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Technology in Crime Analysis
Technology used in crime analysis
In the contemporary society, there are various crimes that are experienced and in response there have been varied crime analysis techniques that have been employed to ensure the crimes are reduced to the minimum possible.
One of the most accurate and widely applicable technology used in crime reduction is DNA profiling. This involves taking any material like blood, sweat, saliva or even chunks of flesh from the crime scene and subjected to the DNA profiling process and if the VNT (variable number Tandem repeats), which are unique to each individual, are found to be matching to that which is in the database, it is a lead to the possibility of the person having committed the crime or being present at the scene (Shanna Freeman, 2012).
Collecting, storing and retrieving information
For effective crime profiling, there are various ways of data collection…
IEEE, (2012). Control Methods in Data-Storage Systems. Retrieved December 13, 2012 from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6104200&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6104200
Lynch, J. & Jarvis, J. (2008). Missing Data and Imputation in the Uniform Crime Reports
and the Effects on National Estimates. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Vol. 24, No 1, 69-85. Retrieved December 13, 2012 from http://voices.yahoo.com/ucr-nibrs-vs.-ncvs-analyzing-criminal-data-5755964.html
Rand, M. (2006). The national crime victimization survey: 34 years of measuring crime in the United States. Statistical Journal of the United Nations ECE 23. 289-301. Retrieved December 13, 2012 from
Introduction: Crime Analysis
The primary purpose of crime analysis is to determine trends or patterns. Identifying trends and patterns helps law enforcement administrators and public officials to direct resources appropriately in order to prevent and respond to crime. There are three types of crime analysis: tactical, strategic, and administrative. Each of these types of crime analysis involves gathering, collecting, and analyzing aggregate crime data. Administrative crime analysis helps municipalities plan their resources, and is especially important for making financial and human resources decisions, as well as evidence-based changes to public policy. Strategic crime analysis helps police departments make their own administrative decisions with the resources they have available, using crime data to distribute human and financial resources accordingly. Finally, tactical crime analyses are for making immediate decisions. While all of these types of crime analysis use data to drive evidence-based decision-making, the data collected will be different for each type…
There is a high rate of violent crime in the United States. The graph shows that the crime is common the United States. Since the year 1973, violent crime has been on the decline. The Uniform Crime eports (UC), the National Incident-Based eporting System (NIBS), and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) provide data on the rate of crime in the country. The three agencies provide the FBI with relevant information about the rate of crime in the United States. The information provided helps the FBI in the fight against crime in the country. With this information, the FBI puts efforts to ensure that crime rates in the country lower.
Violent crime in the United States is common. Many people that have committed this crime are in prison institutions across the state. This has led to the high prison population in the country. Since the year 1973, violent crime…
Paynich, R.H. (2011). Fundamentals of Crime Mapping Principles and Practice. Chicago: Jonnes and Bartlett.
Vito, G.M. (2010). Criminology- Theory Research and Policy. Chicago: Jonnes and Bartlett.
technology utilized for crime analysis. The methods will also be looked into in addition to the benefits the technology has for investigative authorities and for the community.
Types of Technology Necessary for Crime Analysis
Computer technology has enabled law enforcement officers to implement ticketing systems and record evidence more accurately by logging data directly onto computers, for instance, in the case of speed guns and police vehicle dash camera videos. The individuals given tickets have also been able to save a lot of time by paying for tickets online. In many cases, this saves time, not only for law enforcement officials, but also for the individuals who have been fined, if it is a violation that they have agreed that they have committed. This kind of technology makes it difficult for one to get away with parking, speeding or any other kinds of violations. In cases whereby individuals have been…
(2011, August 12). CSI Today. CSI Today: Technology and Crime Analysis. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://csitoday.blogspot.com/2011/08/technology-and-crime-analysis.html
(n.d.). IACA Home. What Crime Analysts Do. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.iaca.net/dc_analyst_role.asp
(2005). SAGE. Crime Analysis Technology. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/6245_Chapter_7_Boba_Final_PDF_4.pdf
An example of a spree killing could be July 22nd, 2011's incident in Norway when Anders Behring Breivik carried out a series of attacks. He first set off a bomb in central Oslo and several hours later went on a shooting rampage "at a youth camp at an island near the capital." ("Oslo Bombings and Utoya Attack") in all, nearly 80 people were killed in the two separate incidents, but since the time between the incidents was relatively short, this is considered a spree killing and not a serial killing. However, a serial killer usually takes their time and commits multiple killings over time with long periods in between individual murders. Gary Leon idgway, the Green iver Killer, is an example of a typical serial killer, and committed a number of murders over a period of time that lasted decades. (McMahon) There were even months and sometimes years between the…
McMahon, Patrick. 6 Nov. 2003. Sheriffs Hunt for Green River Killer was a Mission.
USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-11-06-green-usat_x.htm
"Northern Illinois University Shooting: Dekalb Illinois." U.S., Fire Administration
Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=GJIvRGUmKMkC&pg=PA9&dq=northern+illinois+university+massacre&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZIU-T4faO-uE0QHC17nSBw&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA%20//%20v=onepage&q=northern%20illinois%20university%20massacre&f=false http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/norway/index.html
The term signature aspect is used to refer to unique behavior that is exhibited by the criminal that is peculiar to that particular criminal though may not be necessary in committing the crime. One of the most common signature aspects is the calling card, or tattooing of the dead bodies, use of excessive force, leaving notes behind and many more. These are not necessary in killing of victims but are a sign of claiming the crime (John E. Douglas, 2011).
The components of crime classification that I learnt about and are central in the crime classification are finding out the defining characteristics of the crimes and the crime scenes, this will be instrumental in telling the motive behind the crime and in the case of multiple motives, the most outstanding will guide the profiling. The other component is victimology which is the complete history of the victim which will help…
Anthony Lantosca, (2006) IAFEI: The truth about Deception Detection. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://www.iafei.com/deception-detection/
Encyclopedia of mental Disorders, (2012). Hare Psychopathy Checklist. Retrieved February 11,
2012 from http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Hare-Psychopathy-Checklist.html
Hwakins, (2012). The Baseline Killer. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/predators/baseline-killer/1.html
Crime Detection and Prevention
It is an unfortunate fact of modern society that crime and criminal activity are part of our world today. This is particularly the case in situations that make an easy target for criminals. ape and robbery, for example, tend to be encouraged in environments that appear to be easy targets. All-night convenience stores, for example, may appear to be easy targets because they have low security features and often have only one employee per shift. The specific crime under discussion in this case is therefore the night-time robbery of all-night convenience stores.
When considering the factors in the Problem Analysis Chart offered by Clarke and Eck (p. 29), the environment provides a significant incentive for criminal activity. A convenience store at a remote location, for example, might appear to be an "easy" target for robbery. The problem analysis triangle, or crime trianble, may therefore offer valuable…
Center for Problem Oriented Policing. (n.d.). Twenty Five Techniques of Situational Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.popcenter.org/library/25%20techniques%20grid.pdf
Clarke, R.V. And Eck, J.E. (n.d.) Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Retrieved from: http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/PDFs/60steps.pdf
Crime in America.net (2011, Feb 22). Top 10 Factors Contributing to Violent Crime. Retrieved from: http://www.crimeinamerica.net/2011/02/22/top-10-factors-contributing-to-violent-crime/
The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.
