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Prediction'so We Have to Assume That

Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91289389

prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:

H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.

H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.

The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…… [Read More]

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Child Obesity and Fast Food

Words: 755 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 84408262

childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors

Previous study: What has the previous study found out?

A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.


he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.

Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…… [Read More]

The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.


Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
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Impacts of Schooling on Fertility Rates

Words: 2124 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44976539

Education and Fertility ates

Fertility and Educational Attainment

Women around the world are starting to become more empowered through higher education attainment levels. Millions of women are now finding more educational opportunities at their fingertips, which empower them as well as the economic capacity of their respective nations. Yet, education also has an impact on fertility rates; as education levels rise, fertility rates tend to decrease. Nations with higher education expectations thus tend to have women with decreased fertility rates and who tend to have children at much older age groups than in nations where there are less educational opportunities for women.

Education is a major factor of improving a woman's quality of life. At the same time, education also impacts the rate at which women give birth. The research suggests that "educational attainment has long been considered the most important measure of socioeconomic status in describing fertility differentials" (Center…… [Read More]


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994). Birth and fertility rates by educational attainment: United States, 1994. Monthly Vital Statistics Report, 45(10). Web. nchs/data/mvsr/supp/mv45_10s.pdf" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Importance of Procedure and Precision

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: White Paper Paper #: 71097843

Ha Moment

The author of this brief report and response has been asked to offer one or more "a-ha" moments when it comes to the latest batch of material for the class being completed. After reviewing all of the material, there are actually several things that the author will point to. These will relate to things like the importance of accurate measurement, what correlation truly means and a few other things. While correlation and a bit of variance can be a major thing or just a coincidence, it is important to be as precise and exact as possible.

Indeed, one issue that stands out is the "Presenting Problem 2" in the material. It talks about how the identification and treatment of hypertension has made great inroads when it comes to the treatment and management of the disorder and its associated effects down the road. One thing that has apparently emerged…… [Read More]

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Juveniles and Crime the Interaction

Words: 5161 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11803867

As theories claim certain risk factors and ignore others, it is critical to evaluate the most common risk factors despite their discipline fields. There are five broad domains for risk factors: Individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Another key component to understanding risk factors is the age of onset, in which early onset is considered age 6-11, and late onset is considered age 12-14 (Shader, 2002). Each of the risk factor domains are also coupled with protective factors, such as high IQ and parental monitoring, that subtract from the probability of risk factors blossoming into delinquency. isk factors of juvenile delinquency can be grouped together in a variety of ways, and the five domains of individual, family, school, peer group, and community can be distilled further into: individual, social, and community categories. The three categories also branch into sub-categories, for example, the social category includes both family and peer…… [Read More]


Binder, A, Geis, G, & Bruce, D. (2000). Juvenile delinquency: historical, cultural, and legal perspectives. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.

Cicourel, A. (1995). The social organization of juvenile justice. Brunswick, NJ: Transaction


Farrington, D. (2002). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile delinquency: an integrated
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Nursing That Individuals Employed Within

Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Data Analysis Chapter Paper #: 93931054





Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)


Sum of Squares and Cross-products





There is no statistically significant correlation between age of the participant and the self-assessed knowledge regarding the use of computers.

Descriptive Statistics


Std. Deviation












Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)


Sum of Squares and Cross-products








Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)


Sum of Squares and Cross-products






**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

There is a statistically significant correlation between the gender of the participant and their self-assessed degree of experience relating to the knowledge regarding and use of computers. Women (f=2) outnumber men astronomically within this sample, as such this result is highly biased and should not be taken to represent…… [Read More]

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Designing a New Regulatory Framework for Telecommunications Interception and Access in Jordan

Words: 5019 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 44407856

New Regulatory Framework for elecommunications in Jordan

Jordan elecommunications


Chapter X presented the pre-test results of the pilot study that used qualitative data collected from the interviews with Jordanian dignitaries. his chapter presents the quantitative results from the survey administered to the larger representative sample of respondents from Jordanian businesses.

he interviews conducted for the pilot study and a review of the literature supported the development of questions used in the survey. he interview process was used to ensure that the questions used in the research would have content validity and, thus, would accurately reflect the primary issues concerning telecommunications law. Further, the pilot study served to verify that terminology used in the survey questions showed consistent usage in the respondent sample.

