Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
2 billion in annual television rights and advertising. This wealth, coupled with a lack of accountability to any public body, creates opportunity for corruption to flourish. The instances of corruption surrounding the orld Cup bids were not related to the television rights, but once the culture of corruption has become ingrained in the organization, it can seep beyond the boundaries of internal corruption. The orld Cup corruption was ultimately both at work -- internal vote-buying from bin Hammam and a susceptibility on the part of other members of the executive committee to seek money for votes from external bodies such as British officials seeking the 2018 orld Cup (Sharp, 2011).
Another critical issue that contributes to corruption in international sport is the lack of understanding of how corrupt practice become ingrained in an organization, and either an unwillingness or inability to address the issue. FIFA has an inept ethics committee…
AP. (2010). FIFA picks Qatar over USA for 2022 World Cup; 2018 to Russia. USA Today/Associated Press. Retrieved November 5, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/sports/soccer/2010-12-02-usa-2022-world-cup-bid-qatar-russia-2018_N.htm
CNN. (1999). Senior U.S. Olympic Committee member resigns over Salt Lake scandal. CNN. Retrieved November 5, 2011 from articles.cnn.com/1999-01-15/us/9901_15_olympics.01_1_usoc-ioc-members-alfredo-la-mont?_s=PM:U.S.
Connelly, B. & Ones, D. (2008). The personality of corruption. Cross-Cultural Research. Vol. 42 (4) 353-385.
Cooper, R. (2011). "I'm not quitting": Sepp Blatter defies his critics over FIFA corruption scandal. The Daily Mail. Retrieved November 5, 2011 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1392140/FIFA-corruption-Qatar-DID-buy-World-Cup-claims-chief.html
Corruption in Venezuela
The objective of this study is to examine corruption in Venezuela from 1990 until the present. The work of Gates (2009) states that little doubt exists that corruption "is and has been an endemic problem in Venezuela. For several decades (from 1959 until around 1979) Venezuelans tended to view corruption as a nuisance. Yet by the 1990s, corruption had become the scourge of Venezuela's otherwise internationally admired democracy." (2009, p.1)
The Link etween Oil and Corruption
The link existing between oil and corruption in Venezuela is reported in the work of Gates (2009) to be one that is little disputed. In the 1990's when Venezuelan corruption became widely acknowledged the effect was the erosion of the two-party democracy public support and boost in the public support for a new kind of political leader as well as a new type of politics. (Gates, 2009, paraphrased) In the 1990s…
Gates, Leslie (2009) The Politics of Corruption in Venezuela. Retrieved from: http://lasa.international.pitt.edu/members/congress-papers/lasa2009/files/GatesLeslie.pdf
Niam, Moises (2001) The Venezuelan Story: Revisiting the Conventional Wisdom. Apr 2001. Retrieved from: http://vcrisis.com/index.php?content=analysis/moises1001
The relationship between corruption and democracy as a political institution has been at the core of studies and researches for political science since its beginnings. The development made in the filed of Political Science along the years has influenced the way scientists perceived and analyzed the corruption phenomenon. Charles H. Blake nad Stephen D. Morris have gathered under the all embracing title Corruption and Democracy in atin America, the works of several political analysts who approached the topic enunciated in the title of the book through different methods: theoretical studies or the presentation of illustrative case studies.
The book contains two parts, the first being dedicated to essays on the "Causes and Impacts of Corruption in atin America," while the second presents case studies that complete the undertakings in the first part, by treating particular cases in particular countries. The editors who sign the introduction and the conclusion, explain…
Lambsdorff, J.G. Consequences and Causes of Corruption -- What do We Know from a Cross-Section of Countries? Passau University
Nane, Grimot 2007. Does Rational Choice Explain Corruption and its Persistence Adequately? Annual Conference of the Association of Heterodox Economics, Bristol, England 6th-8th June 2007
Thomas, MA & Meagher, P (2004), A Corruption Primer: An Overview of Concepts in the Corruption Literature, Working Paper No. 04/03, IRIS, University Of Maryland, USA, February 2004
Corruption in government is considered by nearly every society as a destructive force. Most view corruption as having a negative impact on a nation's commerce and as a source of social injustice. The lack of accountability by those in authority is considered to be a contributing cause of corruption. The lack of accountability is present in governments where the ruling authorities are afforded considerable discretion such as authoritarian style governments but it is also present in democratic governments as well.
Democratic governments offer a measure of protection absent in authoritarian style governments. In democratic governments, at least theoretically, corruption can be controlled by the ballot box. The rule of law in such governments dictates that everyone regardless of their position, authority, or wealth is subject to the same set of laws and standards. In autocratic governments the basis of power is vested in a small group of political or economic…
Corruption, Political Stability and Development
Development in any country and constant stimulation of the same is based practically on the political stability and the levels of corruption as well in that country. The two are mutually exclusive in that the more a country is corrupt and politically unstable, the lesser the development they achieve at any given stage of the economic revolution or change.
The state of political instability in Morocco and Egypt, abets the corruption therein leading to nations that cannot keep up-to pace with the development trends in the world. The corruption that in turn begets political instability is manifest in the highest offices of the two countries, with the most powerful protecting a ring of corrupt individuals, more often from their close families. The situation in the two countries can be solved by an overhaul of the entire system, not in personalities but in principles and governance…
Abderrahim El Ouali, (2011). CASABLANCA, Feb 21, 2006 (IPS) - When Morocco slipped to a position as the 78th most corrupt country in the latest Transparency International report, the change reflected the perception of most Moroccans. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=32238
Ahram Online, (2011). Employees protests against corruption in Egypt Insurance Co. Retrieved
March 20, 2011 from http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/6731/Egypt/Politics-/Employees-protests-against-corruption-in-Egypt-Ins.aspx
All Voices (2011). Privatization and Corruption in Egypt. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/8036389-privatization-and-corruption-in-egypt
Corruption/Ethics in Business Since the End of the Cold War
The Cold War in essence refers to the fierce and open rivalry that started to develop between the United States of America and her various allies, and the Soviet Union and all her allies, after the conclusion of the Second World War. Why this rivalry was called the Cold War was because of the fact that it did not involve any direct fighting between the powers, in the traditional large scale manner; instead, it involved a War in which there was subtle economic pressure, diplomatic maneuvers, and at times assassinations, and also certain types of military operations, from the year 1947, till the collapse of the erstwhile Soviet Union in the year 1991. (Cold War: Wikipedia)
Today, it is being widely recognized that one would have to exit from the existing imperialistic structuring, if one were to hope to have…
Cold War. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War Accessed on 18th July, 2005
Corporate crime and Abuse. Retrieved From
http://www.corporatepolicy.org/issues/FCPA.htm accessed on 18th July, 2005
Cragg, Wesley. A; Woof, William. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and its implications for the Control of Corruption in Political Life. Retrieved From http://home.iscte.pt/~ansmd/CC-Cragg.pdf accessed on 18th July, 2005
The Oak Valley Elementary Parent Teacher Organization is a small, non-profit organization that exists to help provide financial and other support to the Oak Valley Elementary School. The Parent Teacher Organization operates independently of the elementary school and outside of the auspices of any national organizations that generally provide oversight and structure to similar organizations. It is a volunteer organization and all parents of children currently enrolled at the elementary school all eligible for membership in the organization. However, while all parents are eligible for membership in the PTO, the members vote on the board members, and then the board members vote to make all decisions for the PTO. The board is composed of a president, vice president, treasurer, and secretary.
The PTO's main point is to provide assistance to the school. While it helps coordinate parent volunteers for anything for which the school needs volunteer assistance, it…
Klitgaard, R. (1988). Controlling corruption. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Modugu, K., Ohonba, N., & Izedonmi, F. (2012). Challenges of auditors and audit reporting in a corrupt environment. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 3(5), 77-82.
