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This article is filled with many variables that are attempting to relate BMI with other social behaviors in children such as eating family meals. "isk factors" are discussed as well, which are inherently confounding in their own right. A risk factor is not a correlation and is merely an unproven coincidence that is yet to be scientifically proven. In this study many of these confounding variables are included in the discussion such as snack food eating and physical activity. These terms are much too subjective to produce any general understanding and do not provide a clear and recognizable path to gaining further knowledge about these subjects.
Even though the study is rife with confounding variables, an acceptable argument is made by discussing some of these relationships. The authors demonstrated a reasonable case for suggesting that some of these risk factors come into play, but that method of coming into play…
Goldfield, G.S., Murray, M.A., Buchholz, a., Henderson, K., Obeid, N., Kukaswadia, a., & Flament, M.F. (2011). Family meals and body mass index among adolescents: effects of gender. Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism, 36(4), 539-546. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from EBSCO.
Correlation and egression
The ability to evaluate the essential general assumptions underlying statistical models and to distinguish the concepts and techniques of regression analysis is important for scholarly research. This is a more important element for a doctoral learner focused on quantitative research in order to generate appropriate and credible conclusions. Interpreting types of variables, design frameworks, and treatments in statistical regression analysis is also an essential skill for upcoming research projects. An evaluation of general assumptions that underscore a statistical model has significant impacts on the validity or outcomes of the research data.
Essential Assumptions in a Statistical Model
Since statistical models are basically used as tools for conducting a study, they are based on some general assumptions. While these assumptions vary depending on the kind of research being carried out, there are common assumptions across statistical models. The first assumption underlying a statistical model is the belief that…
ArcGIS Resources. (n.d.). Regression Analysis Basics. Retrieved September 24, 2016, from http://resources.esri.com/help/9.3/arcgisengine/java/GP_ToolRef/Spatial_Statistics_toolbox/regression_analysis_basics.htm
Osborne, J. & Walters, E. (2002, January 7). Four Assumptions of Multiple Regression that Researchers Should Always Test. Practical Assessment, Research 7 Evaluation, 8(2). Retrieved September 24, 2016, from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?n=2&v=8
Sykes, A.O. (n.d.). An Introduction to Regression Analysis. Retrieved from University of Chicago Law School website: http://www.law.uchicago.edu/files/files/20.Sykes_.Regression.pdf
Quality assessments can be made, the researcher is introduced to the latest research on the subject, and it enables him or her not to waste her time on repeat searches that will bring up irrelevant results.
Similar to a literature review but often more intense and broad, the meta-analysis differs from the literature review in that it highlights correlations and links between studies can critically assesses studies that it observes are invalid or that contribute inadequately to the subject.
Disadvantages, on the other hand, include the fact that bias and author's subjectivity selects studies therefore skewing results. Bias, for instance, may exist in terms of publication source, therefore omitting many other desirable sources from inclusion. Similarly, too, thesis or dissertations may be excluded even though they may be valuable to the theme. The researchers are faced with a quandary: including even one faulty study that can place the whole meta-analysis…
correlations, or discrepancies you have found.
Synthesizing the Literature Human trafficking: A synthesis of the literature
Researching human trafficking reveals several common themes. The first theme is that slavery continues to exist in modern society. The second theme is that slavery is a problem in modern America. The third theme is that slavery does not exist in real secrecy; Americans are exposed to slaves on a daily basis. The fourth theme is that slavery is a global problem, and that different countries respond to slavery in different ways. The fifth theme is that trafficking does not only exploit individuals, but also exploits their countries of origin. Taken together, one sees that modern-day human trafficking exhibits many of the social and moral problems as old-fashioned slavery.
Many people believe that slavery no longer exists because slavery has been criminalized in most nations. However, human enslavement exists in a variety of forms:…
One of the secrets of slavery is that it exists in the modern-day United States (Bales & Soodalter, 2007). The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 was the first federal law attempting to give law enforcement agents the tools they needed to deal with the phenomenon of modern slavery, but federal laws are still not adequate to deal with the issue (Destefano, 2007). The federal government focuses on sex trafficking and prostitution and does not spend sufficient resources investigating other modern forms of slavery (Destefano, 2007).
Another theme about slavery is that, while it may be extremely secretive, slaves interact with society as a whole. Healthcare providers are likely to encounter victims of human trafficking. In fact, 28% of trafficked women saw a health care provider while still in captivity (Dovydaitis, 2011). Therefore, having front-line workers, such as health professionals, aware of how to spot and report trafficking is critical.
Another recurring theme about slavery is the global nature of human trafficking. All countries are source points for human trafficking. Furthermore, globalization makes it difficult to track victims of trafficking (Jones, Engstrom, Hilliard, & Diaz, 2007). Some countries aggressively go after traffickers, while other countries are more tolerant of the practice. For example, China is believed to have a significant human trafficking problem, but its procedures for prosecuting traffickers lack transparency and there are far fewer prosecutions than suspected incidents of slavery (Lagon, 2008). However, many nations are attempting to really fight human trafficking. For example, Cambodia is considered a hub of human trafficking in Southeast Asia (Lindstrom, 2008). However, the country is attempting to combat the problem and help stop illegal trafficking (Lindstrom, 2008). Given that governmental apathy helps contribute to the problem of human trafficking, these efforts may prove very beneficial. However, some countries are taking a victim-first approach that should help combat trafficking. For example, in Scotland the Equality and Human Rights Commission's chair was seeking to talk to victims of trafficking to help understand it from the perspective of a person who
childhood obesity, which is proving to be a serious concern for policymakers and health administrators in the U.S. It is estimated that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-going children has almost tripled over the last decade. This places the generation in question at an extremely high risk for type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and other weight-related complications. My main interest lies in understanding the causes of overweight and obesity among children. I am particularly interested in determining whether there is an association between the level of familial income, and the risk of childhood obesity. The research question guiding my study is:
"How does the risk of developing childhood obesity relate to the level of familial income?"
The simple linear correlation coefficient will be used to provide answers to the research question. The linear correlation coefficient is used to show the direction and strength of an association that exists…
Lane, D. M. (n.d.). Online Statistics Education: A multimedia Course of Study. Rice University. Retrieved October 23, 2015 from http://onlinestatbook.com/
Sukal, M. (2013). Research Methods: Applying Statistics in Research. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education Inc.
