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Introduction and Analysis of the Project: Cost-Benefit Analysis of Proposed New Health Warnings on Tobacco Products (eport, 2003)
The new regulation introduced in July 2004 to be implemented for all the years till 2030, have significant cost impact on the economy. Certain benefits are also associated with it, the primary ones include health improvement, increased revenues for non-tobacco industry and the decreased healthcare expense. The major costs are related to enforcement of this system, printing health warnings, decreased sales for tobacco industry and decreased revenue to the government. The report highlights the costs and benefits keeping in view the different years after implementation of regulation (eport, 2003).
Usually, the discount rates of 5 and 7% are used to estimate the costs and benefits likely to occur in the future. In all other industries, the Australian government makes its calculations on 7% discount rates assuming it the most appropriate…
Abelson, P., 2003, 'The value of life and health for public policy', Economic Record, 79, S2-S13.
Bureau of Transport Economics, 2000, Road Crash Costs in Australia, Bureau of Transport Economics, Report 102, Canberra.
Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care. (CDHAC) (2001). Review of Health Warnings on Tobacco Products in Australia. Discussion Paper. Evaluation of the Health Warnings and Explanatory Health Messages on Tobacco Products Executive Summary.
Cutler, D. And E. Richardson, 1997, Measuring the health of the U.S. Population, Brookings Paper on Economic Activity, Microeconomics, Brookings Institute, Washington, D.C.
Typically, discounting provides an accurate way to assess the economic impact of a project.
To use a discounting to evaluate the costs and benefits of the National Guard Armory, the report analyzes the demand for the Massachusetts State National Guard Armory in the last three years. The Massachusetts government derives revenues from leasing and renting the National Guard Armory and people in the state derive the following benefits from renting and leasing the armory:
National Guard Armory serves as a safe event location for people at a great price,
The armory also assists in putting money back into the community,
The armory assists in generating money to maintain the armories for future events.
Thus, there is a general high demand for the use of the National Guard Armory. Some of the methods that the National Guard armory is in the regular use are as follows:
Social and Youth…
Campbell, H. And Brown, R. (2003). Cost-Benefit Analysis: Economic and Financial Appraisal Using Spreadsheets. Cambridge University Press
Commonwealth of Massachusetts (2013). Budget Detail: 8700-1140 - Armory Rental Fee Retained Revenue. State Government of Massachusetts.
Heyvaert, A.C. Mihevc, T. Thomas, J. et al.(2009). Evaluating an Approach for the Benefit- Cost Analysis of Project Alternatives. Department of the Policy and Environmental Science, University of California, Davis.
Perincherry, V. & Wu, F. (2012).Cost of Project Delays An Estimate of Foregone Benefits and Other Costs Related to Schedule Delays of Inland Waterway Projects. Decision Economics.
Benefit Analysis Memorandum
Cost-benefit analyses are routinely conducted for federal programs and proposed federal programs. The researchers propose a cost-benefit analysis for homeland security expenditures designed to address conventional threats to national security. An evaluation of catastrophic threats is specifically excluded from this analysis as only 14% of the federal homeland security budget is directed at the prevention of catastrophic threats to national security. The recommendation from the authors is to employ a risk-informed framework to the proposed cost-benefit analysis is. A risk-informed approach has as its basis consideration of the likelihood of occurrence, the life/safety effectiveness, and the economic cost of proposed security and protective measures, and it includes any "consequence of terrorist attacks on such infrastructure" (Stewart & Mueller, 2009, p.2). Thus, the metrics associated with the proposed cost/benefit research are: 1) Cost per life saved, and 2) Net benefit as measured by lives saved and…
Bemelmans-Videc, M., Rist, R.C., and Vedung, E. (2003). Carrots, sticks, and sermons: Policy instruments and their evaluation. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qeajs_EVxYEC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=evaluation+of+policy+implementation&ots=el_DMjxwSB&sig=6O_b2GX9m6rbjKsJJYITNhj6Tv4#v=onepage&q=evaluation%20of%20policy%20implementation&f=falseKaldor , Nicholas (1939). Welfare propositions in economics and interpersonal comparisons of utility. Economic Journal, 49 (195), 549 -- 552. doi:10.2307/2224835.
Porter, T.M. (1995). Trust in Numbers: The pursuit of objectivity in science and public life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved http://www.kent.ac.uk/secl / philosophy/articles/sayers/porter.pdf
Source Watch (2011). [Website] Retrieved http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=RAND_Corporation
Watkins, T. (n.d.). An introduction to cost-benefit analysis. San Jose State University, Department of Economics. [Lecture notes]. Retrievedhttp://www.sjsu.edu / faculty/watkins/cba.htm
Vaughan, J.L., Leming, M.L.M., Liu, M., & Jaselskis, E., 2013. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Construction Information Management System Implementation: Case Study. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management.
Managers working within construction projects encounter significant expenditure of resources in collecting project data, evaluating production rates, and exchanging information with project stakeholders. The paper focuses on the execution of project tasks through manual reduction of inefficiency as well as improved effective operations in project management. For purposes of improving success rates in information process flow, the authors point out that different forms of information systems are necessary for construction management. The paper introduces their efficiency to the construction projects.
On the other hand, the difficulties involved in tracking illusive and fragmental information are addressed. The paper allows for better approaches to assessing costs against benefits of project implementation. The other goal of the research is to evaluate the major trade-offs challenging construction practitioners.…
Lacity, M. And Rottman, J. 2008, Offshore Outsourcing of IT Work, Palgrave, United Kingdom.
Oshri, I., Kotlarsky, J. And Willcocks, L. 2007, "Managing dispersed expertise in IT offshore outsourcing: lessons from Tata consultancy services," MIS Quarterly Executive, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 53-65.
Feeny, D. And Willcocks, L. 1998, "Core IS capabilities for exploiting information technology," Sloan Management Review, Vol. 39 No. 3, pp. 9-21.
Health Care Economics
In economics, cost-benefit analysis assists in evaluating the costs of an approach in terms of resources spent while cost-effective analysis evaluates the costs as achieving some sort of benefit which is not evaluated in monetary terms. Moreover, cost-benefit study examines several aspects including net-present value, present value of benefit, and present value of costs; in line with this, if a project indicates that the monetary outcome is greater than initial costs, the project will be initiated (Amartya, 2000). On the other hand, cost-effective analysis requires a value judgment; since an individual is required to determine how much value is provided by the spent capital.
The other difference is that cost-benefit analysis assigns monetary value to any benefit; the analysis evaluates the benefits in terms of how effective that benefit is; however, it is difficult to quantify the monetary amount. As an example, the health sector uses cost-effective…
Amartya, S. (2000). The Discipline of Cost-Benefit Analysis. The Journal of Legal Studies, 29(2), 931-951.
Black, W. (1990). A Graphical Representation of Cost-Effectiveness. Medical Decision Making, 10(3), 212-214.
Getzen, T.E. (1997). Health Economics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Neumann, P.J., & Weinstein, M.C. (2010). Legislating against use of Cost-Effectiveness Information. New England Journal of Medicine, (363), 1495-1497.
Establishing the Decision Framework
Does the study carefully define a problem? Yes. The study argues that traditional special education classes should be replaced with Instructional Support Teams. This argument is based on the premise that traditional special education classes are costly and educationally insufficient. The study notes that the 1993-94 federal estimate of children enrolled in special education classes was 5.4 million, which is an increase of 3.7% in just one year. Data suggest that the cost of special education is twice the cost of regular education. (Pg, 556) In addition Ray and Hartman claim that traditional special education practices need to be reexamined because of the effects labeling and placement in special education classes has on children. The study asserts that the implementation of Instructional Support Teams in place of traditional special education programs would promote instructional improvement and reduce cost.
Does the study delineate the alternatives under consideration?…
Consider the following scenario: A city wants to open a recycling center aimed at reducing waste. The total benefits of the program are valued at $1,000,000. Three different discount rates are estimated at 5%, 6%, and 7%. The time period for receiving the benefits of the program is two years.
Scenario 1 tasks: Calculate the present value at each interest rate. Note and discuss what happens to the present value at each interest rate.
5% discount rate: 1000 / (1+ .05)^2 = 1000 / 1.1025 = 907.03
6% discount rate: 1000 / (1+ .06)^2 = 1000 / 1.1236 = 890.00
7% discount rate: 1000 / (1+ .07)^2 = 1000 / 1.1449 = 873.44
As the interest rate gets higher, the net present value decreases.