They attempt to enforce their conception of the true Roman law by murdering Caesar. They want to use the controlled power of violence to restore order. This fails miserably and ultimately Mark Anthony uses the power of persuasion in his funeral oration to turn the Roman mobs against the conspirators and to establish his own authority as a tyrant in Rome.
In Julius Caesar, using one's influence is not about holding a political office. Influence is about the power of being able to craftily use one's position, as a respected senator, as a trusted friend or as a rhetorical speaker with a captive audience. While the triumvirate later uses violence as a way of bolstering their power in the wake of the political instability after the death of Caesar, the failure of the assassination shows that displays of force alone are not enough to secure political influence. Violence must be…
Public Corruption Theories:
Society at Large Hypothesis
Wilson's society at large hypothesis suggests that corruption in policing is merely a function of social attitudes and more general inclinations toward corruption in society at large (Delattre, 2006). More specifically, the more deviating from official policies, rules, and laws is an accepted part of society, the more any entities within that society (including law enforcement authorities) will reflect that overall approach to laws in general. Therefore, in societies where preferential treatment for recognizable celebrities or powerful or wealthy individuals is the norm, the more police personnel will extend similar preferential treatment to those individuals. That is because police personnel often come from the communities in which they work and by the time they enter the profession, they tend to have absorbed predominant cultural norms and values (Delattre, 2006).
Niederhoffer's structural or affiliation hypothesis suggests that one of the principal causes…
Delattre, E. (2006). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington, DC:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Corruption in Public Sector (Florida Department of Children and Families) Case Study
The Florida DCF (Department of Children and Families) provides social services for families, children, refugees, adults, human trafficking victims, elderly people, disabled and homeless community. The DCF establishes the Office of Public Integrity to assist in investigating fraud within the organization and programs implemented by the Florida DCF.
Objective of this paper is to investigate corruption in the public sector using the DCF as a case study.
Corruption in the Public Sector (Florida Children and Families) Case Study
Corruption is an abuse of an entrusted public official's posts for private gain. In other words, corruption is the use of the public officials' entrusted power to achieve illegitimate private gain. Form of corruption includes embezzlement, extortion, bribery, nepotism, and influence peddling. Corruption can make public officials to distort policies or distort central state functioning that enables public officials to…
Bower, J.L. (1977). Effective Public Management. Harvard Business Review.
March, W. (2012). Study ranks Florida No. 1 in Government Corruption. Tampa Media Group
U.S. Department of Justice. (2007). Report to Congress on the activities and operations of the Public Integrity Section.U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, Public Integrity Section.
Chery, I. (2011). The Effects of Citizen Involvement on Performance-Based Organizations: A Case Study of Florida Department of Management Services. A dissertation Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Master of Public Administration. American Public University.
Transparency International – TI (2018) defines corruption as “the abuse of entrusted power for private gain.” Towards this end TI points out that corruption can be grouped into three distinct categories, i.e. political, petty, and grand. It essence, this classification is founded on either the sector affected or the total amount of money unaccounted for. It is important to note that contrary to the perception of many, corruption is not limited to countries considered to be poor. It also does occur in wealthy countries such as ours. As a matter of fact, within the last two decades, dozens of government officials have been found guilty of corrupt engagements including, but not limited to, obstruction of justice, violation of campaign funds laws, outright fraud, and conflict of interest.
Corruption comes at a huge cost to a nation such as ours. In that regard, therefore, the relevance of studying its impact,…
Chayes, S. (2015). Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. Mason, OH: W.W. Norton
Powell, S. (2014). Licensed to Lie: Exposing Corruption in the Department of Justice. Dallas, TX: BookBaby
Rose-Ackerman, S. & Palifka, B.J. (2016). Corruption and Government: Causes, Consequences, and Reform. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press
Transparency International – TI (2018). What is Corruption? Retrieved from https://www.transparency.org/what-is-corruption#define
In China, at the same time (Kahn makes some interesting observation regarding these two case studies), corruption also seems to not have hampered too much the development and growth of the country. There are macroeconomic explanations for this. The influx of foreign investments was strongly encouraged by the creation of economic zones such as that around Shanghai with preferential conditions for business. Corruption was not an obstacle here, perhaps also because the authorities went to great length to make these areas attracters of foreign capital.
At the same time, one should also point out that the costs that a foreign investor would incur in corruption would sometimes not deter the foreign company because the returns were so extraordinarily high, so that the company could pay off the bribe to the governmental officials and still be left with a significant profit.
All in all, it is difficult to draw a distinct…
1. Shleifer, a. And Vishny RW. 1993, Corruption, Quarterly journal of Economics, 108, pp599-617
2. Khan MH. 2002, Corruption and governance in Early Capitalism: World Bank Strategies and their Limitation, in J. Pincus and J. Winters (eds.), Reinventing the world bank, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, Pp. 164-184
3. Meier, G. And Rauch, J. 2000 Chapter 9 Political Economy pp421-454, in Meier G. And Rauch J. Leading Issues in economic development, Oxford, Oxford University Press
4. Krueger a 1974, the political economy of the rent-seeking society, American Economic Review
There are numerous effects of corruption on MNCs. In case their competition engages in such practices, their activity is significantly influenced by this phenomenon. This is because their corrupt competitors can change rules and regulations that do not favor other companies. Therefore, they have to deal with the effects of such situations. This sometimes determines them to modify their activity.
In addition to this, there are situations where employees of certain MNCs are bribed by competitors in order to provide important information on these companies. This is extremely harmful to companies as it can lead to information leaks on strategies, price levels, and other types of investments that these companies intend to make. This means that these MNCs must increase investments in security issues.
In addition to this, MNCs are sometimes forced to become corruptors because some of their competitors do so. In other words, if certain companies provide incentives…
1. Begovic, B. (2005). Corruption: Concepts, Types, Causes, and Consequences. Center for Liberal Democratic Studies. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.cadal.org/documents/documento_26_english.pdf .
2. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention (2012). OECD. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/countryreportsontheimplementationoftheoecdanti-briberyconvention.htm .
3. Kwok, C. & Tadesse, S. (2006). The MNC as an Agent of Change for Host Country Institutions: FDI and Corruption. The William Davidson Institute. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://wdi.umich.edu/files/publications/workingpapers/wp882.pdf .
When this happens, the standard of living and income levels will remain stagnant. (Bhargava, 2006, pp. 341 -- 362) (Cazurra, 2008, pp. 12 -- 27)
Moreover, corruption will increase the costs of doing business inside a particular area. This is troubling, as it will lead to less employers relocating to the region. Instead, they will seek out locations where there are lower amounts of corruption. This is a part of an effort to keep their costs as low as possible so that they can increase their overall returns and remain competitive in the global marketplace. For the region, this will result in less high paying jobs (which helps contribute to an increase in the unemployment rate). (Bhargava, 2006, pp. 341 -- 362) (Cazurra, 2008, pp. 12 -- 27) (Heineman, 2006, pp. 75 -- 86)
How can MNCs deal effectively with these problems?
The ways that MNCs are able to deal…
Berg, N. (2004). How Multi-National Corporations Deal with their Social Political Stakeholders. Asian Business and Management, 3 (3), 299 -- 313.
Bhargava, V. (2006). Global Issues. Washington DC: World Bank.
Cazurra, a. (2008). The Types of Corruption and FDI in Transition Economies. Journal of International
Management, 14 (1), 12-27
hile U.S., New Zealand and Denmark have many differences, they are basically capitalist, consumer economies. To combat the corruption inherent in such a system, we need to protect and nurture whistle blowing. Certainly, the more eyes there are on a situation, the more transparent it is, both in government and in business.
The corruption that the recent recession revealed in the U.S. banking system is simply a part of the bigger problem. As the Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell text puts it well, "The ability to recognize and deal with complex business ethics issues has become a significant priority…" (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2009). Enforcement takes human observation to fulfill this priority. There is not enough police to go around. However, the common citizen, armed with legal protections, will provide this.