In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.
These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…
Bruce C.W. Crime Analysis. 16 October 2007. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:Rv5FYusFZ4gJ:www.iaca.net/ExploringCA/exploringca_chapter1.pdf+importance+of+analysis+of+crime&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ukFundamentalsof
Keel, R. (2004) Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory.
Retrieved October 17, 2007. from the University of Missouri. Web site. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html
Overview of Labelling Theories. October 16, 2007. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/labeling.htm
Forensic Sciences in the USA and the United Kingdom
Over the last two decades, the forensic science has assisted in producing valuable evidence that has contributed to a successful conviction and prosecution of criminals and exoneration of innocent citizens. Typically, an advanced in forensic science and DNA technology have been a great assistance for law enforcement agency for an identification and prosecution of criminals. In the United States and the UK, many cases that have been formally unsolved have now been solved based on the great assistance of the forensic science investigators. (National esearch Council, 2009). Forensics or forensic science is a field of investigation drawing different scientific disciplines in law, criminal and civil services. This practice requires an application of scientific knowledge, quantitative, qualitative and empirical skills to collect and analyze data that will assist in presenting evidence in a tribunal or court of law. However, the method the…
Butler, J.M. (2015). U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 18: 4 -- 20.
Goulka, J.E. Matthies, C. Steinberg, P. (2010). Toward a Comparison of DNA Profiling and Databases in the United States and England. Technical report (Rand Corporation).
House of Common (2013). Forensic Science. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee.
Mallett, X. & Evison, M.P. (2013). Forensic Facial Comparison: Issues of Admissibility in the Development of Novel Analytical Technique. J Forensic Sci, 58 (4):859-865.
Crime Intelligence Analysis:
To Apprehend And Prevent Violent Crimes And Criminals
Corrections/Police -- Intelligence
Criminal Intelligence Analysis is used to handle all kinds of violent crimes happening in the world. Organized violent crimes include corruption (bribery), extortion, alcohol and tobacco smuggling, counterfeiting, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, fraud, loan sharking, gambling (bookmaking and numbers), smuggling of humans, prostitution and pornography, murder and terrorism. This white paper discusses how crime intelligence analysis can be used effectively to apprehend violent criminals and to prevent violent crimes.
Crime Intelligence Analysis is defined by Dr. achel Boba in Problem Analysis in Policing, 2003, "conducted within the police agency [and] in which formal criminal justice theory, research methods, and comprehensive data collection and analysis procedures are used in a systematic way to conduct in-depth examination of, develop informed responses to, and evaluate crime and disorder problems" 1.
The organized criminal offenders belong to a low income…
Boba, R. Problem Analysis in Policing. Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2003.
Goldstein, H. Problem-Oriented Policing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA). National Gang Threat Assessment. Scribd. http://www.scribd.com/doc/82294288/National-Gang-Threat-Assessment-2005 (accessed June 3, 2012).
Osborne, D. Out of Bounds: Innovation and Change in Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysis. Washington DC: JMIC Press, 2006.
On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…
Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.
Domes, 19(1), 68-81.
Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.
Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
S. Why or why not? Be specific in your response.
Not necessarily. The NIBS is not designed to provide national coverage (Hirschel, 2009; USDOJ, 2005). In practice, the NIBS does provide a reliable method for estimating the incidence of those types of crimes that are defined similarly in the NIBS and in other data collection methods and in reporting jurisdictions covered by the NIBS. Conversely, the NIBS is a less reliable method to the extent specific crimes are defined differently and to the extent the data collection omits jurisdictions not covered by the NIBS. Typical examples would include the underreporting of robberies and car thefts in the NIBS by virtue of the absence of large urban areas from NIBS reporting jurisdictions (Schmalleger, 2009).
5. Identify the obstacles to law enforcement agencies to full implementation of NIBS data collection protocol.
According to a comprehensive review conducted jointly by the U.S. Department…
Hirschel, D. "Expanding Police Ability to Report Crime" The National Incident-Based
Reporting System." U.S. Department of Justice -- Office of Justice Programs -- National Institute of Justice Doc # NCJ 225459 (July 2009).
Safir, H. (2003). Security: An Inside Look at the Tactics of the NYPD. New York: St.
Crime vs. Sin
A criminal justice agency, specifically the police department relies very heavily on its organization to fulfill its duties to society, which is to protect from crime and to serve justice (Kenney & McNamara, 1999). The justice which is to be served depends on the severity of the offense or crime. Crime is quite a complex subject which can be divided into two different categories: natural crime and legal crime. Only legal crime can be processed/punished by the Criminal Justice System. These are acts which are the direct violation of the law which varies from state to state and country to country (Finnis, 2007). This is known as Mala prohibita, or something which is known as a legal crime which is punishable by the law (Vila & Morris, 1999). Natural crime is something which is not written; it is determined by the society you live in and most…
Bronsteen, J., Buccafusco, C., & Masur, J.. (2010). Retribution and the Experience of Punishment. California Law Review, 98(5), 1463. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from Criminal Justice Periodicals.
Conlon, B., Harris, S., Nagel, J., Hillman, M., & Hanson, R. (2008). Education: Don't Leave Prison Without It. Corrections Today, 70 (1); 48-49, 51-52.
Davis, M.S. (2006). Crimes Mala in Se: An Equity-Based Definition: Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17 (3) 270-289. Sage Publications, 2006.
Finnis, J. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Natural Law Theories. Retrieved February 4, 2010, form web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/natural-law-theories/
In other words, there is a preoccupation with repeat offenders and the first time offenders seem to get less severe penalties. As crime levels continue to rise although the media tends to report the opposite, citizens seem more dedicated to getting even first time offenders off of the streets.
Carlsmith, Kevin J., Darley, John M., & obinson, Paul H. (2002). Why Do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as Motives for Punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 2, 284-299.
Curry, Theodore ., Lee, Gang, & odriquez, S. Fernando (2004). Does Victim Gender Increase Sentencing Severity? Further Explorations of Gender Dynamics and Sentencing Outcomes. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 50 No. 3, 319-343.
Saks, Michael J. (1989). Legal Policy Analysis and Evaluation. American Psychological Association, Vol. 44 No. 8, 1110-1117.
Sanders, Trevor, & oberts, Julian V. (2000). Public Attitudes Toward Conditional Sentencing: esults of a National Survey.…
Carlsmith, Kevin J., Darley, John M., & Robinson, Paul H. (2002). Why Do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as Motives for Punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 2, 284-299.
Curry, Theodore R., Lee, Gang, & Rodriquez, S. Fernando (2004). Does Victim Gender Increase Sentencing Severity? Further Explorations of Gender Dynamics and Sentencing Outcomes. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 50 No. 3, 319-343.
