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How Judges are Selected in South Dakota and Pennsylvania
Words: 1824 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82458809
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The State Judicial Selection Process
Supreme, Superior and Commonwealth Courts
The Judiciary of Pennsylvania consists of a supreme court, superior court, commonwealth court, court of common pleas and minor courts. The commonwealth, superior and supreme courts are appellate courts responsible for hearing and reviewing the appeals of cases that have already been heard at lower level courts, with Pennsylvania’s Supreme Court being the highest court level for appeals to go to.
Selection process. When it comes to selecting judges for the different Pennsylvanian courts, there are numerous spots to fill: there are seven justices of the state’s supreme court, 15 judges on the superior court, nine judges on the commonwealth court, and 439 judges in the court of common pleas. All of them are selected in the same manner: they run in partisan primaries which are then followed by a general election process, in which the winners of the…

Judicial Selection in Pennsylvania. (2018). Retrieved from
Judicial Selection in South Dakota. (2018). Retrieved from
Retention Election. (2018). Retrieved from
SD Codified L. 16-1-4.1. (2012). Retrieved from
The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. (2018). Retrieved from

State Judicial Selection Criteria
Words: 1983 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98043006
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1. Judicial selection process – New Jersey state
Choosing New Jersey state court judges happens mostly through a system whereby the judges are appointed by the Governor and then confirmed by the state senate. All individuals of the judiciary besides the municipal court judges are appointed to serve their first seven-year terms. The appointed judge can serve a second term if reappointed but must not be above 70 years, which is the constitutional limit. The American Judicature Society, 2014a provides the guidelines for the selection of the following: The Appellate Division, the 371 judges of the Superior Court of New Jersey, the seven supreme court justices of New Jersey, the 34 Superior Court judges of the New Jersey. The State of New Jersey employs senatorial courtesy in appointing relevant Judicial personnel. This practice was largely retrieved from selection methods of the federal judiciary. Just the way U.S. senators are given the final say on the appointment of federal judges so is…

American Judicature Society, (2014a). Methods of Judicial Selection: New Jersey. Retrieved from on 26 April 2019
American Judicature Society, (2014b). Methods of Judicial Selection: New Jersey; Limited Jurisdiction Courts. Retrieved from on 26 April 2019
Flango, E., & Ducat, C. R. (1979). What difference does the method of judicial selection make. Just. Sys. J., 5, 25.
National Center for State Courts. (2019a). Methods of Judicial Selection: New Jersey: Removal of Judges. Retrieved from on 26 April 2019
National Center for State Courts. (2019b). Methods of Judicial Selection: Texas: Removal of Judges. Retrieved from on 26 April 2019

School Related Law Case Brief
Words: 2110 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13289273
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Citation: Polera v. Board of Educ. of NewburghCourt or Commissioner: United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, Mark D. Fox, 479 United States Magistrate JudgesProcedural Background: Southern District of New York found the school board liable and awarded Polera a judgement of $30,000. The school board then appealed the decision.Facts: Santina Polera, a visual impaired high school student is suing New York State for punitive damages that she alleges occurred during her high school years. Polera, through her lawsuit alleges that she did not receive the appropriate public education require by the state for disabled students. These benefits include study materials, compensation for tutoring, and proper recognition for academic achievements. Polera, is requesting relief in the form of reimbursement for education expenses, reimbursement of attorney fees, compensatory damages, and punitive damages.The defense states that Polera never sought relief through the proper administrative channels and instead went…

Court Analysis Justice and Court Administration and
Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12276273
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Court Analysis

Justice and Court Administration

Administration and management of courts is filled with challenges. Often depending upon the geographical context of the court, such challenges will include resource shortage, a perpetual docket of criminal cases and the broader complexity of providing civil order and justice to communities while balancing constitutional law and local ordinance. Moreover, the complexity of administering justice in and of itself plays a part in the difficulty of court management, with issues such as the deepening ethnic diversity of encountered populations and shifting ideas about victims' rights playing defining roles in the tasks before any given court. The discussion here on language interpretation services and the timeline in the evolution of victims' rights are offered within the context of court administration.

Language Interpretation Services:

It is often the case that courts will find themselves burdened with the task of wading through the details of officer-defendant confrontations…

Works Cited:

Missouri Courts (MC). (2010). Court Interpreter Services.

Muraskin, R. & Roberts, A. (2004).Visions for Change: Crime and Justice in the Twenty-First Century. Prentice Hall.

