Technology in Crime Analysis
Technology used in crime analysis
In the contemporary society, there are various crimes that are experienced and in response there have been varied crime analysis techniques that have been employed to ensure the crimes are reduced to the minimum possible.
One of the most accurate and widely applicable technology used in crime reduction is DNA profiling. This involves taking any material like blood, sweat, saliva or even chunks of flesh from the crime scene and subjected to the DNA profiling process and if the VNT (variable number Tandem repeats), which are unique to each individual, are found to be matching to that which is in the database, it is a lead to the possibility of the person having committed the crime or being present at the scene (Shanna Freeman, 2012).
Collecting, storing and retrieving information
For effective crime profiling, there are various ways of data collection…… [Read More]
Introduction: Crime Analysis
The primary purpose of crime analysis is to determine trends or patterns. Identifying trends and patterns helps law enforcement administrators and public officials to direct resources appropriately in order to prevent and respond to crime. There are three types of crime analysis: tactical, strategic, and administrative. Each of these types of crime analysis involves gathering, collecting, and analyzing aggregate crime data. Administrative crime analysis helps municipalities plan their resources, and is especially important for making financial and human resources decisions, as well as evidence-based changes to public policy. Strategic crime analysis helps police departments make their own administrative decisions with the resources they have available, using crime data to distribute human and financial resources accordingly. Finally, tactical crime analyses are for making immediate decisions. While all of these types of crime analysis use data to drive evidence-based decision-making, the data collected will be different for each type…… [Read More]
There is a high rate of violent crime in the United States. The graph shows that the crime is common the United States. Since the year 1973, violent crime has been on the decline. The Uniform Crime eports (UC), the National Incident-Based eporting System (NIBS), and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) provide data on the rate of crime in the country. The three agencies provide the FBI with relevant information about the rate of crime in the United States. The information provided helps the FBI in the fight against crime in the country. With this information, the FBI puts efforts to ensure that crime rates in the country lower.
Violent crime in the United States is common. Many people that have committed this crime are in prison institutions across the state. This has led to the high prison population in the country. Since the year 1973, violent crime…… [Read More]
technology utilized for crime analysis. The methods will also be looked into in addition to the benefits the technology has for investigative authorities and for the community.
Types of Technology Necessary for Crime Analysis
Computer technology has enabled law enforcement officers to implement ticketing systems and record evidence more accurately by logging data directly onto computers, for instance, in the case of speed guns and police vehicle dash camera videos. The individuals given tickets have also been able to save a lot of time by paying for tickets online. In many cases, this saves time, not only for law enforcement officials, but also for the individuals who have been fined, if it is a violation that they have agreed that they have committed. This kind of technology makes it difficult for one to get away with parking, speeding or any other kinds of violations. In cases whereby individuals have been…… [Read More]
An example of a spree killing could be July 22nd, 2011's incident in Norway when Anders Behring Breivik carried out a series of attacks. He first set off a bomb in central Oslo and several hours later went on a shooting rampage "at a youth camp at an island near the capital." ("Oslo Bombings and Utoya Attack") in all, nearly 80 people were killed in the two separate incidents, but since the time between the incidents was relatively short, this is considered a spree killing and not a serial killing. However, a serial killer usually takes their time and commits multiple killings over time with long periods in between individual murders. Gary Leon idgway, the Green iver Killer, is an example of a typical serial killer, and committed a number of murders over a period of time that lasted decades. (McMahon) There were even months and sometimes years between the…… [Read More]
The term signature aspect is used to refer to unique behavior that is exhibited by the criminal that is peculiar to that particular criminal though may not be necessary in committing the crime. One of the most common signature aspects is the calling card, or tattooing of the dead bodies, use of excessive force, leaving notes behind and many more. These are not necessary in killing of victims but are a sign of claiming the crime (John E. Douglas, 2011).
The components of crime classification that I learnt about and are central in the crime classification are finding out the defining characteristics of the crimes and the crime scenes, this will be instrumental in telling the motive behind the crime and in the case of multiple motives, the most outstanding will guide the profiling. The other component is victimology which is the complete history of the victim which will help…… [Read More]
Crime Detection and Prevention
It is an unfortunate fact of modern society that crime and criminal activity are part of our world today. This is particularly the case in situations that make an easy target for criminals. ape and robbery, for example, tend to be encouraged in environments that appear to be easy targets. All-night convenience stores, for example, may appear to be easy targets because they have low security features and often have only one employee per shift. The specific crime under discussion in this case is therefore the night-time robbery of all-night convenience stores.
