inmate fighting or rioting, monitor inmate behavior, prevent escapes, and may administer punishments to inmates. Occasionally, correctional officers may need to use force when mitigating behavioral problems among inmates. Essentially, corrections officers represent the authority of the criminal justice system within the prison framework. Correctional officers may sometimes be involved in rehabilitation efforts, too, helping steer inmates toward specific self-improvement methods such as educational programs or job training programs. Likewise, correctional officers might be involved in parole hearings to offer testimony based on the behavior and status of an inmate. The…
Griffin, M.L. (2013). From resistence to integration. Chapter 15 in Routledge International Handbook of Crime and Gender Studies. Renzetti, et al. (Eds). Routledge.
Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.
Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…
Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.
Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).
During the 19th century,…
Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.
Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.
Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.
Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.
Goals of Corrections
The rationale behind retribution is simply to punish the offender and it reflects the most basic natural impulse of human societies in response to individuals who deliberately break the established rules of society (Schmalleger, 2009). Its purpose is nothing more than to satisfy those impulses, particularly on the part of the victims of criminal acts. The types of penal sentences that reflect pure retribution are long terms of incarceration and even hard labor and other forms of punishment that are expressly designed to be unpleasant for the offender. The types of crime control strategies dictated by this philosophy are those that make penal sentences as long and as unpleasant for offenders as is constitutionally permissible (Schmalleger, 2009). In many respects, this was the approach taken in American criminal justice prior to the revolutionary ideas first introduced by William Penn (Schmalleger, 2009). The only "advantages" of this…
Lynch, M.J. (1999). "Beating a Dead Horse: Is There Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrence Effect of Imprisonment?" Criminal Law & Social Change, Vol.
Nagin, D.S. (1998). "Criminal Deterrence Research at the Outset of the Twenty-First
Century." Crime and Justice, Vol. 23.
The federal government along with several states introduced mandatory sentencing and life terms for habitual criminals often called three strikes laws, meaning that after three convictions you're out. They also restricted the use of probation, parole, and time off for good behavior (Prevention History of Corrections -- Punishment or ehabilitation - Justice Model, 2010).
The rapid increase in the 1990s in the number of people confined in prisons and jails was thought to correspond with falling crime rates. Experts though could not agree as to why this decrease in crime occurred. Some thought that imprisoning more criminals naturally led to less crime in society, while others believed that new policing strategies and tactics such as community policing and zero-tolerance reduced crime. The growing number of offenders on parole and in prisons and jails has put a real burden on the system. Facilities have become overcrowded and states have had problems…
Alighieri, Dante. (2009). Institutional Corrections. Retrieved January 31, 2010, from Web site:
Corrections. (2010). Retrieved January 31, 2010, from Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site:
Bernard B. Kerik offer a sobering view of the criminal justice system. Even Kerik, a veteran of several conservative administrations, notes that his experiences in prison convinced him that prison does little to rehabilitate prisoners, only hardens them. He also notes that the presumption of prosecutors in the criminal justice system is that offenders are guilty, not innocent until proven guilty, and this often results in violations of defendants' rights. After his own corruption scandals, Kerik takes a more chastised and compassionate view of individuals who commit crimes, noting that many of them have grown up in environments which have set them up for failure, not success. However, as the title of the article indicates, Kerik is also seeking to capitalize upon his former reputation as a criminal justice professional as well as the knowledge he has gained from an insider's perspective as an inmate, indicating that to some degree…
Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.
Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…
Corrections officers. (2008). 2008 Occupational Outlook. Department of Labor Statistics 2008-
2009 Edition. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm
Diel, Stan. (2008, September 25) Corrections officers at seven Alabama prisons to work 12-hour shifts. Birmingham News. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.
Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.
RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS
Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…
MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm
Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387 .
Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm .
Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
Error correction in the foreign classroom has become an extensively researched, but also very contentious topic of conversation among experts, researchers, and teachers in the field. For some immediate form-based error correction is a vital part of learning in the classroom setting, while others believe that a more subtle way of dealing with errors in the classroom is more effective when helping students associate the new language with positive experiences. In the book, Error Correction in the Foreign Classroom: Reconsidering the Issues by Miroslaw Pawlak, the author considers the phenomenon of error correction, the often divergent opinions related to it, and ends by presenting findings and recommendations both for the classroom, policy, and research.
The book is structured around an introduction, four chapters that form the body of the work, and a conclusion that holds a summary of main points and offers some resulting insights. In the introduction, the author…
Law enforcement and corrections can be influenced by several external threats. These consist of external communication gaps and many environmental influences. One of the key external threats that impacts both corrections and law enforcement is politics. In delineation, politics is the art of wielding one's authority and power over the government or public affairs. In particular, political action can give rise to the imposition of one's interests within the government, in positions of leadership within the government, with regard to the control over resources, as well as in terms of holding government office. Politics influence law enforcement and corrections by impacting the individuals that will hold different positions in criminal justice, for instance the police, judges, prosecutors as well as correctional executives. Law enforcement, administration, and corrections are linked with politics on various extents and levels. Prevailing political philosophy and ideology influence the structure, organization, as well as anticipation of…
("Home Confinement / Electronic Monitoring," n. d.)