Robinson, M. (2002). Justice Blind? Prentice Hall.

Courting Disaster This Study Reviews Pat Robertson's
Words: 2315 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 64275769
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Courting Disaster

This study reviews Pat obertson's "Courting disaster: How the Supreme Court is usurping the power of Congress and the people." Pat obertson is the founder and chairperson of the Christian Broadcasting Network, founder of egent University, and The Center for Law and Justice. He and his wife have four children and thirteen grandchildren. They reside in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Using both legal and religious points-of-view, obertson attempts to prove that the current operation of the judicial system is dangerous to both the republican form of government and our individual freedoms. While seeking to strengthen his argument, the author has compiled fascinating facts, quotes, case decisions, and opinions of the Court (Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, 2007).

From this study, it is evident that obertson undertook a political expedition seeking to identify various issues that bedeviled the American society. However, he fails to provide solutions to the identified problems. This is an action…


Barrett, P., & Smolla, R.A. (2010). A year in the life of the Supreme Court. Durham [u.a.: Duke Univ. Press.

Edwards, L., & Meese, E. (2011). Bringing justice to the people: The story of the freedom-based public interest law movement. Washington, DC: Heritage Books.

Melashenko, E.L., & Smith, D.B. (2009). Rock-solid living in a run-amok world. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Pub. Association.

Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, G. (2007). America's battle for God: A European Christian looks at civil religion. Grand Rapids, Mich. [u.a.: William B. Eerdmans Publ.

Courting Disaster This Response Reviews
Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 82285371
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Robertson illustrated his point about the dangers of the Supreme Court's power anecdotally, such as when, later in the book he talks about the McCain-Feingold Bill which was designed to restrict campaign finance and reform the ways political campaigns were funded both privately and via government assistance. Although the Republicans in neither the Legislative or Executive branch supported the bill, they agreed to pass it in order to end the debate, believing that the bill would be ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in that it violated first amendment laws, among other things (Robertson 2004,-page 234). hen the voted for or signed the bill as the case may have been, they believed that the court would ultimately overrule the other branches by finding the proposed legislation unconstitutional based on the text of the law itself. The Supreme Court, however, did not agree with this perspective and ruled the law legal.…

Works Cited

Appel, J.M. (2009, August 22). Anticipating the incapacitated justice. Huffington Post.

Center for Internet and Society. (2005). Pat Robertson suggests that Muslims shouldn't serve as judges. Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA. Retrieved from 

Robertson, P. (2004). Courting Disaster: How the Supreme Court is usurping the Power of Congress and the People. Integrity: Brentwood, TN.

Court of International Justice International
Words: 484 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28616630
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One of the pending cases involved a dispute between France and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Like the dispute with Belgium, this involved France's attempt to hold one of the Congo's ministers responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity. France sought to compel the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to appear as a witness, which the Congo claimed was a violation of its sovereignty.


nternational Court of Justice. (2008). Certain Criminal Proceedings in France (Republic of the Congo v. France). Retrieved April 10, 2008, from nternational Court of Justice

Web site:

nternational Court of Justice. (2008). Judge Kenneth Keith. Retrieved April 10, 2008, from nternational Court of Justice.

Web site:

nternational Court of Justice. (2008). Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Retrieved April 10, 2008, from nternational Court of Justice.

Web site:

nternational Court…

International Court of Justice. (2008). Summary of the Judgment of 14 February 2002.

Retrieved April 10, 2008, from International Court of Justice.

Web site:

Court Briefs - 7 Different
Words: 1075 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89470982
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S. No. 04-1739 (2006)





Minority Rationale:


wo examples of where rights are limited in the ownership of land or property:

Servitudes and easements are put into place...

Servitudes and easements can be protected by...

It is vital to protect Servitudes and easements because...

III. Intellectual Properties

Eric Eldred, Et Al., Petitioners V. John D. Ashcroft, Attorney General

U.S. 01 -- 618 (2003)





Minority Rationale:


he differences between copyrights, trademarks, and patents include:

he title to real property is permanent, whereas some intellectual property is limited in the time that it is protected due to...

IV. Business and the Bill of Rights

Humana Inc., Et Al., Petitioners V. Mary Forsyth Et Al.

U.S. 97 -- 303 (1999)





Minority Rationale:


he major difference between business speech and political speech is that...