When considering the factors in the Problem Analysis Chart offered by Clarke and Eck (p. 29), the environment provides a significant incentive for criminal activity. A convenience store at a remote location, for example, might appear to be an "easy" target for robbery. The problem analysis triangle, or crime trianble, may therefore offer valuable…… [Read More]
The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.
In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.
These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…… [Read More]
Forensic Sciences in the USA and the United Kingdom
Over the last two decades, the forensic science has assisted in producing valuable evidence that has contributed to a successful conviction and prosecution of criminals and exoneration of innocent citizens. Typically, an advanced in forensic science and DNA technology have been a great assistance for law enforcement agency for an identification and prosecution of criminals. In the United States and the UK, many cases that have been formally unsolved have now been solved based on the great assistance of the forensic science investigators. (National esearch Council, 2009). Forensics or forensic science is a field of investigation drawing different scientific disciplines in law, criminal and civil services. This practice requires an application of scientific knowledge, quantitative, qualitative and empirical skills to collect and analyze data that will assist in presenting evidence in a tribunal or court of law. However, the method the…… [Read More]
Crime Intelligence Analysis:
To Apprehend And Prevent Violent Crimes And Criminals
Corrections/Police -- Intelligence
Criminal Intelligence Analysis is used to handle all kinds of violent crimes happening in the world. Organized violent crimes include corruption (bribery), extortion, alcohol and tobacco smuggling, counterfeiting, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, fraud, loan sharking, gambling (bookmaking and numbers), smuggling of humans, prostitution and pornography, murder and terrorism. This white paper discusses how crime intelligence analysis can be used effectively to apprehend violent criminals and to prevent violent crimes.
Crime Intelligence Analysis is defined by Dr. achel Boba in Problem Analysis in Policing, 2003, "conducted within the police agency [and] in which formal criminal justice theory, research methods, and comprehensive data collection and analysis procedures are used in a systematic way to conduct in-depth examination of, develop informed responses to, and evaluate crime and disorder problems" 1.
The organized criminal offenders belong to a low income…… [Read More]
On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…… [Read More]
Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.
ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]
Crime ates and Abandoned Buildings
Is there a relationship between crime rates and abandoned buildings?
A vast portion of research on crime and its relation with location is centered at either validating or refuting 'broken window theory'. The theory states that disorders such as graffiti, litter, and broken windows may encourage or cause increase in other disorders and petty crime. The theory by virtue of its title, research objectives, and conclusions does not merit our research question regarding relationship of abandoned building and crime rate. Most policing and preventive efforts for curtailing crime in the U.S. And elsewhere have also been based on broken window theory. Disorder does not imply that any serious crime will take place at a place and serious crimes are neither taking place at littered or disordered places. Policing activities are focused on securing the abandoned buildings and how far is that helped by…… [Read More]
S. Why or why not? Be specific in your response.
Not necessarily. The NIBS is not designed to provide national coverage (Hirschel, 2009; USDOJ, 2005). In practice, the NIBS does provide a reliable method for estimating the incidence of those types of crimes that are defined similarly in the NIBS and in other data collection methods and in reporting jurisdictions covered by the NIBS. Conversely, the NIBS is a less reliable method to the extent specific crimes are defined differently and to the extent the data collection omits jurisdictions not covered by the NIBS. Typical examples would include the underreporting of robberies and car thefts in the NIBS by virtue of the absence of large urban areas from NIBS reporting jurisdictions (Schmalleger, 2009).
