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In some ways, the prevalence of crime related to selling and using crack cocaine may be due to the effects which the user experiences. For instance, heavy users become alienated from their friends and families and tend to be isolated and suspicious of everything and everyone, a form of drug-induced paranoia. Most of their time is spent thinking about ways to obtain more and more of the drug which may become an obsession. Thus, heavy crack users "will often lie, cheat, steal and commit crimes of violence" which inevitably affects whole communities by disrupting the normal course of daily living ("In Search of the Big Bang," n.d., Internet).
As to solutions related to the problems associated with selling and using crack cocaine, state and federal law enforcement officials need to do a much better job at not just arresting crack cocaine users and sellers but also through providing treatment centers…
Amaro, H. (May 1999). An Expensive Policy: The Impact of Inadequate Funding for Substance Abuse Treatment. American Journal of Public Health, pp. 657-659. Retrieved from Professional Development Collection database
American Council for Drug Education (2001). Basic facts about drugs: cocaine. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.acde.org/common/cocaine.htm.
Baumer, E. (2007). Poverty, crack, and crime: A cross-city analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 31, No. 3, 311-327
Cowen, T. (2005). Crime and crack. Out of the Crooked Timber. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://crookedtimber.org/2005/05/23/looking-forward .
Henderson notes that "minimal violence is involved with crack cocaine cases -- far less than half of the crack cocaine cases involved a weapon, while most actual violence is associated with the drug trade and not the drug itself." With this knowledge that there is no scientific difference in the dangerousness of the two drugs and that violence is not necessarily associated more with crack cocaine, it becomes clear that the sentencing disparities are unfounded, at best, racially motivated, at worst.
Current drug laws punish small-time users and dealers the same as or more harshly than drug kingpins. This legislation unfairly targets minorities, like African-American males, and is compounded by federal law enforcement tactics which focus on inner city communities that are demographically rich with African-Americans, as opposed to suburban or rural areas. Boders et. al (2008) found that when "compared to Whites, African-Americans were much more likely to use…
Borders, T., Booth, B., Han, X., Wright, P, Leukefeld, C., Falck, R., Carlson, R. (May 2008). Longitudinal changes in methamphetamine and cocaine use in untreated rural stimulant users. Addiction, 103(5). Retrieved May 18, 2009, from CINAHL.
Papa, A. (22 Nov 2007). Congress must change racist crack cocaine laws. New York Amsterdam News, 98(48). Retrieved May 18, 2009, from MasterFILE Premier.
Restoring fairness to federal sentencing: Addressing the crack-powder disparity. (29 Apr 2009). Retrieved May 18, 2009, from http://www.civilrights.org/advocacy/testimony/henderson-crack.html .
Drug elated Issues in Miami Gardens
Miami Gardens is a location where there are large numbers of minorities and immigrants. This is the location just north of Miami and it composes of a number of different neighborhoods. The most notable include: Andover, Bunche Park, Carol City, Lake Lucerne, Norwood, Opa Locka North and Scott Lake. In general, the community is facing drug related challenges from its close proximity to Central and South America. At the same time, they are wrestling with lower economic social demographics in the community. (Hall, 2011) This means that drugs are prevalent inside numerous areas. To fully understand what is happening requires looking at the local drug problem and how it is impacting the area. Together, these elements will illustrate one of the biggest challenges impacting Miami Gardens.
In general, the biggest issue effecting the residents of Miami Gardens is the use of crack cocaine. This…
Illegal Firearms, Drugs Seized in Undercover Operation. (2013). Local 10. Retrieved from: http://www.local10.com/news/illegal-firearms-drugs-seized-in-undercover-investigation/20349062
Miami Gardens Residents Charged with Selling Crack Cocaine. (2015). FBI. Retrieved from: https://www.fbi.gov/miami/press-releases/2015/miami-gardens-residents-charged-with-selling-crack- cocaine-and-firearms-offenses
Hall, J. (2011). Drug Abuse Trends in Miami Dade County. Miami Dade Community. Retrieved from: http://www.miami-dade-community.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Miami-Dade-DEN-Report-2009- 2010.pdf
The judge must choose a sentence from within the guideline range unless the court identifies an aggravating or mitigating circumstance that was not adequately considered by the Sentencing Commission. In mandatory minimum drug cases, judges can depart only upon motion from the government stating that a defendant has provided substantial assistance in the investigation or prosecution of another person.
All guideline drug sentences are indirectly affected by the mandatory minimums. The base offense levels are set at guideline ranges slightly higher than the mandatory minimum levels to permit some downward adjustment for defendants who plead guilty or otherwise cooperate with authorities. Most of the specific offense characteristics and general adjustments increase the sentence length, as do all of the adjustments for criminal history. The result is that most drug defendants in federal court receive guideline sentences higher than the applicable statutory mandatory minimum penalty. In 79% of the 1993 crack…
Becker, Edward R. 1993. Insuring Reliable Fact Finding in Guidelines Sentencing:
Must the Guarantees of the Confrontation and Due Process Clauses Be Applied?
Cap. L. Rev. 22 (1).
Borman, Paul D., J. 1999. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines. T.M. Cooley L. Rev. 16
A. Supporting details (Give citation)
Crack is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that can increase risk for cardiovascular incidents, strokes, and other deadly effects (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2009).
B. Supporting details (Give citation)
Addicts may even use crack cocaine while pregnant, severely harming their children. "Fetal cocaine effects include premature separation of the placenta, spontaneous abortion, premature labor, low birthweight and head circumference at birth, greater chance of visual impairment, mental retardation, genitourinary malformations, and greater chance of developmental problems," (American Council for Drug Education 2001).
C. Supporting details
Crack addiction is associated with high-risk sex, and therefore increases the risk of contracting deadly STDs and AIDS (American Council for Drug Education 2001).
A. estatement of thesis
Addiction to crack is both a cause and an effect of underlying social, political, and economic issues.
B. Wrap up of major ideas
Crack has affected poor communities…
American Council for Drug Education (2001). Basic facts about drugs: cocaine. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.acde.org/common/Cocaine.htm
Baumer, E. (2007). Poverty, crack, and crime: A cross-city analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 31, No. 3, 311-327
Cowen, T. (2005). Crime and crack. Out of the Crooked Timber. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from
It is a matter of opinion as to whether this is actually accurate, but it does appear to be logical (Payne, 1997).