Whether or not "Closely regulated industries…

Timothy Booth, Petitioner V.C.O. Churner et al." (2001). Retrieved 07 July 2006 at .

What is the Difference Between a Copyright, Trademark and Patent?" (2006). Retrieved 08 July 2006 at .

Court Briefs - 7 Different Cases

Court Opinion United States v
Words: 1054 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 68000698
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U.S.C. § 48 is not aimed at specific instances of animal cruelty, but specifically at the creation and distribution of depictions of such abuse for the purposes of interstate and/or foreign commerce. This is the act that the appellant was unarguably engaging in when apprehended by law enforcement, and the fact that the law is not aimed at those participating directly in acts of animal cruelty does not in and of itself create a constitutional objection.

The statutes specific mention of interstate commerce renders the appellant's claim that the constitutionality of the statute is in question due to a dependence on state definitions also moot. Not only were the acts depicted in the videos the appellant old to law enforcement agencies unquestionably illegal in all fifty states, but the federal government has a duty to regulate interstate commerce specifically because state definitions and regulations differ. Failing to regulate the interstate…


FindLaw (2010a). NEW YORK v. FERBER, 458 U.S. 747 (1982). Accessed 14 January 2010. 

FindLaw (2010b). CHAPLINSKY v. STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, 315 U.S. 568 (1942). Accessed 14 January 2010.

Court Proceeding Experience
Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 20073508
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Court Proceedings Experience


year-old Nicholas Lindsay was charged for the murder of Officer David Crawford. esides Lindsay's own confession to the murder, there is no other evidence that he committed the murder. Lindsay made this confession at the urging and in the presence of his mother, without a lawyer present. He told the police officers that he shot David Crawford after being apprehended by Crawford.

The official police report stated that, after apprehending Lindsay, Crawford was reaching for his notepad when Lindsay pulled out his own handgun and shot him five times in the chest. Hence, Lindsay was arrested and charged for murder. The prosecution, which included the State Attorney, decided to prosecute 16-year-old Lindsay as an adult.

Lindsay was indicted on the count of Murder in the First-Degree, which is defined by Florid State law as "The unlawful killing of a human being perpetrated from a premeditated design…


s. 782.04(1)

s. 782.051).

Florida Supreme Court, Jury Instructions - 7.2 MURDER -- FIRST DEGREE. Available at 

"2 officers killed, man found dead after shootout inside Florida home." CNN. 2010-10-18.

Court of Criminal Appeals of Texas PD-0307-09
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22063636
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court of criminal appeals of Texas, PD-0307-09 Ronald Wilson, and appellant v the State of Texas. (CCA (a), n. d.) The court of Appeals case was: 04-07-00737-CR, and was affirmed. The appeal came from the trial court: 290th District Court of the Bexar County. The case number there was 2006CR2564 and the judge was Sharon S. Macrae. (Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, 2009)

What it was basically about

The trial of the appellant was for murder and the facts of the case show that Amos Gutierrez was killed with a single gunshot. The magazine clip for a pistol was found near his body. The appellant was arrested on unrelated misdemeanor warrants. Later the appellant confessed to the shooting, and was charged with capital murder. Appellant filed motion to suppress the confession on the grounds that it was involuntary and was obtained in violation of the constitution and Texas law. The…

Court Process Judicial Process and Constitutional Issues
Words: 3346 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83236780
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9/11 terror attacks was characterized by enactment of new laws and executive orders that focused on enhancing homeland security. However, these laws and orders have become controversial because they have ceded power to the executive branch and limited people's rights. Some examples of these limitations include restrictions on privacy, limitation of free speech and association rights, and limitation of religious freedom. While these actions were necessary to help prevent another attack, they are inappropriate since they compromise civil rights and checks and balances established in America's democracy. The federal government would have taken less drastic measures through reordering priorities of law enforcement instead of generating fundamental changes in law.

Week 5: Discussion

In the American judicial system, the Supreme Court reviews very few cases most of whom are appeals from lower courts. It should not be mandatory for the Supreme Court to review more cases despite having appellate jurisdiction. The…

Court Order Discusses When Court
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35775149
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At this time the court may decide to vacate the TRO or to convert it into a preliminary injunction. (Ibid.)

hat is a Court Order Used for?

A court order may be used for:

Restraining a party from changing the status quo until the decision of the court;

To provide temporary relief to an aggrieved party; or Facilitate the smooth functioning of a trial through, for example, clarification of a law typical example of an interim court order to maintain status quo is the issuance of a TRO or a Temporary Protective Order (TPO) in a case of domestic violence to prevent any further violence or threat of violence by a spouse.