The papillae are distributed throughout all areas of the tongue, and in adjacent structures of the palate and throat. Each taste bud contains 50 to 75 receptor cells that are always in different stages of a 7-10-day regenerative cycle" (Taste 2006:16). In addition, the tongue contains receptors that are more sensitive to sweet and salty stimuli, while those on the palate and throat are more responsive to sour and bitter tastes; furthermore, the receptors situated inside the taste buds are also connected to either the lingual, glossopharyngeal, or vagus nerve, all of which transmit touch, temperature, and pain as well as taste stimuli (Taste 16). The end of the line for these connections is the medulla oblongata; gustatory fibers then ascend from the medulla oblongata to the thalamus and ultimately to the taste reception area in the cerebral cortex (Taste 17).
hat people actually "taste" after they take a bite…
Borthwick, Fiona. (2000). "Olfaction and Taste: Invasive Odours and Disappearing Objects." The Australian Journal of Anthropology 11(2):127.
Galvin, Shelley L. And Harold A. Herzog. (1992). "The Ethical Judgment of Animal Research." Ethics & Behavior 2(4):285.
Glenberg, Arthur M. Learning from Data: An Introduction to Statistical Reasoning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
Goldstein, Miriam D. And Michael J. Strube. (1995). "Understanding Correlations: Two Computer Exercises. Teaching of Psychology," 22(3):205.
students who took multiple online NP courses had higher statistical odds of failing the test the first time around than students who only enrolled in one course at a time. There was no correlation between race, ethnicity, gender or age with regard to failure and statistical ratios. The significant variable identified in this study was the number of courses taken by a student at one time. Any number of online NP courses greater than 1 increased odds of testing failure. This is in line with the findings of Bambara et al. (2009) and oblyer (2006) who identify increased course load level as a stress factor.
The findings for the multiple clinical course taking were reversed. Students who took one multiple clinical course as opposed to those who took two or more were at greater odds of failure. Again, there was no correlation between race, age, ethnicity or gender. easons for…
Bambara, C. et al. (2009). Delicate engagement: lived experience of community college
students enrolled in high-risk online courses. Community College Review, 36(3): 219-238.
Deary, I., Watson, R., Hogston, R. (2003). A longitudinal cohort study of burnout and attrition in nursing students. JAN, 43(1): 71-81.
Henzinger, T. et al. (2004). Programming language design and implementation. ACM,
Television and Child Literacy
Ever since it became a household fixture more than fifty years ago, parents and educators have asked the same question - is there such a thing as too much television? Can television interfere with a child's desire to learn to read? hen television first debuted, it was touted as the wonder of the age, a miracle of technology that would bring the world into everyone's living rooms. Television would be an invaluable educational tool, opening up vast new horizons of knowledge. This was the dream. The reality was quite different. hile television's "Golden Years," the 1950s and Early 1960s, did feature some wonderful documentaries together with a number of outstanding theatrical productions, on the whole TV quickly became, as Federal Communications Commission Chairman, Newton Minnow, put it in 1961, "A vast wasteland." (Mander) Yet, it is not only what television does or does not offer that…
Alexander, Allison. "Children and Television." No Date. URL:
Bryant, Jennings, ed. Television and the American Family. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1990.
Children and Television." American Association of Pediatrics." No Date. URL: http://edie.cprost.sfu.ca/gcnet/ISS4-21c.html
Staff Development and Student Performance
Staff Development: An Overview
State Standards for Staff Development
Progressive Trends in Staff Development
Recommended Guidelines for Successful Implementation
It stands to reason that proficient teachers are poised to make a positive contribution to the learning environment. The more educated, prepared and confident a teacher can be when entering the classroom, the more the students too can benefit. The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future issued a report in 1996 entitled: "hat Matters Most: Teaching for America's Future." The crux of the report was based on three simple ideas:
hat teachers know and do is the most important influence on what students learn."
Recruiting, preparing and retaining good teachers is the central strategy for improving our schools.
School reform cannot succeed unless it focuses on creating the conditions in which teachers can teach, and teach well.
These simplistic statements cannot be understated.…
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/197018/author.html. Accessed, July 21, 2003
B. Joyce and B. Showers (1982) "The Coaching of Teaching," Educational Leadership 40(1): 4-10
Corcoran, Thomas B. (1995) Helping Teachers Teach Well: Transforming Professional Development
Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (1997) Findings from the Condition of Education: Women in mathematics and science (NCES 97-388), Washington, D.C.
They mainly sat at tables talking with othe men. The occasional inteaction they had with women was not flitatious o touching, like it was between men and women of the othe goup. Socially, these men wee not competitive and did not attact women. Howeve, these men wee easily appoachable; if women wee attacted to men who wee not competitive, aggessive, and self-assued, they would be easily appoachable. In this case it appeaed that women chose to associate with the fome goup athe than the latte. The implications of this obsevation ae that women set the standad fo what is attactive and desiable and men who wish to gane thei attention fulfill this ole. It is futhe questionable whethe men would continue to act in a loud, aggessive, competitive manne if they had little to gain -- and in fact a lot to lose in the way of female attention --…
references, and because they reward competitive and aggressive behaviors with attention and sex, there appears to be a positive correlation between the actions and beliefs of women and the objectification of women by men.
Further research into this subject would be valuable in assessing to what extent women have contributed. Some possible continuations for this research are assessments of individuals who have graduated from college, as well as married individuals. These studies would allow researchers to find out how many of the competitive and aggressive ideals and expectations continue into adulthood and marriage.
Then values of x are plotted with the corresponding values of y. If the relationship between the variables is positive then a line drawn through the points will slope upward. This upward slope signifies that as the values for x increase the values corresponding values for y also increase. The opposite will be true for a negative relationship. In this case the line will slope downward and the correlation would be negative.
In interpreting the correlation coefficient there is one other factor to consider and that is the p value. The statistical program will produce a probability statistic that suggests how likely the result that is observed is the product of chance. The researcher then examines the p value and compares it to the predetermined alpha level that was set for this particular test. If the p value is less than the alpha level the researcher must make a decision…
Cooper, D.R. & Schindler P.S. (2011) Business research methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Creswell J.W. (1994).Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches.
Correlations: From marijuana use to meat eating to fast food
One of the most commonly-cited statistics in the popular media is the strong correlation between marijuana use and later 'hard' drug use, although it is uncertain if marijuana is causally related, or merely correlated with this phenomenon. Another surprising correlation in the use of marijuana also perplexes researchers. There also appears to be a strong correlation between schizophrenia and heavy use of marijuana in adolescence. "Scientists in Australia followed nearly 4,000 young adults born between 1981 and 1984 at the 21-year mark, and found that the longer study participants had used marijuana, the higher the risk of psychosis-related outcomes. Those who had experienced hallucinations early were more likely to have smoked or used marijuana longer and more frequently" (Meier 2010).