House arrest or home confinement started as a program to handle particularly as a sentencing substitute meant for drunk drivers, but rapidly spread over to a number of other offender populations in a lot of jurisdictions. Depending on the nature of crime committed by the offenders, home confinement has been designed with various degrees of stages of restrictions. These can vary from ordinary curfews to complete confinement. For instance, the home confinement program of the Federal courts extends three separate levels of restrictions under the U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services, 2000. Under the first level ie., curfew, it requires the program participants to stay at home daily during certain time periods. Under the second level house arrest it requires on the part of the participants to stay at home round the clock save for attending to work, school, treatment etc. which must be…
Black, Matt; Smith, Russell G. (n. d.) "Electronic Monitoring in the Criminal Justice System"
No. 254. Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi2/tandi254.pdf
Caputo, Gail. (2004) "Intermediate Sanctions in corrections"
Clear, Todd R; Cole, George F. (2005) "American Corrections"
Community corrections are an integral component of any law enforcement correctional program. Community corrections staff, develop, and administer contracts for community-based correctional programs and serve as the Bureau of Prisons (BOP)'s local liaison with the federal courts, the U.S. Marshals Service, state and local corrections, and a variety of community groups. Through the community corrections program, the BOP has developed agreements with state and local governments to house juveniles and prisoners of non-violent crimes (Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2011).
The BOP contracts with residential reentry centers to provide assistance to inmates who have been found to be non-violent offenders. The community centers also include those inmates nearing release at the end of their determined term of incarceration. esidential reentry centers are always under supervision; in addition, they provide employment counseling, job placement, financial management assistance, and other programs and services. C's help inmates gradually re-enter the community and facilitate supervising…
Akhila, K. (2010) Foreign Prison Conditions Improvement Act of 2010. http://akhilak.com/blog/2010/10/17/foreign-prison-conditions-improvement-act-of-2010 / Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Federal Bureau of Prisons (2011) Community Corrections. http://www.bop.gov/locations/cc/index.jsp Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Public Safety Performance Project (2007) What Works in Community Corrections. www.pewpublicsafety.org Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Crime and Corrections
Historically crime has been a concern for the public, and by extension policy makers because of the ways in which it can change and shape society. Criminal activity has the potential to influence social and economic environments within a society thus it is critical to identify measures that reduce outcomes of crime and support the reintegration of offenders into society. Consequently, crime and corrections have become big business in the United States (Smith). The money from the public purse that is expended to deal with crime is increasing in all of the states. More money is being moved from other areas of the budget to address the challenge of crime and criminal behavior. This increase in expenditure occurs in multiple areas of the criminal justice system and in spite of cost control measures. Additionally, there are fewer prisoners in within the system. This reduction in prisoners has…
Calvo-Armengoi Antoni and Zenou Yves Social Networks and Crime Decisions: The Role of Social Structure in Facilitating Delinquent Behavior International Economic Review
Vol. 45, No. 3 (2004):939-958.
Minton Todd D. Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010 - Statistical Tables U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011) Web.
ole of Correction Officers
Corrections officers, also known as detention officers have their work environment within the detention facilities as well as local, state or federal jails, penitentiaries and reformatories. Corrections officers have the duty of controlling individuals who are waiting to be tried or those who have already been convicted. The paper will look at the duties and responsibilities of corrections officers. Focus will be on the role of the correction officers within the social role of inmates and within the jail administration.
Security is one of the key responsibilities of correction officers and they have the duty of maintaining security within the institution and observe safety and health for both the staff and prisoners. They carry out physical patrols as well as visually inspect yards, units, buildings, prisoners, their property to ensure the safety, welfare and security of prisoners is maintained. They perform inspections of cells and…
Education-Portal.com. (2013). Duties of a Corrections Officer: Responsibilities and Skills Needed. Retrieved September 9, 2013 from http://education-portal.com/duties_of_a_correction_officer.html
The State of Alaska. (2007). Correctional Officer Duties. Retrieved September 9, 2013 from http://www.correct.state.ak.us/co_recruitment/materials/duties.jsf
History Of Corrections
Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…
Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.
King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at: http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf
Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
According to the Correctional Programs Division for the state of Nevada, another program sponsored by the NDOC is Casa Grande, a re-entry transition center opening in December 2005 and "will house up to 400 non-violent offenders in a dorm-like setting, during their last four to six months of incarceration. This will enable them to live in the community, obtain employment and receive family counseling."
There are programs called "street readiness" which teaches life-skills such as time and money management, parole requirements and job seeking skills. For the inmates who are ordered to pay restitution, the inmates should have a program to help with the opportunity to work in the community during their last few months of incarceration and earn money to pay back their victims.
The Correctional Programs Division. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2005, at http://www.doc.nv.gov/programs/index.php
ilkinson R.A., The future of adult corrections. Reducing Crime in America: The…
The Correctional Programs Division. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2005, at http://www.doc.nv.gov/programs/index.php
Wilkinson R.A., The future of adult corrections. Reducing Crime in America: The Agenda for the 21st Century, December, 1997.