Anti-corruption. (2006, November 8). Retrieved 11 August 2010 from http://www.um.dk/en/menu/developmentpolicy/anticorruption/
Caslon analytics guide secrecy and accountability. (2008, February).…
Anti-corruption. (2006, November 8). Retrieved 11 August 2010 from http://www.um.dk/en/menu/developmentpolicy/anticorruption/
Caslon analytics guide secrecy and accountability. (2008, February). Retrieved 11
August 2010 from http://www.caslon.com.au/secrecyguide10.htm
Coincidental spike? (2010, April 1). The Economist, Retrieved 11 August 2010 from http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2010/04/heroin_afghanistan
Gordon, Joy. "The Accusations against the Oil for Food Program: The Volcker Reports." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 28.3-4 (2006): 19+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018509671.
Harper, Jennifer. "At 25, atergate's Details Have Gotten Hazy: Americans Have Grown Used to Scandal." The ashington Times 17 June 1997: 1. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001562718.
Josipovic, Ivona. "Conflict Diamonds: Not So Clear-Cut." Harvard International Review 25.2 (2003): 10+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001987469.
Niven, David. "A Fair Test of Media Bias: Party, Race, and Gender in Coverage of the 1992 House Banking Scandal." Polity 36.4 (2004): 637+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008316309.
Posner, Sarah. "Security for Sale: The Department of Homeland Security Has a Section on Its eb Site Labeled "Open for Business." It Certainly Is." The American Prospect Jan. 2006: 28+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015061684.
Reports Gleefully Transform Bush Oil…
Gordon, Joy. "The Accusations against the Oil for Food Program: The Volcker Reports." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 28.3-4 (2006): 19+. Questia. 8 May 2007
Performance Evaluation on Corruption for Public Organization
In the wake of the double-edged sword caused by its scandalous mismanagement of the September 11th terrorist attacks and Hurricane Katrina's devastation of New Orleans in 2005, the venerable charity organization American ed Cross (AC) was subjected to intense public and political scrutiny. This pressurized process of external examination eventually revealed an abundance of systemic flaws in the AC's organizational management structure, including widespread fraud and abuse of privileges by executives, gross misconduct on the part of volunteers and other employees, and an astounding level of wasteful spending as it pertains to funds that were ostensibly donated to a charitable cause. The four established benefits of business ethics, as described by Ferrell, Fraedrich, and Ferrell in Business Ethics, of employee commitment, investor loyalty, customer satisfaction, and bottom line (2011) all experienced dramatically detrimental consequences that were directly caused by the AC's corrupt and…
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2011). Business ethics: Ethical decision making and cases. (8th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Koleva, G. (2012, January 17). American red cross fined $9.6 million for unsafe blood collection. Forbes, Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/gerganakoleva/2012/01/17/american-red-cross-fined-9-6 - million-for-unsafe-blood-collection/
Scott, L. (1995). Red Cross touts its broad restructuring. Modern healthcare, 25(46), 10-14.
Strom, S. (2006, March 24). Red cross sifting international charges over katrina aid. The New
corruption as well as various theories that have attempted and done well in explaining the causes and propagation of corruption in the society. The paper will also highlight at the applicability of these theories to the existing society as well as the probable elucidation to the corruption cases through the theories that have been stated herein.
The thought of corruption, predominantly in the midst of the police force has not been an issue that troubles the American society alone but is an extensive spread right through the entire world. Various societies have invested their efforts to stop the vice but the consequence has always been similar; too much effort giving too little change in the police force corruption cases.
The slippery slope as it is in the view of Richard Nordquist, (2011) is a misleading notion in which there is an protestation to a course of action on the grounds…
Delattre, E. (2006). Character and cops: Ethics in policing (5th ed., pp. 10, 79, 85, 88). Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/359222/predominant_theories_of_police_corruption_pg2.html?cat=17
Prof. Robert B. Reich (2004). The Rotten Apple Theory http://securities.stanford.edu/news-archive/2004/20040304_Headline08_Reich.htm
Richard Nordquist, (2011). Slippery Slope. http://grammar.about.com/od/rs/g/slipslopeterm.htm
This case illustrates several ethical issues including those related to social responsibility as well as to business transactions. A food and beverage shop has an ethical obligation to follow rules of food safety. If it is agreed that the rule related to the distance between the building and the trash dumpster is a reasonable one, then our company should comply with these rules even if it poses an inconvenience and requires us to reconfigure our locations. However, it is possible that the government arbitrarily set these distances. It would be in our company’s best interest to find empirical evidence suggesting that six feet makes a difference, and that five feet is actually unsafe. If we can unearth research that shows that five feet is sufficient to promote public health and safety, then we should present those findings to the health department and request that the rule be changed. Doing so…
efficiency and effectiveness. Is it possible for an agency to exhibit one but not the other?
Most law enforcement agencies seek to be both efficient and effective because the two can go hand in hand when things are done correctly. It is possible, though, to be highly effective but in inefficient ways (e.g., reducing the number of violent crimes in the community by using enormous amounts of overtime without conducting basic research to determine where the most of the crimes are being committed) and likewise it is possible to be highly efficient without ever accomplishing anything (e.g., recording the number of violent crimes accurately and conducting research to identify problem areas without implementing any interventions).
What political consequences might result from an unfavorable opinion of your department?
Sheriffs' offices depend a great deal on the support and goodwill of the general public. Even the hint of corruption or inefficiency could…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
DeCrescenzo, D. (2005). Early detection of the problem officer. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
74(7), 14-17. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/204141156?accountid
" It should be noted that Perriello supported a "Republican version" (House.gov) of PAYGO that supported stronger restrictions on spending. In defense of this vote, he says, "This was a great chance to really get our budget under control, and I was glad to stand up and vote for the kind of smart fiscal policy that folks in the Fifth District expect" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). Perriello even posted an update on Twitter, stating that he was "very pleased that PAYGO passed the House" (Twitter.com). Perriello believes that responsible spending is not an issue for Democrats or Republicans but rather an "American issue" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). Perriello states that while both of these bills contain good ideas, he wishes "we could have combined ideas from both sides of the aisle to produce a better, bi-partisan solution" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). hile still a freshman in ashington, Perriello has demonstrated…
Gibson, Bob. "Perriello Enters Race for 5th seat; Hopeful Seeks to Bring Faith, Global Experience to D.C." The Daily Progress. Charlottesville, Va.: Oct 7, 2007.
Goldsmith, Will. "Can he go the Distance? Tom Perriello hits Southside in his effort to beat Virgil Goode." Charlottesville News and Arts. < http://www.c-ville.com/index.php?cat=121304062461064&ShowArticle_ID=11800610083997492 >
Lithwick, Dahlia. "Goode Riddance." Slate Online. 2008. http://www.slate.com/id/2204124/
Mission and Vision.
Corruption Within the Criminal Justice System
Although the American system of criminal justice and jurisprudence is widely regarded as a model for democratic nations across the globe to emulate, with its guarantee of due process and protection from illegal search and seizure standing as pillars of liberty, glaring defects still exist which warrant further improvement. From the disturbing trend of disproportionate arrest and sentencing among minorities, to the inability of courts to adequately enforce prohibitions levied against sexual predators, America's criminal justice system is imperfect at best, and inherently broken at worst. Widely publicized court cases such as the recent trial of George Zimmerman, a Florida vigilante charged with, and late acquitted of, murdering a young African-American man named Trayvon Martin, only serve to expose the fundamental flaws which are still far too prevalent within corrupt law enforcement agencies, an aging and outmoded judiciary, legions of overburdened prosecutors and defense…
Associated Press. (2013, August 29). Montana judge's remarks about raped teen prompt outrage. BBC News, Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-23882735
Feinstein, R. (2013). Juvenile Justice and the Incarcerated Male Minority: A Qualitative
Examination of Disproportionate Minority Contact.