The study's authors state that the causal relationship between the use of the drug and later schizophrenia…
Aubrey, Allison. (2012). Death by bacon? Study finds eating meat is risky. NPR. Retrieved:
Davis, Brennan & Christopher Carpenter. (2009). Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 99(3): 505 -- 510.
When investigating the correlation between salary and other factors, three factors lend themselves to comparison and interpretation. These include gender, age, and ethnicity. A discussion of salary is followed by a discussion of each factor and its correlation with salary level.
From the data, the minimum salary was $9,984 and the maximum $308,250. The mean salary level was $50,688.94. The mean salary could then be used to determine the correlation level of the other factors with salary.
Gender and Salary
Of the respondents, 46.6% were male, with 53,4% being female. Interestingly, both the lowest and highest salary are earned by males. Another interesting factor here is that the very highest salaries, between $198,426 and $308,250 are earned exclusively by male respondents, with 21 of respondents earning within this age bracket. There are 10 females and 5 males earning salaries at the lower end of the scale, namely $12,480.…
Correlation & Regression
A fifth grade science teacher wants to know if there is a relationship between final exam scores and overall coursepoints after adjusting for a quiz score.
In order to determine whether there was a significant relationship between overall coursepoints and final exam scores, after controlling for quiz scores, a hierarchical regression was run. All assumptions were assessed using SPSS. There was independences of residuals, as assessed by a Durbin-Watson statistic of 1.08. An examination of various scatterplots indicated a general linear relationship between variables of interest, although perfect linearity was not observed.
Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Quiz Score
Figure 3. Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Course Points
The assumption of homoscedasticity was violated, as the scatterplot in Figure 1 demonstrates (i.e., the values were not evenly spread across the scatterplot). There was no evidence of multicollinearity as evidenced by no…
The more violent teens might also be more apt to wear black rather than white t-shirts, but that does not mean that the act of wearing a black t-shirt makes a teen more predisposed to act violently.
The authors of another study did attempt an experiment that would suggest causation rather than mere correlation. In an experiment involving 210 college students, students who played a violent video game were more likely to 'punish' the opponent by inflicting a noise blast upon the opponent of greater intensity and for "a longer period of time" than did students who played a nonviolent video game (illenz 2009). However, the idea that inflicting a loud noise upon an opponent after playing a loud, noisy video game is analogous to committing acts of physical violence in the real world also seems like a tenuous causal argument.
illenz, Pam. (2009). Violent video games can…
Willenz, Pam. (2009). Violent video games can increase aggression. American Psychological
Association (APA). Media Release. Retrieved August 8, 2009 at http://www.apa.org/releases/videogames.html
Correlation of Alcoholism to Parenting Styles
Correlation of Parenting Styles to Alcohol Drinking Frequency in the Brooklyn Modern Orthodox Jewish Community.
Do the parenting styles in the Modern Orthodox Jewish community differentially correlate with self-reported alcohol use of Jewish College Freshmen males within the Orthodox Brooklyn Borough Park community (18-26)?
In general, the four parenting styles have a significant correlation on the behavior and attitudes of youngsters in college (Beck et al., 2004). Further investigation is required to demonstrate how these parenting styles correlate with the population in the Borough Park Jewish community. It has been demonstrated that college freshmen from different universities can be indulged in alcoholic habits given different parenting styles (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008).
The freshmen are increasingly using internet thus they preferred to be surveyed online too, rather than being handed questionnaires on paper (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008). The…
Yang et al. (2010) suggested that parents can play an effective role in controlling the behavior of freshmen to avoid alcohol use. Hence, there should be friendly and effective communication between parents and children in the growing ages of youth, since the children can seek advice from the parents in the process (Yang et al., 2010). Bowlby & Ainsworth (1982), discussed that the attachment and relationship between parents and children improved when they communicated more often and thus a good parenting style can make it easier for the children to overcome problem barriers later (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The child personality visibly gets affected by any of the parenting styles (i.e. Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved) (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The level of influence however may vary.
Unreasonably high interference during the years of college or very low involvements is not productive factors in avoiding frequency of alcohol use (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). The freshmen that have stressed (strained) relationships with parents are found to easily fall prey to alcohol use as well as abuse (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). Since to them, relationships are not very important, they are less worried about their personal health too (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007).
In severe cases, where the children are the victims of psychological stress at home based on a
Postpartum Sexually Transmitted Disease Refining Our Understanding of the Population at Risk Yale University, UMI Dissertations, 2011, 1505365.
The researchers developed a study to assess STD incidence during and after pregnancy and to determine risk factors associated with postpartum STD infections among mothers in their teens and early 20s. For this analysis, they included 848 women who were less than 24 weeks pregnant, ages 14 to 25. A total of 27.1% of participants were diagnosed with an STD within one year postpartum. Among those who were diagnosed with an STD during pregnancy, 43.4% also contracted an STD during the postpartum period. By comparison, 18.7% of participants with no history of infection and 24% of women who had a history of STDs before pregnancy contracted one postpartum.
heeler (2011) presents the best research for my specific topic. My hypothesis suggests that high rates of postpartum STI infections may be reduced using…
Wheeler (2011) presents the best research for my specific topic. My hypothesis suggests that high rates of postpartum STI infections may be reduced using pregnancy as window of prevention. This article gives some solid facts to base my research upon. The conclusions in this article give clear relationships to pertinent information that is needed to build my case.
The other two articles contain some useful information, however there are a significant number of confounding variables within each that tends to muddy my argument and stretches the definition of correlation. One such variable is the BMI index. Although this is an important indicator of STIs, it does not directly relate to pregnancy as an opportunity to prevent.
During these SLP assignments I realized how precise and focused research can be. General ideas are mostly not present in these research articles as detail and statistical analysis serve as more persuasive evidence. I have also learned that inference is very important in the research process, as adding one's own take on the subject is necessary to truly grasp the knowledge presented within the literature.