Sample and Response Rate (Questionnaire)

he random stratified sample is representative of the population at large for persons affiliated with or interested in telecommunications…… [Read More]

The results of this research indicate that Jordan is conceptually poised to develop and adopt a regulatory framework for telecommunications interception and access that support the use of standards-based technical implementations for this lawful interception. The following categorical considerations support the views expressed by respondents in this research that a culture of acceptance regarding the regulatory framework for telecommunications interception and access exists and, further, that there is a need for this regulatory framework.

Use of digital communication is rising in Jordan. In 2006, only 4.6% of the population in Jordan was regularly using the internet. Today, nearly five years later, that rate of usage will have increased if only because internet access is moving to mobile digital platforms. Five years ago, many people used desktop personal computers to access the internet. For younger consumers particularly, internet access shifted to laptops and smart phones. Recent studies in social networking indicate that many young people may exclusively access the internet on these mobile digital devices (The Research Intelligence Group / ). Mobile digital devices are becoming exponentially faster, cheaper, and capable of replacing stationary personal computers. It is reasonable to assume that the use of mobile digital devices is rising among criminals and terrorists as well.

Incompatible laws. A number of Jordanian laws are designed to protect the privacy and human rights of its citizens with regard to modes of communication. The Telecommunications Act protects privacy related to the use of telephones and telecommunication networks. The Jordanian Constitution Act Article 18 protects communication through the postal, telephonic, and telegraphic systems. Monitoring and surveillance occurs where the law permits where persons are considered to pose a threat to the government or national security. Provisions of these regulations do not necessarily work in concert, and this situation may be exacerbated by the fact that Jordan does not have specific telecommunication interception and access statutes.
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Penis Since the Beginning of Time the

Words: 2660 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38761943


Since the beginning of time the male species has had an obsession with that part of the personal anatomy known by its Latin root as the "tail"; or today known as one's pecker, "wankie," monkey, and a host of other rather humorous titles. Somewhere, however, in creating the world God must have became confused when creating man as, and being politically correct, he/she placed the tail on the man's front side and on the animals' rear side -- or maybe God just had a bad day on his/her day of creation. Regardless of what one wants to call his penis or tail, history has proven that man's obsession with the penis is ever ending. Simply consider the folklore surrounding John Dillinger whose penis was reportedly over 20 inches. If medical science were correct it would likely have taken Dillinger 20 minutes to get enough blood circulating in his penis…… [Read More]

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Scientific Observation That Distinguish it From Our

Words: 2109 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83022137

scientific observation that distinguish it from our everyday observation are that scientific observation is conducted using precisely defined observational conditions; by performing the observations systematically and objectively; and through keeping careful and accurate records.

Scientific observation, as opposed to everyday observations, must take place within certain well-defined parameters, whether in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Furthermore, the scientist does not choose the parameters arbitrarily but rather relies on such methods as sampling to conduct the observations and experiments in a way that renders them valid. For example, if a researcher wanted to examine the effects of watching violent video games on a child's behavior, he or she would first have to determine which video games would be deemed violent, and what specific behavioral affects to look for. An everyday observation of the same phenomenon would be far less precise.

Also, everyday observation can be passive and filtered through the individual's biases…… [Read More]

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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism Addiction

Words: 4543 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57309421

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction


Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview

PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma

Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD

Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion

Genetic and Environmental Influences

Models of Assessment/Conclusions

Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"

This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.

A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…… [Read More]

References" f C l "1":

Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90

Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135

Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).

'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
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Beck Depression Inventory-Ii Bdi-Ii Is a 21-Item

Words: 4152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83941983

Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.