Spitzer, E. (1999). The New York City Police Department's Stop & Frisk Practices: A Report to the People of the State of New York from the Office of the Attorney General. DIANE Publishing.
Grand corruption is a serious issue throughout the world which has led to the development of many different laws. The United Nations defines grand corruption as "corruption that pervades the highest levels of a national Government, leading to a broad erosion of confidence in good governance, the rule of law and economic stability ("United Nations Convention against Corruption")." Grand corruption is such a concerning issue because of the costs associated with this deceptive activity. Eliminating grand corruption has become a major quest of NGOs such as the UN. According to an article entitled "The Global Programme against Corruption" published by the UN, efforts to raise awareness about corruption have been made since 1994. The report explains that corruption has an insidious nature and can have devastating impacts on entire countries and their citizens. The report asserts that "Corruption not only distorts economic decision-making, it also deters investment, undermines competitiveness and,…
"African Charter on Human and People's Rights." http://www.achpr.org/english/_info/charter_en.html
Argandona A., (2007) The United Nations Convention Against Corruption and its Impact on International Companies . Journal of Business Ethics 74:481 -- 496
Baker, Raymond. 2005. Capitalism's Achilles Heel: Dirty Money and How to Renew the Free-Market
System. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
public corruption and its effect, including the claim that public corruption in an unavoidable side effect of development. Corruption in public service can be an ongoing concern in many areas. Corruption can lead to disorder, lack of trust in police or other public entities, and to ongoing problems with morale and citizen support. There is an argument that in countries with high levels of corruption, it has some benefit, but that is difficult to accept, as corruption only benefits those who participate in it, and it definitely does not benefit the general population.
The Transparency International Web site defines corruption as "Corruption is operationally defined as the misuse of entrusted power for private gain" (Editors, 2009). They go on to state that public servants (including criminal justice professionals), have a duty to remain above corruption. They note, "It is the duty of civil servants, managers and trustees to act visibly,…
Editors. (2009). Corruption FAQs. Retrieved 10 August 2009 from the Transparency International Web site: http://www.transparency.org/news_room/faq/corruption_faq .
Myint, U. (2000). Corruption: causes, consequences, and cures. Asia-Pacific Development Journal. 7 (2). 33-58.
Spector, B.I. (Ed.). (2005). Fighting corruption in developing countries: Strategies and analysis. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
"Accountability refers to the mechanisms by which both law enforcement officers and the agencies they serve are held responsible for promoting social order, reducing crime, and treating each individual fairly and within the limits of the law" (Chambliss, 2011). The three dimensions of police accountability are accountability to the public, accountability to the law, and accountability to each other (other members of the police force. If one were to look at the most fundamental dimension of police accountability, such as accountability to the public, one would see just how crucial this is: "It both defines and protects citizens' rights while also promoting a collective sense of faith in the larger criminal justice system" (Chambliss, 2011).
The three E's are "Effectiveness -- whether police accomplish what they are supposed to do: A. Do they effectively control crime? B. Are they successful in arresting offenders? Efficiency-- whether they accomplish their tasks…
Chambliss, W. (2011). Police and Law Enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
Katz, C. (2002). Chapter Outline. Retrieved from McGraw-Hill.com: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/007241497x/student_view0/part3/chapter11/chapter_outline.html
Newham, G. (2011, June). Tackling Police Corruption. Retrieved from issafrica.org: http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/ISS_Anti-Corruption_SAPU.pdf
Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
This book deals with problems experienced in law enforcement that demonstrate the inability of police officers to make lawful decisions. Chapter 8 deals specifically with police corruption and identifies three elements that exist in police corruption. The first is, the behave must be forbidden, the second is misuse of officer's position, and third, the reward. Although this chapter offers no study, it does provide a look into what the definition of corruption is along with a possible explanation for the prevalence of corruption amongst police officers and law enforcement in general.
Block, C. (2015, December 30). Florida Police Under Investigation for Laundering $55.6 Million For Drug Cartels. Retrieved from http://www.mintpressnews.com/212404-2/212404/
A newspaper article, this source discusses police corruption in Miami. Florida cops that work for the Bal Harbour Police Department have allegedly laundered an estimated $55.6 million for…
" hile there are factors like peer pressure and authority that come into play, some research claims to have isolated significant features of an individual's character that make them more likely to commit acts of fraud, bribery and falsification in the corporate context (27, 2009). For example, those people with "high levels of ambition were more likely to transgress moral codes, competitively stab colleagues in the back and make dubious decisions relating to asset-stripping, disinvestment, and so on" (27, 2009).
Trevino's (1986) work is relevant when it comes to understanding individuals and corruption. There are a couple questions regarding moral personality that come up: first of all, whether or not a person sees an event or issue as a moral problem; the second is how they decide to act in relation to that problem. Kohlberg's theory of cognitive moral development emphasizes the cognitive or reasoning aspect of moral-decision making (604,…
Bratsis, Peter. The Construction of Corruption, or Rules of Separation and Illusions of Purity in Bourgeois Societies. Social Texts, 21(4), 9-33.
Burke, Ronald J. & Cooper, Cary L. Research Companion to Corruption in Organizations
(New Horizons in Management). Edward Elgar Publishers, 2009.
Fleming, Peter. & Zyglodopoulos, Stelios C. Charting Corporate Corruption: Agency,
High CEO salaries and bonuses reinforce that sense of specialness.
hat is emotional intelligence? How is it related to leadership? How is emotional intelligence related to different leadership traits? hat leadership traits might prevent corruption, or promote it? How might training and development in the area of emotional intelligence and leadership prevent corruption and unethical behavior from developing in organizations?
Emotional intelligence is often called 'people smarts,' or the ability to motivate individuals, to make them want to do what they must do, rather than to merely order them to 'do it.' A lack of emotional intelligence or empathy can lead to ham-fisted management, and to the bullying of employees. A good manager is interested in collaboration, and believes in the value of employee involvement in the company's decision-making processes. A lack of emotional intelligence generates hostility between different organizational branches and levels, and discourages suggestions and valuable input from…
Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…
Caldero, M.A. & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.
Terwilliger, G.J., Cooperstein, S.G., Blumenthal, D., & Parker, R. (2005, February 15). The war on terrorism: Law enforcement or national security? Retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security
Modern-Day Corruption and Graft
The Watergate incident that occurred in President Nixon's Administration is exemplary of modern day corruption. Here, the government under Nixon's presidency was recognized to have sanctioned a sequence of confidential monitoring operations conducted by highly-trained agents that was financed by illegal campaign contributions. The seriousness of the incident was such that ichard Nixon had to resign his presidency.
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois offered differing philosophies, strategies, and tactics for African-Americans following econstruction. In your opinion, which of these leaders gave the best advice for their times? Why do you feel this way?
Booker T. Washington primarily believed that the approach to deal with the African-Americans after the econstruction was tolerance, adaptation, and self-assistance with maximum attention on the provision of job opportunities for possible advancement of the community W.E.B. Dubois, on the other hand, asserted that the best methodology was the use of campaigning…
Brunner, B. (2011a). Civil Rights Timeline. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html
Brunner, B. (2011b). Heroes of Civil Rights Movement. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html
Digital History. (2011). Hypertext History: Our Online American History Textbook -- Interactive Timelines. Accessed 25-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/hyper_titles.cfm
Digital History. (2011b). Guided Readings: America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/subtitles.cfm?titleID=65
Bardhan, P. (1997) "Corruption and Development: A Review of the Issues." Journal of Economic Literature 35: 1320-46.
Barro, R. (1996) "Determinants of Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study." NBER orking Paper No. 5698.
Barro, R., and Lee, J. (1993) "International Comparisons of Educational Attainment." Journal of Monetary Economics 32: 363-94.
