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Prediction'so We Have to Assume That
Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91289389
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prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:

H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.

H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.

The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…

Child Obesity and Fast Food
Words: 755 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 84408262
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childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors

Previous study: What has the previous study found out?

A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.

Hypothesis:

he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.

Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…

The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.

Source

Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.

Impacts of Schooling on Fertility Rates
Words: 2124 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44976539
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Education and Fertility ates

Fertility and Educational Attainment

Women around the world are starting to become more empowered through higher education attainment levels. Millions of women are now finding more educational opportunities at their fingertips, which empower them as well as the economic capacity of their respective nations. Yet, education also has an impact on fertility rates; as education levels rise, fertility rates tend to decrease. Nations with higher education expectations thus tend to have women with decreased fertility rates and who tend to have children at much older age groups than in nations where there are less educational opportunities for women.

Education is a major factor of improving a woman's quality of life. At the same time, education also impacts the rate at which women give birth. The research suggests that "educational attainment has long been considered the most important measure of socioeconomic status in describing fertility differentials" (Center…

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994). Birth and fertility rates by educational attainment: United States, 1994. Monthly Vital Statistics Report, 45(10). Web.  http://www.cdc.gov/ nchs/data/mvsr/supp/mv45_10s.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Importance of Procedure and Precision
Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: White Paper Paper #: 71097843
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Ha Moment

The author of this brief report and response has been asked to offer one or more "a-ha" moments when it comes to the latest batch of material for the class being completed. After reviewing all of the material, there are actually several things that the author will point to. These will relate to things like the importance of accurate measurement, what correlation truly means and a few other things. While correlation and a bit of variance can be a major thing or just a coincidence, it is important to be as precise and exact as possible.

Indeed, one issue that stands out is the "Presenting Problem 2" in the material. It talks about how the identification and treatment of hypertension has made great inroads when it comes to the treatment and management of the disorder and its associated effects down the road. One thing that has apparently emerged…

Juveniles and Crime the Interaction
Words: 5161 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11803867
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As theories claim certain risk factors and ignore others, it is critical to evaluate the most common risk factors despite their discipline fields. There are five broad domains for risk factors: Individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Another key component to understanding risk factors is the age of onset, in which early onset is considered age 6-11, and late onset is considered age 12-14 (Shader, 2002). Each of the risk factor domains are also coupled with protective factors, such as high IQ and parental monitoring, that subtract from the probability of risk factors blossoming into delinquency. isk factors of juvenile delinquency can be grouped together in a variety of ways, and the five domains of individual, family, school, peer group, and community can be distilled further into: individual, social, and community categories. The three categories also branch into sub-categories, for example, the social category includes both family and peer…

References

Binder, A, Geis, G, & Bruce, D. (2000). Juvenile delinquency: historical, cultural, and legal perspectives. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.

Cicourel, A. (1995). The social organization of juvenile justice. Brunswick, NJ: Transaction

Publishers.

Farrington, D. (2002). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile delinquency: an integrated

Nursing That Individuals Employed Within
Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Data Analysis Chapter Paper #: 93931054
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594

1.409

N

Knowledge

Pearson Correlation

.117

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.128

Sum of Squares and Cross-products

42054.186

Covariance

1.409

N

There is no statistically significant correlation between age of the participant and the self-assessed knowledge regarding the use of computers.

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Gender

1.92

.274

Experience

3.87

1.463

Correlations

Gender

Experience

Gender

Pearson Correlation

1

-.246**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

Sum of Squares and Cross-products

12.860

-16.872

Covariance

.075

-.099

N

Experience

Pearson Correlation

-.246**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

Sum of Squares and Cross-products

-16.872

Covariance

-.099

2.140

N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

There is a statistically significant correlation between the gender of the participant and their self-assessed degree of experience relating to the knowledge regarding and use of computers. Women (f=2) outnumber men astronomically within this sample, as such this result is highly biased and should not be taken to represent…

Penis Since the Beginning of Time the
Words: 2660 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38761943
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Penis

Since the beginning of time the male species has had an obsession with that part of the personal anatomy known by its Latin root as the "tail"; or today known as one's pecker, "wankie," monkey, and a host of other rather humorous titles. Somewhere, however, in creating the world God must have became confused when creating man as, and being politically correct, he/she placed the tail on the man's front side and on the animals' rear side -- or maybe God just had a bad day on his/her day of creation. Regardless of what one wants to call his penis or tail, history has proven that man's obsession with the penis is ever ending. Simply consider the folklore surrounding John Dillinger whose penis was reportedly over 20 inches. If medical science were correct it would likely have taken Dillinger 20 minutes to get enough blood circulating in his penis…

Scientific Observation That Distinguish it From Our
Words: 2109 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83022137
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scientific observation that distinguish it from our everyday observation are that scientific observation is conducted using precisely defined observational conditions; by performing the observations systematically and objectively; and through keeping careful and accurate records.