This is an important analogy because of the fact that many individuals who are targeted for a particular reason will often attempt to find a disparity issue that they can use to insist that they have been treated unfairly. In drug use or sale issues, these people are targeted because of the offense that they have committed, but when sentencing is handed down, those who feel that they received too harsh of a sentence will work to find reasons that they believe their sentencing to be unfair.
Race is only one reason that these individuals use. Others include gender, age, and whether the amount of drug that they had is a felony or should be a misdemeanor instead. Some of the speculation into why some individuals feel that…
Banks, C. (2004). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Blumstein, a. et. al. (1983). Research on sentencing: The Search for Reform.
Drug Use Trends. (1997, September-October). Slow development in "crack babies" may be caused by conditions of urban poverty, says new study. Retrieved at http://www.ndsn.org/sepoct97/poverty.html
Education Reforms and Students at Risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994, January). Chapter 2: Student Background. Retrieved at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/edreformstudies/edreforms/chap2a.html
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
Marion Barry on Political Perceptions in D.C.
This paper examines the political life of Marion Barry, former mayor of Washington D.C. And current member of Washington's city council. Barry was arrested and convicted of possession of crack. He has also been linked to a number of other political and personal scandals. This paper attempts to determine: the impact Barry's contemporaries believed his actions would have on his political career; the impact that his actions have had on his political career; how Barry remains politically relevant after a criminal conviction; the role that race plays in Barry's continued political viability; and what Barry's continued political viability say about the current state of racial relations in the United States.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Framing the Problem
Chapter 3. Study Questions
Chapter 4. Data Collection, Composition, and eporting
Chapter 5. Discussion
Chapter 6. Conclusion
Chapter 1: Introduction…
A&E. (2013). Marion S. Barry, Jr. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from Biography website:
Ashley, J. (1990, January 21). The Barry years: Triumphs and troubles. Retrieved April 9,
2013 from The Washington Post website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/dc/barry/timeline.htm
Crime handling by Police officer
In the given case scenario, there are several triggers that would dictate the way the police officer would handle the involved men in the fight. First, if one or both of the men involved would display a continues aggressive behavior even in the presence of the law enforcement officer, this would be a reason for the officer to respond with reasonable force to end the duel. The disregard for the instructions that the officer may give, for instance to put their hands up or freeze would as well call for use of assistive tools like the Taser gun to incapacitate the suspects for arrest. Worse still, if one or both suspects would turn violent towards the officer, he may have to use any means possible in self-defense. The suspects may also opt for the use of human shield to avoid arrest and in…
Carter W.H., (2003). Ethical issues in using a cocaine vaccine to treat and prevent cocaine abuse and dependence. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/337.full
Division of State Police, (2014). The 1950s. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from https://www.troopers.ny.gov/Introduction/History/1950s/
Jackman T., (2010). Police fear crime increase as recession saps forces. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/09/29/AR2010092907447.html
Kirsch S., (2014). The Six Key Lessons of 911. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from http://www.skirsch.com/politics/iraq/Lessons911.htm
First Case. No. The passenger's motion to suppress the seized evidence should not be granted. An accurate description of the apprehension by the two police officers and the rocks of crack cocaine they confiscated from the passenger's pocket and body are fundamental evidence of illegal drug use. The passenger cannot claim any right to suppress the evidence because the actual substance was found in his personal possession and constitutes direct evidence against him. Moreover, the apprehension happened in a high-crime neighborhood where drug use is inherent or quite likely. y omitting or suppressing the direct evidence and presenting an incomplete or misleading account or description, the police officers or judge will commit obstruction of justice.
The driver was not arrested because no such evidence was found in his personal possession. The woman who leaned into the passenger's window and handed him an object was not arrested, either, because…
1. Atheism. Fallacies of Presumption: Suppressed Evidence. About, Inc., 2005. http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/Skepticism/faq_fall_suppressed.htm
2. Carroll, Robert Todd. The Fallacy of Suppressed Evidence. The Skeptics Dictionary. http://skepdic.com/refuge/ctlessons/lesson7.html
3. Medawar, Charles, interviewee. The Conspiracy of Silence: the Suppressed Evidence About Anti-Depressants. Multinational Monitor, July-August 2004. vol 25 (7 & 8). http://multinationalmonitor.org/mm2004/july-aug04/interviewmadewar.html
4. Soil Association. U.S. Public Interest Attorney Uncovers Suppressed Evidence of Potential GM Food Health Risks, February 28, 2000. http://www.soilassociation.org/web/sa/saweb_nsf/0/81256ad8005545498025689006614e1?OpenDocument
Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality
Higher Than Utilitarianism
The passing and reformation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, also known as the so-called "crack law," is one of the most controversial pieces of legislation to be considered within the criminal justice system and its policy during the past two years. There are several aspects of this legal mandate that present a plethora of interesting situations and questions in regards to the morality of this particular issue, which has been at the forefront of mass media outlets ever since there were significant amendments passed to it in 2010. Interestingly enough, a fair amount of those changes may be attributed to the notion of morality revolving around this legal code, which was largely responsible for the rapid and prolonged imprisonment of minorities -- particularly African-Americans and Latino offenders. One of the most efficacious means of determining whether such a law may be…
Bentham, Jeremy. "Offenses Against One's Self: Paederasty Part 1." Journal of Homosexuality. Volume 3 (4). 389-406. 1978. Print.
Benthan, Jeremy. An Introduction To The Principles Of Morals And Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kosman, Maxwell Alie Halpern. "Falling Through The Crack: How Courts Have Struggled to Apply The Crack Amendment To "Nominal Career" And "Plea Bargain" Defendants." Michigan Law Review. Volume 109. 785-812. 2011. Web. http://www.michiganlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/109/5/kosman.pdf
Hartley, Richard., Maddan, Sean., Spahn, Cassia. "Prosecutorial Discretion: An Examination of Substantial Assistance Departures in Federal Crack-Cocaine and Powder-Cocaine Cases." Volume 23. Issue 3 382-407. 2007. Web. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820701485379
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
Female Substance Abusers and Addicts
Heroin is a highly addictive substance which is characterized by a rush of biophysiological symptoms such as a rush or feeling of euphoria, heaviness in one's extremities and a certain element of dry mouth (rehab-international.org). When it comes to heroin and gender, either gender can become addicted to it in a brief amount of time: "Addiction to heroin is characterized by the compulsion to use heroin despite an onset of negative consequences and despite the user's best attempts at stopping via willpower alone" (rehab-international.org). For women, one of the more common traits of heroin abuse is rather detrimental: the acquired tolerance means that greater doses of heroin have to be taken in order to get the original effects of the drug. When women are under the influence of the drug, they may engage in unsafe sexual activity, actions which can lead to STDs, unintended pregnancies…
Anderson, T. (2000). Drug Use and Gender . udel.edu, 286-292.