Bhagwati, J.N. (1982) "Directly Unproductive Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities." Journal of Political Economy 90: 988-1002.
Buchanan, J.M.; Tullock G.; and Tollison, R., eds. (1980) Toward a Theory of the Rent-Seeking Society. College Station: Texas a & M. University Press.
Campos, J.E.; Lien, D.; and Pradhan, S. (1999) "The Impact of Corruption on Investment: Predictability Matters." orld Development 27 (6): 105967.
Cheung, S.N. (1996) "Simplistic General Equilibrium Theory of Corruption." Contemporary Economic Policy 14 (3): 1-5.
Davies, B. 2001. "Making macaroni out of Marconi." Centaur Communications. [online] http://www.ideasociety.co.uk/marconi.htm
Easterly, ., and Levine R. (1997) "Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions."…
Bardhan, P. (1997) "Corruption and Development: A Review of the Issues." Journal of Economic Literature 35: 1320-46.
Barro, R. (1996) "Determinants of Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study." NBER Working Paper No. 5698.
Barro, R., and Lee, J. (1993) "International Comparisons of Educational Attainment." Journal of Monetary Economics 32: 363-94.
Bhagwati, J.N. (1982) "Directly Unproductive Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities." Journal of Political Economy 90: 988-1002.
MNCs and Corruption
Firstly it is imperative to draw a simply quantitative difference between "small" and "huge" corruption and qualitatively compare corruption for legal and for improper ends (Znoj, 2009).
This kind is specified as "small" repayments and they are planned to obtain someone in an empowered position and force him to make decisions he is responsible of making. The payments are made due to the fact that without this added "stimulation" nothing would take place, or perhaps its taking place would be in-conscionably postpone (Znoj, 2009)."
In lots of cultures gifts provided directly, as through an invite to a dinner or other similar favors, are honestly anticipated as marks of regard or as evidence of peaceful relations (Deresky, 2011). Declining them can be taken as an indicator of rejection and even as an affront. In various cultures the idea that a business provides possible…
Znoj, Heinzpeter (2009). "Deep Corruption in Indonesia: Discourses, Practices, Histories." In Monique Nuijten, Gerhard Anders. Corruption and the secret of law: a legal anthropological perspective. Ashgate. pp. 53 -- 54.
Legvold, Robert (2009). "Corruption, the Criminalized State, and Post-Soviet Transitions." In Robert I. Rotberg. Corruption, global security, and world order. Brookings Institution.
Deresky, H. (2011). International management: Managing across borders and cultures (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
This was because of some of the reforms that he introduced for corporations, for public spending, environmental protection and transportation sectors. Since powerful LDP members had vested interests in these sectors, they did not approve of all the reforms and hence were wary of Koizumi and his brand of politics.
The articles about Koizumi and Abe suggest that Japan suffers from serious economic problems that the political system cannot resolve. Why not? What are the political obstacles to changing Japanese politics? How does it relate to the Johnson reading?
Japan has had enormous economic success over the decades but lately its problems are negating the effects of earlier successes. I cannot agree with the opinion that economic problems cannot be solved through political means. Even though other factors do play in, it is the political system that determines the path economy will take. By political system, we mean…
Tomohito Shinoda. Koizumi Diplomacy: Japan's Kantei Approach to Foreign and Defense Affairs University of Washington Press (April 15, 2007)
Chalmers A. Johnson. Japan: Who Governs?: The Rise of the Developmental State W.W. Norton & Company (March 1995)
Corruption, Political Patronage and the Need for Reform of the Pakistani Cricket Board (PCB)
Corruption in professional sports carries significant implications beyond the sport itself. Nations, regions and populations attach a great deal of importance to athletic competition and particularly to the notions of honor, integrity and sportsmanship. So recent revelations of match fixing in cricket have shaken the sport to its foundation.
Particularly, evidence of match fixing in Pakistan is forcing the sport to examine its conscience. According to the transcript emerging from an investigation into such events, gambling odds-makers are guilty of an historically persistent pattern of corruption. CEO of the International Cricket Council (ICC) between 2001-2008, Malcolm Speed indicates that "the same bookmakers who were there in the late 90s, who were corrupt then and were seeking corrupt players, they're still there."
Today, the game is troubled by mounting allegations that players have accepted…
Camden, New Jersey is a city that symbolizes racial segregation and embodies the worst of American capitalism. In Camden, "poverty is a business," (Hedges and Sacco 88). George Norcross, aka "King George" -- is the de facto big man of Camden. Only, Norcross does not live in Camden, has no official elected position, and is white -- unlike the vast majority of Camden residents. Camden is not the typical white flight story, either. The history of Camden reveals potent trends in American urban geography, particularly the theme of how intersections between race, class, gender, and power entrench corruption in American society. One research question that can be elucidated through a deeper analysis of Chapter 2 in Hedges and Sacco's Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt would be how the people can reclaim their cities from the wanton destruction, alienation, and exploitation symbolized by the likes of King George.
Busang iver of Gold
Bre-X is a notorious case of fraud in the mining industry, which makes this case all the more interesting. Set in the mid-90s, years before the fraud was uncovered, the case (also written before the fraud was uncovered) focuses on the strategic options that the CEO of Bre-X, David Walsh, has in dealing with a crisis at the company. Bre-X claimed that they had a property in Borneo that contained the world's largest gold deposit. In 1995, the reserves were believed to be around 10 million ounces, and the amount only increased from there. The ability of the company to exploit this claim was constrained by two key factors. The first is that the company lacked the capital to exploit a deposit this big. According to Walsh, the principals at Bre-X were convinced that they would be taken over by a major producer in order to…
Waldie, P. (2006) Collected woes. Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 5, 2015 from http://www.globeadvisor.com/servlet/ArticleNews/story/gam/20061124/RO12COLLECTED
Upholding Ethical Business Practices in an Organization
The Volkswagen emissions scandal has been dubbed the "diesel dupe" and the corporation may face charges of manslaughter over their rigged tests of diesel emission. This charge will be applied if the legal advice suggests could be successful. It has been raised that thousands of people who die from diesel vehicles as the main cause is air pollution due to the release of nitrogen oxide (NOx). The lab tests produced dramatically less NOx pollution of Volkswagen and the management admitted that it added "defeat devices" to millions of its vehicles (Saarinen). The latest news about the scandal confirms that the vehicles fitted with EA288 engines of Euro 5 and Euro 6 were not affected by the scandal emissions.
The report of Germans suggests that older versions of 1.6-litre and 2.0-litre with EA288 engines, which is a derivative of EA189 affected engine, were built…
Anand, Vikas, Ashforth Blake and Joshi, Mahendra. "Business as Usual: The Acceptance and Perpetuation of Corruption in Organizations." Academy Of Management Executive, 2005. Vol. 19 (4):9-23
Bazerman, Max and Tenbrunsel Ann. Stumbling Into Bad Behavior. The New York Times, 2011. Print.
Carter, Stephen. The Insufficiency of Honesty
Hotten, Russell. "Volkswagen: The Scandal Explained." BBC News, 7 Oct. 2015. Web. 28 October 2015.
Guerrilla Government and the EPA
Guerrilla government within the EPA grew out of a response to various failed administrations, which were led by men who did not approach their leadership position with the type of virtue and character that those passionate about the environment and the organization would have preferred to see. Thus, under ussell, for example, the EPA had become a shell of what it was supposed to be, with ussell using EPA funds for self-pleasure and even blocking clean-ups and environmental action for occurring as in the case of the smelter complex in Idaho (O'Leary, 2014, p. 61). The ethics issue that ussell violated was his lack of transparency, which resulted in dishonesty among the administration and a failure to live up to the expectations of the mission of the EPA by getting in bed with big business instead of holding business's toes to the fire and demanding…
O'Leary, R. (2014). The ethics of dissent: Managing guerrilla government (2nd ed.).