Scientific observation, as opposed to everyday observations, must take place within certain well-defined parameters, whether in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Furthermore, the scientist does not choose the parameters arbitrarily but rather relies on such methods as sampling to conduct the observations and experiments in a way that renders them valid. For example, if a researcher wanted to examine the effects of watching violent video games on a child's behavior, he or she would first have to determine which video games would be deemed violent, and what specific behavioral affects to look for. An everyday observation of the same phenomenon would be far less precise.

Also, everyday observation can be passive and filtered through the individual's biases…

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism Addiction
Words: 4543 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57309421
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction

Narrative

Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview

PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma

Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD

Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion

Genetic and Environmental Influences

Models of Assessment/Conclusions

Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"

This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.

A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…

References" f C l "1":

Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90

Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135

Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).

'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40

Beck Depression Inventory-Ii Bdi-Ii Is a 21-Item
Words: 4152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83941983
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Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.

Title of paper

The…

Zangle or Parent Connect Is
Words: 4814 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32315808
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Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).

Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:

lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…

Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).

Conclusion

Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.

Statistical Processes
Words: 860 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Methodology Chapter Paper #: 26062280
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A more robust method is to conduct a factor analysis before running the regression analysis, and then to rotate the factors to insure that the factors are independent in the factor analysis ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

9. Discuss autocorrelation (serial correlation) assumption & implication to student work

Autocorrelation (lagged correlation or serial correlation) occurs when the correlation between values in a random process at different times that is a function of the time lag or of the two times ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). That is to say that there is a relationship between a variable and itself over intervals of time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). These serial correlations occur in repeating patterns when the level of a variable at a time certain affects the variable at a future time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

10.Discuss ways to overcome the serial correlation

When using an estimated equation for statistical inference in hypothesis testing, the residuals will…

References

Geisser, S. And Johnson, W.M. (2006). Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference, John Wiley & Sons.

____. (2012). Statistics Solutions. Retrieved  http://www.statisticssolutions.com/academic-solutions/resources/directory-of-statistical-analyses/assumptions-of-multiple-linear-regression/#sthash.hirr3Y2x.dpuf

Migraines & Strokes Migraine and
Words: 1964 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96307379
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These include aging, family history, diabetes, and artery disease. (Women and Stroke)

There are numerous factors that contribute to stroke prevention that are useful in a nursing situation. The include checking blood pressure as dietary observance and history. There are also a number of warning signs that should be monitored. These include:

Sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg -- especially on one side of the body; Sudden confusion or trouble speaking; Sudden dizziness, loss of balance and coordination or trouble walking; Sudden difficulty seeing with one or both eyes; Sudden severe headache without a known cause." (ibid)

5. Conclusion

While there is no direct and exact correlation between stroke and migraine there are sufficient studies that have been undertaken to show that there is evidence to assume a link between these two ailments, especially among women. Studies have also found that among the many variables, women…

Bibliography

Cutlip, W.D., (1995). "Migraines and other headaches: an approach to diagnosis and classification. American Family Physician, May 1, 1995.

Headache and Migraine Glossary. Retrieved November 16, 2004 from Avout.Com. Web site:  http://headaches.about.com/library/glossary/bl-isch-stroke.htm 

Hecht, B. And Hecht F. (2004)

Migraine with Aura & Stroke. Retrieved November 18, 2004 from Medicine Net. Web site:  http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=32332

Rosenthal & Wilson the Blight
Words: 1939 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47934414
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The research by Rosenthal & Wilson is particularly valuable in this respect because it suggests that negative experiences are not directly responsible for poor school performance, but rather that the continued psychological distress resulting from negative experiences is responsible for school discontinuation among students. Thus one can blame the failure of the schooling system not on the surrounding environment, but on the students lack of resilience. This might at first seem to be a sort of conservative ploy, aimed at blaming the victim of social disaster for failing to rise above it rather than considering ways to prevent such disasters. However, if one can escape the negative implications of "blame" and "causation," it is possible to see some potential in this theory of causation. If the cause of school failure and discontinuation is the psychological distress of the student who has survived violence, then it is possible that by ameliorating…

Psychological Statistics a Study Sought
Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34889959
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What is the null and alternate hypothesis?

3. What is the correlation between student anxiety scores and number of study hours? Select alpha and interpret your findings. Make sure to note whether it is significant or not and what the effect size is.

4. How would you interpret this?

5. What is the probability of a type I error? What does this mean?

6. How would you use this same information but set it up in a way that allows you to conduct a t-test? An ANOVA?

Assignment 1 Grading Criteria

Explain why a correlation is the most appropriate statistic.