Beckerleg, S.'Women heroin users: Exploring the limitations of the structural violence approach,'
International Journal of Drug Policy, vol:16 2005, p183 -190
Cicero, T., Ellis, M., & Surratt, H. (2014). The Changing Face of Heroin Use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 821-826.
Culture of Martyrdom," David Brooks calls suicide bombing " the crack cocaine of warfare," (1). As a drug-like substance, suicide bombing is addictive and therefore "transforms the culture of those who employ it," just as drug addiction changes one's personality (Brooks 1). To prove the point, Brooks traces the use of suicide bombing historically, starting with Hizbollah. Although the Quran expressly forbids suicide, suicide bombing became associated with jihadist movements. Suicide bombing became the ultimate symbol of martyrdom, which is why it is now an ends as well as a means, according to Brooks. Brooks's argument is disturbing but valid and credible, as the author relies on a multitude of sources and logical, rather than emotionally wrought, discourse.
Suicide bombing reached its hundredth monkey moment, so to speak, after Arafat walked out of the Camp David peace talks. The "psychology shifted" at this moment, because the prevailing ideology was no…
Brooks, David. "The Culture of Martyrdom." The Atlantic. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/print/2002/06/the-culture-of-martyrdom/302506/
Spending more on prisons means spending less on other public purposes" (2008, p. 120). The area most affected by the ex post facto application of the revised sentencing guidelines would be northern Virginia where almost 900 inmates (fully twice as many as any other region of the nation) would become eligible for early release (McCabe, 2011). The retroactive application of the revised sentencing guidelines in this area alone would realize more than $1 billion in cost savings and help reduce the overcrowded conditions of Virginia's prisons (McCabe, 2011).
The research showed that previous sentencing guidelines for crack cocaine-related offenses were far harsher than comparable penalties for other preparations of the drug. The research also showed that the revised sentencing guidelines contained in the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 address these disparities but the question remains whether to apply these provisions retroactively to currently incarcerated crack cocaine offenders. Proponents maintain…
A step backward on sentencing. (2011, June 11). Corpus-Christi Caller-Times, A8.
Get out of jail early. (2011, June 11). The Wall Street Journal, A12.
McCabe, S. (2011, June 2). Crack law could spring 1,200 D.C.-area criminals. The Examiner, 37.
Welch, W.N. & Harris, P.W. (2008). Criminal justice policy and planning, 3rd ed. Anderson
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
Selling in public obviously can result in an arrest far easier than selling in a dorm, or a bar, or a workplace, as whites tend to do. Police can stop a black man on the street and frisk him without a warrant. And so if African-Americans are far more likely to be selling crack in the open air, and crack sales result in far longer jail sentences than powder cocaine sales, there is at least part of the answer as to why African-Americans serve longer sentences in some cases.
A ashington Post analysis of 79,000 federal sentences between the years 1993 and 1995 (referenced in Jet Magazine) reflects that "Blacks received 2% longer jail terms than whites" nationally, and in the District of Columbia Blacks received sentences that were 12% longer than whites (Jet Magazine).
Meantime, in the publication Sentencing Law and Policy (a participant in the law Professor Blogs…
Contexts. "Black/White Disparities in Prison Sentences." Sociological Images. Retrieved January 30, 2009, from http://contexts.org .
Doege, David. "Drug Sentences Worse For Blacks." Journal Interactive. Wisconsin State
Jet. "Federal Prison Study Reveals That Black Defendants Still Get Longer Sentences.
representative system of government has motivated a vital chain of discussions in the literature about police workers administration and representation of women and racial minorities. The serious questions in this study are: (a.) Does the under oath police force rationally mirror a cross section of the groups being monitored? And (b.) hat aspects are measured in representation of women and minority police officers in law-enforcement agencies? Black and Hispanic depictions on police forces are strongly associated with its incidence in community populations. Regions differ in the quantity of female and minority illustrations, blacks being better characterized in southern police forces than in another place; women are better characterized in the northwest. Nevertheless, findings disclose that men, more often than not whites, maintain to hold unreasonably more sworn positions in the largest part of law-enforcement agencies. The data sets of female and minority representation also demonstrate the extent of female and…
Ayres, Ian, and Steven Levitt. Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2008, 43-77.
Bahrke, Mike, and Bob Hoffman. Identifying the Fitness Needs of Law Enforcement Officers. Working Paper, Fit Force, 2007.
Coate, Stephen, and Glenn Loury. Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? American Economic Review, 2003, 1220-40.
Donohue, John J, and Steven D. Levitt. The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime. Working Paper, Stanford University Law School, August 2009.
United States has waged a "War on Drugs." Within this endeavor the nation has passed and implanted some extremely tough laws regarding drugs, on a local, state and national level. The laws are meant to act as a deterrent for those who abuse drugs by way of sales, manufacturing and use. The laws send people to prisons for a long time as well as create probation and parole status for many who violate the laws.
The belief is that stricter laws will reduce the number of drug offenses and drug use in the United States. Those who draft and pass the legislation for tougher drug laws believe that the fear of jail and other punishments will deter people from drug use, manufacturing and sales. While this has been going on for the last few decades the nation has continued to wrestle with drug issues. It is unclear whether the tough…
Martin Kasindorf, Elders: Study Drug Legalization., Newsday, 12-08-1993, pp 17.
Holland's Drug Policies: The Lesson for Canada
In that regard, sentences imposed for crack cocaine are so much harsher that approximately 100 times as much powdered cocaine is required to approach the sentences imposed in connection with crack cocaine offenses. This issue is particularly relevant to the disparity inherent in mandatory sentencing and arbitrariness in sentencing, especially since dealers in powdered cocaine are much more likely higher up on the supply chain than distributors of crack cocaine (USSC, 2007).