Correlation and regression are two important test statistics that are utilized in a study that focuses on understanding the relationship between two variables and/or the effect of one variable on another. In correlation statistics, there are two variables that are related to each other whereas in regression, and explanatory variable and a response variable are utilized ("Introduction to Correlation and egression Analysis," 2013). Generally, the main aim of correlation statistics is to examine whether two measurement variables co differ and determine the strength of the link between variables. On the contrary, regression statistics focuses on expressing the relationship between two measurement variables using an equation. As a result, of the difference in focus, correlation statistics and regression statistics are suitable for different circumstances.
egression statistics is suitable for situation where the problem of interest or issue being examined is the nature of relationship between a dependent variable and an independent…
Cheatham, M.L. (2015). Correlation and Regression. In A practical guide to biostatistics (chap. 8, pp.47-52. Retrieved from http://www.surgicalcriticalcare.net/Statistics/correlation.pdf
"Introduction to Correlation and Regression Analysis." (2013, January 17). Multivariable Methods. Retrieved from Boston University School of Public Health website: http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/BS/BS704_Multivariable/BS704_Multivariable5.html
Correlation, Simple Linear egression
In this paper, we perform a linear regression analysis on previously collected data related to the number of daily e-mails received () and sent (S) by a particular user (the author). We have depicted the original daily e-mail data as a time series, incrementing N. By 1 for each day's measurement. The computed regression coefficient r is the slope of the regression line.
A time series consists of sequencing successive data points at uniform time intervals. As such, this exercise represents a meaningful statistical analysis to determine whether a natural temporal ordering is inherent in the data. It should be recalled that the collection of data for each of . And S. consisted of 15 daily samples, which were collected during two exercises spanning 10 and 5 days respectively. This factor will be noted in the analysis to follow. Table 1 illustrates the predicted values and…
Breyfogle, F.W. (2003). Implementing Six Sigma: Smarter Solutions Using Statistical Methods (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Waner, S., & Costenoble, S.R. (1999). Simple Regression Page. Retrieved December 18, 2011, from http://people.hofstra.edu/Stefan_Waner/newgraph/regressionframes.html
Variable A: Number of school lunch eligible students in the school
Variable B: Amount of funding received by the school for federal and state education-related programs
Correlation: Positive Correlation
Reason: The higher the number of school lunch eligible students, the higher the rate of subsidy
Variable A: Impact of subsidy received
Variable B: Age of students at school
Correlation: Negative correlation
Reason: The subsidy had a greater degree of response in elementary schools than it did in high schools
Variable A: Number of classrooms connected to the internet
Variable B: Student performance as measured by standardized test scores
Correlation: Minimal correlation
Reason: The study came to the conclusion that "despite the noticeable increase in classroom Internet connections, the authors find very little evidence that the program has any impact on student achievement, as measured by test scores in a variety of subjects" (Golsbee and Gurayan 2005).
For example, children whose last names end with a vowel may have a statistically higher chance of manifesting type II diabetes. The reasons for this might be the poverty and discrimination faced by many Latinos, the letters of whose names more often end with a vowel than other ethnicities. Poverty often leads to a poorer diet, less access to places to exercise safely, less access to healthcare, and a lack of opportunities to become educated about how to live a healthy lifestyle. It is poverty that is the causative factor to the child's ill health, however, not the child's name, and changing the child's name will not affect the outbreak of type II diabetes in the Latino community.
Sykes, Alan O. An introduction to regression analysis. University of Chicago Law School.
etrieved February 8, 2010 at http://www.law.uchicago.edu/files/files/20.Sykes_.egression.pdf
Sykes, Alan O. An introduction to regression analysis. University of Chicago Law School.
Retrieved February 8, 2010 at http://www.law.uchicago.edu/files/files/20.Sykes_.Regression.pdf
What is the independent variable (IV)? Social class and opinions are the independent variable (IV).
What is the dependent variable (DV)? Welfare policy is the dependent variable (DV).
What level of measurement do both the independent variable and dependent variable use? The independent variable uses 1,2, and 3 as the level of measurement. The dependent variable also uses 1, 2 and 3 as the level of measurement.
Calculate the column percentage of each cell in this table?
Table A. CROSS TABULATION, WELFARE POLICY OPINIONS BY SOCIAL CLASS
WELFARE * subjective class identification Crosstabulation
Show how to calculate the ROW PERCENTAGES
Opinion about Welfare Policy
% within ROW (OPINION)
GOVT SPENDS ABOUT RIGHT
% within ROW (OPINION)
% within ROW (OPINION)
They can help inform decision-making processes and reveal important details about how the market is functioning. Understanding that e-commerce transactions are significantly related to total retail purchases could allow e-commerce individuals to make different decisions regarding their businesses. For instance, an e-commerce merchant who also has a "real" retail store may wish to correlate his online sales with his in-store sales. If such a merchant were to discover that his correlation was falling well below that of the one found here based on overall U.S. Census data, he may determine that he is not meeting his potential for sales in the e-commerce world. For example, if this individual found that his e-commerce sales were correlated with his in-store sales at a much lower level, such as a correlation of less than .4, this merchant may decide to invest more money into his e-commerce business in an attempt to increase his…
Groebner, D.F. (2004). Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
U.S. Census Bureau news. (2010, February 16). Retrieved March 16, 2010, from the Census Bureau Web site: http://www.census.gov/retail/mrts/www/data/pdf/09Q4.pdf
Analysis Techniques: Correlation
A positive correlation between annual income and amount spent on car would be expected. This means that there is a relationship between the two and that, in general, higher annual income would show an increase in the amount spent on car, while lower annual income would show a decrease in the amount spent on car.
However, it would not be expected that this would be a strong relationship because other factors would influence the amount spent on car. For example, some individuals with an income in the middle range may consider an expensive car a key priority, while others would have other priorities. In addition, annual income level is not a true measure of wealth because it does not take into account a person's expenses. For example, a young single person without a family and without a mortgage would have more disposable income than a married…
Predictors of stress included being male, young, Hispanic, living in a rural residence, and not belonging to any religious institution. Also being male and young were associated with high burnout rates, whilst involvement in religious activity were associated with lower burnout rates.
The child worker whose job status was that of professional was more likely to show burnout and compassion fatigue than another not of that status.
The variables here were dependent variable -- burnout and stress, independent variable -- status of the worker as well as personality and environmental characteristics (namely those described above).. Explain how the research exemplifies regression discontinuity or correlation research, and identify the specific design, if appropriate.
This is an example of correlation research. The researchers wished to see whether any specific factors were associated with burnout and stress and whether the occurrence of these variables showed positive association (or negative association) with an increase…
Sprang, G et al. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Child Welfare Workers: A Comparative Analysis of Occupational Distress Across Professional Groups Child Welfare, 90, 149-168
Urban Institute. Impact Evaluation: Regression Discontinuity.
egression vs. correlation?
Correlation is used to test whether two variables covary, the strength of the relationship, and the direction of the association. A correlation calculation will generate a P-value and a correlation coefficient (r). By comparison, regression will generate the slope and intercept for a best-fit line that can be used to predict unknown values for the dependent variable.