5. Identify the obstacles to law enforcement agencies to full implementation of NIBS data collection protocol.
According to a comprehensive review conducted jointly by the U.S. Department…… [Read More]
Crime vs. Sin
A criminal justice agency, specifically the police department relies very heavily on its organization to fulfill its duties to society, which is to protect from crime and to serve justice (Kenney & McNamara, 1999). The justice which is to be served depends on the severity of the offense or crime. Crime is quite a complex subject which can be divided into two different categories: natural crime and legal crime. Only legal crime can be processed/punished by the Criminal Justice System. These are acts which are the direct violation of the law which varies from state to state and country to country (Finnis, 2007). This is known as Mala prohibita, or something which is known as a legal crime which is punishable by the law (Vila & Morris, 1999). Natural crime is something which is not written; it is determined by the society you live in and most…… [Read More]
In other words, there is a preoccupation with repeat offenders and the first time offenders seem to get less severe penalties. As crime levels continue to rise although the media tends to report the opposite, citizens seem more dedicated to getting even first time offenders off of the streets.
Carlsmith, Kevin J., Darley, John M., & obinson, Paul H. (2002). Why Do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as Motives for Punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 2, 284-299.
Curry, Theodore ., Lee, Gang, & odriquez, S. Fernando (2004). Does Victim Gender Increase Sentencing Severity? Further Explorations of Gender Dynamics and Sentencing Outcomes. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 50 No. 3, 319-343.
Saks, Michael J. (1989). Legal Policy Analysis and Evaluation. American Psychological Association, Vol. 44 No. 8, 1110-1117.
Sanders, Trevor, & oberts, Julian V. (2000). Public Attitudes Toward Conditional Sentencing: esults of a National Survey.…… [Read More]
Just from looking at the way these crime statistics compare to those of other similar-sized cities, it would be reasonable to assume that eaverton is slightly more affluent than average. The rate and type of crime is skewed more towards the profit-driven types of crime and less to those that are generally associated with "fits of passion," gang behavior, and drug use (especially murder and robbery).
The fact that eaverton keeps it crime rates so low with only one hundred and twenty officers (and twenty-nine civilians) is also a testament to the area's probable affluence. A comparison of this number to the number of officers in other cities makes it clear why crime is kept so low -- they have one of the highest number of officers per capita of any city in Oregon. For this reason, it seems reasonable to surmise that an adequate number of law enforcement officers…… [Read More]
In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.
When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…… [Read More]
Crime a Socially Constructed
One's conduct or deeds turn into a crime or an offence via a progression of societal or communal conditioning. The same deed can be regarded as wrong in one community and act of valor in another or in the same community at a different point in time. The lawful status of a deed-whether it is an offense-does not depend on its substance, but on the communal reaction to that deed or to the individual who does it (osenfeld, 2009). Shifts in the lawful status of a particular deed can be due to communal changes or may be part of serious communal differences. The latest debates and confrontations over assisted suicide and abortion policy are two fine examples in the U.S. Lastly, the communal reaction to crime, social science theories on illegal behavior included, is founded on the significance of the deed and also the communal and…… [Read More]
Crime of Conspiracy
The recent case whereby criminal charges were imposed in Aaron Swartz caused frenzy throughout the country. In my perspective, a criminal penalty was essential for this case. Swartz had announced he would be committed to opposing the law as a moral impervious to invalidate the federal laws in existence for information access effectively. In this case, one decided to disobey the law intentionally, just because he wanted to achieve a goal in an anti-democratic policy way and there is a display by both deeds and words that he will precede. It is very deliberate for the criminal law with its power to enforce a penalty under the law that the individual violated intentionally. In actual sense, the law is the fact about civil disobedience: the main function of the punishment is to focus on the same law deemed unjust. As was in this case, I think the…… [Read More]
Crime in Literature
Capitalizing on Elastic Computing
Aside from its potential to integrate and aggregate a host of resources and technologies, Cloud Computing can most prominently benefit the enterprise through the enabling of Elastic Computing.
Elastic Computing is the utilization of the Cloud's nearly limitless scalability to provision resources on demand and at scale without conventional architectural concerns associated with doing so on-premise such as:
Scaling Up and Down -- In physical environments, substantially adding or subtracting resources requires reconfiguring one's architecture to do so -- which is time consuming. Moreover, it is possible that after reconfiguring architecture to scale up, scaling back down again can require even more time than the former process, if doing so is even possible.
Storage -- Storage in on-premise environments is significantly more costly than Cloud-based storage, and was the principle reason that the philosophy of minimizing data within a physical warehouse was derived…… [Read More]
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]
Most likely, it was secondary data -- that is, analysis -- that led to these houses' placement on the map.