The issues concerning provisions of the U.S.A. PATIOT Act pertain to establishing sentences for crimes established and defined by the ACT, such as narco- terrorism, smuggling munitions or military equipment without a license for transport, mining U.S. waters, and interfering with maritime navigation equipment (USSC, 2007).
The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 requires sex offenders to register and imposes criminal penalties for failure to comply. The current federal sentencing issues authorize increasing sentences for…
Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002) Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision.
Lynch, M.J. (1999) Beating a Dead Horse: Is Their Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrent Effect of Imprisonment?
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
The strongest case in the criminal law annals for race-based affirmative action occurs in "drug possession offenses," Heffernan writes. The drug busts show "compelling evidence of discrimination against blacks," the author insists; moreover, he claims that many law enforcement personnel have admitted that they practice "a kind of affirmative action: they admit that they selectively enforce anti-drug laws in the black community." The justification for busting black people in the inner city is that "heightened enforcement is good for the community," and further, the reason so many African-American men are caught dealing drugs is that is much easier for police to find crimes among poor people -- this assumes that many blacks in inner cities are low income -- because poor people "are more likely to commit those crimes in public places" (Heffernan, p. 225).
All of the issues that Heffernan has referenced contribute to the reason that the…
Eckholm, Erik. (2010). Congress Moves to Narrow Cocaine Sentencing Disparities. The New
York Times (p. a-16). Retrieved February 2, 2011, from General Reference Center Gold.
Heffernan, William C., and Kleinig, John. (2000). From Social Justice to Criminal Justice:
Poverty and the Administration of Criminal law. New York: Oxford University Press U.S..
Gould, judicial systems have to address the concerns about disparate treatment and its affect on sentencing outcomes (pg.1 paragraph 1).
In 1989 the National Consortium of Task Forces and Commissions of Racial and Ethnic Bias in the Courts (the Consortium) was established. Its primary goal was to encourage judicial authorities to investigate the treatment of minorities in the court. The Consortium was challenged to understand if disparate treatment existed and affected sentence outcomes.
According to the author, The Consortium not only wants to know if racial disparities exist, but want to know the reasoning behind the existence. The author goes further to say that imperative data should be assessed in order to reach a fair conclusion. The Consortium should obtain information on the litigants' background, characteristics of the case, type of representation and demographics of tier of fact.
The litigants' background should be assessed for things such as household income,…
Brewer, R., Heitzeag N. The rationalization of crime and punishment. Retrieved November 27,
2009 from www.wayne.edu/libraries
Bureau of Justice Statistics. The nation's prison population continues its slow growth up 1.9
percent last year. Retrieved November 27, 2009, from www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs
This stated, "Black Kings brothers must join as one to resist the oppression that faces all black youth. With this oath you have found a new family, a brotherhood that will always be with you" (Venhatesh & Levitt, 2000, p. 439).
One of the most interesting facets of Venhatesh and Levitt's (2000) research is their unique access to the financial records of the Black Kings, for four years. This research positions gangs beyond simple criminal actors and instead sees them as outlaw corporatists. Furthermore, credit is given to the complexities of Chicago's street gangs. These are not only the loosely connected groups of hooligans often associated with gangs, but instead these are well-run, highly organized groups that are excellent examples of the changes that were being made in American businesses. Hierarchical administration, rational management procedures, and increased attention to revenues and profit margins shed light on the modern street…
Venkatesh, S. & Leviit, S. (2000). "Are we a family or a business?' History and disjuncture in the urban American street gang." Theory and Society, 29. p. 427-462.
The cost for processing a drug court case through the court system is only a fraction of the cost for processing criminal drug cases through the court system. Furthermore, the cost of drug court and other drug treatment for drug offenders is only a fraction of the cost for imprisonment of these individuals. Drug offenders finishing alterative drug court or other treatment programs have been found less likely to have repeated charges and convictions of drug offenses and to have longer abstinences from use of drugs. Finally, in terms of costs to society that cannot be measured in monetary terms, the alternative sentencing of drug offenders to drug courts and other treatment programs will end the breakdown of society that has been witnessed due to imposition of prison sentences on drug offenders. The research conducted in order to prepare for the debate and in order to complete the research within…
The Federal Prison Population: A Statistical Analysis (2004) the Sentencing Project. Online available at http://www.sentencingproject.org /Admin/Documents/publications/inc_federalprisonpop.pdf
Clay, Rebecca (2006) Incarceration vs. Treatment: Drug Courts Help Substance Abusing Offenders. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration News March/April Vol. 14. No.2. Online available at http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_2/index.htm
Shaffer, Deborah; Bechtel, Kristin; and Latessa, Edward J. (2005) Evaluation of Ohio's Drug Courts: A Cost Benefit Analysis. Center for Criminal Justice Research Dec 2005. Online available at http://www.uc.edu/criminaljustice/ProjectReports/Ohio_Drug_Courts_Cost_Benefit_Analysis_2005.pdf
Drug Court Benefits (nd) Online NCDI.org available at http://www.ndci.org/courtfacts_benefits.html
Crime and Justice DQ
Comparison and Contrast
Governments around the globe have adopted different approaches to combating crime and delivery of justice to their citizens. The issue of liberal and conservative approaches to crime and justice are more vivid in Canada. The Canadian government had earlier favored liberal approach before 2006 when the approach changed back to conservative due to the Conservative government taking over (Phillips 2012).
The two approaches differ due to their contrasting views of human nature, moral values nature and the cause of criminal activity. They also contrast on the treatment of the criminals due to their differences. Liberals are based on the belief that man is naturally good. Evidently, there is no absolute standard of morality to be taught or adhered to by the citizens. They claim that crime is a product of deprivation due to poverty, and the society is responsible for criminal behavior as…
Lakoff G. (2010). Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think, Second Edition. New York: University of Chicago Press
Neubauer, D. W. & Fradella, H. F. (2015). America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Cengage Learning
Phillips S.A. (2012). Operation Fly Trap: L. A. Gangs, Drugs, and the Law. New York: University of Chicago Press
Tyler, T. R. (2006). Psychological Perspectives on Legitimacy and Legitimation. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 375-400.
Awareness programs, the de-marginalization of women, and the availability of protective forms of contraception (i.e. condoms) are all factors that can reduce the spread of HIV / AIDS, and this could have helped to prevent Love's infection with the virus (Healthlink 2009). This would also, of course, have helped to protect her son. Now that she has the virus, regular checkups at clinics and attendance at support groups can help her mitigate and deal with the effects. Medicines for the treatment of HIV / AIDS can be quite expensive, however, leading to yet another major social problem -- affordable healthcare.