Saks, Michael J. (1989). Legal Policy Analysis and Evaluation. American Psychological Association, Vol. 44 No. 8, 1110-1117.
Sanders, Trevor, & Roberts, Julian V. (2000). Public Attitudes Toward Conditional Sentencing: Results of a National Survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, Vol. 32 No. 4, 199-207.
Just from looking at the way these crime statistics compare to those of other similar-sized cities, it would be reasonable to assume that eaverton is slightly more affluent than average. The rate and type of crime is skewed more towards the profit-driven types of crime and less to those that are generally associated with "fits of passion," gang behavior, and drug use (especially murder and robbery).
The fact that eaverton keeps it crime rates so low with only one hundred and twenty officers (and twenty-nine civilians) is also a testament to the area's probable affluence. A comparison of this number to the number of officers in other cities makes it clear why crime is kept so low -- they have one of the highest number of officers per capita of any city in Oregon. For this reason, it seems reasonable to surmise that an adequate number of law enforcement officers…
Beaverton compares well in other areas of violent and irreversible crime, too. The eighteen forcible rapes and thirty robberies that occurred in 2006 show that, though not perfect, Beaverton's a relatively safe city in which to live, especially when compared wit other cities of comparable size. The town of Bend for instance, with a population almost twenty thousand people smaller than that of Beaverton, has higher rates in all of the violent crimes discussed so far: murder, rape, and robbery. Beaverton seems poised and able to effectively combat such violent crimes in a way that leaves other cities far behind.
Their record is less stellar in the area of non-violent crimes, however. It appears to be about average when it comes to instances of property crime and arson, and has higher rates of burglary and larceny and theft, too. Just from looking at the way these crime statistics compare to those of other similar-sized cities, it would be reasonable to assume that Beaverton is slightly more affluent than average. The rate and type of crime is skewed more towards the profit-driven types of crime and less to those that are generally associated with "fits of passion," gang behavior, and drug use (especially murder and robbery).
The fact that Beaverton keeps it crime rates so low with only one hundred and twenty officers (and twenty-nine civilians) is also a testament to the area's probable affluence. A comparison of this number to the number of officers in other cities makes it clear why crime is kept so low -- they have one of the highest number of officers per capita of any city in Oregon. For this reason, it seems reasonable to surmise that an adequate number of law enforcement officers exists in Beaverton. Though more could be added to the patrol in an attempt to curb the burglaries and thefts that seem so prevalent in the area, the added effectiveness would probably be very little, and would almost certainly not be worth the added cost to the city. Crime is an unfortunate by-product of a society; it will always exist to one degree or another. Extra law enforcement officers are not necessary and might actually be a burden in the community of Beaverton, Oregon.
In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.
When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…
Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.
Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.
GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from: http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp
Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.
Crime a Socially Constructed
One's conduct or deeds turn into a crime or an offence via a progression of societal or communal conditioning. The same deed can be regarded as wrong in one community and act of valor in another or in the same community at a different point in time. The lawful status of a deed-whether it is an offense-does not depend on its substance, but on the communal reaction to that deed or to the individual who does it (osenfeld, 2009). Shifts in the lawful status of a particular deed can be due to communal changes or may be part of serious communal differences. The latest debates and confrontations over assisted suicide and abortion policy are two fine examples in the U.S. Lastly, the communal reaction to crime, social science theories on illegal behavior included, is founded on the significance of the deed and also the communal and…
Rosenfeld, R. (2009). The Social Construction of Crime . Available: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0050.xml . Last accessed 9 Mar, 2015.
Henry. (2009). Social Construction of Crime. Available: http://www.sagepub.com/haganintrocrim8e/study/chapter/handbooks/42347_1.2.pdf . Last accessed 9 Mar 2015.
Crime of Conspiracy
The recent case whereby criminal charges were imposed in Aaron Swartz caused frenzy throughout the country. In my perspective, a criminal penalty was essential for this case. Swartz had announced he would be committed to opposing the law as a moral impervious to invalidate the federal laws in existence for information access effectively. In this case, one decided to disobey the law intentionally, just because he wanted to achieve a goal in an anti-democratic policy way and there is a display by both deeds and words that he will precede. It is very deliberate for the criminal law with its power to enforce a penalty under the law that the individual violated intentionally. In actual sense, the law is the fact about civil disobedience: the main function of the punishment is to focus on the same law deemed unjust. As was in this case, I think the…
Samaha, J. (2011). Criminal Law (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Gillies, P. (2009). The law of criminal conspiracy. Sydney: Federation Press
Rowlett, C. (2005). Labyrinth 13: True tales of the occult, crime, & conspiracy. United States:
Crime in Literature
Capitalizing on Elastic Computing
Aside from its potential to integrate and aggregate a host of resources and technologies, Cloud Computing can most prominently benefit the enterprise through the enabling of Elastic Computing.
Elastic Computing is the utilization of the Cloud's nearly limitless scalability to provision resources on demand and at scale without conventional architectural concerns associated with doing so on-premise such as:
Scaling Up and Down -- In physical environments, substantially adding or subtracting resources requires reconfiguring one's architecture to do so -- which is time consuming. Moreover, it is possible that after reconfiguring architecture to scale up, scaling back down again can require even more time than the former process, if doing so is even possible.
Storage -- Storage in on-premise environments is significantly more costly than Cloud-based storage, and was the principle reason that the philosophy of minimizing data within a physical warehouse was derived…
Resources -- The degree of specificity for changing and manipulating the various resources to power the database enables users to dedicate particular amounts to computing and storage, which allows them to issue queries while loading the database.
Automation -- Snowflake Elastic Data Warehouse can automate various aspects of data warehouse management (copying data, tuning performances, or spreading data across the system) and assist end users in these processes as they go, instead of involving database administrators or other IT personnel.
The initial explosion of Big Data largely involved Hadoop as a means of accessing semi-structured and unstructured data, and came to result in organizations attempting to utilize it as an integration hub for their proprietary, on premise data and those that were otherwise. When compared with Hadoop, Snowflake Elastic Data Warehouse is a native relational environment as opposed to the former. This fact accounts for an expedience and ease of integration, in addition to querying and optimization that requires less effort and resources than the latter does. These same factors limit Hadoop's efficacy with transactional data, although Hadoop is open source and is much more cost-effective than a traditional database. Still, it is not a data warehouse.
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
Most likely, it was secondary data -- that is, analysis -- that led to these houses' placement on the map.
There are several elements that could be useful to this map that are not included. For example, the division of the community into different areas (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) might provide some more clues to the rate/placement of the burglaries. Similarly, median incomes/home prices for each given area might be important elements. There is very little about the map that is not pertinent, however; though there appears to be little relation between the burglaries and the location of suspected drug houses, this is important to know and recognize, and leaving the drug houses off the map would eliminate this knowledge. Other information that could usefully be included in this map includes some basic details about the individual burglaries -- whether cars were broken into or left unlocked (especially important in…
Policing Policies Analysis
This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.