It is also worth noting that the differences between each different percentage point per rate in these examples are roughly about 17 dollars per…
Friedman, M. (n.d.). The inflation calculator. Retrieved from http://www.westegg.com/inflation/ ?
Hanley, N. and Spash, C.L. (1993). Cost-benefit analysis and the environment. Northampton, MA: Elgar.
Mikesell, J. L. (2014). Fiscal administration: Analysis and applications for the public sector (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
Business Artificial Intelligence (BAI) Cost-Benefit Analysis
IBM's Business Monitor offers comprehensive monitoring of enterprise activity for improving organizational agility. Its features include: customizable dashboards, alerts and notifications for providing an almost real-time look into company processes, operations, and transactions, for enhanced business insights. The software assists with identifying changing trends in business, issues, and opportunities, by statistically analyzing historical and present information. It offers:
Almost real-time analysis and estimates, which offer insights into the company's activities.
Automated alerts and notifications, which facilitate the process of responding to emerging issues and changing business trends.
Customizable dashboards, which present historical, present, and predictive data.
Visibility across different business systems, spanning various products and applications.
Global Business Services (GBS) is the professional services department at IBM; it includes the company's management consulting, application management, and systems integration resources ((TDWI -- Training & esearch -- Business Intelligence, Analytics, Big Data, Data Warehousing, 2015).
Hoskins, J., & Frank, B. (2003). Exploring IBM eServer zSeries and S/390 servers: See why IBM's redesigned mainframe server family has become more popular than ever. Gulf Breeze, FL: Maximum Press.
TDWI -- Training & Research -- Business Intelligence, Analytics, Big Data, Data Warehousing. (2015, October 2). Retrieved January 15, 2016, from https://tdwi.org/whitepapers/2015/10/ibm-cost-benefit-analysis.aspx?tc=page0
In the United States and the United Kingdom, NP (Nursing practitioners) are being used as a point of contact to deliver primary care for patients. Trained nursing practitioners who can deliver in-person primary healthcare services for patients are gradually increasing. While patients provide positive feedback about the nursing roles, there is still a debate whether nursing practitioners can deliver a cost effectiveness for a patients' treatment compared with other healthcare professionals, and deliver quality healthcare. (Venning, et al. 2000).
The objective of this study is to review the literature that provides the cost effectiveness of nursing practitioners. The study reviews six different literature to enhance a greater understanding of the cost effectiveness of nursing practitioners in the healthcare environment.
Synthesis and Analysis of the Articles
Venning, et al. (2000) provide a random trial on the cost effectiveness of the nursing practitioners in the United Kingdom sampling NPs in…
Fletcher, C. E. Copeland, L.A. Lowery, J.C. (2011). Nurse Practitioners as Primary Care Providers Within the VA. Military Medicine. 176: 7(791).
Kapu, A. Kleinpell, R. & Pilon, B. (2014). Quality and Financial Impact of Adding Nurse Practitioners to Inpatient Care Teams. The Journal of Nursing Administration. 44(2): 87-96.
Litaker, D. Mion, L.C. Planavsky, L. (2003). Physician -- nurse practitioner teams in chronic disease management: the impact on costs, clinical effectiveness, and patients' perception of care. Journal of Interpersonal Care, 17(3): 223-237.
Schuttelaar, M.L.A. Vermeulen, K.M. Coenraads, P.J. (2011). Costs and cost-
I have experience with quite a few of the different decision-making techniques. Certainly, the rational model is interesting, and utilizes parts of some of the other models, such as cost-benefit analysis. I’ve been involved a little bit with focus groups, used brainstorming, and done variations on cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness. I have less familiarity with some of the other decision-making models that we studied.
I feel that the most valuable is really the cost-benefit, which requires a lot of rational analysis. First, cost-benefit focuses ones efforts. We all know that resources are limited. As individuals we are limited in terms of time and energy. If we are going to expend these resources on something, and we are presented with more options than we can reasonably pursue, then we need to focus on energy on efforts that deliver the highest level of return for us personally, however we choose to define return.…
Cost Benefit Analysis and the City’s Water Dilemma
This memorandum focuses on describing the value of cost benefit analysis. It does so by applying the first four steps of the U.S. Army Cost Benefit Analysis Guide as they relate to the city’s need to increase its water treatment capacity. The purpose of this memorandum is not to take the faculty of judgment away from any council member but rather to show how cost benefit analysis can facilitate the judgment process and provide support for pursuing the best possible opportunity at this time.
Step 1: Define the Problem / Opportunity; Describe the Background
Every problem is an opportunity. The problem that the city faces is with respect to its need to upgrade or update its water treatment plant which is more than 40 years old and costly to maintain. With the large automaker set to come to the unincorporated area…
The ole of isk Analysis in Making Security Decisions
Security decisions always rely heavily on an initial process of risk analysis because every security environment represents different types of security threats (Clifford 2004, 213). Depending on the nature of the environment, the principle security threats might be physical security and perimeter access control in some environments but information security and computer security in others. Naturally, it is impossible to design and implement an optimal security plan to address the specific threats to any given entity without first identifying and understanding the particular threats inherent to any given environment (Clifford 2004, 213). Moreover, where some threat environments demand a specific emphasis on one type of security threat, others might require a more complex approach that provides complete protection from multiple types of unrelated threats within a comprehensive integrated security plan (Clifford…
Clifford, Mary. (2004). Identifying and Exploring Security Essentials. New Jersey:
Collaboration on Cost-effectiveness Analysis
This evidence-based project has addressed the use of bilingual interpreters in enhancing patient-provider communication during provider visits in comparison to using family members as interpreters. It is common knowledge that Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients face communication challenges when seeking for primary and preventative health care services. Family members are sometimes used as interpreters to help improve communication between patients and health care providers. However, this evidence-based project has established that the use of bilingual interpreters would help to improve patient-provider communication as compared to using family members.
For the purposes of this evidence-based project, a basic budget and cost minimization analysis as described by Kleinpell (2013) will be completed as shown in Appendix A. The basic budget and cost minimization, which is part of the cost-effectiveness analysis, is based on the assumption that the use of bilingual interpreters would help improve patient-provider communication.…
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is far and away the most prolific and omni-present agency that exists in the United States, at least at the federal level, that regulates employers and protects employees from discrimination and other unlawful and/or unethical employment practices including inequity in who is hired, who is fired, who is promoted and why, who is given raises and why and so forth. While budgetary constraints and some of the EEOC's recent decisions certainly deserve attention and scrutiny, the EEOC's status as the ultimate arbiter of employee rights in the United States is not going to change anytime soon.
The mission statement of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is to "stop and remedy unlawful employment discrimination" (EEOC, 2014). The vision statement of the EEOC is "justice and equality in the workplace." The EEOC states quite clearly on their website that they know full well,…
DrugFree.org. (2014, May 18). Discrimination Against People in Recovery Rampant, Advocates Say |. Partnership for DrugFree Kids. Retrieved May 18, 2014, from http://www.drugfree.org/join-together/discrimination-against-people-in-recovery-rampant-advocates-say/
EEOC. (2014, May 17). EEOC Home Page. EEOC Home Page. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from http://www.eeoc.gov
EEOC. (2014, May 18). Fiscal Year 2014 Congressional Budget Justification. Fiscal Year 2014 Congressional Budget Justification. Retrieved May 18, 2014, from
moves any sort of raw material, products or shipments in general, the subject of logistics is a very important one. Whether one is speaking of forward logistics or reverse logistics, there should be a fairly constant amount of cost/benefit analysis used and harnessed so as to maximize profit and logistical capacity. Indeed, there is almost always more than one way to do something form a logistical standpoint but the benefits of each method as well as the costs should always be assessed to make sure the proper method is used. Both cost and benefits need to be taken into full account because both matter a great deal.