The availability of effective and affordable healthcare -- or rather the lack thereof -- is also a major barrier in dealing with the psychological factors affecting both Love and Diane. Diane is seeing a therapist, and this has certainly helped her to overcome her feelings of depression and guilt to…
AACAP. (2009). "Foster care." American academy of child and adolescent psychiatry. Accessed 30 September 2009. http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/foster_care
Cohan, S. 92009). Crack realities. Accessed 30 September 2009. http://www.crackreality.com/default.htm
Dworkin, J. (2004). Love and Diane.
Healthlink. (2009). "AIDS action." Accessed 30 September 2009. http://www.aidsaction.info/hsm/section1.html
Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism
There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…
Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)
Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)
Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)
Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans
The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.
hen overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is…
Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,
IL: University of Illinois Press.
Harris, Othello, and Miller, Robin R. (2003). Impacts of Incarceration on the African-American
Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use.
Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases, and in this sense, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hashish, opiates and amphetamines are all addictive drugs. In addition, these drugs also cause psychological dependency since they enhance a person's sense of pleasure, sociability, sexuality and emotional satisfaction, and also mask pain, low self-esteem and anxiety (Wilson and Kolander, 2011, p. 6). Student surveys are "likely to underreport the overall level of substance use and abuse by young people," and since black and Hispanic students have higher dropout and absenteeism rates, this affects survey results as well (Mosher and Akins, 2007, p. 136). Hard drug users and addicts are also more likely to be homeless, which means that their true numbers are always unknown.
All studies and surveys confirm that marijuana…
Goldberg, R. (2010). Drugs across the Spectrum, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maisto, S.A. et al. (eds). (2010). Drug Use and Abuse, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Mosher, C.M. And S. Akins. (2007). Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Sage Publications.
Wilson, R. And C.A. Kolander. (2011). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates
Critical ook Review
The objective of this study is to conduct a critical book review of the book entitled "The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates" written by Wes Moore (2011) and published by Random House LLC. Williams (2010) reports that both men in the book have the same name however, "one is Rhodes Scholar and John Hopkins graduate who was a speaker at the 2008 Democratic Convention. The other is a former drug dealer, convicted of murdering a police officer and serving a life sentence at Jessup Correctional Institution in Maryland." (p.1) In addition, Williams reports that both of these men, named Wes Moore "were profiled in the altimore Sun for their deeds." (2010, p.1)
oth of these young men were raised at the same time and in the same area that was high in poverty and plagued by drugs and…
Moore, W. (2011) The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates. Random House LLC. 2011. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=bjvUKLdN-eQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Rogers, T. (2010) The Other Wes Moore: The Felon and the Rhodes Scholar. Salon. Retrieved from: http://www.salon.com/2010/05/09/wes_moore_interview/
The Other Wes Moore One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore. Spiegel & Grau trade paperbacks, 2011. Book Review. Waco Chamber. Retrieved from: http://www.wacochamber.com/images/WesMooreDiscussionGuide.pdf
Discretion in the Legal System
Discretion arises any time an actor in the criminal justice system has a choice about how to treat a suspect. At a very basic level, even witnesses to crimes exercise discretion, because they choose whether or not to report those crimes. Crime victims exercise discretion, by choosing whether or not to pursue prosecution. However, the discretion most people consider when looking at the criminal justice system is that discretion exercised by police officers, prosecutors, juries, and judges, which determines the fate of an accused in the criminal justice system. Police officers determine whether to arrest a suspect, and, in the case of lesser crimes, whether or not to initiate charges against the suspect. Prosecutors determine whether to prosecute a suspect, and the crime with which the defendant will be charged. Judges and juries exercise discretion regarding guilt, but also in terms of sentencing. All of…
Carl, J. Think Sociology 2011, 2E. CITY: Pearson, 2010.
Drug Sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System
The objective of the research proposed in this document is to examine the issue of drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System in order to determine if the sentencing used is effective in bringing about a reduction in drug offenses and the rehabilitation of prisoners in successful return to society following incarceration.
(1) Is drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System effective in reducing repeat offenses?
(2) Are individuals successful returned to society following incarceration and rehabilitation programs?
(3) Is the U.S. Criminal Justice system succeeding or failing and are drug sentencing laws negatively or impacting the success of the U.S. Criminal Justice system in regards to drug sentencing laws?
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing knowledge base in this area of study.
Clickman, Rubin (2011) Sentencing Guidelines in the American Justice System. FindLaw. Retrieved from: http://knowledgebase.findlaw.com/kb/2010/Nov/203582.html
Kansal, T. And Mauer, M. (2005) RACIAL DISPARITY IN SENTENCING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. JANUARY 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/sp/disparity.pdf
Stevens, John Paul CJ (2011) Our Broken System of Criminal Justice. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from: http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2011/nov/10/our-broken-system-criminal-justice/?pagination=false
economic impact of drug use in the United States might initially seem easy to measure. A legal trial is an expensive proceeding: police officers, prosecutors or public defenders, judges, stenographers, and bailiffs are employees of the state, and even if jurors are barely remunerated, defense attorneys are lavishly remunerated. To prosecute someone for dealing marijuana is an expensive undertaking, and to do so under a "three strikes" law, where the crime is suddenly elevated to a horrific felony with extreme penalties, is even more expensive. The greater expense comes with convictions: America has the largest imprisoned population in the world, with more people behind bars in this country than comprise the entire populations of other sovereign nations. Imprisonment is not a cheap proposition. We can then consider the further economic impact, legally and morally speaking, of drug use in the current extensive misuse of civil forfeiture laws. Ostensibly designed to…
Women in Prison
Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates
Problems in corrections:
Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system
The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…
Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.
Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,
D. (2007). Neurological function and HIV risk behaviors of female prison inmates. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(6), 361-72.
Case, P., Fasenfest, D., Sarri, R., & Phillips, A. (2005). Providing educational support for female ex-inmates: Project PROVE as a model for social reintegration. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(2), 146-157
The United States of America has long grappled with the problem of drugs and has form time to time initiated measures to combat the usage and trafficking of drugs. It is common knowledge that the various wars that have been part of the combat program of several administrations have failed miserably despite the availability of a great deal of resources, added to the colossal funding process. This is in addition to the numerous governmental agencies that operate to curb the drug trade and trafficking. Though the threat of drug usage and illegal trade is looming large, the danger is not always as proportionate as it is painted.