What percentage of depression is not associated with Facebook usage?
The coefficient of determination (r2) is 0.661, which means that 66.1% of the variance in depression is due to the amount of time spent on Facebook; therefore, 33.9% of the variation in depression cannot be explained by time spent on Facebook.
Q3: Variables that could be contributing to the variance not explained by time spent on Facebook?
The unexplained variance in depression scores is the amount of error between measured levels of depression for a study subject and what was…
Klengel, T. & Binder E.B. (2013). Gene-environment interactions in major depressive disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(2), 76-83.
orkshops are arranged for their further training in recognizing such behavior but over time the officers have also found direct relationships with other crime such drug dealing and grand theft auto. Other such animal cruelty like cock and dog fighting are also on the rise for the Midwest Region (Getz, par. 2). Laura McCloskey also found a direct relationship, weak in theory but however present between firesetters and people who are cruel to animals. She states, "youths who are both firesetters and cruel to animals are especially at risk of delinquency. Firesetting and animal cruelty have been linked conceptually because of their covert nature and empirical evidence indicating an overlap between these two behaviors" (page 6). She further elaborates that the tendency toward such behavior will over time lead to other delinquencies. It is believed such behavior is learned and can be found in paternal influence but also is a…
American Humane Urges Alabama to Strengthen Pet Protection Act." PR Newswire
Getz, Jim. "WORKSHOP LINKS ANIMAL ABUSE to DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PETS CAN PROVIDE CLUES to BIGGER PROBLEM." St. Louis Post-Dispatch 16 Nov. 2000.
McCloskey, Laura a. "A study of firesetting and animal cruelty in children: family influences and adolescent outcomes." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2004).
Meyer, Diana Lambdin. "Animal Abusers More Likely to Abuse People." Contemporary Women's Issues 1 Sept. 1996.
The Difference between Causation and Correlation within the Context of DBA Doctoral Research Study
For growth to occur it is important to understand the concepts of correlation and causation. Correlation can be differentiated from causation in general terms in that correlation assists in the prediction of future events since it indicates what is likely to occur. Causation on the other hand makes it possible to alter the future. Understanding the difference helps ensure that business decisions are made based on measurable variables and tangible facts. When decisions are based on guesswork and assumption there is a high risk that success will be jeopardized (Bleske-Rechek, Morrison & Heidtke, 2015). Prior to making any decision it is fundamental to check that the decision has been made not on assumptions but on proven facts. This discourse analyses difference between correlation and causation with respect to the doctoral research context.
The implications for…
The correlation between two variables is the degree to which the variables move in the same direction. A positive correlation means that the variables both move in the same direction, and if they are correlated that a movement in one will result in a movement by the other. . For example, the number of students who need school lunches and the funding that the school receives for lunches will have a positive correlation. This is because the funding formula is based on how many students need lunches. There is basically a variable cost element to that, where each student is worth x amount of money, so every student that needs a school lunch increases the funding that is made available to the school to provide that lunch.
A negative correlation means that as one variable moves up, the other variables goes in the opposite direction. For example, the…
Goolsbee, A. & Guryan, J. (2003). Closing the digital divide. Capital Ideas. In possession of the author.
Nicholas Clarke, aimed at establishing a correlation between Emotional intelligence and behaviors of individuals during teamwork. In this study, specific stress has been levied on transition, action and interpersonal team processes. The findings of this research further helped in establishing an understanding that group / team effectiveness is dependent on variations in EI level of the team members. The research further stresses that a rather sophisticated model defining correlation between specific cognitive, verbal and behavioral teamwork activities is required to be developed (Clarke, 2010).
Through this literary work, Clarke has made an attempt to explain that assertions made regarding relationship between team performance and EI differentials are of a rather simple nature and a sophisticated model is required to establish a thorough understanding of relationship between two variables.
For this purpose, Clarke has based his argument on the fact that organizations have gone through laborious and extensive transitions over past…
Ayoko, O.B., Callan, V.J. And Hartel, C.E.J. (2008), "The influence of emotional intelligence climate on conflict and team members' reactions to conflict," Small Group Research, Vol. 39 No. 2, pp. 121-49.
Clarke, N. (2006a), "Emotional intelligence training: a case of caveat emptor," Human Resource Development Review, Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. 1-20.
Clarke, N. (2010). "Emotional intelligence abilities and their relationships with team processes" Team Performance Management, Vol. 16 No. 1/2, 2010, pp. 6-32
Devine, D.J. (2002), "A review and integration of classification systems relevant to teams in organizations," Group Dynamics, Vol. 6 No. 4, pp. 291-310.
In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York, NY: Springer.
Carroll K.M. (1997). Enhancing retention in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments: Practical strategies. In L. Onken, J. Blaine, & J. Boren, (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. [NIDA Research Monograph Series #165, 4-24]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Chou C.P., et al. (1998). Interaction effects of client and treatment program characteristics on retention: An exploratory analysis using hierarchical linear models. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(11), 2281-2301.
Goldkamp, J.S., White, M.D., & Robinson, J.B. (2001). Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court blackbox. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(1), 27-72.
Snyder, H., Finnegan, ., Stahl, A., & Poole, R. (1999). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1988-1997 [data presentation and analysis package]. Pittsburgh,…
The Developmental Pathways Model (2005) Health Services Technology Assessment Text HSTAT Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat5.section.18578
Deborah Prothrow-Stith, M.D., Deadly Consequences "An Endangered Species -- Young Men of Color Living in Poverty" Chapter 5,-page 64-79 (1991).
African-American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse
An illusory correlation occurs when there is an observance of an expected relationship between variables and in fact this relationship does not exist (Chapman, 1967). One of the most common examples of this occurs when people stereotype; when people form false associations between membership in a particular group and novel behaviors that are typically negative and tend to be the focus of one's attention (Hamilton and Gifford 1976). With the mapping of the concept of race itself.
One of the consequences of mapping the human genome has been that genetics and science has gone on to conform something many often said but perhaps few were really convinced of: qualities such as "whiteness" are cultural constructions and the concept of "race" itself may also be a cultural construction. Instead of representing an actual biological distinction perhaps it is our political ideologies, economic systems, and other social constructions that invent concept…
Allen, T.W. 1994. The invention of the white race (Vol. 1). London and New York: Verso.
Allport, G.W. 1954. The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
Chapman, L. 1967. Illusory correlation in observational report. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6 (1), pp. 151 -- 155.