Some people might be confused by forward logistics as compared to reverse logistics. However, the subjects are actually fairly easy to absorb and interpret with the proper definition. Products and materials, even if slightly compromised, typically retain their value even if…
Choudhary, A., Sarkar, S., Settur, S., & Tiwari, M. (2015). A carbon market sensitive optimization model for integrated forward -- reverse logistics. International Journal Of Production Economics, 164433-444. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.08.015
Hatefi, S., Jolai, F., Torabi, S., & Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R. (2015). A credibility-constrained programming for reliable forward -- reverse logistics network design under uncertainty and facility disruptions. International Journal Of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 28(6),
Kim, T., Goyal, S., & Kim, C. (2013). Lot-streaming policy for forward-reverse logistics with recovery capacity investment. International Journal Of Advanced Manufacturing
Dibsa should turn towards the market-based pricing strategy, which sees the implementation of competitive prices for the 3-in-1 Lawnmower. The selection of this combination of strategies would generate several impacts upon the company, but most of them would be obvious at product lifecycle level. In this order of ideas:
The sales revenues would be significantly high throughout the first six months and they would allow the company to cover for the large costs incurred in the manufacturing of the product as well as register profits; they would however decrease with the implementation of the market pricing strategy and the 3-in-1 Lawnmower would metamorphose from a star product into a cash cow
The costs incurred in the manufacturing of the new lawnmower have already begun to decrease and will continue to do so; the actual impact of the pricing strategy is limited, with the specification however that these costs will not…
Berman, K., Knight, J., Case, J., 2006, Financial Intelligence: A Manager's Guide to Knowing what the Numbers Really Mean, Harvard Business Press
Bolander, S.F., Gooding, C.W., Mister, W.G., 1999, Transfer Pricing Strategies and Lot Sizing Decisions, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol. 11
Drudy, C., 2004, Management and Cost Accounting, 6th Edition, Cengage Learning EMEA
Goetz, Jr., J.F., 1985, the Pricing Decision: A Service Industry's Experience, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 23
By analyzing the amount in dollars various accidents caused in the two different groups, researchers could discern if these cameras were actually cost beneficial in comparison to the cost of accidents in intersections without Red Light Cameras.
Researchers in this study used the Bayes before and after method of data analysis to discern conclusions about the raw data which they received. Result showed that more costly right angle crashes did decrease in areas which used Red Light Camera Systems. However, there were a significant number of rear-end crashes in areas which used cameras in intersections. This increase of rear-end crashes raised the overall cost of implementing these systems in controlling traffic. However, the fact that they are less costly per incident that dangerous t-bone, or right angle crashes, makes the intersections with these symptoms more cost beneficial than similar intersections without red Light Cameras.
Analysis of the recorded data did…
Council, Forrest M., BMI-SG; Persaud, Bhagwant, Ryerson University; Eccles,
Kimberly, BMI-SG; Lyon, Craig, Ryerson University. (April 2005). "Safety
Evaluation of Red Light Cameras." U.S. Department of Transportation. Federal Highway Administration. Report No. FHWA-HRT-05-048. http://ttap.colostate.edu/Library/FHWA/FHWA-HRT-05-048.pdf
Logistics Cost Benefits
LMT 305 Cost and Benefits Analysis in everse Logistics-- Fall 2015
When it comes to a company that moves any sort of raw material, products or shipments in general, the subject of logistics is a very important one. Whether one is speaking of forward logistics or reverse logistics, there should be a fairly constant amount of cost/benefit analysis used and harnessed so as to maximize profit and logistical capacity. Indeed, there is almost always more than one way to do something form a logistical standpoint but the benefits of each method as well as the costs should always be assessed to make sure the proper method is used. Both cost and benefits need to be taken into full account because both matter a great deal.
Some people might be confused by forward logistics as compared to reverse logistics. However, the subjects are…
Andrade, R., Vieira Junior, M., Lucato, W., & Vanalle, R. (2013). Reverse logistics and competitiveness: a brief review of this relationship. InPOMS ANNUAL CONFERENCE, 24th.
Choudhary, A., Sarkar, S., Settur, S., & Tiwari, M. (2015). A carbon market sensitive optimization model for integrated forward -- reverse logistics. International Journal Of Production Economics, 164433-444. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.08.015
Fernie, J., Sparks, L. (2009). Logistics & Retail Management: Emerging issues and new challenges in the retail supply chain. London: Kogan Page Limited.
Fortes, J. (2009). Green supply chain management: A literature. Otago Management Graduate Review, 7(1), 51-62.
This could pose additional threats (Brimacombe, Antunes and McIntyre, 2001).
There are also two arguments which reveal the overstatement of the estimations. The first refers to the fact that the tax structures are taken as constants, when in fact modifications could occur and result in the allocation of more funds to the health care sector. Then, the second argument is that the business, technology and administrative communities present the population and the markets with various scenarios and tools for improvements in efficiencies (Brimacombe, Antunes and McIntyre, 2001).
5. Approaches of Federal and Provincial Governments
The federal and provincial governments often encounter difficulties in adequately collaborating for the well-being of the Canadians. The provincial governments for instance blame the federal one for decreasing its health care payment from 50 cents per dollar in the 1960s to 16 cents per dollar in 2004. The federals on the other hand argue that the…
Brimacombe, G.G., Antunes, P., McIntyre, J., 2001, the Future Cost of Health Care in Canada, 2000 to 2020, the Conference Board of Canada
Frankel, J., Orszag, P.R., 2002, American Economic Policy in the 1990s, Universal Music International
Freund, D., Smeeding, T.M., 2002, the Future Cost of Health Care in Aging Societies: Is the Glass Half Full or Half Empty? Seminar on Ageing Societies, UNSW
Irvine, B., Ferguson, S., Cackett, B., 2005, Background Briefing: The Canadian Health Care System, Retrieved at http://www.civitas.org.uk/pdf/Canada.pdfon November 7, 2008
The objective of this study to is examine the expenditures on corrections at the state and federal level and perform a cost benefit analysis of the modern American conception of justice.
Justice -- What Is It?
Justice is many things to many people. To some individuals justice is viewed as a form of punishment and to other justice is equity. roadly defined, justice can be viewed as a means to exact equality from an inequitable relationship between two individuals or entities. Justice, according to the ible, in terms of punishment is "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth." (Exodus 21:22) What the ible speaks of in this instance is that transgressions shall be rewarded with appropriate punishment.
The American justice system is one characterized by punishment that is oftentimes inequitable and in appropriate in the sentencing of offenders. Dr. Matthew Robinson notes that…
An Eye for an Eye, A Tooth for a Tooth (nd) Topical Bible Study. Retrieved from: http://www.topical-bible-studies.org/31-0016.htm
Piehl, AM, Useem, B and DiIulio, JJ (1999) Right-Sizing Justice: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Imprisonment in Three States. Civic Report. No. 8. September 1999. Retrieved from: http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_8.htm
Robinson, Matthew (2005) Race and Criminal Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CFsQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pscj.appstate.edu%2Fsocialjusticepaper3.doc&ei=sdjdT6WqLoe16gGkjoGlCw&usg=AFQjCNFfc5OlyF3ipAQZLCXieD0SfHrDmw
Rosenberg, J and Mark, S (2011) Cost-Benefit Analysis and Criminal Justice Policy. Balanced Justice. Retrieved from: http://policyintegrity.org/files/publications/Balanced_Justice.pdf
Google pps for Business
Edward F. Palm, Ph.D.
The recipient of the justification report is the Department of Transportation Federal Railroad dministration (FR) located in Washington, DC. This is a really small agency that currently utilizes Microsoft products throughout its enterprise. The purpose of this report is to justify implementing Google pps for Businesses within FR specifically due to increased cost savings and seamless and real-time collaboration. This report will highlight key components of why and how the aforementioned benefits can be successfully realized.
s the Federal Government continues to see an increasing influx in budget cuts, cost savings continues to become a top priority. Google's web-based messaging and collaboration apps require no hardware or software and need minimal administration, creating tremendous time and cost savings for businesses.
In addition to cost savings benefits, Google pps provides seamless and real time collaboration through the use of cloud services. This suite…
Also at this level, it is important to note the limitations of Google Apps, namely the lack of control over the system, the limitations of the storage capacity or the latency, which is still present, regardless of the improvements made to Google Apps and their integration among devices (Crowder, 2011).
The current section is dedicated to assessing the costs and benefits of implementing Google Apps in the detriment of the Windows
Beacon Lakes Case Analysis
Armando Codina is the chairman and CEO of Armando Codina Group of Company, which is one of the most active developers in Florida. However, Armando Codina is facing a challenging decision whether to abandon the Beacon Lakes development project worth $220 million or go ahead with the project. However, Codina has already spent $2 million to obtain the necessary approval to develop the 6.6 million square foot warehouse project Despite the approval, Codina is facing various obstacles making him considering whether to go ahead with the project or abandon the project. Codina feels that an unsuccessful project such as the Beacon project can affect his untainted career. Among the problems facing Codina is the uncertainty regarding the getting an approval for the project and expansion to the UDB (Urban Development Boundary) towards the west that is currently zoned to prohibit further development. (Segel, Barlick, & Gonzalec,…
Segel, A.I. Barlick, R. & Gonzalec, J. (2008). Beacon Lakes. Harvard Business Review.