Zero tolerance Policing
Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…
Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2008). The SAGE Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage Publications.
Palmiotto, M. (2009). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.
Do-lling, D. (2013). Community policing: Comparative aspects of community oriented police work. Holzkirchen/Obb: Felix.
Ikerd, T.E. (2007). Examining the institutionalization of problem-oriented policing: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg police department as a case study.
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…
Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved: http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf
Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:
Crime analysis and crime investigation are the methods by which criminologists study and prevent crime. Violent crimes pose multiple dangers to the public. Violent crimes are often complex and require resources to understand how the crime was committed. Criminology studies not only how crimes are committed, but also the study of the criminal behaviors and personalities of the criminals who commit violent crimes. Criminology has been made exceptionally popular in the late 20th century and early 21st century in many television dramas. The increase in attention to criminology and criminologists has influence the interest in criminology as well as influence the development of criminologists' tools and methods. This paper will examine the violent crime of murder briefly and offer insight as to methods by which the crime can be analyzed.
Criminologists studying murders and murderers absolutely use prescriptive interviews. Interviewing murderers has become part and parcel of…
Kiefer, M. (2010, August 4). New 'Baseline Killer' details emerge Tuesday in court testimony. The Arizona Republic. Available from
"The Manson Snyder Interviews." Web. Available from
Strategic, Tactical and Administrative Crime Analysis
Crime analysis is one of the most important processes in the fight against crime and efforts towards enhancing the effectiveness of the criminal justice system in dealing with crime. In the past few years, crime analysis has continued to expand in law enforcement agencies across the globe. This expansion has contributed to the development and use of different methods of crime analysis including strategic, tactical, and administrative strategic analysis. These techniques of crime analysis are utilized when examining different crime incidents and resolve them. This paper provides a review of different crime incidents using different techniques of crime analysis and an analysis of the various factors of crime in these incidents.
Review of the Crime Incidents
When reviewing these incident summaries, the type of analysis being conducted is tactical crime analysis whose main focus is to promote the short-term development of patrol, investigative priorities,…
(and please do not forget to include a reference!)
What are some benefits of focusing crime prevention efforts on places instead of people? How does crime analysis relate to this practice?
Crime prevention efforts focused upon 'place' are founded upon an idea that the environment gives rise to crime, rather than a failure of an individual's will. By creating an environment not conducive to crime that is heavily patrolled by police and neighborhood watch units, for example, there can be potential improvement of the crime rate, not simply more persons convicted of crimes. This requires the analysis of high risk areas for crime in particular city districts. This concept heavily underlines the UK approach called 'neighbourhood policing,' "a truly local policing style: local people working with local police and partners to identify and tackle issues of concern in their neighbourhood" (About safer neighbourhoods, 2014, Metropolitan Police). The approach taken…
Greek, C. (2005). The classical school. Criminal Theory Homepage. Retrieved:
Strategic, Tactical, and Administrative Crime Analysis
The type of analysis that is being performed when reviewing the incident summaries is tactical, as the crimes are all committed within a few weeks of one another in the same region and the aim of the review is to provide “information to assist operational personnel in the identification of crime trends and in the arrest of criminal offenders” (Beaverton Police, 2018).
As Bruce and Santos (2011) point out, a crime series is “a group of similar crimes thought to be committed by the same individual or group of individuals acting in concert” (p. 3). As these three robberies bear striking similarities to one another, the robberies may be considered a crime series. For example, the perpetrators were wearing the same masks in each case, took the same kind of cigarettes as well as cash, and in two of the three cases the same type of…
Actus Reus may be the most essential element involved in deciding what exactly makes up a crime. Most commonly defined as a voluntary act or an omission of an act, actus reus is one of the most objective elements in determining whether a crime has been committed since its result ( typically some form of injury to another or a group of people) is what largely comprises criminal activity. To fully understand the scope of actus reus, deliberate attention must be given to what exactly constitutes an act, or a criminal omission of an act.
In order for an actus reus to be linked to a crime it must be voluntary, meaning the accused must be aware of what is being done. An act can be any type of voluntary human behavior, and generally takes the form of some sort of physical movement which a person is conscious of.…
1. Emanuel, S. (1997). Criminal Law [Google Books version]. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=PTH_8p6kriIC&pg=RA1-PA55&lpg=RA1-PA55&dq=harmful+result+causation&source=bl&ots=ZFDKqB0Ooj&sig=Wa3lyg1tncsD86Df08kLpctHhns&hl=en#v=onepage&q=harmful%20result%20causation&f=false
2. Elements of a Crime. (n.d.). In Sask Schools (4th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/law30/criminal/lesson6/6a.html
The broken windows concept likely did contribute to crime reduction in New York City; the fact that a specific focus on "quality-of-life" and nuisance crimes roughly coincided with the introduction of Compstat makes it even harder to credit each with its specific effects, much less exclusively.
3. The Ethics of Civilian Field Research in Policing:
In principle, there is nothing unethical about observing public servant at work with their knowledge. However, numerous ethical issues can and do arise, including multiple elements of confidentiality, safety, and several different aspects of fairness to officers, members of the public, and arrestees. Most of those ethical issues are directly and effectively addressable through specific guidelines and protocols. Therefore, civilian research observation of police officers in the field can be conducted ethically to…
The common characteristics of all property crimes
Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective…
Offenders: Alex and Derek King (12 and 13 when they killed their father)
Theory: Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control
One basic premise of the Age-Graded criminology and informal social control theory was that, whilst experiences of childhood and personality traits are vital to comprehending behavioral stability, teenage and adulthood experiences can readdress criminal paths either more negatively or positively. Laub and Sampson discovered, particularly, that marital relationships and employment stability were a key factor in adult criminal change. With increased strength of familial and workplace bonds, deviancy and criminality in the non-delinquent control group as well as in criminals decreased. Further, Laub and Sampson looked keenly into qualitative narratives' ability to facilitate a more individual-centered life course examination. According to them, narratives of life history, together with quantitative techniques may be utilized for creating a more complete and richer image of why certain adult males…
crime doesn't pay sometimes is a whole point which can't be applicable, especially when you're trusted with the management of multi-billion dollar corporation, and to be in charge of the well -- being of thousand of people. It's so difficult to criminalize someone's action, if such action doesn't cause any harm to anyone or if someone doing a lot of critical charity works. The case of Richard M. crushy can be described as one of the most important scenario which can acts as one of the success stories, showing how far most of these business ethnical values can be abused to hurt everyone for a period of time. As stated by Jennings (2012) in his book "Business Ethnics Class" unethical practices can only last for a short time, and nothing helpful can be found out of it.