Washington, DC: CQ Press
U.S. Office of Government Ethics. (2000). A brief wrap on government ethics. Retrieved from https://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ethics_brief_3.pdf
U.S. Office of Government Ethics. (2015). OGE Publishes Updated Compilation of Federal Ethics Laws. Retrieved from https://www2.oge.gov/ "
Corruption in Ethiopia
Corruption is a problem in many developing countries. Defined as the abuse of power with the aim of gaining personal advantage, corrupt practices can include, but are not limited to the offering or taking of bribes, facilitation payments, and embezzlement. The harm created by corruption can be great, not only in terms of increasing the direct costs, with funds being directed away from their legislate use, hindering social needs, the practice is also a deterrent and may hinder aid and development and presents an opportunity cost. This is certainly the case in Ethiopia.
A developing nation will benefit from the creation of a stable environment. Stable environments aid in the provision of social needs, such as healthcare and education, as well as supporting economic development which will facilities increased disposable income for individuals and for the government to provide services. The presence of corruption is a factor…
The two organizations being discussed in this paper are SPACE, a government-funded space exploration program, and Electric Innovators, an electrical engineering firm that provides semi-conductors to SPACE as well as to other vendors. SPACE has a closed organizational model; it is a government-run organization that interacts with, but is not dependent upon, outside vendors in order to do business. Moreover, it has a single customer: the U.S. government. Electric Innovators has an open organizational model; it competes in the free market for customers and has to negotiate prices from suppliers as well as market price to customers. The fact that Electric Innovators is one of SPACE's providers is one of the few ways that the companies are linked.
"A closed system organization is the one that is self-sufficient and its operations are not influenced by external influences like competition, economy, suppliers, or external resources" (Gupta, 2009). SPACE is…
Gross, H. (2013). Organization: Open vs. closed. Retrieved September 16, 2013 from HG
Communications website: http://hgcommunications.com/organization-open-vs.-closed/
Gupta, A. (2009). Organizational fundamentals. Retrieved September 16, 2013 from Practical
Management website: http://www.practical-management.com/Organization-Development/Organization-fundamentals.html
The world's largest economy has seen much since the financial crisis of 2008 began the role toward the precipice in terms of the all Street corruption. Transparency president Nancy Boswell maintains that it is an "integrity gap "(Graham, 2010).
However, this author will identify a different issue. Indeed, this author's view is very long and will take a historical approach in order to prevent another Great Depression, the Congress under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt separated all Street investment banks and regular depository banks. This took away the potential to make incredible profits from trading mortgage-backed securities whose ratings were artificially high. These encouraged banks to take what otherwise would have been intolerable risks in the form of bad loans that were later termed "toxic debt." Under this regime, people were obtaining home loans too easily (known derisively as "liars loans") and that exacerbated the decline once it started (Krugman).
Gettleman, J. (2010, March 16). Somalia's president assails u.n. report on corruption.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/17/world/africa/17somalia.html .
Graham, D. (2010, October 26). U.s. slips to historic low in global corruption index.
Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/10/26/us-corruption-transparency-idUSTRE69P0X620101026 .
In addition, there is a strong press that is actively involved in bringing political struggles to the attention of Albanians. The press appears to be very competitive throughout the country and in Tirana in particular (Nordinger, 2005). The freedom and presence of the press is a good sign of a bourgeoning democracy.
hen elections do occur in Albania, observers have reported large turnouts of nearly 50% (Nordinger, 2005). The voting process is similar to that in Iraq in which voter's thumbs are marked to verify that they have voted. Once the voter fills out a ballot it is folded and place info a box. Although some of the elections have been observed as fair, observers have received complaints during elections that they registered to vote but they were not allowed to do so because their names were not on the rolls (Nordinger, 2005).
However the author reports that is many…
Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro. 2006. Who Cares about Corruption?. Journal of International Business Studies 37, no. 6: 807+.
EU-Albania relations. Official Website of the European Union. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/albania/eu_albania_relations_en.htm
Haslam, Nick. 2007. Albania Awakes: Isolated for Decades by Its Paranoid Communist Leader, Then Ravaged Civil Unrest and Economic Collapse, This Forgotten Corner of Europe Is Making a Remarkable Recovery. Geographical, March, 76+.
Klan, Alfred Peza. July 30, 2001 Corruption in Albania: Up from the Bottom (independent weekly magazine), Tirana, Albania,. http://www.worldpress.org/1001cover5.htm
Ethics in Criminal Justice:
The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.
Slippery Slope and Gratuities:
One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…
Andrews, W.C. (2004, June). Police Gratuities, Public Perception after September 11, 2001.
Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.clearwaterpolice.org/articles/andrews.asp
Delattre, E.J. (2002). Character and cops: ethics in policing (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
terrorism has impacted the police mission in the U.S. Be sure to provide examples. Describe at least two disagreements that exist regarding the appropriate law enforcement behavior to fight terrorism and maintain personal liberties?
Terrorism and the events connected to September 11, 2001 have impacted the world in ways we could never imagine, affecting the way we view our safety and the way that we view ourselves. State and local police forces have been impacted as well, being confronted with new tasks and new dangers. Just as the Federal government created an entire new department of Homeland Security, police departments were faced with massive changes as well. For instance, these changes were: "coordinating homeland security at the state level; collecting, analyzing and sharing critical information and intelligence; protecting critical infrastructure and key assets; securing the nation's borders, air and sea ports; collaborating with federal and local law enforcement on task…
Csg.org. (2011). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from Csg.org: http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf
Delattre, E. (2011). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington DC: AEI Press.
FBI.gov. (2011, May). Police Corruption. Retrieved from FBI.gov: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/may_2011/law_enforcement_professionalism
Ncjrs.gov. (2006). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from ncjrs.gov: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216642.pdf
Ethics in elationship to Power Structures
Ethical obligations allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office
Senator Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were accused of attempting to fix the mayoral ballot. They were allegedly reported having exchanged thousands of dollars in cash. This money was intended to pay off the officials of the epublican Party to agree to one of the Democrats, Smith on the GOP line. Halloran demonstrated clear ignorance as he walked into the evil bargain as the confidential witness dangled campaign funds for a personal interest bid. In the context of public ethics, the actions of Smith and Halloran raise questions their principles of justice, democratic society, and common good (Stensota, 2010).
Smith and Halloran must adhere to the principle of ethical policymaking. This principle requires that they hold one another accountable for what they know and value. As such, it draws…
Cody, J. (2012). Chicago called most corrupt city in the nation. CBS Chicago. Retrieved from http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2012/02/14/chicago-called-most-corrupt-city-in-nation/
Politico. (2013). N.Y. state senator arrested in alleged mayor race plot. Retrieved from http://www.politico.com/story/2013/04/nyc-mayor-race-rig-malcolm-smith-89536.html
Stensota, H. (2010). The Conditions of Care: Reframing the Debate about Public Sector Ethics. University of Gothenburg; Blackwell Publishing Limited. Retrieved from http://faculty.cbpp.uaa.alaska.edu/afgjp/PADM601%20Fall%202010/Reframing%20the%20debate%20about%20public%20service%20ethics.
Ventriss, C. (2012). Democratic Citizenship and Public Ethics The Importance of Civic Stewardship in an Era of Public Distrust and Cynicism. Public Integrity, Summer 2012, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 283 -- 297.
Dillon's Rule: Help or Hindrance?
Corruption and financial issues at the local level led to the disenfranchisement of the people and high levels of concern at the state and federal level. Something had to be done to help curb these issues on a grand scale in the United States. This decision gave birth to what is now known as Dillon's Rule, which essentially results in a narrowing of power of governments at the local level. This rule is generally used when trying to decide and interpret whether a local government has any expressed powers in a given situation. This rule is strictly and narrowly defined, and if there is any reasonable doubt at all about whether the authority has been expressly given to a locality through the state, then the authority of that locality in that given situation is not recognized. Every state in the union has some element of…
Boulter, D. The Dillon Rule and Fairfax County. Accessed November 14, 2012.