Cost of Land acre
Application of Cost Benefit Analysis
EU Proposed Project Overview
Positive Impact of the Project
Economic Net Present Value (ENPV)
Cost benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process of comparing and calculating the cost benefit of a project. Recent business uncertainties within business environment make increasing number of businesses to implement cost benefit analysis to make a sound investment decision. Cost-benefit analysis is also an explicit or implicit method to assess the benefits and costs of a project. Typically, an organization is likely to go ahead with a project if the Benefits (B) > Costs (C). Cost-benefit analysis is often used by private organizations or government to evaluate the desirability of a project. (Anthony, David, Aidan.). The CBA is used to analyze the expected benefits and costs. However, cost effectiveness analysis is closely related to cost benefit analysis. Although both concepts attempt to achieve the…
Anthony Boardman, David Greenberg, Aidan Vining. Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice, 4/E. 2010.
European Union. Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Project. Regional European Union. 1997, Retrieved March 25, 2013.from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/guides/cost/guide02_en.pdf
European Commission. EVA-TREN: Improved decision-aid methods and tools to support evaluation of investment for transport and energy networks in Europe, Deliverable 2, Brussels. 2007.
Levin, Henry and McEwen, Patrick. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 2nd Edition Sage Publications 2001.
The quality improvement plan however also reveals a series of benefits, materialized primarily in the following:
Improved communication among the staffs leads to increased levels of operational efficiency as the information so necessary within the medical field is more efficiently transmitted from one medical staff to the other.
Improved communications between medics and patients lead to a higher rate of information collection, being possible for this to then lead to increased chances of diagnosing and treating the conditions at superior levels.
Improved communications with the patients ultimately enhance the levels of satisfaction on the part of the patients. At an organizational level, it could be argued that this satisfaction of the patient -- and of their families -- would materialize in a positive image for the hospice. Through world of mouth publicity, the patients and their family members would determine other individuals to access the services of the facility, which…
Armstrong, M., 2009, Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice, 11th Edition, Kogan Page Publishers
Watkins, T., An introduction to cost benefit analysis, San Jose State University, Department of Economics, http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/cba.htm last accessed on June 24, 2011
2011, Cost / benefit analysis, Mind Tools, http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_08.htm last accessed on June 24, 2011
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments
Description of APM Terminals
Review of the Health and Safety Management System
Health and Welfare Hazards
Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding
Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise
Action Plan 1 - Management System
Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks
Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist
Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.
The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…
benefit analysis of the proposed state lottery for Alabama. Assessing the costs and benefits of this lottery is challenging. The costs are ill-defined, and often lumped in with other gambling costs in general. Yet, lotteries are not the same thing as casino gambling or sports gambling. So there is a lack of hard data available. The benefits are clearer. These take into account the return on money already being spent by Alabamans out-of-state, and the multiplier effect of this new spending. For the state government, the lottery is a clear winner, but for the Alabama economy as a whole, the cost-benefit analysis looks less positive.
The state of Alabama is examining ways in which it can increase its revenues. One of the ideas that has been floated is that of a state-run lottery. In February 2016 a bill was passed that will allow the state to set-up a statewide vote…
Alabama Budget. (2016). Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.budget.alabama.gov/pdf/2016/FY17GFHandout02-03-16.pdf
ALF (2016). Where the money goes. Alberta Lottery Fund. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://albertalotteryfund.ca/aboutthealf/wherethemoneygoes.asp
Allen, P. (1991). The allocation of lottery revenue to education in Florida, California, Michigan, and Illinois. Educational Policy. Vol. 5 (3) 296-311.
Boardman, Greenberg, Vining & Weiner. (2011). Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice. Pearson Education: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
, et al., 2012).
Systems approaches look towards the functional integration of different stakeholders and their goals towards a specific issue or path. What implications might a proposed solution have and to what groups? What is the functional relationship between groups of stakeholders and how can that be maximized. For returning felons, this approach looks at ways to construct programs that are utilitarian in context (the greatest good for the greatest number) (Teaskey, 1976).
Ecological PA supports a more holistic viewpoint and focuses on the nature of the internal and external environments. In other words, PA must interact with the political executive, social political interest groups, commercial and economic organizations, and the citizenry. This approach takes the approach that solutions may only be found by looking at the issue as a sub-set of a larger set of societal issues. Ecological PA cannot solve the incarceration problem, but can look toward…
Project Return - Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009, April). Retrieved from projectreturn.com: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts
Public Administration. (2012, July 31). Retrieved from publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com: http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com/2012/07/organisations-theories-systems.html
Beck, a., & Shipley, B. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Benincasa, R. (2012, May 29). 6 Leadership Styles and When You Should Use Them. Retrieved from Fast Company: http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
The third controllable cost is storage and delivery, which depends on program scope independent of which professional educates the consumer.
d. Unrecoverable expenses if the activity is not implemented include the cost of preventable traumatic head injuries borne by the total health care insurance consumer pool whether cyclists are insured or not; the direct E costs attempting to prevent one traumatic head injury from becoming catastrophic (death); the foregone potential earnings that would be generated were one child not killed before they could finish their career, and the public cost from obesity prevented by cycling. As with variable costs, the actual savings will depend on the variable factors discussed above. Likewise, without predicting exactly how many traumatic head injuries would be prevented by helmet use or not, this budget estimates what those savings would be if one catastrophic head injury were prevented in such a way.
3. We estimate the…
Blake, G., Velikonja, D., Pepper, V., Jilderda, I., and Georgieou, G. (2008, June). Evaluating an in-school injury prevention programme's effect on children's helmet wearing habits. Brain Injury. 22(6). pp. 501 -- 507. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18465391
Commission de la Securite des Consommateurs (2006, March). Recommendation (summary) on the prevention of head injuries when cycling 03/06. Legal notice. Retrieved from http://www.securiteconso.org/notice517.html?id_article=517
Moyes, S. (2007). Changing pattern of child bicycle injury in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 43. pp. 486 -- 488. Retrieved from doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2007.01117.x
Strategic Recommendations for a Reduction of Operating Costs for Burn Care Unit
Burn Care Unit is a healthcare organization operating the 40-bed unit. Since its formation, Burn Care Unit business has been profitable with an increase in revenues, however, the organization has faced challenges in recruiting the professional nurses, which forces them to adopt the Baylor plan. The plan is an overtime policy that adopts 36 hours pay for nurses who work for 24 hours on the weekend. Nurses who work for 60 hours in the weekdays are paid the equivalent of 70 hours. However, the company has recorded high cost of operations because of the policy. Moreover, Burn Care has incurred $800,000 in nurses' payrolls because of the Baylor plan, and based on the recent increase in the costs of operations, the accountant has suggested that the CEO should discontinue the Baylor Plan to reduce the costs of operations.…
Real Options Analysis
Companies resort to capital budgeting in the process of taking decisions with regard to making long-term investments. The projects involving capital budgeting are chosen by the companies in terms of expected generation of cash flows. Since profitability is the main criterion for long-term investments of the companies the strategic decisions with regard to the long-term investments involves a cost-benefit analysis in terms of cost of investments and expected generation of cash flows over the period of time. Emphasis is being laid on the concepts of Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return etc. To assess the benefits of long-term investments against the cost of capital invested. The cost of capital of a firm signifies towards the cost of obtaining of capital by the firm that is used for long-term investments. Generally the firms define economic profit as the operating profit excluding the tax and cost of…
Dynamic strategic planning Evaluation of Real options" Retrieved at http://msl1.mit.edu/mib/dsp/curricula.mit.edu/~dsplan/Docs/Sessions/S70/s70.pdf. Accessed on 19 May, 2004
Eckersley, Peter. Regional Economist, Bunbury. "Budgeting and decision-making techniques" Retrieved at http://agspsrv34.agric.wa.gov.au/agency/pubns/farmnote/1993/F06393.htm. Accessed on 19 May, 2004
Net Present Value and Other Investment Criteria" Retrieved at http://www.webster.edu/~charngil/chapter%208.pdf . Accessed on 19 May, 2004
Phelan, Steven E. "The Role of Strategic Thinking in the Analysis of Hard Investment Evaluation Problems" Retrieved at http://www.aom.pace.edu/bps/Papers/ifsam.html. Accessed on 19 May, 2004
For example, should the training be online or in person? Should it be a one day workshop or an ongoing seminar. Should the content and the instruction method be geared toward visual learners or auditory learners? Or both? Should the training be conducted by in-house managers or outside training professionals? There are a host of details to consider when creating the actual training program and making decisions on content and strategies. Pat will need to make these decisions based on her detailed company analyses along with any outside research she can find to help guide her toward the decisions that will have the optimum results for the company.