However, the carpenter teachings regarding people who do not pursue wisdom that are…
Sense of entitlement
Jennings (2004a) identified that many corporate cultures are less concerned about their fraud because of their philanthropic endeavors. These good works seem to blind them to their culpability and cause them to both "overestimate their ability and underestimate the risk of being found out" (p. 17). This sense of entitlement constitutes two of the factors that Jennings identifies as "Wild West behaviors" (p. 13) that are common to organizations that ethically collapse; A "culture of innovation like no other" and a "culture of social responsibility" (p. 17). She notes that "the attitude develops slowly as the other factors of iconic status and high levels of success consume the individual right up to a feeling of invincibility" (p. 17). This is amply demonstrated in the behavior of Richard Scrushy, who despite all of the evidence arrayed against him continues to proclaim his innocence of any wrong doing.
Jennings (2004b) identified common red flags that would point to corporate counsel that an investigation into the accounting of the firm might be in order. She indicated that in HealthSouth's case legal counsel "fits the inaction mold" (p. 45), and "like executives at WorldCom, Enron, and Tyco, executives at HealthSouth, particularly Scrushy, lived lavish lives" (p. 46). She concludes that "the presence of many elaborate perks is a red flag all can see" (p. 46). It is these perks that, according to Neeley & Boyd (2010) "encourage[s] executives to take excessive risk with other people's money" (p. 548).
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…
Stu Dents Charges
The author of this report has been asked to revisit the case of Stu Dents and the litany of crimes he is alleged to have committed against Uma Opee and in general. There is indeed a laundry list of issues to be seen and charges when it comes to Stu Dents and they will be listed out within this report. Each crime that applies will be listed and there will also be the associated act and detail that supports Stu Dents being charged with the crime. For all of the crimes listed, there will be an associated state that Stu will be charged within. While Stu and his counsel might be able to make some arguments for some of the crimes, the case against him is rather formidable and there are a number of different charges that definitely apply to Stu and what he allegedly did.
New York. (2017). Article 135 | Penal Law | Kidnapping Imprisonment Custodial. Ypdcrime.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/article135.htm
New York. (2017). Article 140 | NYS Penal Law |Burglary Criminal Trespass Laws. Ypdcrime.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/article140.htm
New York. (2017). Article 220 | NY Penal Law | Controlled Substances Offenses. Ypdcrime.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/article220.htm
The constant battle with violent crime is a perplexing problem for those designated to solve these types of problems. This frustrating cycle of failure and success seems to adopt the mantra, "one step forward, two steps back" in its purest sense. As gains are made it is important to understand the root causes of these results in order to better adapt the ever changing environment that creates new problems in this type of battle.
Zimmerman's (2007) case study investigated this struggle within the city of Boston, MA. In this research he described a story of great success through the help of community involvement as violent crime rates and homicides drastically reduced when this method was applied. Unfortunately, the gains were soon lost after a distorted strategy led the leadership awry.
The purpose of this essay is to explore this case study, and apply the research to the current…
Travis, L.F., III. (1983). The case study in criminal justice research: Applications to policy analysis.Criminal Justice Review (Georgia State University), 8(2), 46 -- 51. EBSCO Permalink: http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=14236432&site=eds-live
Wahyuni, D. (2012). The research design maze: Understanding paradigms, cases, methods and methodologies.Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research, 10(1), 69 -- 80. EBSCO Permalink: http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=76405928&site=eds-live
Scott, E., & Zimmerman, P. (2007). Revisiting gang violence in Boston.Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Available from http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/web/product_detail.seam?E=3458242&R=HKS329-PDF-ENG&conversationId=192877
The History of Crime and Punishment in the United States
1. What is the time period of your trial?
The time period of this trial is the year 1904. The defendant was tried on March 15, 1904 and indicted on November 13, 1904.
2. What is the crime on trial? Provide a brief summary.
The crime on trial is for false registration, an election offense. In the early 20th century in New York, election fraud was a serious issue and Teddy Roosevelt as a member of the Board of Commissioners at the end of the 19th century in New York had pledged to crack down on election fraud because of the stronghold on the voting process held by Tammany Hall. Thus, this trial emerged just a few short years after that crackdown began as an example of the type of issues the city was having. This case in particular centered…
Honeypot and Honeynet Emerging Technologies
In the present IT environment, individuals and businesses are becoming more dependent an open network that includes the Internet where business transactions, government services and commercial activities are realized. However, the use of open network has led to the development of new information security issues and cyber threats that are being utilized by the cyber criminals. Thus, a mistrust in computer network technologies and telecommunications can affect socio-economic of global enterprises, an increase in the complexity of network infrastructures and communication lead to an increased demand for a new approach to cybersecurity.
Essentially, the threats in the cyber security landscapes are continuously evolving. The reactive and traditional security measures are no more sufficient to protect cyber information infrastructures. Thus, honeypots are the new emerging technology tools focusing in the areas of network forensics and network security, which is effective in enhancing network security of an…
Clark, D., Berson, T., & Lin, H.S. (2014). At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues. Washington. National Academies Press.
Sokol, P. Misek, J. & Husak, M. (2017). Honeypots and honeynets: issues of privacy. EURASIP Journal on Information Security. 4.
maintain complete and current study site files? Provide examples of how this documentation benefits the study and explain how it does so.
The lack of adequate, accurate and reliable source of documentation is a common finding in an investigator site inspection. It is also a commonly identified pitfall in the course of the sponsoring audits. The significance of the practice of good documentation demands emphasis on the investigator sites and towards the surety that the results of the study are a basis for the validity and credibility of the data. At a single site in question, recently, the source documents of an investigator site were unavailable due to the fact that the source machine containing the information had 'crashed'. Therefore, the evaluation of the record's adequacy was altered when availability was not a factor. The failure warning was therefore directed towards the investigator as the records to be maintained could…
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2008). Information sheet guidance for sponsors, clinical investigators, and IRBs: Frequently asked questions-Statement of the Investigator (Form FDA 1572). Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/FDA-2008-D-0406-gdl.pdf
Bargaje, C. (2011). Good documentation practice in clinical research. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 2(2), 59-63. http://doi.org/10.4103/2229-3485.80368
Employment Law Is as Important as Knowledge of Criminal Law to the Security Manager
EMPLOYMENT LAW IS AS IMPOTANT AS CIMINAL LAW
The role of a security manager requires diversity; they are required to oversee a department in order to reduce theft, fraud and make sure an organization's assets are well protected. At the same time, the managers enforce the company's policy and procedures. Mostly, the managers are expected to wear their "human resources hat" to be able to understand the rights and welfare of their co-workers. This, together with the direct line reports, enables them to work within the codes of practice while maintaining a professional working relationship. Therefore, it's crucial for the security manager to generally understand the employment law, especially in those areas that directly relate to their role. The knowledge is critical whilst dealing with issues or situations that may arise with regards to other employees.…
Ashworth A and Redmayne M, (2010), The Criminal Process (4th ed, Oxford: OUP).
De Barnier V, (2014), "Chapter 16: Counterfeiting: The challenges for governments, companies and consumers, in Gill M, The Handbook of Security, Edition Palgrave Handbook, ISBN: 9781137323279
Hall M, (2009) Victims of Crime: Policy and Practice in Criminal Justice (Cullompton: Willan).