List the null and alternate hypothesis.

Compute and correctly present the correlation between student anxiety scores and number of study hours.

List the alpha, statistical significance of the results and the effect size. Provide an interpretation of the results.

List the probability of a type I error and explain what…

Media Consumption
Words: 4745 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73159402
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media consumption and subsequent behaviour?

Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.

The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…

Bibliography

Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., Malamuth, N.M. And Wartella, A., 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public interest, 4(3), pp. 81-110.

Berkowitz, L. And Geen R.G., 1966. Film violence and the cue properties of available targets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), pp. 525-530. [pdf]

Bjorkqvist, K., 1985. Violent films, anxiety, and aggression. Helsinki: Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.

Bushmann, B.J. And Huesmann, L.R., 2001. Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. Singer and J. Singer, eds. Handbook of children and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 223-254.

Fast Food and Child Obesity
Words: 1889 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60014706
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Fast Food and Child Obesity

Jonathan Kwan

This study identifies the underlying correlation of fast food consumption and the increasing rate of child obesity. The system of fast food is prevalent in all countries, with each country having its own variations of types of items served and the nature of establishments serving. The popularity of fast food is due to the convenience of fast service, packaged food and low cost. Now major fast food industries try to make their product seem as healthy as possible. It is likely that the convenience is influencing the growth of childhood obesity in the United States. In addition, the factors of media, family, and environment bring about differences within our community. Understanding the correlation between these factors is vital in producing a solution. However, there needs to be a better support for causation, not just correlation. The children and youth will one-day influence the…

References

Chou, S. (2008). Fast Food Restaurants Advertising on Television and its Influence on Childhood Obesity. The Journal of Law & Economics, 51, 599-618.

Darwin, A. (2008). Childhood Obesity: Is it Abuse? The Children's Voice, 17, 4-24.

Eagle, T. (2012). Understanding Childhood Obesity in America: Linkages between Household Income, Community Resources, and Children's Behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.

Fraser, L. (1998). Fast Food and Obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-248.

Null Hypotheses Height & Weight
Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 15934815
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If they can bench-press heavy weights, they may emphasize athletics at the expense of academics, in terms of how they prioritize their time. However, it is equally possible that in some schools, high-achieving students also use athletics as a way of bolstering their college resume. Factors such as the school, the degree to which athletics makes demands upon student athletes within the particular environment, and the intelligence of the players may indicate there is no correlation.

Daily air temperature & the average weight of clothing worn

H1: There is a negative correlation between temperature and weight of clothing -- in other words, greater the air temperature, the lighter the clothing.

H0: There is no correlation between temperature and weight of clothing.

Estimate: Negative correlation -1

Analysis: The research hypothesis is likely to be proven, with only small variations for such factors as rain and humidity.

orks Cited

Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null…

Works Cited

Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null hypothesis. Experiment Resources.com. 2008.

September 15, 2009 at  http://www.experiment-resources.com/null-hypothesis.html

Paternal Abandonment and Female Adult
Words: 7963 Length: 29 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38071318
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e. fat storage. These physiological concerns are significant in that programming that was designed to maintain a nurturing position for young children the physiological environment interprets crisis as anything that creates a stressful physical demeanor. The stress and psychology of abandonment is a constant, once the abandonment by the father has occurred. The body does not distinguish between a fasting period associated with unavailable food, or drought and psychological long-term emotional stress. The human body also does not distinguish between a self imposed diet and a period of famine. It reduces its basal metabolic rate, or the rate of metabolism needed to perform its base functions, and then the recovery period would seem to be longer than expected. This is the diet conundrum, though it has also been proven that prolonged periods of psychological stress and/or depression that could be associated with abandonment by the father will also cause a…

References

Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19.

Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F., & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.

Bifulco, a. (1998). Wednesday's Child: Research into Women's Experience of Neglect and Abuse in Childhood and Adult Depression. London: Routledge.

Caprio, Sonia. (2006) "Treating Child Obesity and Associated Medical Conditions." The Future of Children 16 (1), 209.

Parenting Styles in the Jewish Community Differentially
Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 42241033
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parenting styles in the Jewish community differentially correlate with alcohol use of Jewish College Freshmen males (18-26)?

Underage and college drinking is an increasing problem for youth. This later phase of adolescence is one where pressure and a desire to act as an independent individual are overwhelming, and can convince college students to opt toward excessive alcohol usage (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). The degree to which parenting styles correspond to college age drinking frequency within the Jewish community remains unknown.

The given research is intended to investigate and measure whether there is a relationship between the parenting styles experienced by a Jewish child during childhood and the potential to develop an alcohol intake frequency during late adolescence. It is evidenced that there is a considerable relationship between the parenting styles and the degree of alcohol consumption in college aged adolescents and young…