Beebe, S.A., Mottet, T.P., and oach, K.D. (2004). Training and development: Enhancing communication and leadership skills. Boston: Pearson.
Brown, J. (2002). Training Needs Assessment: A Must for Developing an Effective Training Program. Public Personnel Management, 31(4), 569.
Christen, M., Iyer, G.,…
Beebe, S.A., Mottet, T.P., and Roach, K.D. (2004). Training and development: Enhancing communication and leadership skills. Boston: Pearson.
Brown, J. (2002). Training Needs Assessment: A Must for Developing an Effective Training Program. Public Personnel Management, 31(4), 569.
Christen, M., Iyer, G., & Soberman, D. (2006). Job satisfaction, job performance, and effort: A reexamination using agency theory. Journal of Marketing, 70(1), 137-150.
Edwards, J.R. (2001). Multidimensional constructs in organizational behavior research: An integrative analytical framework. Organizational Research Methods, 4, 144-192
Structuring Your Message
Benefits of distance learning from a student's perspective
The duration of e-learning should be justified from the duration of stay expected in the organization
a) the education may be directly related to the information required
b) the education must be specific for the situation that is to be faced
c) the education must set a standard of learning which is to be uniform for all the individuals going through the course
The education has to be provided in a manner that is easy for the students
The education should also be beneficial to the person providing the information so that it will continue.
The use of e-learning is for various purposes, but what is being discussed here is about e-learning that is provided for commercial purposes. This system has been found to be useful for employers and has the possibility to evolve into a major method for…
"Formulas for Quantifying the Value of a Training-Technology Investment" Retrieved from http://www.workforce.com/archive/article/22/13/78.php Accessed 10 August, 2005
Herman, Roger. E. (November, 2000) "Liberal Arts: The Key to the Future" USA Today:
(Society for the Advancement of Education) Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_2666_129/ai_67328802 Accessed 10 August, 2005
'Humor in Practice - Presenting Powerful Presentations" (August, 2001) Retrieved from http://www.funsulting.com/h_august_2001_newsletter.html Accessed 10 August, 2005
The coelation between coopeative initiation and eceptive tendencies, howeve, is much weake" (p. 32).
The oveiding theme that emeges fom all of the foegoing analytical models is the fact that although intenational conflicts and be effectively modeled and deconstucted in ode to gain a bette undestanding of the pecipitating factos and how they play out in eal-wold settings, they do not necessaily povide the insights needed to develop esolutions to these conflicts no do they povide peemptive altenatives that could stop the conflict fom stating in the fist place. Indeed, epidemiologists use compaable techniques to undestanding how disease pocesses evolve and spead thoughout a human population, but diffeent techniques ae equied to develop coesponding cues and teatments fo thei diseases. Similaly, the analysis of intenational conflicts that is needed to help decision-makes identify viable solutions will equie an additional and supplemental type of analytical methodology.
Given the potential fo death…
references. New York: United Nations University Press.
Bercovitch, J. (1999). Resolving international conflicts: The theory and practice of mediation.
Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Kenneth B. (1962). Conflict and defense. New York: Harper and Row.
Goertz, G. & Diehl, P.F. (1992). Territorial changes and international conflict. New York:
Business Project Management
Effective project management necessitates continuous adjustment so that the business accommodates the most recent trends. Majority of company directors expect project updates to be accessible in real time and anticipate live data to be accessible. Careful modeling of projects towards organizational aims and strategy is essential for attaining these objectives. A cost-benefit analysis can be important in determining how effectively, or how inadequately, a project will deliver value to an organization. Matching the total commercial benefits to the project costs incurred in the end enables decision makers to determine whether to go ahead with a recommended project (Vanlandingham and Drake, 2012). The purpose of this paper is to analyze the different projects and their costs and benefits towards David's Discount Pharmacy.
In the analysis of the case of David's Discount Pharmacy, the best option for the replacement is re-designing the front end and back end. This is…
Resch, M. (2011). Strategic project management transformation. Fort Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing.
Vanlandingham, G. R., & Drake, E. K. (2012). Results first. Public Performance & Management Review, 35(3), 550-563.
Over the years, given the awareness and exposure that came with the advent of media and the internet, human societies and cultural norms across the globe have evolved from being very conservative to moderate to liberal. With apparent increases in literacy rates, standards of living and awareness in general, people around the world have reconsidered many of their notions and have adopted more liberal approaches towards social norms and myths. That said, despite of moving towards liberal broad minded cultural notions, the practice of Abortion still attracts intensive debates in both developed and less developed societies. This paper particularly focuses on the degree to which poverty is related to the practice of Abortion and how this relationship does implicates on the lives of poor women. The paper also aims at proposing a policy that would help in tackling the said problem.
As medical sciences evolved and progressed for…
Bachiochi, E. (2011). Embodied Equality: Debunking Equal Protection Arguments for Abortion Rights. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 34(3), 889+.
Bridges, K.M. (2009). Quasi-Colonial Bodies: An Analysis of the Reproductive Lives of Poor Black and Racially Subjugated Women. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 18(2), 609+.
Kopaczynski, G. (2011). No Higher Court: Contemporary Feminism and the Right to Abortion. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press.
Kumar, A. (2012, February 2). House votes to ban subsidies for poor women who abort fetuses with birth defects. The Washington Post. Retrieved from The Washington Post Database.
Researchers identified key barriers to physicians' use of EMRs. They then suggested policy interventions to overcome these barriers, including providing work/practice support systems, improving electronic clinical data exchange, and providing financial rewards for quality improvement.
ne of the most important contributuons to essay since it suggests barriers to EMR and ways to overcome those barriers.
15. Bates, DW et al. (2002) a Proposal for Electronic Medical Records in U.S. Primary Care J. Am Med Inform Assoc; 10:1-10
This paper, developed by the National Alliance for Primary Care Informatics, a collaborative group sponsored by a number of primary care societies, argues that providers' and patients' information and decision support needs can be satisfied only if primary care providers use electronic medical records (EMRs). Although robust EMRs are now available, only about 5% of U.S. primary care providers use them. Recently, with only modest investments, Australia, New Zealand, and England have achieved…
One of the most important contributuons to essay since it suggests barriers to EMR and ways to overcome those barriers.
15. Bates, DW et al. (2002) a Proposal for Electronic Medical Records in U.S. Primary Care J. Am Med Inform Assoc; 10:1-10
This paper, developed by the National Alliance for Primary Care Informatics, a collaborative group sponsored by a number of primary care societies, argues that providers' and patients' information and decision support needs can be satisfied only if primary care providers use electronic medical records (EMRs). Although robust EMRs are now available, only about 5% of U.S. primary care providers use them. Recently, with only modest investments, Australia, New Zealand, and England have achieved major breakthroughs in implementing EMRs in primary care. Substantial benefits realizable through routine use of electronic medical records include improved quality, safety, and efficiency, along with increased ability to conduct education and research. Nevertheless, barriers to adoption exist and must be overcome. This paper is a valuable summing up of the importance of EMR to medical institutions, the challenges, and how institutions can meet these challenges.
Hybrid vs. Gas Powered Cars
Currently, global warming and a shrinking natural resource base are two of the greatest headaches for governments and regulators alike the world over. The price of gas in the U.S., for instance, almost doubled over the last decade, from $1.86 in 2004 to $3.62 on average in the first half of 2014; and given that more than half of the country's oil consumption is taken up by motor vehicles, one question looms -- what will the situation on our roads be like when our oil reserves can no longer sustain our consumption needs? Then there is the even greater problem of greenhouse emissions and global warming. The transport sector accounts for approximately 17%-18% of total CO2 emission globally, and automakers have been under intense pressure to roll out emission-free automobiles, and thereby reduce the damage resulting from the Greenhouse effect. More and more regulators are…
IIHS. (2014). Hybrid Models have Lower Injury Odds than their Conventional Counterparts. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Retrieved 5 November 2014 from http://www.iihs.org/iihs/news/desktopnews/hybrid-models-have-lower-injury-odds-than-their-conventional-counterparts
Markel, T. & Simpson, A. (2006). Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology. WEVA Journal, 1(1), 1-8.