Herring J, (2014), CRIMINAL LAW: Text, Cases, and Materials, SIXTH EDITION, Oxford University Press
Songs of Sorrow
"The Sorrow Songs" is a message that is related to the spirituality of the African-American people. In summary, Dubois gives what he perceives as a message of the African-American people, which is that of hope, not only in that particular time period, but also subsequent generations. Without doubt, African-Americans have made a substantial contribution as to what the United States is as a nation. This, in particular, does not take into account the work that the African-American partook and accomplished for the economy of the United States while being slaves, or the influences of African-American playwrights and originators as significant as all that was. Instead, this takes into account the manner in which the African-Americans' struggle for freedom and liberties instigated by the United States to extensively analyze its morals and epitomes. More so, this caused the United States to question itself, whether it actually was the…
Craven. J. (2014). Please don't tell me all lives matter. Huffington Post. Retrieved 30 November 2015 from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/julia-craven/please-stop-telling-me-th_b_6223072.html
Du Bois. (1903). The Souls of Black Folk; Essays and Sketches. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1903.
Gooding-Williams, R. (2009). In the Shadow of Du Bois. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Massey, J., Tenhoor, M., Korsh, S. (2015). Introduction: Black Lives Matter. Aggregate Organization. Retrieved 30 November 2015 from: http://we-aggregate.org/piece/black-lives-matter
Crime Data Sources in the United States
The collection of crime data in the United States is carried out through different approaches including Uniform Crime eports and the National Incident-Based eporting System, which also act as the two primary sources of crime data for crime reporting. The data obtained from these sources are used for research and documentation of crime status at the county, state, and national levels. Notably, the National Incident-Based eporting System emerged as an advancement of the conventional summary of Uniform Crime eports that were used to track crime in the country. In addition, the Congress uses data from these sources together with those from the National Crime Victimization Survey to guide policy decisions and create suitable responses to crime. While the use of these sources helps in dealing with crime in the United States, they have some similarities and differences between them with regards to methodological…
Addington, L.A. (2008, February). Assessing the Extent of Nonresponse Bias on NIBRS
Estimates of Violent Crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
"Data Collection Guidelines." (2000, August). National Incident-Based Reporting System.
Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website: https://www.fortworthpd.com/docmgmt/NIBRS_Volume1_Major_Differences.pdf
Crime ates by egions
The FBI document the crimes that are experienced across the U.S.A. By recording and tabulating the crimes bot only by the number of people arrested but more significantly by the number of arrests that are made and the type of crime that prompted the arrest. This is a more accurate procedure since it helps in cases of multiple arrests of the same person within a year that may also be prompted by different crimes each time of subsequent arrest.
The paper is predominantly on the crime rates within four states; Northeast, Midwest, South and West within the year 2009 according to the data found in the FBI official website. An analysis of the crime rates and the reasons behind the variance in crime rates is also of essence here.
In 2009, Northeast experienced 1,624,285 crimes that were charged in the courts and this represented 3,625.2 crime…
Federal Bureau of Investigation, (2010). Number and Rate of Arrests by Region, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from https://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/data/table_30.html
Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services, (2010). Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Literature Reviews Volume 5, Chapter 4: Social Disorganization Theory. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/youthandthelaw/roots/volume5/chapter04_social_disorganization.aspx
The author of this report is to compare and contrast two different areas from a crime rate standpoint. The current rates of crime for different crime types will be assessed as well as the change in those rates from year to year. The two cities that will be compared are New York and Detroit. While there is good and bad news for both of those jurisdictions vis-a-vis their crime rates, the trends for both are noticeably different and the underlying reasons for these variations and trends are not hard to surmise about, although it is hard to be definitive due to the complexity of the cities' respective situations and dynamics. While it is hard to be exhaustive and to make conclusions with certitude, it is clear that the towns are moving in different directions but there are opportunity costs for the good things and downsides to any solution…
FBI. (2013, May 8). Federal Bureau of Investigation. FBI. Retrieved April 10, 2014, from http://www.fbi.gov
FoxNews.com. (2013, July 20). How did Detroit fall into the abyss?. Fox News.
Retrieved April 10, 2014, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/07/20/how -
Crime and Punishment
Ours is an extremely violent kind of world where even the most common type of folk can find themselves faced with types of unspeakable horrors and criminal activity through little or no intention of their own. In American literature, a common theme is the concept of the freedom of choice and how a person's choices come to affect not only themselves, but all of the people around them. Some of the choices that people, and their literary counterparts, make lead them to crime. It is the purpose of the American justice system to ensure that crimes are punished. However, in literature, that is not always the case. Crime in the American judicial sense is activity which violates the laws of the United States of America. In literature, these are not always the crimes that the authors feel deserve punishment. Three specific stories which deal with crime and…
Andrews, William L., Frances Smith. Foster, and Trudier Harris. The Concise Oxford
Companion to African-American Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 2001. Print.
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." 1957. Print.
Bandy, Stephen C. "One of my Babies: The Misfit and the Grandmother." 2011. Print.
Measurement of Crime and Crime Theories
Crime is perhaps one of the most widespread problems in society today. It can take any form, and range in violence, which is what, perhaps, adds to the danger aspect. However, crime not only affects the victim, but also the perpetrator. In order to truly understand how one views crime, one must not only understand how crime is seen by society, but also how it impacts and how it is impacted by the perpetrators and those mixed within it. This paper will thus analyze research that has assessed the effects of crime and especially of juvenile involvement in the justice system during high school education, and the outcomes of this involvement, in order to see how crime can affect a population, how it can be measured, and what theories can be drawn from the research about crime and criminal activities.
According to the…
Sweeten thus wants his study to take these into account, which is why he decides to draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey, which is administered by the Bureau of Labor Statistic. According to Sweeten, the purpose of this is to minimize weaknesses and oversampling of disadvantaged youth. Sweeten also makes sure to measure various sample populations in order to minimize weaknesses. One such example is that Sweeten utilized a "sampling weight," which was utilized in all analysis to ensure there is no bias. In this method, youths were asked a number of questions that ranged from what kind of delinquent involvement they were involved in, and how they grew up.
Sweeten's documentation of his study, as well as the tables presenting his findings only strengthen the focus of the study and place it as one of the foremost authorities on the topic. Furthermore, his study focuses strongly on data without bias, which is only reinforcing of his strategies, and of completing the lack of data availability in the topic.
Source: Sweeten, G. (2006). "Who Will Graduate? Disruption of High School Graduation by Arrest and Court Involvement." Justice Quarterly 23(4), pp. 1-20.
Crimes: Attitudes and Perceptions
This study was intended to provide insights into the attitudes and perceptions about crime in the local area. The study focused on the 18 to 25-year-old age group as compared to a 50 to 75-year-old age group. There were ten surveys completed as a representative sample of the local population. The hypothesis was that the older demographic would perceive more crime than the younger generation. The fear of crime has received a considerable amount of attention from the media and researchers alike because it can undermine the quality of life for the individuals that are fearful. Overall, women, older adults, and whites have been found to be more fearful compared to their counterparts and a number of correlates and predictors of fear of crime, such as demographic characteristics, disorder, and prior victimization have also been examined (Gainey, Alper, & Chappell, 2010).