And if that policy is already in effect, then further training in that area is necessary.
The kitchen is an obvious source of "weapons" (like the heavy soup ladle used). It should be guarded more heavily and made less easily accessible. Routine searches of that area should be as thorough as possible. There was no video surveillance of this area -- a significant oversight. That is part of the reason the escape attempt went undetected for so long after the two employees were overwhelmed by the convicts.
There is no question that, in this situation, the escape attempt could have been stopped before it became dangerous if only one or two of the above recommendations had been followed.
~There existed too much open access to the security tower, and procedures to enforce security became lax and ineffective. Again, there is no doubt that had proper procedures been in place or…
Associated Press. (2004, March 4). Arizona prison standoff probe blames past decisions in part. Retrieved May 30, 2009, from USAToday.com: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2004-03-04-prison-hostages_x.htm
Baker, J. (2004). Anatomy of a hostage negotiation: An interview with a primary negotiator. Retrieved May 31, 2009, from The Negotiator Magazine: http://www.negotiatormagazine.com/article211_1.html
Epler, P., & Rushton, B. (2004, February 19). Federal judge questions credibility of Arizona department of corrections director. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from Middlegroundprisonreform.org: http://www.middlegroundprisonreform.org/news/NewTimesDoraCredibility.2004.htm
NICIC. (2004). Preliminary finding and recommendations: The morey unit hostage incident. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from National Institute of Corrections Information Center (NICIC): http://www.nicic.org/Library/019617
149-150). When the inmate failed to deliver on the guards' demands, the guards then planted drugs in the inmate's bunk (p. 150). The inmate was subsequently prosecuted, and received an extended sentence (p. 150).
Often people will doubt these kinds of stories, because, after all, the inmates are already imprisoned for offenses like drugs, and often much worse kinds of crimes. This puts the inmates at risk of guards and other prison employees who might not embrace a high set of ethics or personal morals. Everyone wants to see crime punished, but when the crimes are being committed within the prison environment, people seem to be less concerned about them, even if they are crimes being committed by the guards or prison officials. People should, in fact, be very concerned about these kinds of crimes, because it is the prison officials and those employees, including guards, who are willing to…
Bowman, J.S. & Elliston, F.A. (Eds.). (1988). Ethics, Government, and Public Policy: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=30400116
Cody, W.J., & Lynn, R.R. (1992). Honest Government: An Ethics Guide for Public Service. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6854498
Coyle, A., Campbell, A., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.). (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99960585
Dolovich, S. (2005). State Punishment and Private Prisons. Duke Law Journal, 55(3), 437+. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015707307
This could be on account of the normal human reaction to being placed in frustrating conditions, or drawbacks like very poor security, and lethargy of the authorities. Investing in controlling mechanisms like weapons, guards, and other means of surveillance and control, while suppressing the violent tendencies of most inmates do little to help remove the causes of aggression. A more comprehensive approach is required that takes a study of the whole gamut of psychological emotional, physical needs and suffering into one group and then provide better training to the personnel in handling these emotions and the prisoners. They must be adepts in identifying the threat potential is necessary. (Carter; Glaser, 1977)
Another important fact that was clearly visible in the negotiation process and the later handling of the issue was the tardy help received from the outside, or the reluctance to get outside help. The negotiators must have gone in…
Carter, Robert Melvin; Glaser, Daniel. (1977) "Correctional Institutions" Lippincott.
Corcoran, Michael H; Cawood, James S. (2003) "Violence Assessment and Intervention: The Practitioner's Handbook" CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.
Garrett, Michael. (2004, Jun) "In Need of Correction: Arizona's prison system is overloaded and its staff is overwhelmed" Retrieved 4 April, 2008 at http://www.tucsonweekly.com/gbase/Currents/Content?oid=oid%3A57551
U.S. Corrections Systems
The current U.S. prison system has several purposes, including retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, and rehabilitation. (Legal Encyclopedia, 2011). Although the current model is attempting a greater emphasis upon rehabilitation, this objective has met varying successes and failures. One of the most legitimate criticisms against prison rehabilitation programs is the fact that the treatment involved is compulsory or coercive. This factor then led to the likelihood of returning to criminal activity once the prisoner is released.
According to the Legal Encyclopedia (2011), there have been advances in rehabilitation programs that have in fact proved to reduce recidivism. The success of these programs are based upon their focus on offenders' needs and on improving their cognitive and social skills. ecidivism resulting from these programs amounted to 30% or more.
Because of the high costs of maintaining and constructing prisons, the rehabilitation purpose has enjoyed increased attention over recent years. Simply…
Gest, T. (2010). Covering Sentencing. Covering Crime and Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.justicejournalism.org/crimeguide/chapter14/chapter14_pg05.html
Legal Encyclopedia (2011). Prisons and Jails: Development of Prisons and Jails in the United States. Retrieved from: http://law.jrank.org/pages/18929/Prisons-Jails.html