Retrieved from http://www.dougboulter.com/policy/dillon.html
Fauntroy, M.K. Home Rule or House Rule? Lanham: University Press of America, 2003
Gargan, J.J. Handbook of Local Government Administration. New York: Marcel Dekker
International Criminal Organizations
Over time, Mexico has experienced significant growth in crime levels -- something that has led to an increase in criminal activity not only in Mexico but also across the entire region as well. In this text, I concern myself with the rise of international criminal organizations in Mexico. In so doing, I will amongst other things explain the role poverty and/or corruption has played in the creation of fertile ground for organized gangs and how the Mexican government has responded to the rise in criminal activity. Further, in addition to evaluating the effect of the said criminal organizations on the stability of the nation as a whole, I will also speculate over what the situation in Mexico means to the United States from a national security perspective. ecommendations with regard to how the government of Mexico should respond to the situation will be offered at the end…
Barkan, S. & Bryjak, G. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Center for International Cooperation -- CIC (2013). Organized Crime. Retrieved from http://cic.nyu.edu/content/organized-crime
CNN Library. (2013). Mexico Drug War Fast Facts. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/02/world/americas/mexico-drug-war-fast-facts/
Edmonds-Poli, E. & Shirk, D.A. (2012). Contemporary Mexican Politics (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Economic Downturn in Police
Chief of Police: Dealing with the Economic Downturn
The process of reducing employees can be nerve wrecking especially in the police sector. As the Chief of Police, the process of layoff proves difficult. It is a nightmare on imagination of the scene of termination especially where a family member is part of the layoff. The process may raise valid concerns, but reducing various employees will have a positive impact in the management of the team, and efficient delivery of services. It is, therefore, crucial to take consideration on the economic reality in the current days. It may not be ethical for the city council to have employees whom it may not manage in the current economic state.
The activity may be a hard thing to do, but the economic state cannot allow for another alternative. Thus, lay off is the best activity to ensure that the…
Bailey, D. (2011). The recession and beyond: local and regional responses to the downturn. New York, NY: Routledge.
Belasen, A.T. (2000). Leading the learning organization: communication and competencies for managing change. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.
Burke, R.J., & Cooper, C.L. (2000). The organization in crisis: Downsizing, restructuring and privatization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers:
Johnston, M. (2005). Syndromes of corruption: wealth, power, and democracy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Corporate fraud as a dishonest activity for organizations that is considered as white collar crime has serious legal implications. Though it can be difficult to detect and catch, it is important to prevent it by creating effective and efficient policies for the organizations that ensure an efficient system of checks and balances exists in the organization for its physical and fiscal security. Whenever fraud happens in a company or organization, it often takes the form of hiding sources of revenue, overstating expenses or growth, or disguising payments made to individuals in the company. Often, fraudulent activities within the organization are complex in nature and have a gross impact on the financial nature of the organization. It is usually perpetrated by the company management and other employees are often unaware of these fraudulent activities (Mele, 2005).
Corporate fraud, as difficult as it is to prevent, often has a ripple effect whereby…
Bertrand, V. (2009). Organizational Isomorphism and Corruption: An Empirical Research in Russia. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(1), 59-76.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2014). Rooting out health care fraud is central to the well-being of both our citizens and the overall economy. Retrieved April, 2014, from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/white_collar/health-care-fraud
Mele, D. (2005). Ethical Education in Accounting: Integrating Rules, Values and Virtues. Journal of Business Ethics, 57(1), 97-109.
Panda, J.K. (2006). Accounting & Finance For Management. New Delhi: Sarup Book Publishers Pvt. Limited.
In their examination of whistle-blowing practices -- i.e. instances where the code of silence was willingly and voluntarily broken -- in law enforcement agencies, othwell & Baldwin (2007) identified several factors that appear to have a large effect on individual officers' adherence to the code of silence. Surprisingly, tenured officers are more likely to report misconduct to superiors and others, largely because they have less to fear in the way of occupational and career-affecting reprisals (othwell & Baldwin 2007).
At first, this appears to be an encouraging sign -- officers that hold higher positions within the various law enforcement agencies are more likely to ensure that their peers and the officers underneath them adhere to the ethical practices expected of them. Yet these findings also show that younger or less tenured officers still perceive the code of silence as a way of getting ahead, suggesting that this code still provides…
Fletcher, C. (1995). Breaking and entering: Women cops break the code of silence to tell their stories from the inside. New York: Pocket Books.
Rothwell, G. & Baldwin, J. (2007). "Whistle-blowing and the code of silence in police agencies." Crime & delinquency 53, pp. 605-32.
Smith, B. & Yarussi, J. (2007). Breaking the code of silence. Washington, D.C.: American University College of Law.
We will write this law on stellas. There will be a system of police to maintain order and to ensure that trouble does not occur. There will also be a system of judges (and a legal system of sorts) that will not only answer people's questions in terms of the laws but also decide change and legal minutia during cultural changes that warrant it. The judges too will decide conflicts between people according to the minutia of the law.
The classical Mayan system of priests and shamans will be retained. There will be the same titles Ah K'uhun, Ah K'uhul Hu'n, and Ah K'uhuun (namely "he of the holy books," "keeper of the paper/headbands," and "he who worships signifying the various tasks) (Maya culture; Miller & Taube, 1993).
Good sirs, we will establish an elevated educational system based on the highest wisdom of the time and run according to wisdom…
Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya (Sixth ed.). New York: Thames & Hudson
Culbert, T.Patrick (Ed.) (1977). Classic Maya Collapse. University of New Mexico Press.
A Problem with the law
This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society. It also expresses the need to act, as the United States becomes more like the exceedingly corrupt African countries of Nigeria and South Africa. Comparison of other countries reveals a lack of authority and government as well as public safety concerns.
The other section explains and identifies the different forms of corruption that happen with police officers including: opportunistic theft, tampering of evidence, and accepting of bribes. When police officers commit these crimes, they are often not prosecuted. This is due to the lack of evidence of witnesses against them. Most police officers are trained to…
Aremu, A. O., Pakes, F., & Johnston, L. (2011). The moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the reduction of corruption in the Nigerian Police. Police Practice and Research, 12(3), 195-208. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2010.536724#.U9sFVvldWa8
Beggs, J., & Davies, H. (2009). Police misconduct, complaints, and public regulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
California Innocence Project. (n.d.). Police Corruption Cases \ Police Misconduct Statistics \ CIP. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from http://californiainnocenceproject.org/issues-we-face/police-misconduct
Einstein, S., & Amir, M. (2003). Police corruption: paradigms, models, and concepts: challenges for developing countries. Huntsville, TX: Office of International Criminal Justice.
Gottschalk, P. (2012). White-Collar Crime and Police Crime: Rotten Apples or Rotten Barrels? Critical Criminology, 20(2), 169-182. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10612-011-9133-0
Lee, H., Lim, H., Moore, D. D., & Kim, J. (2013). How police organizational structure correlates with frontline officer's attitudes toward corruption: a multilevel model. Police Practice and Research, 14(5), 386. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2011.635483#.U9sEofldWa8
Punch, M., & Gilmour, S. (2010). Police corruption: apples, barrels and orchards. Criminal Justice Matters, 79(1), 10-12. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09627250903569890#.U9sFwldWa8
Roleff, T. L. (2003). Police corruption. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
On one hand, public corruption is a case generally handled by both national authorities and international organizations and institutions, having been prioritized as a necessity that needs the full attention of society. Private corruption is less in the public's eye and generally left to be handled by each organization in part.