Examples of providing temporary relief may occur in family law trials in which temporary child custody, rights of visitation, spousal support and/or maintenance are ordered by the court pending final judgments.

Court orders that facilitate the functioning of…

Works Cited

Court Order-Legal Definition." NOLO. 2005.February 26, 2005.

Court Order." Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. 2005.February 26, 2005. 

Such as a Temporary Restraining Order (TRO) or an Injunction

The difference between Temporary Restraining Order (TRO) and Injunction is that an injunction may be temporary or permanent while TRO is always temporary; secondly, although most injunctions, like TROs are orders that restrain action by a party, some injunctions may order a party to carry out a positive act.

Court Process for the Below Mentioned Case
Words: 393 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90226612
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court process for the below mentioned case would be either litigation by judge or by jury. The facets that we are looking at include the actions of Mr. Smith and if these actions actually deserve the sentence that he received. The process would entail Mr. Smith filing a complaint. In the decision of whether or not this is a criminal or civil matter depends solely amongst the facts. In the facts provided below the court that Mr. Smith was sentenced in there is no reason for him to have been tried on a civil level considering no one was hurt. From the view of Smith -- he questions whether or not the penalties upon him were too harsh or not. Given the fact that he did come forward, to tell what had happened. A problem is that he is faced with the prosecution stating that the only reason he came…

Court Proceeding Experience
Words: 1403 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 70964254
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Murder Trial of Nicholas Lindsey, March 2012

Factual and Procedural Background

On the evening of February 21, 2011, Police Officer David Crawford of the St. Petersburg, Florida police department was fatally shot while investigating a report of a suspicious person or prowler in a residential neighborhood. After a 24-hour search expedition, police arrested and booked 16-year-old Nicolas Lindsey on charges of first-degree murder. Lindsey confessed to the killing in a taped statement to police shortly thereafter.[footnoteRef:-1] [-1:]

Lindsey was arraigned in court the next day, and the judge ordered that he be held in custody without bail. A grand jury which convened the following week indicted Lindsey on first-degree murder of a police officer, whereupon the state Attorney General charged Lindsey as an adult based on the seriousness of the offense and that he was over age 14.

Jury selection began on March 19, 2012 and the jury heard…

Court Case Review In Re Winship
Words: 375 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30021510
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Winship was decided by the Burger Court in 1970, Docket number 778. The case involves a twelve-year-old boy, Samuel Winship, who was arrested for stealing $112 from a woman's locker. Section 744(b) of the New York Family Court Act provided that determination of a juvenile's guilt differs from an adult defendant, requiring only a "preponderance of evidence" and not evidence "beyond a reasonable doubt." Based on the "preponderance of evidence" clause, the Family Court initially found Winship guilty, "despite acknowledging that the evidence did not establish his guilt beyond a reasonable doubt," ("In Re Winship"). Winship appealed, and the appeal was rejected and later sent to the Supreme Court, which granted certiorari and deemed "preponderance of evidence" methods unconstitutional based primarily on the Fourteenth Amendment due process clause.

The outcome of the case strengthens the burden of proof requirements for all criminal cases, juvenile or not. However, juvenile defendants are…

Court Martial of Billy Mitchell
Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84320024
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It takes place during the war in 1916, (before America became involved), and it shows the attack by French soldiers of a German position known as the "Ant Hill." The position is on the Western Front, near Verdun in France, and it is a gripping look at the trench warfare tactics of the war. The French soldiers are clearly unready for an attack, but the crazy General makes them attack in spite of their worthiness, because of his own selfish needs and wants. Ultimately, it is no surprise that the attack fails, the men simply were not ready, and some of them will not even leave the trenches because they know it is hopeless. The General is enraged because of this, and he convinces his commander that he must discipline the men because of their "mutiny." He chooses three men to court-martial as an example to the other soldiers.


Court Proceeding
Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57364703
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Criminal Court Observation

I must admit that when I entered the courthouse I was a bit nervous. It was my first time to attend any trial, let alone a criminal one. However, I thought that a criminal case would be far more interesting than a civil one. Yet, despite my decision, and my belief that it would be "no big deal" to watch a criminal court case, I began to feel very nervous the minute I hit the line for the metal detector. It's funny -- but I always feel just a little bit paranoid before I go through one of those machines -- almost as if I really were hiding some kind of weapon without knowing it.