Title of paper

The…… [Read More]

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Zangle or Parent Connect Is

Words: 4814 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32315808

Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).

Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:

lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…… [Read More]

Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).


Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.
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Statistical Processes

Words: 860 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Methodology Chapter Paper #: 26062280

A more robust method is to conduct a factor analysis before running the regression analysis, and then to rotate the factors to insure that the factors are independent in the factor analysis ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

9. Discuss autocorrelation (serial correlation) assumption & implication to student work

Autocorrelation (lagged correlation or serial correlation) occurs when the correlation between values in a random process at different times that is a function of the time lag or of the two times ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). That is to say that there is a relationship between a variable and itself over intervals of time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). These serial correlations occur in repeating patterns when the level of a variable at a time certain affects the variable at a future time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

10.Discuss ways to overcome the serial correlation

When using an estimated equation for statistical inference in hypothesis testing, the residuals will…… [Read More]


Geisser, S. And Johnson, W.M. (2006). Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference, John Wiley & Sons.

____. (2012). Statistics Solutions. Retrieved
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Developing Best Employee Performance Assessment for Call Centers

Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 4440228

Telephone Customer Service epresentatives

Employment Assessment - Telephone

How do you interpret the reliability results for the clerical test and work sample? Are they favorable enough for the company to consider using them for keeps in selecting job applicants?

A primary objective of evaluating two new methods of assessing candidates for positions as telephone customer service representatives for the Phonemin Company is to improve the caliber of the employment pool from which new hires are selected. The participation of customer service representatives in the telephone ordering system of the company is critical to this endeavor. Moreover, the company will be adding roughly 40 employees to the call center in order to meet the anticipated growth in phone order sales. From this, it is readily apparent that effective means of assessing candidates for the positions of telephone customer service representatives is needed. The reliability figures for the current employee candidate system,…… [Read More]


French, A., Macedo, M., Poulsen, J., Waterson, T., & Yu, A. (2008). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). San Francisco, CA: San Francisco State University. Retreived 

Shoukri, M.M. (2010) Measures of interobserver agreement and reliability (2nd ed). Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.

Validity evidence: Types of validity. (2014). New York, NY: The College Board. Retrieved
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Migraines & Strokes Migraine and

Words: 1964 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96307379

These include aging, family history, diabetes, and artery disease. (Women and Stroke)

There are numerous factors that contribute to stroke prevention that are useful in a nursing situation. The include checking blood pressure as dietary observance and history. There are also a number of warning signs that should be monitored. These include:

Sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg -- especially on one side of the body; Sudden confusion or trouble speaking; Sudden dizziness, loss of balance and coordination or trouble walking; Sudden difficulty seeing with one or both eyes; Sudden severe headache without a known cause." (ibid)

5. Conclusion

While there is no direct and exact correlation between stroke and migraine there are sufficient studies that have been undertaken to show that there is evidence to assume a link between these two ailments, especially among women. Studies have also found that among the many variables, women…… [Read More]


Cutlip, W.D., (1995). "Migraines and other headaches: an approach to diagnosis and classification. American Family Physician, May 1, 1995.

Headache and Migraine Glossary. Retrieved November 16, 2004 from Avout.Com. Web site: 

Hecht, B. And Hecht F. (2004)

Migraine with Aura & Stroke. Retrieved November 18, 2004 from Medicine Net. Web site:
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Rosenthal & Wilson the Blight

Words: 1939 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47934414

The research by Rosenthal & Wilson is particularly valuable in this respect because it suggests that negative experiences are not directly responsible for poor school performance, but rather that the continued psychological distress resulting from negative experiences is responsible for school discontinuation among students. Thus one can blame the failure of the schooling system not on the surrounding environment, but on the students lack of resilience. This might at first seem to be a sort of conservative ploy, aimed at blaming the victim of social disaster for failing to rise above it rather than considering ways to prevent such disasters. However, if one can escape the negative implications of "blame" and "causation," it is possible to see some potential in this theory of causation. If the cause of school failure and discontinuation is the psychological distress of the student who has survived violence, then it is possible that by ameliorating…… [Read More]

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Psychological Statistics a Study Sought

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34889959

What is the null and alternate hypothesis?