Pavan, R.S. (2013). A Review on Hybrid Vehicles. International Journal of Research and Engineering and Technology, 2(5), 59-64.
Reddy, S.S. & Tharun, K.S. (2013). Eco-Friendly Vehicle: Hybrid Electric Vehicle. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 4(4), 957-960.
HR Case Study
The author of this report has been asked to read and review the You Manage It case study on page 286 of the assigned text. The text speaks about training and how it is assessed on a cost versus benefit basis. Indeed, training can be beneficial but it can also be a waste of time and money. Even if there are technically benefits to a training even without proven cost/benefit ratios, it is wise to make a business case that proves that there is a benefit. Such was the case in the example given in the case study. The author will answer to all of the critical thinking questions in the case as well as at least two of the key learnings to be had as well. While training is not a panacea, it is a needed and necessary part of making sure that service quality is…
Q2) Identify issues employers face with benefits, explain why they face them and share how to resolve them
The primary problem is the misuse and overuse of the insurance and medical programs included to the employee benefit and it opposite that it is never used. In either case the expenditure becomes wasteful. To prevent misuse there can be supervision of the accounts by the H and making annual checkups mandatory can avoid non-use. (osenbloom, 2005)
One problem is the distinguishing between the casual and regular workers and providing for different set of benefits for each. In this case there is the benefit that status differences boost employee morale but has its own drawbacks while treating casual employee rights and benefits, especially training. For a casual or part time employee training packages that suit the vocation make a great benefit and the legal implications of treating these employees differently…
Business. Gov. (2011) "Employee Benefits" Retrieved 22 January 2011 from http://www.business.gov/business-law/employment/employee-benefits/
Krausert, Achim. (2009) "Performance Management for Different Employee Groups: A
Contribution to Employment Systems Theory"
Rosenbloom, Jerry S. (2005) "The handbook of employee benefits: design, funding, and administration" McGraw-Hill Professional.
benefit-Costs of pursuing an MA
Even though each of us has his/her own perspective of happiness and sense of life, we all agree that the integral part of these are the financial stability complemented by personal professional success. That is why we all strive very hard to achieve ambitious financial and professional goals and choose our own paths to them. ut through historical and empirical evidence it has become clear that on average, the better education one has, the better are one's chances of fulfilling the boldest dreams.
We, Americans, spend millions of dollars on our education, which we consider as investment in our human capital. According to the public opinion research conducted by the Educational Testing Service: "Nearly all (96%) adults believe that a college education is a good investment, including 72% who say it is a very good investment."
I have achelor of Sciences degree from Hampton University…
Brealey, Richard, and Stewart Myers. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.
Hart, Peter D. Teeter, Robert M. Quality, affordability & access: Americans speak on higher education. Educational Testing Service. 2003. available on web: http://ftp.ets.org/pub/corp/2003report.pdf.
Edgington, Rachel Global MBA Executive Survey 2004. Graduate Management Admission Council. 2004. http://www.gmat.org/NR/rdonlyres/0E026671-945D-43F8-B1E5-B5E731B7CC65/0/ExecutiveSummaryFinal.pdf
Benefit Plan Design Analysis
Select and profile an organization for the benefit plan
Extraordinary and above average people are recruited by ABC. Their task force possesses a number of exceptional skills and many of them are graduates of top universities or possess professional qualifications. One of the most interesting things about ABC is that it is continually trying to make the organization host to an increasingly global platform that employs people coming from various nationalities and cultures. This way, it makes sure that the creme de la creme of the task force is employed in the organization that is not afraid of taking on challenges. Also, the organization then comes up to their expectation by providing a healthy and competitive corporate culture.
Staff that is new to the ABC organization undergoes a series of sessions whose themes range from personal mentoring to formal training. The training is imparted by their…
Fronstin, Paul. "Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Updated Analysis of the March 2008 Current Population Survey." EBRI Issue Brief, no. 321 (Employee Benefit Research Institute, September 2008).
4. Specialty toothpastes created for customers with sensitive teeth, gums or other medical conditions, with customer experience being the most critical
5. Lifecycle approach similar to Crest yet focused on the consumer's purchasing lifecycle
Based on this analysis, my top five criterion are as follows:
1. High performance toothpaste capable of delivering preventative protection and has a fresh taste
2. High performance cavity prevention
3. Making dialing brushing less of a chore and more fun and enjoyable
4. Available in a wide variety of flavors
5. High performance, rapid whitening toothpastes that bring quick results to teeth and gums.
Based on these criterion, I have become a loyal Crest Complete Multi-Benefit Whitening + Scope -- Citrus. This toothpaste fits my profile of benefits precisely and has led to my becoming brand-loyal to this specific product based on the benefits it delivers.
2. Select another oral care (e.g., toothbrush) product where…
Greenberg, M., & McDonald, S.S. (1989). Successful Needs/Benefits segmentation: A user's guide. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 6(3), 29-29.
Miskell, P. (2004). Cavity protection or cosmetic perfection? innovation and marketing of toothpaste brands in the United States and western Europe, 1955-1985. Business History Review, 78(1), 29-60.
&D activities fall into four pools with the following annual costs.
Market analysis $1,050,000
Product design 2,350,000
Product development 3,600,000
Prototype testing 1,400,000
Activities Cost Drivers Estimated Drivers
Market analysis Hours of analysis 15,000 hours
Product design Number of designs 2,500 designs
Product development Number of products 90 products
Prototype testing Number of tests 500 tests
(a) Compute the activity-based overhead rate for each activity cost pool
Activity-based overhead rate = total budget overhead / basis
= 1,050,000 / 15,000
= $70 per hour (Market Analysis)
Activity-based overhead rate = total budget overhead/basis
= 2,350,000 / 2,500
= $940 per design (Product Design Number)
Activity-based overhead rate = total budget overhead/basis
= 3,600,000 /
=$40,000 per product (Product development number)
Activity-based overhead rate = total budget overhead/basis
= 1,400,000 / 500
= $2,800 per test (Number of tests)
(b) How much cost charged to an in-house manufacturing…
Lutilsky, I., & Dragija, M. (2012). Activity-Based Costing As A Means To Full Costing
Possibilities And Constraints For European Universities. Management: Journal Of
Contemporary Management Issues, 17(1), 33-57.
Ittner, C.D., Lanen, W.N., & Larcker, D.F. (2002). The Association between Activity-
It is recommended that Sea Island should implement a corporate wellness program in order to gain the advantages that come with the program. These include cost savings on health insurance, increased job satisfaction levels which decrease absenteeism and employee turnover and increase employee productivity. The program should be designed to be culturally sensitive and should be tailored for the workplace environment in the company in order to include all members of the organization despite their background, history or other cultural aspects that can create barriers to participation in the program.
Barton, S.S. (2002). Aspects of the Effect of Substance Use on Health, Wellness and Safety of Employees and Families in Northern emote Work Sites. Social Indicators esearch, 60(1/3), 263-274. doi: 10.2307/27527051
Bates, J. (2012). Benefits of Corporate Wellness etrieved December 12th, 2012, from http://wellnessproposals.com/wellness-articles/benefits-of-corporate-wellness/
Heinen, L., & Darling, H. (2009). Addressing Obesity in the Workplace: The ole of…
Barton, S.S. (2002). Aspects of the Effect of Substance Use on Health, Wellness and Safety of Employees and Families in Northern Remote Work Sites. Social Indicators Research, 60(1/3), 263-274. doi: 10.2307/27527051
Bates, J. (2012). Benefits of Corporate Wellness Retrieved December 12th, 2012, from http://wellnessproposals.com/wellness-articles/benefits-of-corporate-wellness/
Heinen, L., & Darling, H. (2009). Addressing Obesity in the Workplace: The Role of Employers. The Milbank Quarterly, 87(1), 101-122. doi: 10.2307/25474361
Moxley, L.S. (1990). The Development and Impact of an Experimental Student Affairs Employee Wellness Program. Research in Higher Education, 31(2), 211-233. doi: 10.2307/40195940
Ethics Awareness Inventory
According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of these two categories are in conflict; for instance, usually people who base ethical decisions on obligation or duty are not as concerned with results as with principles. However, I scored high in the results-oriented category as well. I believe that my ability to span both categories of ethical decision making have proved beneficial for me in the past and will continue to in the future. For example, the ethics awareness inventory analysis indicated that I do not operate in terms of absolutes; I do not feel that there can be any absolute standards of right and wrong because the world is too complex. Therefore, I am more prone to being open-minded and flexible than people who do feel that there should…
Had the organization employed the techniques of activity-based costing, they would have realized the need to change their approach and had started manufacturing small size and fuel efficient engines, as most of the customers were requiring these items. "If Ford [...] had used activity-based costing, they would have realized early on the utter futility of their competitive blitzes of the past few years, which offered new-car buyers spectacular discounts and hefty rewards" (Drucker, 2003).