Anyway, as I finally made my way into the courtroom after a long wait at security, I certainly did not feel any more at ease. For one, the room was too warm,…

Court Appeal Process of the
Words: 903 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17231121
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Further, these individuals are able to work and contribute to their own keep as well as pay child support. The timeliness of the process of the Death Penalty Appeal is one of the measures that have attempted to be built into the justice system to bar rash action on the part of justice that often too late becomes informed of errors of great magnitude. The Ohio State University report states that the College of Social and ehavioral Sciences' Center for Survey Research conducted a study in determining the general consensus of the American perspective on the use of the death penalty. When asked whether they favor or oppose the death penalty for persons convicted of murder, 74% of Ohioans report being in favor with 11% of those indicating that their being in favor was contingent upon the presence of certain circumstances. 23% reported opposition to the use of the death…


The Amnesty International work entitled: "Clemency Granted in 1,000th planned execution; moral debates widespread. Amnesty International USA 2005 November. Online available at

Dieter, Richard (1997) Innocence and the Death Penalty: The Increasing Danger of Execution the Innocent 

Ohio State University Case Study (1999) Survey Research Center at Ohio State University. Online available at

Court Appointed Special Advocate Casa Program I
Words: 1192 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23463201
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Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) program. I chose this program because it is part of a nonprofit organization's attempt to prevent abused and neglected children from getting lost in the welfare system. For this reason, the program chooses court-appointed volunteers to watch over these children. This is a fantastic program because it teaches children about role models and the role an adult can have in a child's life. The program also offers children a stable environment that can be continued until the child is placed in a permanent home. Most importantly, the CASA program has been found to be an effective program, which is great, because, again it helps the children have a stable environment, rather than bounce between foster homes. Despite all these positives, however, I also included some issues and challenges. The first challenger was that a volunteer could become too emotionally attached, and the second includes maybe…

Court Proceedings Should Not Be
Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48568385
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Furthermore, the media has been known to slant certain criminal trials in particular directions. For example, the Casey Anthony trial of just a few years ago, some argue, was slanted in such a manner that the entire nation thought she was guilty. The jury, however, found her not guilty. Given the portrayal of this woman in the media, an entire nation thought that justice had not been served. Jurors were ridiculed and even threatened. An entire uproar had occurred. By allowing court proceedings to be covered by the media, there's a lack of authenticity which is surrendered for recording everything on television.

Furthermore, allowing court proceedings to be televised cheapens the process of justice, by making it a form of entertainment for the masses. This is simply unacceptable. It negates the entire reason that the judicial process was created: the judicial system was developed in order to employ a level…

References (2013). Should criminal trials be televised? Retrieved from

Court Decisions in Other Cases
Words: 1343 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40104317
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She has the right to call witnesses on her behalf and have them testify for her and she has the right to face and question any witnesses that are brought forth by the opposition.

There are several possible alternative solutions to this problem. The first solution is that the girl can be grandfathered in. Being grandfathered in means that a situation existed before a particular situation was decided upon. In this case the girl had the tattoo long before the decision was made to seek out and stop gang symbols. If she was grandfathered in it would mean that her tattoo would be ignored because she had it on her hand before the new rules applied.

Another possible alternative solution would be to have the student cover her tattoo when she was in school. Many times businesses will ask their teen employees to cover any facial piercing that they may…

Works Cited



478 U.S. 675

July 7, 1986, Decided

Court Case Reversals General and Subcontractors
Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 69541626
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Contracting and Construction

The case of White-Spunner Constr., Inc. v. Constr. Completion Co., 103 So. 3D 781; 2012 Ala. was about a general contractor's right to challenge an illegal subcontract. In this case, the Supreme Court saw fit to reverse the decision of the lower courts, which had previously awarded the subcontractor $1.2 million by ruling against the general contractor. With the Supreme Court's decision, the general contractor's argument was validated and the lower court's decision reversed in the general contractor's favor. Essentially, the illegal subcontract was deemed invalid due to its illegality and therefore had no standing and the subcontractor was not entitled to any payment. The Court also stated that licenses are needed by construction labor brokers -- otherwise they are not allowed to represent clients or perform construction work. The Court had to define what was meant by labor brokers in this instance and it even pointed…

Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell Directed
Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Movie Review Paper #: 22424880
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Some of the best military leaders of the time ignored him, and that is a pretty sad statement about our country's military. Mitchell was a war hero, but he was a real hero too, because of the way he stood up to the military and made matters public.