A certain amount of exaggeration that goes along factual details so as to create a sense of grave emergency that would work out to political benefits. ut it cannot also be regarded that the threat of drugs and their usage is…
DEA Resources for law enforcement agencies, Intelligence Reports' Retrieved at http://www.dea.gov/pubs/intel/02046/02046.html . Accessed on March 25, 2004
Drug Control Budget: U.S. 1981-2000' Retrieved at http://www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/law12.htm . Accessed on March 25, 2004
National Drug Control Strategy - 2001 - ONDCP' Retrieved at http://www.ncjrs.org/ondcppubs/publications/policy/ndcs01/chap4.html . Accessed on March 25, 2004
US RI: Edu Column: What are we fighting for?' Retrieved at http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v03/n1535/a06.html?116Accessed on March 26, 2004
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…
Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact
Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.
consensus vs. The conflict model
Consensus and Conflict Models
Compare and contrast the consensus model and the conflict model:
And how do both fall short?
The 'conflict'-based model of criminal justice theory views all of human society as inherently gripped by conflict, with a specific emphasis on class-based conflict. Marxism is the economic theory primarily associated with the conflict theory. Marxists take a broad, sweeping view of all of human global history as an eternal, polarized struggle between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' of the world. The haves, which in modern, industrialized society are the bourgeois property-owners, try to hold onto their power by manipulating all existing political and economic structures to disenfranchise the have-nots.
Naturally, the have-nots of the world occasionally chafe against this control. But, they often do so ineffectually, through petty crimes and unorganized and organized criminal activities. Crime can actually act as a kind of 'safety'…
Gaines, Larry K. & Roger Le Roy Miller. (2011). Criminal justice in action. New York:
Wadsworth. Retrieved December 16, 2011 at http://instruct.westvalley.edu/smith/aj1handouts/gaines_chapter1.pdf
Greek, Cecil. (2005). Conflict theory. Criminal Theory Homepage.
Retrieved December 16, 2011 at http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/conflict.htm
Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts
For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…
Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.
A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.
Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm
Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.
" This is money that should be spent on (a) preventing and healing drug addiction and related issues; (b) more effective, and smarter, law enforcement. Legalizing marijuana would also generate much-needed tax revenues that can be spent on precisely those two things. From an economic or financial perspective, the legalization of marijuana will also help grow small businesses and thus can alleviate the problems associated with the current economic crisis. Low start-up costs for a marijuana grow operation also mean that low-income families and entrepreneurs can earn extra income in a legitimate way. Marijuana should be made legal because Americans value personal freedoms, too. It makes no sense for alcohol and Xanax to be legal but not marijuana. Marijuana, when made legal, can be regulated in the same way that alcohol and prescription drugs are. Police will not be wasting their time busting people for possessing a plant. Instead, pharmacists…
Armentano, Paul. "DEA Moves to Ban 'Fake Marijuana' Products." NORML. 24 Nov 2010. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from http://norml.org/
Cooper, Charles and McCullagh, Declan. "America's Love-Hate History with Pot." CBS News. 13 July 2009. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/13/national/main5154550.shtml
Drug Policy Alliance. Economic consequences of the war on drugs. Retrieved 25 Nov, 2010: http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/economiccons/fact_economic.cfm
"Legalization of Marijuana." LegalizationOfMarijuana.com. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/
ouldn't the government need the same amount of money, or perhaps even more, to regulate the new drug system. I can' only imagine the bureaucracy necessary to manage the legal trade of things like heroin, crack cocaine and meth.
The other prong of Vidal's argument is that "forbidding people the things the like or think they might enjoy only makes them want those things all the more." He claims that this psychological insight is obvious and yet denied by our government. As evidentiary support, he points to prohibition, but his arguments about prohibition don't directly support his thesis. He argues, correctly, that crime increased because of the prohibition of alcohol, and that the law caused a general contempt for the government, but he does not prove that people wanted to drink more because alcohol was prohibited to them.
The analogy between alcohol and drugs also does not hold up to…
Caruso, David B. "Higher Cigarette Taxes Lure Buyers to Black Market." The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/04/10/higher-cigarette-taxes-lu_n_96094.html April 10, 2008
"Number of Adult Smokers." Smoking from All Sides. http://smokingsides.com/docs/us_adults_bystate95 . November 8, 1996
"Richard M. Nixon." United States History. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1948.html .
esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…
Burke, K. And Leben, S. (2007). Procedural Fairness: A key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction.
Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. 44 (1), 4-25.
Davis, A.J. (2008). Racial Fairness in the Criminal Justice System: The Role of the Prosecutor. Colombia Human Rights Law Review. 202 (39), 202-32.
Hurwitz, J and Peffley, M. (2001). Racial Polarization on Criminal Justice Issues:
Drug treatment represents only part of the equation to combat drug-related crime. Alternatives to the war on drugs such as legalization, decriminalization and harm reduction may initially sound like they are more compassionate approaches to the drug problem, but the reality is that they won't work as shown by the Netherlands's experience with decriminalization of drugs. The truth is that the war on drugs has accomplished a great deal more than these alternatives ever could and that Americans are a lot better off because of it. For all the reasons presented in this paper, the legalization of drugs is a really bad idea.
10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm
Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html
Drug use trends (2002, October) Office…
10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm
Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html
Drug use trends (2002, October) Office of National Drug Control Policy. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/druguse/
Effectiveness of the war on drugs (2002). Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/effectivenes/index.cfm
Policing Strategies in the U.S.
Directive police patrols predict crimes that might occur by offering locations that are at a great risk of crimes during each patrol, shift day and night. This policing strategy has various advantages. Putting police officers in the ? by 500? prediction "boxes" creates a suppression and deterrence impact, thus prevents crime from happening. In turn, all these reduce arrests. We have seen cases where criminals were interjected and stopped from doing crimes or exiting a scene when a crime is committed. Reduced criminal arrests mean a decreased city costs regarding jails, departments, and courts. This frees up resources for throughout to concentrate on community problems and dwell deeper into solving issues rather than on increasing prison population.