3. What is the correlation between student anxiety scores and number of study hours? Select alpha and interpret your findings. Make sure to note whether it is significant or not and what the effect size is.

4. How would you interpret this?

5. What is the probability of a type I error? What does this mean?

6. How would you use this same information but set it up in a way that allows you to conduct a t-test? An ANOVA?

Assignment 1 Grading Criteria

Explain why a correlation is the most appropriate statistic.

List the null and alternate hypothesis.

Compute and correctly present the correlation between student anxiety scores and number of study hours.

List the alpha, statistical significance of the results and the effect size. Provide an interpretation of the results.

List the probability of a type I error and explain what…… [Read More]

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Student Engagement Within Mathematics Create a Set

Words: 2690 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47792652

student engagement within mathematics, create a set of dependent measures. Follow the rules for writing test items, and please include the correct answers, as well.

Dependent Measures

Student Engagement

Five Multiple Choice Items

What is the square root of 49?

Which number is not a prime number?

How many degrees is a right angle?

A diagonal line cutting through two parallel lines creates angles which are?




What is 3 to the third power?

A composite engagement score would have to be tallied in order to total the average score of all of these variables so that one could assess how all of these variables interacted with one another, giving the researchers a sense of the total and complete interest, enjoyment, capability, and confusion that all students experienced when engaging with these problems, and to determine which variables were most often experienced simultaneously.

Five True-false items

The infinity…… [Read More]


Igo, L., Riccomini, P., & Bruning, R. & . (2006). How should middle school students with LD approach online note-taking? Retrieved from Learning Disability Quarterly:

Quenneville, J. (2001). Tech Tools for Students with Learning Disabilities: Infusion into Inclusive Classrooms. Retrieved from 

Trochim, W. (2006). Scaling. Retrieved from 

W-uh. (2013). Correlation vs. Causality. Retrieved from
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Media Consumption

Words: 4745 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73159402

media consumption and subsequent behaviour?

Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.

The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…… [Read More]


Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., Malamuth, N.M. And Wartella, A., 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public interest, 4(3), pp. 81-110.

Berkowitz, L. And Geen R.G., 1966. Film violence and the cue properties of available targets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), pp. 525-530. [pdf]

Bjorkqvist, K., 1985. Violent films, anxiety, and aggression. Helsinki: Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.

Bushmann, B.J. And Huesmann, L.R., 2001. Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. Singer and J. Singer, eds. Handbook of children and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 223-254.
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Fast Food and Child Obesity

Words: 1889 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60014706

Fast Food and Child Obesity

Jonathan Kwan

This study identifies the underlying correlation of fast food consumption and the increasing rate of child obesity. The system of fast food is prevalent in all countries, with each country having its own variations of types of items served and the nature of establishments serving. The popularity of fast food is due to the convenience of fast service, packaged food and low cost. Now major fast food industries try to make their product seem as healthy as possible. It is likely that the convenience is influencing the growth of childhood obesity in the United States. In addition, the factors of media, family, and environment bring about differences within our community. Understanding the correlation between these factors is vital in producing a solution. However, there needs to be a better support for causation, not just correlation. The children and youth will one-day influence the…… [Read More]


Chou, S. (2008). Fast Food Restaurants Advertising on Television and its Influence on Childhood Obesity. The Journal of Law & Economics, 51, 599-618.

Darwin, A. (2008). Childhood Obesity: Is it Abuse? The Children's Voice, 17, 4-24.

Eagle, T. (2012). Understanding Childhood Obesity in America: Linkages between Household Income, Community Resources, and Children's Behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.

Fraser, L. (1998). Fast Food and Obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-248.