Unlike absorption costing, marginal costing uses the traditional division into direct, indirect, fixed and variable costs. The accounting method sees that the final marginal cost of a product will be calculated by summing up the direct costs of labor, the direct costs of materials, the direct expenses and the variable overheads (Brown). The applications of marginal costing revealed that Ford was able to support a price advantage relative to General Motors and Chrysler due to its…
Bernstein, L.A., Wild, J.J., 1999, Analysis of Financial Statements, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill Publishers, ISBN 0070945047
Berry, a., 1999, Financial Accounting: An Introduction, 2nd Edition, Cengage Learning EMEA, ISBN 186152479X
Brown, G., Introduction to Costs Accounting: Methods and Techniques, http://www.globusz.com/ebooks/Costinglastaccessed on March 9, 2009
Drucker, P.F., 2003, Peter Drucker on the Profession of Management, Harvard Business Press, ISBN 1591393221
Limiting Public Benefits
The United States economy is in serious trouble and the individual state economies are not faring much better. In times such as these, those elected into public office are called upon to find ways to save money and to help the struggling nation become strong again. For individual people living in America, the economy has directly impacted their everyday lives. Many people are out of work and more and more families are becoming dependant on financial assistance from either the state or federal government in order to keep going. hen there is no money to spend on food or clothing or shelter, the families suffer terribly. The government instituted public assistance and unemployment to help families who are in desperate need. One of the ways that politicians, particularly Republicans, have suggested for alleviating the government's financial responsibilities is to demand that all people who apply for governmental…
Bloom, R. (2011). Mandatory drug testing for unemployment benefits and TANF is costly and ineffective. ACLU.
Growing support for drug testing of welfare recipients. (2012). The New York Times. Associated Press.
Gupta, V. (2011). Mandatory drug testing demonizes and demoralizes. Debate Club.
MacPherson, J. (2013). ND bill pushes drug tests for welfare recipients. San Francisco
Profit Analysis and Costing for the 21st Century
Value costing is about looking at the different aspects of a business paying particular attention to the opportunity cost they represent, how much they are likely to financially benefit a firm, and how much they are likely to cost it. Through this analysis, it is possible to determine the parts of the business that function the most efficiently and locate the parts that do not.
It is thought that value costing is no longer relevant because business has become far more complex than the traditional format, and with the rise of the internet and the increase in ebusiness, more and more factors must be added to the equation. It is also though that this form of costing is not only too simplistic, but takes too long to put into practice, and harder still to gain any meaningful results from. Value costing tries…
Stratton, W.O; Descroches, D.; Lawson, R.A.; Hatch, T. (2009) "Activity-Based Costing: Is it Still Relevan?" Management Accounting Quarterly
Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis (2004) Retrieved June 20th, 2011 from: www.wiley.com/college/sc/eldenburg
Luther, R.; O'Donovan, B (1998) "Cost Volume Profit Analysis and the Theory of Constraints" Journal of Cost Management: 16-21
Gupta, K.M; Gunasekaran, A. (2005) "Costing in New Enterprise Environment: A Challenge for Managerial Accounting Researchers and Practitioners" Managerial Auditing Journal Vol.20 Iss. 4
As can be seen from the Table 1: Comparing Store Statistics, Wal-Mart on average has the least amount of full-time employees of any given regional or local competitor and therefore has the ability to control benefits and compensation costs. In addition this strategy alleviates the potential for union organizing as well.
This strategy alleviates the need to pay medical benefits and also makes the company more resistant to labor organizing efforts. Wal-Mart uses a unique organizational hierarchy to manage its predominantly hourly workforce, distributed throughout the many departments in a SuperCenter. The median annual salary of hourly workers hovers in the $20,000 a year range, with in-store management earning a median salary in the range of $54,000 to $60,000 a year.
Figure 1: Wal-Mart Organizational Structure
Wal-Mart's organizational structure is specifically designed to enable hourly workers for complete nearly every position in a Wal-Mart SuperCenter yet the benefits and…
Janet Adamy (2008). Wal-Mart's Employee Health Benefits Come Under Fire. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News,1. Retrieved February 19, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 425264391).
Elizabeth E. Davis, Matthew Freedman, Julia Lane, Brian McCall, et al. (2006). SUPERMARKET HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES AND COMPETITION FROM MASS MERCHANDISERS. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88(5), 1289. Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1174862211).
Richard Drogin, Ph. D. (2003) - STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF GENDER PATTERNS IN WAL-MART WORKFORCE, February, 2003
Drogin, Kakigi & Associates, Berkeley, CA 94705
As a consequence, information
can become redundant, it may not be received by the desired receiver, or it
may be distorted.
All these affect the well-functioning of the company's operations. As
a consequence, a series of malfunctions start to emerge, they determine
other problems, which result in not reaching the company's objectives,
decreasing quality of products and services, and increased costs.
The same situation happens in the case of the supermarket's branches.
Each of these branches is run by a general manager and they establish their
own sets of goals and objectives that must be aligned with the general
strategy and objectives established at the headquarters of the company.
This way, each branch activates like a profit center. However, it is
difficult to control the branches. Although they establish their own
objectives also in accordance with the customer targets of each branch, the
demographics and the characteristics of the market…
1. Operational Analysis Guidance (2007). Retrieved November 6,
2. Jones, C. A. (2000). Extraordinary Customer Service
Management: The Critical Success Factors. Business
strategic analysis of the Southwest Airlines. By examining the SWOT analysis of the Southwest Airline it is concluded that the best strategy for the company is the low cost leadership strategy because the competitive advantage that Southwest Airlines enjoys is its low operating cost. The company has to plan its future tactics keeping in mind the cost-cutting phenomenon; this will help the company to sustain its position. The recommendation for the company is to continue the provision of service at low price and improve employee management relationship for a better and coordinated implementation of the strategies.
Southwest Airlines is the largest airline company with the lowest cost present in the United States. It was established in 1967 and since then it has continued its strategy of cost minimizing efficiently. In this paper, the focus is on the specific strategy of the Southwest Airlines. From the Porter generic strategies, Southwest Airlines…
Drucker, P.F., & Drucker, P.F. (1999). Management. Chicago: Taylor & Francis.
Gittell, J.H. (2005). The Southwest Airlines Way. New York: McGraw-Hill, London.
Grubbs-West, L. (2005). Lessons in Loyalty: How Southwest Airlines Does it: an Insider's View. Dallas, Tex.: CornerStone Leadership Institute.
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Business - Management
Internal Analysis and SWOT Analysis
Southwest has been a major inspiration to other low-cost carriers, and its business model has been used many times worldwide. The competitive strategy that they use joins high levels of employee and aircraft productivity with low unit expenses by reducing aircraft turnaround time predominantly at the gate (Bamber, Gittell, Kochan, & von Nordenflytch, 2009). When doing an internal analysis and SWOT Analysis it is important to look at a company's tangible and intangible resources.
Southwest Airlines has tangible resources of financial resources, physical resources and human resources. In 2099, Southwest Airlines had revenues over ten million dollars. They are the largest airline in the world by boarded amount of originating passengers boarded. They are the third-largest passenger fleet of aircraft amid all of the world's commercial airlines. They have carried more passengers than any other U.S. airline since August 2006 for shared…
Bamber, G.J., Gittell, J.H., Kochan, T.A. & von Nordenflytch, A. (2009). Up in the Air: How
Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging their Employees. Retreived from http://www.cornellpress.cornell.edu/cup_detail.taf-ti_id=5284 .
Beyman, Michael J. (2011). What Kind of Planes Does Southwest Airlines Fly? Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/facts_5407644_kind-planes-southwest-airlines-fly_.html
Fact Sheet. (2010). Retreived from http://www.southwest.com/html/sites/lowfaresfarther/SpreadingLowFares_FactSheet_20
Of course, as Medicare beneficiaries increase because of the number of baby boomers, the Medicare program may adjust. However, current hospice figures demonstrate that only about twenty percent of all elderly individuals that die are enrolled in hospice programs.