Directed patrols try to understand criminal activities in a specified location or hot spot. A hot spot is defined as an area that holds a higher…
Punishment in the U.S. Correctional System
IN ITS RIGHTFUL PLACE AND FORM
Punishment in the U.S. Corrections System
Objectives of Punishment
These are to punish the offender, to protect the population from him or her, and to rehabilitate him or her (eNotes, 2013; Law Link, 2003). The first goal of punishment is theoretically intended to discourage or deter a repeat of the offense and a demonstration of why it should be avoided. The most common example of punishment is incarceration. Others are the death penalty and lesser penalties, such as probation. The second goal of the correctional system next to punishing the offender is to insure the protection of society from criminals. This is carried out by policing the streets and separating criminals through imprisonment to prevent them from repeating or performing more crimes. And the third objective is the rehabilitation of the offender so that he or she can…
ENotes (2013). Sentencing and sentencing guidelines. Encyclopedia of Everyday Law.
eNotes.com. Retrieved on January 25, 2013 from http://www.enotes.com/criminal-law-reference/sentencing-and-sentencing-guidelines
Law Link (2003). Sentencing. Law Reform Commission Report 102. Retrieved on January 25, 2013 from http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lcr.nsf/pages/r102chp03
Rank, J. (2012). Determinate sentence. Net Industries and Its Licensors: JRank.org
Unfortunately, the American government has been looking in the wrong place for these models, especially in Asia and Latin America. For example, the coca plant from which cocaine is derived grows in abundance in many geographical regions of northern South America and in Central America, where growers make huge profits as compared to efforts to force farmers and peasants to grow legal crops which inevitably do not produce enough profits in order to survive.
Of course, over the last twenty years or so, the U.S. federal government has done much and at great expense to attempt to eradicate the growing of coca but these efforts have also failed miserably. As Nadelmann relates, even if foreign supplies of coca and other drugs like heroin could be cut off, "the drug abuse problem in the U.S. would scarcely abate," due to the fact that much if not most of the drugs like…
Nadelmann, Ethan a. (Jan. -- Feb. 1998). Common sense drug policy. Foreign Affairs.
Vol. 77 no. 1, 111-126.
As, it will create vast disparities in society that are having negative impacts on: the courts and corrections. This is because the law will: target the lower ends of society and those groups that are considered to within the minority. An example of this can be seen with various vagrancy laws that have been enacted around the country. On the surface, this appears to be a way for communities to impose law and order. However, the reality is that more minorities have been arrested and convicted under these laws in comparison with whites. This is problematic, because it shows how the different regulations will indirectly discriminate against certain social groups within society. (Cote, 2002, pp. 23 -- 34)
Further evidence of this can be seen with observations from Strieb (2007), who wrote, "Recent examples of how the law itself can lead to racial disparities are found in the war on…
Cote, S. (2002). Criminological Theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
Hil, R. (2002). Facing Change. Western Criminology Review. Retrieved from: http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v3n2/hil.html
Quigley, B. (2010). Fourteen Examples of Racism. Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/bill-quigley/fourteen-examples-of-raci_b_658947.html
Siegel, L. (2010). Introduction to Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). ithout empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.
Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a…
Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006, July 25). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs.
The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/25/health/25drin.html
Buddy, T. (2009, March 7). Are you a functional alcoholic?
About.com. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://alcoholism.about.com/od/problem/a/functional.htm
Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the…
Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.
Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,
Giertz, J.F., & Nardulli, P.F. (1985). Prison overcrowding. Public Choice (Pre-1986), 46(1),
Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.
However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…
American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling
Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.
Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.
Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
Loud I Shout
Edward Humes' book follows the cases of seven teenage boys as they work their way through the juvenile justice system. It is clear from the title of Humes' book that something was amiss, something was terribly wrong, in the juvenile justice system in Los Angeles, California, in 1994. Readers don't know what reforms have been instituted subsequent to 1994, but that is not as priority in this assignment. hat is being conveyed and critiqued in this paper is what Humes reports from that era, and it opens up numerous issues and questions for an alert reader to contemplate.
The question that will be addressed in this paper is (1): hen you look at kids who land in adult court, you often find that they've been bouncing through the system for years, basically getting a free pass for lesser crimes until they commit a horrific act. Discuss how…
Humes, E. (1996). No Matter How Loud I Shout: A Year in the Life of the Juvenile Court.
New York: Simon & Schuster.
vignette pertaining to addiction. Ethical and legal factors will be considered. Also discussed will be cross cultural matters related to the topic. Possible solutions to the issue at hand will also be considered.
Middle-aged couple, Anna and James, drops in for an appointment as Kevin, their son aged 16 years, faces suspension from school because of 'drug paraphernalia' found in his school bag. While James is Native-American, Anna is Japanese-American. James goes on to say that it is all Anna's fault, stating that she has smoked pot on a daily basis for the most part of their married life. Anna is of the view that she at least isn't a slobbering drunk like James, further elucidating that James over-indulges in drinking alcohol on weekends. It is discovered, in the course of assessment that James as well as Anna come from alcoholic homes.
Much is to be taken into…
(n.d.).CASAColumbia - Addiction Science, Prevention & Treatment Research. Designing an Addiction Treatment Plan | CASAColumbia. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.casacolumbia.org/addiction-treatment/treatment-plan
(n.d.). Internet Archive: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music & Wayback Machine. DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror).Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n637/mode/2up
(n.d.).National Center for Biotechnology Information. Chapter 4 Integrated Models for Treating Family Members - Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy - NCBI Bookshelf.Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64266/
(n.d.).National Center for Biotechnology Information. Chapter 4: Screening and Assessment - Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women - NCBI Bookshelf. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83253/
A "drug" is any substance, other than food, that affects our bodies or minds. Since not all drugs are bad, the book uses "substance" to clarify the issue. Substance abuse can cause temporary or long-term problems for the abuser. Dependence, tolerance or addiction can develop.
Depressants: slow the central nervous system (CNS) down. Alcohol is a CNS depressant.
Alcohol: nearly 6% of the U.S. population are heavy drinkers, some as young as 11. Men outnumber women 3:1. Ethyl alcohol is quickly absorbed in stomach and intestine. First it depresses the areas of the brain that control judgments and curbs on behavior. Next, motor control is affected. Alcohol can also interfere with both vision and hearing. As the liver metabolizes the alcohol, the blood levels drop and function gradually returns. Patterns of alcoholism vary among socio-cultural groups and by age. Alcoholism can destroy family life, sink a career, and…
According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).