The different approach to bribery may be caused, as the writer tacitly acknowledges, by the fact that there is a wrong impression that private bribery has a limited effect on society itself. However, this is not the case. The article points out to an example of private corruption from one of the most reputable companies in Germany, Siemens AG, whose management used bribery in order to secure important orders from their customers. One can obviously not judge something like this as having a limited impact, because such types of private bribery and corruption can be essential in creating disequilibrium…
U.S. Justice System vs. India's Justice System
This paper compares the system of justice in India with the system of justice in the United States. Although they are both democracies -- in fact India is the biggest democratic country in the world -- the two countries are quite different in their approach to formal justice. Moreover, the system of justice in India has been the subject of a great deal of criticism in recent years due to the corruption that has been found in the system.
Comparing the U.S. And Indian Justice Systems
The legal system in India is backed by the Indian Constitution and is a mix of "adversarial and accusatorial," according to the Loyola University in Chicago (LU). There is an attempt to respect both Hindu and Muslim jurisprudence and to "preserve the timeworn tenets of both" (LU). In rural areas of India, an informal system of justice…
Bhushan, Prashant. (2009). 'My Honest And Bonafide Perception.' Outlook India. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://www.outlookindia.com .
Country Listing. (1995). India: The Criminal Justice System. Center for Children's Law and Policy. Retrieved September 14, 2012, from http://www.country-data.com.
Global Corruption Report 2007: Corruption in Judicial Systems. (2007). New York: Cambridge
Loyola Library. (2010). Criminal Justice System in India. Retrieved September 14, 2012,
American Anti-Corruption Act: The Tipping Point for American Citizens
The American Anti-Corruption Act:
A tipping point for American citizens
In the wake of increasing concerns about the undue influence of money and special interest groups in American politics, the anti-corruption advocacy group epresent.Us created a grassroots campaign in support of a law called the American Anti-Corruption Act. The Act is "a nine-point plan to crack down on lobbyists, strengthen the flimsy law intended to prevent super-PACs from coordinating with campaigns, and put a stop to undisclosed donations funneled through dark-money nonprofits" (Aronsen 2013). It should be noted that ironically, "epresent.Us is a project of United epublic, a campaign finance reform group that, like many of the outside spending organizations it takes aim at, is a 501(c)(4)" although it is bipartisan in its composition (Aronsen 2013). Its bipartisan membership includes "former Federal Elections Commission chair (and Stephen Colbert's 'personal lawyer') Trevor…
American Anti-Corruption Act. (2014). Official website.
Retrieved from: http://anticorruptionact.org/
Aronsen, G. (2012). New group unveils its plan to get money out of politics. Mother Jones.
Retrieved from: http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2012/11/represent-us-campaign-finance-reform
In this sense, it is not simply a matter of theoretical approach, but also one that is accompanied by data. More precisely, for instance, in the 1960s, when, as stated previously, the afflux of the development aid had not been significant, the real GDP per capita was $1,049. Compared to the 1990s when the development aid was more consistent, the real GDP per capita fell to $1,016 and in 1991 to even $970 (Andrews, What foreign aid can and can't do in Africa, 2010). This can be interpreted as being the result of a series of development strategies that did not improve the condition of the society. Also, this period was indeed characterized by increased political distress that only contributed to the way in which development programs were constructed, managed, and implemented.
In later years, through the United Nations programs, the increased donor contributions, the GDP per capita increased substantially,…
UN Habitat. (2003). The challenge of slums - global report on human settlements 2003. United Nations Human Settlements Program.
United Nations Development Program. (2010). Human Development Report. Washington: Palgrave Macmillan.
Andrews, N. (2010).; Understanding the context of Aid and socio economic development in Ghana. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
Andrews, N. (2010). Foreign Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Ghana'S Development: The Case for "Bringing Culture Back in "to the Analysis . International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2 (5), 95-104.
Giving Voice to Values
The class discussion on giving voice to values touched on many different topics of great interest, not the least of which were the many different systems of values that exist. I have always found myself caught between ethical theories that emphasize intentions and those that emphasize effects, and I truly feel that different situations call for different understandings of right and wrong -- some situations might be best determined by a consideration of intentions, while others must be judged on the ultimate effects of a given action or set of actions. Determining which situation deserves which application of ethics is obviously highly subjective, and this was definitely highlighted in the class discussion. A large number of individual and cultural values were brought up that point out different features of specific cases or derive differing interpretations from an agreed upon set of circumstances to a degree that…
The American Heritage Online Dictionary specifies Terrorism as an illegal use or threatened use of force or physical violence by an individual or pre-arranged team against individuals or physical assets with the objective of frightening or pushing societies or governments, typically for ideological or political reasons. Provided this meaning this paper will try to clarify on how terrorism has an effect on society as an entire and how it has actually triggered alterations in existing laws as it relates to the security of all U.S. citizens.
Terrorism is a significant problem in American and has a remarkable affect on individuals of all walks of life, since terrorism has an effect on everybody both directly as ell as indirectly in one form or another.
Considering that the notorious 9-11 terrorist attacks on the United States there have actually been lots of alterations in the way police assess and execute their…
American Heritage Online Dictionary (2009), Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/terrorism
Dantzker, Mark L. (2005, Jul 25). Understanding today's Police. Criminal Justice Press.
Gentile, John. Free Donuts and More: A Commentary on Police Misconduct and Corruption. Problems, Issues and Challenges in Law Enforcement. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.spiritofthelaw.org/sol1art1.html
Hasisi, Badi. (2008, Spring). Police, politics, and culture in a deeply divided society. (Symposium on Redefining International Criminal Law). Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 98(3), 1119(27).
Ethics, Terrorism, & the Future of Policing
The devastating attacks on United States soil that took place on September 11, 2001, became the turning point for all police activity. The police mission went from protecting people against day-to-day violence, to protecting a society from foreign attack. Terrorism is defined as "the systematic use of terror [fear] especially as a means of coercion" (merriam-webster.com). It was this idea that something that could not be fully understood, such as a terrorist attack, could indeed cause so many people to be afraid. However, this changed what it meant to be in law enforcement. Despite problems that do exist on a local level, the focus has shifted from making sure that any threat of a potential attack could be prevented. Personal liberties have been violated, discriminatory profiling has risen, and corruption within police force has elevated -- all in the name of terrorism prevention.…
Baker, Al. (2012) Independent agency gets new powers to prosecute New York police officers. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/28/nyregion/civilian-complaint-review-board-gets-new-powers-to-prosecute-new-york-police.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=police%20abuse%20of%20power&st=cse
Foster, C., Cordner, G., Frakes, K., Collins, P., & Mayberry, L. National Institute of Justice, (2005).The impact of terrorism on state law enforcement. Retrieved from The council of State Governments and Eastern Kentucky University website: http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf
Nalle, D. (2011). Repeal or revise. Retrieved from http://www.rlc.org/2011/01/31/repeal-or-revise-the-problems-with-the-patriot-act/
Rayman, G. (2010). New york's finest cover-up. Retrieved from http://www.villagevoice.com/2010-10-13/news/nypd-cover-up-cabbie/
Slippery slope: What are some examples of the slippery slope, as it applies to criminal justice ethics? How can/should slippery slope issues be addressed from a leadership or administrative standpoint?
The concept of slippery slope is a metaphor used to describe the ways small ethical infractions can lead to larger and more damaging ones. For example, the question, "Does taking a free cup of coffee or a half price burger mean you are on a slippery slope to taking bribes from the guy who runs the local crack house?" relates to the concept of slippery slope, albeit in an exaggerated format (Smith, n.d.). The idea that accepting small gifts is innocent reveals fractured ethical thinking. If an officer thinks that it is alright to accept a small gift, then the cognitive process used can be extended to accepting big gifts.
The slippery slope concept is easy to understand. It…
Smith, B.B. (n.d.). Criminal justice ethics for everyone. Police Link. Retrieved online: http://policelink.monster.com/education/articles/103583-criminal-justice-ethics-for-everyone