Hamilton, D and Gifford, R. 1976. Illusory correlation in interpersonal perception: A cognitive basis of stereotypic judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 12 (4), pp. 392 -- 407.
" (Pearson Education, 2006) Civic education both encourages and teaches participation in a democratically governed society. It is the belief of this researcher that a correlation exists between civic education and participation and that the reason for this is quite simply the lack of knowledge on the part of individuals as to 'how' they can participate. This knowledge has not been routinely presented in education over the past thirty years and along with this has been witnessed a steady decline in civic participation except by the very few who presently participate. This work in its' research, while having answered the question presented finds that the question of whether this failure to educate citizens in the area of civic participation has been simply an oversight or a methodological and purposeful culling of citizen participation in civic politics, and if so then to what ends?
How Political Socialization and Other Factors…
How Political Socialization and Other Factors Influence Opinion Formation (2006) Pearson Education.
Join the Debate: Teaching Civics in American High Schools" (2006) Pearson Education.
Civic Education Debate
Creatine treatment started at 6, 8, and 10 weeks of age, analogous to early, middle, and late stages of human HD, significantly extended survival at both the 6- and 8-week starting points. Significantly improved motor performance was present in both the 6- and 8-week treatment paradigms, while reduced body weight loss was only observed in creatine-supplemented R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks." (Dedeoglu, et al., 2003) Specifically it is stated that the "...Neuropathological sequelae of gross brain and neuronal atrophy and huntington aggregates were delayed in creatine-treated R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks. We show significantly reduced brain levels of both creatine and ATP in R6/2 mice, consistent with a bioenergetic defect. Oral creatine supplementation significantly increased brain concentrations of creatine and ATP to wild-type control levels, exerting a neuroprotective effect. These findings have important therapeutic implications, suggesting that creatine therapy initiated after diagnosis may provide significant clinical benefits to…
NINDS Huntington's Disease Information Page (2009) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Online available at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm
Hamilton, J.M., et al. (2004) Rate and Correlates of Weight Change in Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology Neuroscience and Psychiatry 2004; 75:209-212. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Online available at http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/75/2/209
Gaba, Ann M. et al. (2005) Energy Balance in Early-Stage Huntington Disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 6. June 2005.
Djousse, L. (2002) Weight Loss in Early Stage of Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology 2002. Nov. 12:59(9): 1325-30.
Problems contexts as social constructs
hat should be becoming clear from the discussion so far is that it may be best, in Systems Analysis, to regard problems, puzzles and messes as social constructs. That is, like beauty, there is a sense in which they are defined in the eye of the beholder. This does not mean that every aspect of the issues to be faced is within the mind of the analyst or the participants. That a business is heading for bankruptcy or that an ambulance service is failing to provide adequate response times may be beyond dispute (Galliers, 2010). But the interpretation of those "facts" is less certain, and different people may interpret the same "facts" in different ways. That is, there may be several valid views of what is happening and of what might be done about it. Some of these interpretations may turn out to be wrong,…
Galliers, R.D. "Strategic information systems planning: myths, reality and guidelines for successful implementation," European Journal of Information Systems, vol. 1, pp. 55-64, 2010.
Chan, Y. Huff, S. Barclay, D. And Copeland, D. "Business Strategic Orientation: Information Systems Strategic Orientation and Strategic Alignment," Information Systems Research, vol. 8, pp. 125-150, 2006.
Bleistein, S.J. Cox, K. And Verner, J. "Requirements Engineering for e-Business Systems: Integrating Jackson Problem Diagrams with Goal Modeling and BPM," presented at 11th Asia Pacific Software Engineering Conference, Busan, Korea, 2004.
Cox, K. Phalp, K.S. Bleistein, J. And Verner, J. "Deriving Requirements from Process Models via the Problem Frames Approach," Information and Software Technology, vol. 47, pp. 319-337, 2005.
Linear, Logistic or Multiple Correlation/Regression Proposal
Objective of this paper is to use the statistical test to investigate whether the middle income earners in developing countries are capable of becoming home owners. The paper uses Nigeria as a case study. Unlike the developed countries such as the United States and United Kingdom where middle income earners can become house owners, however, the issues are different in developing countries because various factors prevent middle income earners from purchasing housing units compared to middle income earners in developing countries. Typically, a level of income plays a critical role in homeownership. While different governments in developing countries have implemented various policies in assisting people to become homeowners, nevertheless, factors such as corruption, inflation, and poor implementations have made the policy non-realizable. In Sub-Sahara African countries, nearly 62% of people live in slums, and per capital income of most developing countries are less than…
Performance Measurement Index
What follows in this report is the answers to a series of questions relating to the ARC and their use of performance indexing and measurement to gauge and measure the need for and efficacy of their services. The ARC is responsible for a number of different governmental programs and efforts and they use a number of metrics to measure how well they are doing their job, what the level of need happens to be and so forth (OPM, 2017; ARC, 2017).
There are active questions as to whether the metrics chosen by the ARC as applied and used from the OPM's performance management framework are proper and best for what is being looked at and assessed. Thus, looking at whether ARC is looking at the correct items, whether they are being looked at the right way or if perhaps they should be drilling down a bit further…
Baumeister and Leary discuss the various goals of literature reviews. The selected article by Piotrowska, Stride, Croft and owe discuss SES or socioeconomic status and its potential role in antisocial behavior. The writers of the article seem to develop their review from the most ambitious goal of Baumeister and Leary's literature review discussion. This goal involves development of theory and the authors here have a main objective to propose a new r theory or conceptualization regarding some psychological occurrence. For the article, it would be the correlation between antisocial behavior and social economic status.