There are several elements that could be useful to this map that are not included. For example, the division of the community into different areas (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) might provide some more clues to the rate/placement of the burglaries. Similarly, median incomes/home prices for each given area might be important elements. There is very little about the map that is not pertinent, however; though there appears to be little relation between the burglaries and the location of suspected drug houses, this is important to know and recognize, and leaving the drug houses off the map would eliminate this knowledge. Other information that could usefully be included in this map includes some basic details about the individual burglaries -- whether cars were broken into or left unlocked (especially important in…… [Read More]
Policing Policies Analysis
This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.
Zero tolerance Policing
Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…… [Read More]
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]
Crime analysis and crime investigation are the methods by which criminologists study and prevent crime. Violent crimes pose multiple dangers to the public. Violent crimes are often complex and require resources to understand how the crime was committed. Criminology studies not only how crimes are committed, but also the study of the criminal behaviors and personalities of the criminals who commit violent crimes. Criminology has been made exceptionally popular in the late 20th century and early 21st century in many television dramas. The increase in attention to criminology and criminologists has influence the interest in criminology as well as influence the development of criminologists' tools and methods. This paper will examine the violent crime of murder briefly and offer insight as to methods by which the crime can be analyzed.
Criminologists studying murders and murderers absolutely use prescriptive interviews. Interviewing murderers has become part and parcel of…… [Read More]
Strategic, Tactical and Administrative Crime Analysis
Crime analysis is one of the most important processes in the fight against crime and efforts towards enhancing the effectiveness of the criminal justice system in dealing with crime. In the past few years, crime analysis has continued to expand in law enforcement agencies across the globe. This expansion has contributed to the development and use of different methods of crime analysis including strategic, tactical, and administrative strategic analysis. These techniques of crime analysis are utilized when examining different crime incidents and resolve them. This paper provides a review of different crime incidents using different techniques of crime analysis and an analysis of the various factors of crime in these incidents.
Review of the Crime Incidents
When reviewing these incident summaries, the type of analysis being conducted is tactical crime analysis whose main focus is to promote the short-term development of patrol, investigative priorities,…… [Read More]
(and please do not forget to include a reference!)
What are some benefits of focusing crime prevention efforts on places instead of people? How does crime analysis relate to this practice?
Crime prevention efforts focused upon 'place' are founded upon an idea that the environment gives rise to crime, rather than a failure of an individual's will. By creating an environment not conducive to crime that is heavily patrolled by police and neighborhood watch units, for example, there can be potential improvement of the crime rate, not simply more persons convicted of crimes. This requires the analysis of high risk areas for crime in particular city districts. This concept heavily underlines the UK approach called 'neighbourhood policing,' "a truly local policing style: local people working with local police and partners to identify and tackle issues of concern in their neighbourhood" (About safer neighbourhoods, 2014, Metropolitan Police). The approach taken…… [Read More]
Strategic, Tactical, and Administrative Crime Analysis
The type of analysis that is being performed when reviewing the incident summaries is tactical, as the crimes are all committed within a few weeks of one another in the same region and the aim of the review is to provide “information to assist operational personnel in the identification of crime trends and in the arrest of criminal offenders” (Beaverton Police, 2018).
As Bruce and Santos (2011) point out, a crime series is “a group of similar crimes thought to be committed by the same individual or group of individuals acting in concert” (p. 3). As these three robberies bear striking similarities to one another, the robberies may be considered a crime series. For example, the perpetrators were wearing the same masks in each case, took the same kind of cigarettes as well as cash, and in two of the three cases the same type of…… [Read More]
Actus Reus may be the most essential element involved in deciding what exactly makes up a crime. Most commonly defined as a voluntary act or an omission of an act, actus reus is one of the most objective elements in determining whether a crime has been committed since its result ( typically some form of injury to another or a group of people) is what largely comprises criminal activity. To fully understand the scope of actus reus, deliberate attention must be given to what exactly constitutes an act, or a criminal omission of an act.