The sample used in the…
Gainey, R., Alper, M., & Chappell, A. (2010). Fear of Crime Revisited: Examining the Direct and Indirect Effects of Disorder, Risk Perception, and Social Capital. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 120-137.
Newport, F. (2009, October 13). In U.S., Two-Thirds Continue to Support Death Penalty. Retrieved from Gallup: http://www.gallup.com/poll/123638/in-u.s.-two-thirds-continue-support-death-penalty.aspx
In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)
It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…
Bushway, Shawn, and Peter Reuter. "Economists' Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." University of Maryland Criminology and Economics. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Democratic Underground Forum." Democratic Underground. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
Drehle, David Von. "What's Behind America's Falling Crime Rate." Time. Time, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Information on Crime, Crime Statistics, Crime Rates, Violent Crime, Crime News, Crime Prevention." Crime in America.Net: Crime, Violent Crime, Criminals, Crime News, Statistics and Research. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
This is coupled by the high unemployment rate and the current recession in the private industry. This means that jobs in the Criminal Intelligence Bureau will still be attractive. This leads to an increase in quality recruitment (Tita, Troshynski & Graves, 2007).
Threats: terrorism has become a permanent and global disaster. This has taken a huge chunk of quality human resource within the Criminal Intelligence Bureau.
The organizational strategy
The Criminal Intelligence Bureau has a strategic plan founded on four pillars. The criminal intelligence personnel form the first pillar. From this pillar, the Criminal Intelligence Bureau intends to heighten the national criminal intelligence through devoting resources to cultivate intelligence expertise and equipment to pull talent in the intelligence industry through the Criminal Intelligence Bureau hiring policies (Fijnaut, 2011).
Secondly, the Criminal Intelligence Bureau aims at providing support to intelligence personnel via directions given by the leadership of the organization. The…
Fijnaut, C. (2011). Organized crime and its containment: A transatlantic initiative. Deventer u.a: Kluwer Law and Taxation.
Levinson, D. (2012). Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Tita, G., Troshynski, E. & Graves, M. (2007). Strategies for reducing gun violence: The role of gangs, drugs, and firearm accessibility. Ottawa, Ont: National Crime Prevention Centre.
Todd, P. & Jonathan, B. (2008). Global Intelligence: The World's Secret Services Today. Dhaka: University
e. D (0), the cost of fighting crime / proportion of corrections i.e. C (P0) and the crimes / social costs / negative impacts on to offender i.e. FO. These different elements are important, because the combination of them is helping us to understand the total impact of crime and punishment on the economy.
As a result, these different factors are used in a basic formula to comprehend the effects of social phenomenon and crime on the economy. elow is the equation that is used to objectively evaluate what is occurring.
L (social / economic impact) = D (0) + C (P0) + FO
This formula is important, because it is providing us with a basic strategy that can be used to objectively evaluate the how crime and punishment are impacting society. Once this occurs, is when we can see the total economic impact of this on communities and the…
Becker, Gary. "Crime and Punishment." The Journal of Political Economy 76.2 (1968), 169 -- 217. Print.
Community Safety and Crime eduction: An Evaluation of the ole of New Technology
ecent technological advances have effectively changed the way we conduct business, secure our borders, fight our wars, diagnose diseases, etc. Indeed, thanks to advances in technology, the world as we know it today looks very different from the world of yesteryears. The fact that technology continues to have a significant impact on almost every facet of our lives is undeniable. One of the areas in which recent advances in technology remains most visible is security. Today, unlike two or three decades ago, there are a wide range of hi-tech security devices that have been specifically developed to help in fighting crime. From CCTV cameras to alarm systems to GPS tracking and even software designed to examine online chat records, the fight against crime has surely gone high-tech. It is however important to note that the utilization of…
Alarid, L.F. And Carmen, R.V.D., 2010. Community-Based Corrections. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Barak, G., 2007. Battleground: Criminal Justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 2012. Latest Crime Stats: Annual Crime in the U.S. Report Released. [online] Available at: <
history of crime measurement as well as the major strengths and limitations of current measurement techniques. I have also included the discussion regarding the importance of crime measurement in criminology. In the end, I have put emphasis on the need of the development of more crime measurement techniques.
The measurement of crime is done with the objective of monitoring and this is mostly done in the same manner as the measurement of "consumer prices, stock market activity, traffic fatalities, population, unemployment, and HIV infection rates" (Maxfield & Babbie, 2011). However, much more is done in measuring the crime instead of just counting things. An assortment of societal, fiscal, geographic, and medical concerns is measured for keeping a record of communal and monetary conditions, population size, age distribution and hazards to physical well-being of the people. Similarly, crime measurement has the main concern of keeping track of criminal behavior so that…
Advantages of Incident-Based Reporting Over Summary Reporting. (n.d.). Justice Research and Statistics Association. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://www.jrsa.org/ibrrc/background-status/advantages.shtml
Brown, S.E., Esbensen, F., & Geis, G. (2013). Criminology: Explaining Crime and Its Context (8thth ed.). Waltham: Anderson Publishing (Elsevier Inc.). Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=brRgAYhyhsoC&pg=PA82&dq=NIBRS+limitations&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0R0MUZePBs7Y4QTogoCQAQ&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=NIBRS%20limitations&f=false
Manual on Victimization Surveys. (2010). Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/Manual_on_Victimization_surveys_2009_web.pdf
Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2011).Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=-Z_xfTn1hT8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Research+Methods+for+Criminal+Justice+and+Criminology&hl=en&sa=X&ei=McwOUfO7PLCV0QXx0oDIBg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
The table below summarizes the relationship between the variables and measures that will be used for the study:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following major crimes:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following minor crimes:
Profile/Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondent
Personal annual income
Access to mass media
Viewing behavior of TV crime programs
Kind of TV crime programs usually watch
Frequency of watching TV crime programs
Duration of crime TV-watching
Personal concern for crime and public safety
Self-ratings on attitude statements about the respondent's level of concern about issues concerning crime and public safety
Units of Analysis
Primary units of analysis will be the students and staff members in the Hong Kong University (HKU). There will be no restrictions on…
Bollhofer, B. (2006). "Screenscapes': placing TV series in their contexts of production, meaning and consumption." Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 98, No. 2.
Hennigan, K., L. Heath, and J. Wharton. (1982). "Impact of the introduction of television on crime in the United States: empirical findings and theoretical implications." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 3.
Holbert, R., D. Shah, and N. Kwak. (2004). "Fear, authority, and justice: crime-related TV viewing and endorsements of capital punishment and gun ownership." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 2.
Yanich, D. (2004). "Crime creep: urban and suburban crime on local TV news." Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 26, No. 5.
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…
SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor
Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
The fear of adolescents and young adults is also being driven by the media's choice to sensationalize events that are actually very isolated in their number, and occurrence.