The authors stated within the article, not much research is performed concerning this kind of correlation. "Although available research evidence does not permit formulation of strong hypotheses as to whether behavioural subtype moderates the relationship between SES and antisocial behaviour, it could be speculated that this relationship will be less pronounced when more heritable subtypes are…
Baumeister, R., & Leary, M. (1997). Writing narrative literature reviews. Review Of General Psychology, 1(3), 311-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2622.214.171.1241
Piotrowska, P., Stride, C., Croft, S., & Rowe, R. (2015). Socioeconomic status and antisocial behaviour among children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 35, 47-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2014.11.003
Relationship between Temperament and Creativity
A Review of Literature
In seeking to establish the relationship between temperament and creativity, it would be prudent to define both temperament and creativity. However, in so doing, it should be noted that neither term has an assigned definition. Temperament, in the words of Necka and Hlawacz (2013), could be “conceptualized as the biologically rooted, mostly inborn, foundations for personality and other individual traits” (183). Hilda and Sneha (2017) on the other hand define temperament as “an individual's characteristic level of emotional excitability or intensity” (803). As the authors further point out, an individual’s temperament becomes apparent awhile after birth, i.e. several weeks after birth. When it comes to creativity, the focus is on the individual’s ability to formulate ideas that could be deemed original. Thus, creativity has also got to do with creation, innovation, and imagination. A more concise definition of creativity would come…
xy in Psyc
One of the biggest mistakes we make as individuals is to see that two things occur together and conclude that one causes the other. For instance, there is a great deal of information online and in other venues about depression and poor diet. For example, a self-help depression website offers this quote from a book on the subject "Food can affect your mood, and what you choose to put into your mouth can influence your state of mind" (http://www.depression-help-for-you.com/diet-for-depression.html). Now that may have some truth to it as one may feel better after a good meal and not so good after eating burned popcorn, but the site goes on to explain how studies have found relationships between higher rates of depression and consumption of junk food, soda, etc. Interestingly there is a huge market for books that promote diet for depression, the implication being that depression is…
Lilienfeld, S.O., Lynn, S.J., & Lohr, J.M. (Eds.). (2003). Science and pseudoscience in clinical psychology. New York: Guilford.
prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:
H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.
H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.
The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…
childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors
Previous study: What has the previous study found out?
A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.
he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.
Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…
The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.
Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
Education and Fertility ates
Fertility and Educational Attainment
Women around the world are starting to become more empowered through higher education attainment levels. Millions of women are now finding more educational opportunities at their fingertips, which empower them as well as the economic capacity of their respective nations. Yet, education also has an impact on fertility rates; as education levels rise, fertility rates tend to decrease. Nations with higher education expectations thus tend to have women with decreased fertility rates and who tend to have children at much older age groups than in nations where there are less educational opportunities for women.
Education is a major factor of improving a woman's quality of life. At the same time, education also impacts the rate at which women give birth. The research suggests that "educational attainment has long been considered the most important measure of socioeconomic status in describing fertility differentials" (Center…
The author of this brief report and response has been asked to offer one or more "a-ha" moments when it comes to the latest batch of material for the class being completed. After reviewing all of the material, there are actually several things that the author will point to. These will relate to things like the importance of accurate measurement, what correlation truly means and a few other things. While correlation and a bit of variance can be a major thing or just a coincidence, it is important to be as precise and exact as possible.
Indeed, one issue that stands out is the "Presenting Problem 2" in the material. It talks about how the identification and treatment of hypertension has made great inroads when it comes to the treatment and management of the disorder and its associated effects down the road. One thing that has apparently emerged…
As theories claim certain risk factors and ignore others, it is critical to evaluate the most common risk factors despite their discipline fields. There are five broad domains for risk factors: Individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Another key component to understanding risk factors is the age of onset, in which early onset is considered age 6-11, and late onset is considered age 12-14 (Shader, 2002). Each of the risk factor domains are also coupled with protective factors, such as high IQ and parental monitoring, that subtract from the probability of risk factors blossoming into delinquency. isk factors of juvenile delinquency can be grouped together in a variety of ways, and the five domains of individual, family, school, peer group, and community can be distilled further into: individual, social, and community categories. The three categories also branch into sub-categories, for example, the social category includes both family and peer…
Binder, A, Geis, G, & Bruce, D. (2000). Juvenile delinquency: historical, cultural, and legal perspectives. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.
Cicourel, A. (1995). The social organization of juvenile justice. Brunswick, NJ: Transaction
Farrington, D. (2002). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile delinquency: an integrated
Sum of Squares and Cross-products
There is no statistically significant correlation between age of the participant and the self-assessed knowledge regarding the use of computers.
Sum of Squares and Cross-products
Sum of Squares and Cross-products
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
There is a statistically significant correlation between the gender of the participant and their self-assessed degree of experience relating to the knowledge regarding and use of computers. Women (f=2) outnumber men astronomically within this sample, as such this result is highly biased and should not be taken to represent…
Since the beginning of time the male species has had an obsession with that part of the personal anatomy known by its Latin root as the "tail"; or today known as one's pecker, "wankie," monkey, and a host of other rather humorous titles. Somewhere, however, in creating the world God must have became confused when creating man as, and being politically correct, he/she placed the tail on the man's front side and on the animals' rear side -- or maybe God just had a bad day on his/her day of creation. Regardless of what one wants to call his penis or tail, history has proven that man's obsession with the penis is ever ending. Simply consider the folklore surrounding John Dillinger whose penis was reportedly over 20 inches. If medical science were correct it would likely have taken Dillinger 20 minutes to get enough blood circulating in his penis…
scientific observation that distinguish it from our everyday observation are that scientific observation is conducted using precisely defined observational conditions; by performing the observations systematically and objectively; and through keeping careful and accurate records.
Scientific observation, as opposed to everyday observations, must take place within certain well-defined parameters, whether in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Furthermore, the scientist does not choose the parameters arbitrarily but rather relies on such methods as sampling to conduct the observations and experiments in a way that renders them valid. For example, if a researcher wanted to examine the effects of watching violent video games on a child's behavior, he or she would first have to determine which video games would be deemed violent, and what specific behavioral affects to look for. An everyday observation of the same phenomenon would be far less precise.
Also, everyday observation can be passive and filtered through the individual's biases…
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction
Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview
PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma
Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD
Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion
Genetic and Environmental Influences
Models of Assessment/Conclusions
Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"
This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.
A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…
References" f C l "1":
Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90
Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135
Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).
'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.
Title of paper
Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).
Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:
lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…
Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).
Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.
A more robust method is to conduct a factor analysis before running the regression analysis, and then to rotate the factors to insure that the factors are independent in the factor analysis ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").
9. Discuss autocorrelation (serial correlation) assumption & implication to student work
Autocorrelation (lagged correlation or serial correlation) occurs when the correlation between values in a random process at different times that is a function of the time lag or of the two times ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). That is to say that there is a relationship between a variable and itself over intervals of time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). These serial correlations occur in repeating patterns when the level of a variable at a time certain affects the variable at a future time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").
10.Discuss ways to overcome the serial correlation
When using an estimated equation for statistical inference in hypothesis testing, the residuals will…
Geisser, S. And Johnson, W.M. (2006). Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference, John Wiley & Sons.