In order for an actus reus to be linked to a crime it must be voluntary, meaning the accused must be aware of what is being done. An act can be any type of voluntary human behavior, and generally takes the form of some sort of physical movement which a person is conscious of.…… [Read More]
The broken windows concept likely did contribute to crime reduction in New York City; the fact that a specific focus on "quality-of-life" and nuisance crimes roughly coincided with the introduction of Compstat makes it even harder to credit each with its specific effects, much less exclusively.
3. The Ethics of Civilian Field Research in Policing:
In principle, there is nothing unethical about observing public servant at work with their knowledge. However, numerous ethical issues can and do arise, including multiple elements of confidentiality, safety, and several different aspects of fairness to officers, members of the public, and arrestees. Most of those ethical issues are directly and effectively addressable through specific guidelines and protocols. Therefore, civilian research observation of police officers in the field can be conducted ethically to…… [Read More]
The common characteristics of all property crimes
Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective…… [Read More]
Offenders: Alex and Derek King (12 and 13 when they killed their father)
Theory: Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control
One basic premise of the Age-Graded criminology and informal social control theory was that, whilst experiences of childhood and personality traits are vital to comprehending behavioral stability, teenage and adulthood experiences can readdress criminal paths either more negatively or positively. Laub and Sampson discovered, particularly, that marital relationships and employment stability were a key factor in adult criminal change. With increased strength of familial and workplace bonds, deviancy and criminality in the non-delinquent control group as well as in criminals decreased. Further, Laub and Sampson looked keenly into qualitative narratives' ability to facilitate a more individual-centered life course examination. According to them, narratives of life history, together with quantitative techniques may be utilized for creating a more complete and richer image of why certain adult males…… [Read More]
crime doesn't pay sometimes is a whole point which can't be applicable, especially when you're trusted with the management of multi-billion dollar corporation, and to be in charge of the well -- being of thousand of people. It's so difficult to criminalize someone's action, if such action doesn't cause any harm to anyone or if someone doing a lot of critical charity works. The case of Richard M. crushy can be described as one of the most important scenario which can acts as one of the success stories, showing how far most of these business ethnical values can be abused to hurt everyone for a period of time. As stated by Jennings (2012) in his book "Business Ethnics Class" unethical practices can only last for a short time, and nothing helpful can be found out of it.
However, the carpenter teachings regarding people who do not pursue wisdom that are…… [Read More]
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…… [Read More]
Stu Dents Charges
The author of this report has been asked to revisit the case of Stu Dents and the litany of crimes he is alleged to have committed against Uma Opee and in general. There is indeed a laundry list of issues to be seen and charges when it comes to Stu Dents and they will be listed out within this report. Each crime that applies will be listed and there will also be the associated act and detail that supports Stu Dents being charged with the crime. For all of the crimes listed, there will be an associated state that Stu will be charged within. While Stu and his counsel might be able to make some arguments for some of the crimes, the case against him is rather formidable and there are a number of different charges that definitely apply to Stu and what he allegedly did.
Analysis…… [Read More]
The constant battle with violent crime is a perplexing problem for those designated to solve these types of problems. This frustrating cycle of failure and success seems to adopt the mantra, "one step forward, two steps back" in its purest sense. As gains are made it is important to understand the root causes of these results in order to better adapt the ever changing environment that creates new problems in this type of battle.
Zimmerman's (2007) case study investigated this struggle within the city of Boston, MA. In this research he described a story of great success through the help of community involvement as violent crime rates and homicides drastically reduced when this method was applied. Unfortunately, the gains were soon lost after a distorted strategy led the leadership awry.
The purpose of this essay is to explore this case study, and apply the research to the current…… [Read More]
The History of Crime and Punishment in the United States
1. What is the time period of your trial?
The time period of this trial is the year 1904. The defendant was tried on March 15, 1904 and indicted on November 13, 1904.
2. What is the crime on trial? Provide a brief summary.
The crime on trial is for false registration, an election offense. In the early 20th century in New York, election fraud was a serious issue and Teddy Roosevelt as a member of the Board of Commissioners at the end of the 19th century in New York had pledged to crack down on election fraud because of the stronghold on the voting process held by Tammany Hall. Thus, this trial emerged just a few short years after that crackdown began as an example of the type of issues the city was having. This case in particular centered…… [Read More]
Honeypot and Honeynet Emerging Technologies
In the present IT environment, individuals and businesses are becoming more dependent an open network that includes the Internet where business transactions, government services and commercial activities are realized. However, the use of open network has led to the development of new information security issues and cyber threats that are being utilized by the cyber criminals. Thus, a mistrust in computer network technologies and telecommunications can affect socio-economic of global enterprises, an increase in the complexity of network infrastructures and communication lead to an increased demand for a new approach to cybersecurity.