Implementation and Monitoring
The needs of this new program will require thorough training and once implemented, precise monitoring. "When you approach a problem in the way your work group functions, you're implementing an organizational change. By taking a critical look at your process, and using some theories from organizational design, you can fix the problem -- and change your organization to make quality more likely." (Derby, 1999) The training will be a key because of the potential requirements associated with the Hospice program that may require completely new skill sets for the majority of our staff. The fact is that many of our nurses may not have acquired the necessary skills…
Derby, Esther. (2002). Modeling Organizational Change. Retrieved on February 12, 2005, at http://www.estherderby.com/writings/modeling.htm
Hospice Benefits and Utilization in the Large Employer Market. Ed. Beth Jackson, Teresa Gibson, Joline Staeheli. March 2000. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on February 12, 2005, from http://aspe.os.dhhs.gov/daltcp/Reports/empmkt.htm.
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Apart from that, Chennai has become the eye specialist city and Kerala has become the ayurvedic center for healing. These facilities are being made use of by the non-Indian nations (Connell, 2011).
Huge market at hand
The population is surging, the patterns of diseases are altering, salary levels are rising, clinical needs aren't attended, health issues aren't being attended, demand for quality care is needed at moderate prices and medical tourism is all set to rise. So is the need for modern equipment. In any case, demand for modern equipment is needed in India on a basis of 12%-15% yearly. Many foreign companies commence their initial 500 surgeries in India after getting approval from FDA. Medical services are still shallow by the way. China has 106 doctors while India has 60 doctors per 1000. Australia has 247 doctors per 1000 people. The rural areas suffer a lot from this lack…
Connell, J. (2011). Medical Tourism. CABI - Business & Economics.
Dhawan, J (2007). The Changing Face of Indian Economy. Atlantic Publishers & Dist.
Gulati, S., & Taneja, U. (2012). Specialty Hospitals Leveraging Information Systems For Greater Success. Internet Journal of World Health & Societal Politics, 7(2).
Herzlinger, R.E. (2008). Fortis Healthcare. Harvard Business School.
udgeting and Cost Control in Healthcare
One of the most critical issues facing healthcare facilities and organizations is the rapidly increasing cost of providing services. Cost control and budgetary issues are the first consideration for many healthcare facilities. According to statistics, the "single most important thing on the minds of healthcare decision makers is cost management and containment." (Lawson, 2004). In fact, more than 95% of respondents to a survey concluded that cost containment and budgetary issues were among the most pressing issues in the healthcare industry. Yet budgetary issues within the world of healthcare are among the most difficult to address, as most healthcare facilities vary greatly in the level of services they provide to consumers, and the amount of resources readily available to serve those consumers.
Healthcare facilities face increasingly and rapidly rising costs in the face of a poor economy and rising costs associated with providing healthcare…
Berger, Steven. (1999). "The fundamentals of healthcare financial management" Boston: McGraw Hill.
Lawson. (2003). "Taking Action to Control Costs: Healthcare Financial Management." Retrieved February 20, 2004:
Medlink. (2004). "Cost Analysis and Control for Healthcare Facilities."
Burn-Care Unit: Reducing Operational Costs- Focus on Labor Expenses
1.0. Executive Summary
To remain relevant in the long-term, the Burn-Care Unit ought to adopt either of these two strategies, or combine both in a hybrid mix: reduce costs or boost the current level of revenues while keeping the current cost levels constant. The most viable strategy for an organization of this nature would be to rein in costs via the adoption of an effective cost minimization strategy or approach. It is important to note, from the onset, that being a reputable burn-care facility at the national level, there is need for the Burn-Care Unit to maintain the integrity of its processes as well as its operational efficiency, even as it seeks to minimize costs. For this reason, the relevance of embracing the most viable course of action towards the minimization of operational costs cannot be overstated. Reducing operational expenses, and…
New York Times
Leadership and Culture
The New York Times has a corporate culture based around a tradition of excellence. As the "newspaper of record," the New York Times has long been considered a leader in the industry, capable of setting trends and innovating. At the same time, the Times Company is also fairly conservative, because of its tradition of excellence. There is an expectation within the company of being the best. Integrity is held in utmost regard. These philosophies are incorporated in the company's "Rules of the Road," which include the usual components of integrity, creating shareholder value, good corporate citizenship as core values. Innovation and collaboration are among the traits in the rules of the road, in addition to customer service, respect, challenging oneself -- basic frameworks enshrined in strategy to various degrees (New York Times website, 2010).
Culture is not, however, specifically cultivated at the company as…
New York Times Company website. Various pages. (2010). Retrieved March 24, 2010 from http://www.nytco.com/careers/mission.html
2009 New York Times Annual Report. Retrieved March 24, 2010 from http://www.nytco.com/pdf/annual_2009/2009NYTannual.pdf
Sherman, G. (2010). New York Times ready to charge online readers. New York Magazine. Retrieved March 24, 2010 from http://nymag.com/daily/intel/2010/01/new_york_times_set_to_mimic_ws.html
Wortham, J. (2010). Foursquare signs a deal with Zagat. New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2010 from http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/02/09/foursquare-inks-a-deal-with-zagat/
Utley Food Case Study
Utley Food Markets was founded in the 1930s in the St. Louis area. It grew to 86 supermarkets in the Missouri and Southern Illinois area. Up until 1948 it was a family owned company, but then sold and went public, with the Utleys moving out of managerial roles. The company is now heavily unionized, and even those employees who are not union members receiving similar salary increases as to union members. One of the largest concerns is the manner in which employees are reviewed; now typically with the supervisor answering, "how did this employee do in the past year." There is no quantitative data, dialog, supervisory committee, or employee response. This has resulted in a culture of mistrust and suspicion, with the general view that the system is unfair. hen employees complain, supervisors typically respond with a larger than average raise simply to make the concern…
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Black Women in White Male Industries
evise and esubmit
You have chosen in this paper a topic that has both national and international significance. How indeed inclusive, fair, and just are so called "inclusion or set-aside" initiatives? How open and accessible are the programs to new immigrants and minorities? These are all very interesting questions that your paper raises.
But you don't fully address whether or not the rational approach considers such programs to be either fair, effective, and even legitimate. Are these programs acceptable or legitimate in the eyes of a policy analyst or maker who subscribes to the rational choice perspective? Why and why not? Your paper also seems to contain a few sentences at the end that are not properly paraphrased but yet are not under quotation marks. This needs to be paraphrased or removed or quoted to avoid plagiarism.
Please find below your Paper 1 Grade…
Clemons, R., Mcbeth, M., (2001). Public Policy Praxis: A Case approach for understanding policy and analysis.
Gigerenzer, G., & Selten, R. (Eds.). (2001). Bounded rationality: The adaptive toolbox. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Gigerenzer, Gerd. (2001). Decision-Making: Nonrational Theories, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 5, pp. 3304 -- 3309
Miller, G. (2004). Frontier Masculinity in the oil industry: The experience of women engineers. Gender, Work & Organization, 11(1): 47-73.
Given the dominance they have over their suppliers, Wal-Mart can define and execute quickly entirely new production runs of private-label products they produce and gain significant sustainability and cost benefits as a result (van Hoek, Johnson, 148).
Peer Discussion #1
Wal-Mart is demonized for controlling entire supply chains and forcing the reduction in quality of life by pushing for lower wages, yet if you look at their initiatives around hydrocarbon omissions, they have done more for the env9ronment than many other retailers combined. Wal-Mart gets it; they know that effective sustainability can lead to greater levels of profits as well. By increasing the green or biodegradable and recyclable components of products, they have found a way to reduce costs. This has helped them to continue to drive down costs for consumers.
Peer Discussion #2
Wal-Mart is in the retail dominance business, they want to control as much of the mainstream…
Bliss, S.. "Walmart's social network revolution. " Strategic Communication Management 14.5 (2010): 28.
Charles Fishman. "The Wal-Mart Effect and a Decent Society: Who Knew Shopping Was So Important? " the Academy of Management Perspectives 20.3 (2006): 6.
Merrilees, B., and D. Miller. "Brand morphing across Wal-Mart customer segments. " Journal of Business Research 63.11 (2010): 1129.
Remko van Hoek, and Mark Johnson. "Sustainability and energy efficiency: Research implications from an academic roundtable and two case examples. " International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management 40.1/2 (2010): 148.