____. (2012). Statistics Solutions. Retrieved http://www.statisticssolutions.com/academic-solutions/resources/directory-of-statistical-analyses/assumptions-of-multiple-linear-regression/#sthash.hirr3Y2x.dpuf
These include aging, family history, diabetes, and artery disease. (Women and Stroke)
There are numerous factors that contribute to stroke prevention that are useful in a nursing situation. The include checking blood pressure as dietary observance and history. There are also a number of warning signs that should be monitored. These include:
Sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg -- especially on one side of the body; Sudden confusion or trouble speaking; Sudden dizziness, loss of balance and coordination or trouble walking; Sudden difficulty seeing with one or both eyes; Sudden severe headache without a known cause." (ibid)
While there is no direct and exact correlation between stroke and migraine there are sufficient studies that have been undertaken to show that there is evidence to assume a link between these two ailments, especially among women. Studies have also found that among the many variables, women…
Cutlip, W.D., (1995). "Migraines and other headaches: an approach to diagnosis and classification. American Family Physician, May 1, 1995.
Headache and Migraine Glossary. Retrieved November 16, 2004 from Avout.Com. Web site: http://headaches.about.com/library/glossary/bl-isch-stroke.htm
Hecht, B. And Hecht F. (2004)
Migraine with Aura & Stroke. Retrieved November 18, 2004 from Medicine Net. Web site: http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=32332
The research by Rosenthal & Wilson is particularly valuable in this respect because it suggests that negative experiences are not directly responsible for poor school performance, but rather that the continued psychological distress resulting from negative experiences is responsible for school discontinuation among students. Thus one can blame the failure of the schooling system not on the surrounding environment, but on the students lack of resilience. This might at first seem to be a sort of conservative ploy, aimed at blaming the victim of social disaster for failing to rise above it rather than considering ways to prevent such disasters. However, if one can escape the negative implications of "blame" and "causation," it is possible to see some potential in this theory of causation. If the cause of school failure and discontinuation is the psychological distress of the student who has survived violence, then it is possible that by ameliorating…
What is the null and alternate hypothesis?
3. What is the correlation between student anxiety scores and number of study hours? Select alpha and interpret your findings. Make sure to note whether it is significant or not and what the effect size is.
4. How would you interpret this?
5. What is the probability of a type I error? What does this mean?
6. How would you use this same information but set it up in a way that allows you to conduct a t-test? An ANOVA?
Assignment 1 Grading Criteria
Explain why a correlation is the most appropriate statistic.
List the null and alternate hypothesis.
Compute and correctly present the correlation between student anxiety scores and number of study hours.
List the alpha, statistical significance of the results and the effect size. Provide an interpretation of the results.
List the probability of a type I error and explain what…
media consumption and subsequent behaviour?
Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.
The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…
Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., Malamuth, N.M. And Wartella, A., 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public interest, 4(3), pp. 81-110.
Berkowitz, L. And Geen R.G., 1966. Film violence and the cue properties of available targets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), pp. 525-530. [pdf]
Bjorkqvist, K., 1985. Violent films, anxiety, and aggression. Helsinki: Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.
Bushmann, B.J. And Huesmann, L.R., 2001. Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. Singer and J. Singer, eds. Handbook of children and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 223-254.
Fast Food and Child Obesity
This study identifies the underlying correlation of fast food consumption and the increasing rate of child obesity. The system of fast food is prevalent in all countries, with each country having its own variations of types of items served and the nature of establishments serving. The popularity of fast food is due to the convenience of fast service, packaged food and low cost. Now major fast food industries try to make their product seem as healthy as possible. It is likely that the convenience is influencing the growth of childhood obesity in the United States. In addition, the factors of media, family, and environment bring about differences within our community. Understanding the correlation between these factors is vital in producing a solution. However, there needs to be a better support for causation, not just correlation. The children and youth will one-day influence the…
Chou, S. (2008). Fast Food Restaurants Advertising on Television and its Influence on Childhood Obesity. The Journal of Law & Economics, 51, 599-618.
Darwin, A. (2008). Childhood Obesity: Is it Abuse? The Children's Voice, 17, 4-24.
Eagle, T. (2012). Understanding Childhood Obesity in America: Linkages between Household Income, Community Resources, and Children's Behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
Fraser, L. (1998). Fast Food and Obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-248.
If they can bench-press heavy weights, they may emphasize athletics at the expense of academics, in terms of how they prioritize their time. However, it is equally possible that in some schools, high-achieving students also use athletics as a way of bolstering their college resume. Factors such as the school, the degree to which athletics makes demands upon student athletes within the particular environment, and the intelligence of the players may indicate there is no correlation.
Daily air temperature & the average weight of clothing worn
H1: There is a negative correlation between temperature and weight of clothing -- in other words, greater the air temperature, the lighter the clothing.
H0: There is no correlation between temperature and weight of clothing.
Estimate: Negative correlation -1
Analysis: The research hypothesis is likely to be proven, with only small variations for such factors as rain and humidity.
Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null…
Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null hypothesis. Experiment Resources.com. 2008.
September 15, 2009 at http://www.experiment-resources.com/null-hypothesis.html
e. fat storage. These physiological concerns are significant in that programming that was designed to maintain a nurturing position for young children the physiological environment interprets crisis as anything that creates a stressful physical demeanor. The stress and psychology of abandonment is a constant, once the abandonment by the father has occurred. The body does not distinguish between a fasting period associated with unavailable food, or drought and psychological long-term emotional stress. The human body also does not distinguish between a self imposed diet and a period of famine. It reduces its basal metabolic rate, or the rate of metabolism needed to perform its base functions, and then the recovery period would seem to be longer than expected. This is the diet conundrum, though it has also been proven that prolonged periods of psychological stress and/or depression that could be associated with abandonment by the father will also cause a…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19.
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F., & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Bifulco, a. (1998). Wednesday's Child: Research into Women's Experience of Neglect and Abuse in Childhood and Adult Depression. London: Routledge.
Caprio, Sonia. (2006) "Treating Child Obesity and Associated Medical Conditions." The Future of Children 16 (1), 209.
It is hypothesized that self-efficacy, appraisal, challenge and resources will negatively predict perceived stress whilst avoidant strategies will increase levels of perceived stress.
The sample consisted of 100 participants, 27 males and 73 females. Forty percent of the participants were not students, 30 were studying as part time students and 29% were studying as full time students. Fifty-five percent of the sample was employed full time, 25% were employed part-time and 20% reported being unemployed. Participants in the sample ranged from 16 to 70 years of age, with an average age of 35.6.
The assumption of normality was met for each individual variable. All of the variables included in the regression analysis displayed relatively normal distributions. The distribution for Self-Efficacy has a slight negative skew, but not one that should influence the interpretation of the results. An examination of scatter plots also revealed no problems with…