Essentially, the threats in the cyber security landscapes are continuously evolving. The reactive and traditional security measures are no more sufficient to protect cyber information infrastructures. Thus, honeypots are the new emerging technology tools focusing in the areas of network forensics and network security, which is effective in enhancing network security of an…… [Read More]
maintain complete and current study site files? Provide examples of how this documentation benefits the study and explain how it does so.
The lack of adequate, accurate and reliable source of documentation is a common finding in an investigator site inspection. It is also a commonly identified pitfall in the course of the sponsoring audits. The significance of the practice of good documentation demands emphasis on the investigator sites and towards the surety that the results of the study are a basis for the validity and credibility of the data. At a single site in question, recently, the source documents of an investigator site were unavailable due to the fact that the source machine containing the information had 'crashed'. Therefore, the evaluation of the record's adequacy was altered when availability was not a factor. The failure warning was therefore directed towards the investigator as the records to be maintained could…… [Read More]
Employment Law Is as Important as Knowledge of Criminal Law to the Security Manager
EMPLOYMENT LAW IS AS IMPOTANT AS CIMINAL LAW
The role of a security manager requires diversity; they are required to oversee a department in order to reduce theft, fraud and make sure an organization's assets are well protected. At the same time, the managers enforce the company's policy and procedures. Mostly, the managers are expected to wear their "human resources hat" to be able to understand the rights and welfare of their co-workers. This, together with the direct line reports, enables them to work within the codes of practice while maintaining a professional working relationship. Therefore, it's crucial for the security manager to generally understand the employment law, especially in those areas that directly relate to their role. The knowledge is critical whilst dealing with issues or situations that may arise with regards to other employees.…… [Read More]
Songs of Sorrow
"The Sorrow Songs" is a message that is related to the spirituality of the African-American people. In summary, Dubois gives what he perceives as a message of the African-American people, which is that of hope, not only in that particular time period, but also subsequent generations. Without doubt, African-Americans have made a substantial contribution as to what the United States is as a nation. This, in particular, does not take into account the work that the African-American partook and accomplished for the economy of the United States while being slaves, or the influences of African-American playwrights and originators as significant as all that was. Instead, this takes into account the manner in which the African-Americans' struggle for freedom and liberties instigated by the United States to extensively analyze its morals and epitomes. More so, this caused the United States to question itself, whether it actually was the…… [Read More]
Crime Data Sources in the United States
The collection of crime data in the United States is carried out through different approaches including Uniform Crime eports and the National Incident-Based eporting System, which also act as the two primary sources of crime data for crime reporting. The data obtained from these sources are used for research and documentation of crime status at the county, state, and national levels. Notably, the National Incident-Based eporting System emerged as an advancement of the conventional summary of Uniform Crime eports that were used to track crime in the country. In addition, the Congress uses data from these sources together with those from the National Crime Victimization Survey to guide policy decisions and create suitable responses to crime. While the use of these sources helps in dealing with crime in the United States, they have some similarities and differences between them with regards to methodological…… [Read More]
Crime ates by egions
The FBI document the crimes that are experienced across the U.S.A. By recording and tabulating the crimes bot only by the number of people arrested but more significantly by the number of arrests that are made and the type of crime that prompted the arrest. This is a more accurate procedure since it helps in cases of multiple arrests of the same person within a year that may also be prompted by different crimes each time of subsequent arrest.
The paper is predominantly on the crime rates within four states; Northeast, Midwest, South and West within the year 2009 according to the data found in the FBI official website. An analysis of the crime rates and the reasons behind the variance in crime rates is also of essence here.