A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…
Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems
Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121
Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press
Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
Drug Abuse in America
(Approximately one page)
Looking at drug abuse in America, what are the most important predictive factors in drug abuse? Why does it matter and how does it inform American understanding of drug related issues in society? How does crack or methamphetamines impact the physiological, psychological, and social conditions of abusers? How would your response impact policy?
Drug abuse in the United States is rampant and the country has been involved in a War on Drugs for several generations. Today in the United States, according to the ureau of Justice Statistics, 55% of federal prisoners and 21% of state-level prisoners are incarcerated on the basis of drug-related offenses which represents an incarcerated population greater than the population of Wyoming; the federal government is spending over twenty-two billion dollars alone on a so-called war that 76% of the population view as a failure (Head, Key Facts About the…
Bloom, S. (2015, July 2). States Where Marijuana Is Legal, Decriminalized or Medicalized. Retrieved from Celebstoner: http://www.celebstoner.com/news/marijuana-news/2013/08/23/marijuana-laws-nationwide/
Kain, E. (2011, July 5). Ten Years After Decriminalization, Drug Abuse Down by Half in Portugal. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikkain/2011/07/05/ten-years-after-decriminalization-drug-abuse-down-by-half-in-portugal/
Stebbins, S. (2015, September 16). The next 11 states that will legalize marijuana. Retrieved from Market Watch: http://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-next-11-states-that-will-legalize-marijuana-2015-09-16
Angela Garcia goes at providing more information regarding Hispanic addicts in the U.S. And their personal experiences. She relates to how New Mexico treatment facilities deal with numerous cases of addicts who experience overdose several times in their lives, are unable to defeat addiction, and eventually experience death. These individuals are in a condition where they accept their situation and believe that there is nothing that can be done for them. To a certain degree, however, it appears that Hispanics reacted differently to heroin when compared to other racial groups in the U.S. Many Hispanics in New Mexico apparently use heroin as a means to compensate for how they feel as a result of "then recurring pains associated with the ongoing history of loss and displacement that had come to characterize Hispano life" (Garcia 2008:720). Such patients are considered to suffer from a chronic addiction and they are generally believed…
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4. Heggenhougen, H.K. 1984 "TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND THE TREATMENT OF DRUG ADDICTS: THREE EXAMPLES FROM SOUTHEAST ASIA." Medical Anthropology Quarterly 16 (1): 3-7.
After receiving such pressure, a huge scandal broke within the ranks of the LAPD based on charges of corruption and misconduct. Although the LAPD still maintains a heavy presence within these streets, they are not as vehement as seen in the case of the HAMME era.
Many of those affected by L.A. street life are actually not gang members themselves. The aftermath of gang violence has proven to be too much for many Los Angeles residents, including former gang members, to handle. Many former members are left questioning the idea that the gang life is truly a family atmosphere. Former gang members all over the United States have begun to take action as to prevent future generations from making the same mistakes, (andle, 2003). Many of these former criminals also believe that being open with children about gang violence will help open up dialogue about the negative aspects of gang…
Alonso, a. (2008). A brief history of the Los Angeles-based Crips. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from Street Gangs: http://www.streetgangs.com/crips/
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Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…
Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446
Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237
Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388
Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
If citizens do not trust the courts to deliver fair sentences, then trust in the government itself falls apart. If citizens do not recognize the legitimacy of the correctional institutions that embody punishment, then the entire criminal justice system has failed.
Punishment by the state for crime must be legitimate. The act of punishment must be systematic and not arbitrary, dealt in an unbiased manner and according to rule of law. For years, differential sentencing for crack cocaine and powdered cocaine in the United States reveals an arbitrary punishment that reflects race and class conflict. Such irrational manifestations of punishment serve to delegitimize the authority of the state. When the legitimacy of the state is lost, the foundation of a free society crumbles.
Ideally, the state possesses credible authority. That authority is used to uphold the rights and freedoms upon which a liberal democracy is based. The shared values of…
Bedau, H.A. (2010). Punishment. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/punishment/
Fagan, J. (2008). Legitimacy and criminal justice. Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:CCgCViIiz_QJ:moritzlaw.osu.edu/osjcl/Articles/Volume6_1/Fagan.Intro.PDF.pdf+punitive+legitimacy+criminal+justice&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShJXobcMDmglV5TlF0d0d8XPcpqHyHT7gApxqlyHB-ynAXZXXBPBiOhsyEDeO_9hXlAmWbI6NALIf6VspF0Ox77-F-8kGN04vmftun6kxQh1cvaeK8KZQMg92kQ3GRmlfssgPQ2&sig=AHIEtbTOhZcNkalDBm6G11ceblm6HlrRng
Johnson, D. (2009). Anger about crime and support for punitive criminal justice policies. Punishment & Society. January 2009 vol. 11 no. 1 51-66.
Levine, B.B. (2005). Legitimacy and the process why which it is pursued. In Encyclopedia of Economic Sociology. Eds. Beckert, J. & Zafirovski, M. Retrieved online: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=7&ved=0CE4QFjAG&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.fiu.edu%2F~levineb%2FReadings%2FLegitimacy_for_Milan_final.doc&rct=j&q=weber%20legitmacy&ei=0yeaTYvCJMOBhQfLh6j5CA&usg=AFQjCNFY2ueJB2ECMxAN1Wz9m0_b248JAQ&sig2=lZTHzm5bjGI4oVULeml3wg&cad=rja
This suggests that where racial characteristics are invoked during the process of administering criminal justice, it has been done in order to intentionally subject the minority race to some form of unequal treatment based on his or her race.
It is this orientation that produces the sociological condition called disparity, particularly legislated policy acts unwittingly on underlying biases. So is this noted by illiams (2009), who points to the disparities created inadvertently but owing to core racial prejudices. illiams reports that "a common example of a disparity in the criminal justice system is found in sentencing guidelines. In the 1990s the Sentencing Guidelines and Policy Statements of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 that applies to all federal offenses committed after November 1, 1987 created many disparities (Mustard, 2001)" (illiams, p. 2) illiams points out that the sentencing guidelines, for instance, called for harsher penalties for those guilty of crack/cocaine…
Banks, C. (2004). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory And Practice. Sage Publications.
Williams, C. (2009). Disparity Vs. Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Associated Content.