As Canada continues to grow and its focus on crime continues to change, it is important to understand the freedom that the media has when it comes to what to cover and how to do it.
Crime is rising in Canada in areas that should be a concern to the general public but part of the seeming significant increase is really only increased media coverage for the purpose of getting ratings.
Across the nation teenagers are performing good deeds, getting good grades, becoming Eagle Scouts and moving on to college and careers, yet the public never hears about those teenagers. The media focuses only on what will bring in ratings and that unfortunately includes violent exciting events.
Fear of crime is…
Schissel, Bernard (1997) Youth crime, moral panics, and the news: the conspiracy against the marginalized in Canada. ('moral panic' caused by increased incidence of youth crime in Canada, and young offenders identified as coming from homes led by single mothers and racial minorities)(Reconfiguring Power: Challenges for the 21st Century) Journal of Social Justice
Sprott, Jane B (1996) Understanding public views of youth crime and the youth justice system.(Canada) Canadian Journal of Criminology
Doob, Anthony N. And Julian Roberts 1988 Public punitiveness and public knowledge of the facts: Some Canadian Surveys. In N. Walker and M. Hough (eds.), Public Attitudes to Sentencing. Aldershot: Gower.
The Asian gangs are becoming dominant in many areas of illegal activities, including drug and human trafficking.
The Big Circle Gang
The Big Circle Gang has rapidly become one of the most notorious and successful Chinese gangs in the world. The origins of the group go back to China's ed Guard, and the group has units-based throughout the world, including the U.S. And Canada. The ed Guards carried out Mao Zedong's harassment of China's middle class during his rule in China. After his death in 1976, the ed Guard was dissolved, "many ed Guards were sent to re-education prison camps around the city of Canton -- represented on maps by a big circle, hence the name -- where they were tortured and starved. Having been through this degradation and having military training, they have a fearsome reputation" (Hall, 2005). Many escaped China and relocated to Hong Kong, and then immigrated…
1994). Handbook of organized crime in the United States (R. J. Kelly, K. Chin, & R. Schatzberg, Ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Hall, N. (2005). Big Circle Boys born of Red Guards: Drugs, loansharking among Asian gang's specialties. Retrieved from the Canada.com Web site: http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/specials/websterawards/story.html?id=56ca11d5-f4e6-455a-b686-f7cc9b668c125 May 2007.
Mahlmann, N. (2007). Chinese criminal enterprises. Retrieved from the U.S. State Department Web site: http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive_Index/Chinese_Criminal_Enterprises.html5 May 2007.
Paoli, L. (2003). Mafia brotherhoods: Organized crime, Italian style. New York: Oxford University Press.
The second is the methods of work that must follow a quality certified system.
Overall System Design
Since the work relates to scientific study, a scientific temperament and better equipped laboratory is a must. For each section of the system dealing with major and minor investigations, appropriate equipments, modern electronic gadgets and data processing systems must be provided and they must also be upgraded frequently. The personnel must be trained in the use and proper management of digital forensic laboratories and high technology crime detection and investigation. These must be installed and maintained on turnkey approach. One suggestion is to contract a company which has experience in setting up the lab and turn over the installation to them. For example, the Pyramid Company provides turnkey contracts for setting up such Laboratories and Centres. (Pyramic Cyber, 2012) Such service providers would provide for the commissioning of equipments and tools as specified…
ASCLD/LAB-International (2010) "Program Overview" Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from http://www.ascld-lab.org/documents/AL-PD-3041.pdf
CSTL. (2000) "Quality assurance standards for Forensicnda DNA Testing Laboratories"
Forensic Science Communications, vol. 2, no. 3, Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from http://www.cstl.nist.gov/strbase/QAS/Final-FBI-Director-Forensic-Standards.pdf .
Forensic Access. (2011) "Quality management and quality standards support to the police:
Jewish crime organization as a whole fails to live up to the elements that define organized crime. It certainly is violent, it recruits members, it uses monopolies to retain power, and it is a functional and individual culture. It's firm and unrelenting connection to Israel and Jewish rights, however, raises questions as to whether it is a crime syndicate. Its grounding in the promotion of Jewish rights likens it more to the terrorist groups of today than with the Sicilian mob of the 40s. It uses criminal means to support a national and religious ideology. Either Jewish groups shouldn't be labeled Organized Crime or the definition of that term should be re-examined.
Ebban, Abbas. (1968). My People. The Story of the Jews. New York: Behrman House.
Finckenauer, James O., & Waring, Elin J., (1998). ussian Mafia in America:
immigration, culture, and crime. Boston: Northeaster Uni. Press.
Friedman, Jeanette, (1996).…
Ebban, Abbas. (1968). My People. The Story of the Jews. New York: Behrman House.
Finckenauer, James O., & Waring, Elin J., (1998). Russian Mafia in America:
immigration, culture, and crime. Boston: Northeaster Uni. Press.
Friedman, Jeanette, (1996). Our Dirty Little Secret is No More. Sh'ma, 26/506, Jan. 19,
This creates an environment for criminal organizations where they "... can operate in parallel to existing business and government institutions"
Shaw uses the Soviet Union as a good example of this phenomenon. "...the collapse of communist rule allowed the emergence of literally thousands of criminal organisations involving current and former members of the establishment " (Shaw). As Shaw and others points out, a situation where there are functional links between government and organized crime has parallels in many other regions and countries, particularly in the developing countries of Africa and Asia.
In essence, the changing international stage and the disappearance of boundaries and barriers between counties and nations provide the opportunity for criminal organizations to grow. Furthermore, it also provides for the possibility of greater interaction between criminal organizations and governments that may be dependent on these organizations for certain political and social needs.
Government and organized crime
Attorney general targeting international organized crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-crime24apr24,1,3582903.story
Carter D. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME.
Retrieved April 26, 2008, at http://www1.cj.msu.edu/~outreach/security/orgcrime.html
CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESOURCES: Organized Crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/orgcrime.htm
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at
This is also true of defendants labeled as child molesters -- even if not convicted, the label or suspicion is so insidious, it is difficult for juries or even witnesses to apprehend the facts with an unbiased eye ("In the Supreme Court of the United States," 1990, IPT). There is also a psychological reason for labeling theory, suggested by this example of prejudice -- once a first impression is created, it is difficult to forget that first impression, as all subsequent actions are interpreted in relation to that first negative image or label.
O'Connor, T. (2005). "Labeling theory of crime." Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect12.htm
In the Supreme Court of the United States." (1990). IPT. 2.7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume2/j2_2_7.htm
Resources: framing the issue." (2003). Youth in the Media: McKnight Foundation. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.mcknight.org/hotissues/framing_youth.aspx
O'Connor, T. (2005). "Labeling theory of crime." Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect12.htm
In the Supreme Court of the United States." (1990). IPT. 2.7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume2/j2_2_7.htm
Resources: framing the issue." (2003). Youth in the Media: McKnight Foundation. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.mcknight.org/hotissues/framing_youth.aspx