In 2009, Northeast experienced 1,624,285 crimes that were charged in the courts and this represented 3,625.2 crime…… [Read More]
The author of this report is to compare and contrast two different areas from a crime rate standpoint. The current rates of crime for different crime types will be assessed as well as the change in those rates from year to year. The two cities that will be compared are New York and Detroit. While there is good and bad news for both of those jurisdictions vis-a-vis their crime rates, the trends for both are noticeably different and the underlying reasons for these variations and trends are not hard to surmise about, although it is hard to be definitive due to the complexity of the cities' respective situations and dynamics. While it is hard to be exhaustive and to make conclusions with certitude, it is clear that the towns are moving in different directions but there are opportunity costs for the good things and downsides to any solution…… [Read More]
Crime and Punishment
Ours is an extremely violent kind of world where even the most common type of folk can find themselves faced with types of unspeakable horrors and criminal activity through little or no intention of their own. In American literature, a common theme is the concept of the freedom of choice and how a person's choices come to affect not only themselves, but all of the people around them. Some of the choices that people, and their literary counterparts, make lead them to crime. It is the purpose of the American justice system to ensure that crimes are punished. However, in literature, that is not always the case. Crime in the American judicial sense is activity which violates the laws of the United States of America. In literature, these are not always the crimes that the authors feel deserve punishment. Three specific stories which deal with crime and…… [Read More]
Measurement of Crime and Crime Theories
Crime is perhaps one of the most widespread problems in society today. It can take any form, and range in violence, which is what, perhaps, adds to the danger aspect. However, crime not only affects the victim, but also the perpetrator. In order to truly understand how one views crime, one must not only understand how crime is seen by society, but also how it impacts and how it is impacted by the perpetrators and those mixed within it. This paper will thus analyze research that has assessed the effects of crime and especially of juvenile involvement in the justice system during high school education, and the outcomes of this involvement, in order to see how crime can affect a population, how it can be measured, and what theories can be drawn from the research about crime and criminal activities.
According to the…… [Read More]
Crimes: Attitudes and Perceptions
This study was intended to provide insights into the attitudes and perceptions about crime in the local area. The study focused on the 18 to 25-year-old age group as compared to a 50 to 75-year-old age group. There were ten surveys completed as a representative sample of the local population. The hypothesis was that the older demographic would perceive more crime than the younger generation. The fear of crime has received a considerable amount of attention from the media and researchers alike because it can undermine the quality of life for the individuals that are fearful. Overall, women, older adults, and whites have been found to be more fearful compared to their counterparts and a number of correlates and predictors of fear of crime, such as demographic characteristics, disorder, and prior victimization have also been examined (Gainey, Alper, & Chappell, 2010).
The sample used in the…… [Read More]
In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)
It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…… [Read More]
This is coupled by the high unemployment rate and the current recession in the private industry. This means that jobs in the Criminal Intelligence Bureau will still be attractive. This leads to an increase in quality recruitment (Tita, Troshynski & Graves, 2007).
Threats: terrorism has become a permanent and global disaster. This has taken a huge chunk of quality human resource within the Criminal Intelligence Bureau.
The organizational strategy
The Criminal Intelligence Bureau has a strategic plan founded on four pillars. The criminal intelligence personnel form the first pillar. From this pillar, the Criminal Intelligence Bureau intends to heighten the national criminal intelligence through devoting resources to cultivate intelligence expertise and equipment to pull talent in the intelligence industry through the Criminal Intelligence Bureau hiring policies (Fijnaut, 2011).
Secondly, the Criminal Intelligence Bureau aims at providing support to intelligence personnel via directions given by the leadership of the organization. The…… [Read More]
Uniform Crime eporting (UC) is a program that was initiated by the International Association of Chiefs of Police in 1929 in order to provide a reliable and uniform crime statistics for the country. Generally, this program is a cooperative initiative for city, state, county, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies to provide a country-wide perspective of crime. These agencies basically participate in the program through the provision of summarized reports on several crimes that are known to law enforcement and information regarding arrested people. In addition, these agencies also give reports on the assaulted and killed law enforcement officers as well as information on hate crime.