This film is based on the true story of Billy Mitchell, and it is well acted and very dramatic at times. I found myself hoping that he would be found innocent, but cynical enough to believe in the power of the military leaders. Again, this film finds fault with the people at the top, and it shows just how poorly run the military really is. Of course, this took place in the 1920s and 1930s, but there is no reason it could not (and does not) happen today. One very real example is the body armor and truck armor issue in Iraq…


Paths of Glory. Dir. Otto Preminger. Perf. Gary Cooper, Charles Bickford, Ralph Bellamy, and Rod Steiger. Warner Brothers, 1955.

Opening Argument in Court
Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88685138
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Court Opening Argument

It is humbly submitted to the Hon'ble Court that this respondent as per the issues and syllabus cited submit that the issues of the litigation pertain -- not only to the law of marriage, but also to the recognition if it must be accorded to same sex marriages and unions, and whether no recognizing this social development amounts to denial of the constitutional rights of a group of citizens. It is also pertinent to question if the states in allowing adoption to opposite sex couples and denying the same to same sex couples. The question then becomes still deeper with the challenge of the validity of same sex marriages.

It is still with various states to give effect to the Defence of Marriage Act -- DOMA and the definition of marriage as per section 3 of the act makes marriage between a man and a woman alone…

Superior Court in Business Law One of
Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96500274
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Superior Court

In business law, one of the ways that disputes are resolved is through going to court and presenting evidence to the judge about each party's position. They will render a verdict and award a judgment based upon case precedent and their interpretation of the law. To fully understand what is taking place requires carefully examining one case that is occurring. This is accomplished by: studying the citation of the case, facts, issues, the court's decision and legal reasoning. Together, these elements will highlight how this is affecting the way various statutes is interpreted and how the rule of law is enforced.

Citation of the case: The court case took place in Maricopa County Superior Court in Maricopa County, Arizona. The name of the case that was decided is Moray vs. Toyota Financial Services. Its case number is CV2012-097376. The time of the hearing took place at 10:30 AM…


Engram vs. JP Morgan Chase. (2010). Justia. Retrieved from: 

Vehicle Repossession Laws in Arizona. (2013). E How. Retrieved from:

APA Format.

T C Memo 2010-54 Court Decision
Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 871757
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T.C. Memo 2010-54: The court decision located at T.C. Memo 2010-54 is that of David J. And Letitia B. Crawford v. Commissioner of Internal evenue, appearing as the petitioners and respondent respectively.

The Court that Heard the Case: The United States Tax Court. This particular court according to aabe, Whittenburg, Sanders, Sawyers, and Gill (2011) hears and determines Federal tax cases. In the words of the authors, "its jurisdiction is limited to cases concerning the various Internal evenue Codes and evenue Acts that were adopted after February 26, 1926" (aabe et al., 2011, p. 156).

The Judge(s): B.L. Garber

Case Decided on: March 22, 2010

Issues Involved:

The respondent in this case discovered a deficiency of $2, 230 in the Federal income tax of the petitioners for the year 2006 (U.S. Tax Court, 2010). As the court further points out, the deficiency was, essentially, "attributable to the respondent's disallowance of…


Raabe, W., Whittenburg, G., Sanders, D., Sawyers, R., & Gill, S. (2011). Federal Tax Research (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

United States Tax Court. (2010). David J. And Letitia B. Crawford Petitioners v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Respondent. Retrieved from

San Fran Court Observation Court
Words: 474 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 98261551
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San Fran Court Observation

Court Visited: Northern California Federal District Court

Judge: Harold Baer Jr.

Plaintiff: United States

Defendant: Douglas Alan Goldberg

Sentencing Hearing

Holding: Goldberg was sentenced commensurate with a plea deal arranged in 2010 as a return favor from the government for testifying against former fellow CDR employees Z. Stewart Wolmark, Evan Zarefsky and Matthew Rothman (who were sentenced that same day to terms ranging from 18 months to 6 months)

Your Remarks: Pretty basic sentencing based on the fact that the sentence was already agreed to in advance between the defendant and the authorities and Goldberg presumably met the terms of the deal.

Based on some research the author of this response gave, this was part of a much larger scheme that involved municipal bond rigging at places like Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase, UBS, Wells Fargo and General Electric Company. United States v. Rubin/Chambers is…