In most cases, these law enforcement agencies provide the crime reports every month to a common crime records facility within their respective state. Through uniform crime definitions, the state's UC Program transfers the information to the national UC Program in the Federal Bureau of…… [Read More]
Public Policy Analysis
There is a sense that politics operates on a continuum scale whose extremes are rationality and irrationality. Politicians make laws that can be seen from both perspectives depending on the particular position of the person judging whether the particular statute is good or bad. Public policy can be judged by either rational choice theory or the converse of that. The difference in the two can be seen in how crimes are litigated. A rational person can make the choice whether an act is right or wrong and has specific knowledge of how society will view that act. An irrational person is one who, for some reason, is not deemed competent to understand that what they have done is criminal in nature. Irrationality is the reason that individuals below a certain age cutoff are generally not treated with the same deterrent stance as adults, why people with metal…… [Read More]
e. D (0), the cost of fighting crime / proportion of corrections i.e. C (P0) and the crimes / social costs / negative impacts on to offender i.e. FO. These different elements are important, because the combination of them is helping us to understand the total impact of crime and punishment on the economy.
As a result, these different factors are used in a basic formula to comprehend the effects of social phenomenon and crime on the economy. elow is the equation that is used to objectively evaluate what is occurring.
L (social / economic impact) = D (0) + C (P0) + FO
This formula is important, because it is providing us with a basic strategy that can be used to objectively evaluate the how crime and punishment are impacting society. Once this occurs, is when we can see the total economic impact of this on communities and the…… [Read More]
Community Safety and Crime eduction: An Evaluation of the ole of New Technology
ecent technological advances have effectively changed the way we conduct business, secure our borders, fight our wars, diagnose diseases, etc. Indeed, thanks to advances in technology, the world as we know it today looks very different from the world of yesteryears. The fact that technology continues to have a significant impact on almost every facet of our lives is undeniable. One of the areas in which recent advances in technology remains most visible is security. Today, unlike two or three decades ago, there are a wide range of hi-tech security devices that have been specifically developed to help in fighting crime. From CCTV cameras to alarm systems to GPS tracking and even software designed to examine online chat records, the fight against crime has surely gone high-tech. It is however important to note that the utilization of…… [Read More]
history of crime measurement as well as the major strengths and limitations of current measurement techniques. I have also included the discussion regarding the importance of crime measurement in criminology. In the end, I have put emphasis on the need of the development of more crime measurement techniques.
The measurement of crime is done with the objective of monitoring and this is mostly done in the same manner as the measurement of "consumer prices, stock market activity, traffic fatalities, population, unemployment, and HIV infection rates" (Maxfield & Babbie, 2011). However, much more is done in measuring the crime instead of just counting things. An assortment of societal, fiscal, geographic, and medical concerns is measured for keeping a record of communal and monetary conditions, population size, age distribution and hazards to physical well-being of the people. Similarly, crime measurement has the main concern of keeping track of criminal behavior so that…… [Read More]
The table below summarizes the relationship between the variables and measures that will be used for the study:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following major crimes:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following minor crimes:
Profile/Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondent
Personal annual income
Access to mass media
Viewing behavior of TV crime programs
Kind of TV crime programs usually watch
Frequency of watching TV crime programs
Duration of crime TV-watching
Personal concern for crime and public safety
Self-ratings on attitude statements about the respondent's level of concern about issues concerning crime and public safety
Units of Analysis
Primary units of analysis will be the students and staff members in the Hong Kong University (HKU). There will be no restrictions on…… [Read More]
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…… [Read More]
The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.
This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.
In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.
Economic growth, unemployment…… [Read More]
In fact, and quite surprisingly, one of the key findings of the Rand Report was that 50% of the nation's detectives could be eliminated without having a significant effect on clearance rates in the country (O'Connor). This conclusion flies in the face of conventional wisdom on police work, yet was fully supported by the exhaustive study. The study was funded by the National Institute of Justice and was designed to monitor the effectiveness of detectives in clearing cases in a variety of situations. Surveys were designed and then sent to local and county police departments throughout the country with at least 150 fulltime personnel or a municipal jurisdiction of more than 100,000 people. In total, three hundred agencies were solicited, of which 153 responded with answers to the survey. hile all of the data from those 153 agencies was used in the compilation of the study, twenty-five of the respondents…… [Read More]
The fear of adolescents and young adults is also being driven by the media's choice to sensationalize events that are actually very isolated in their number, and occurrence.
As Canada continues to grow and its focus on crime continues to change, it is important to understand the freedom that the media has when it comes to what to cover and how to do it.
Crime is rising in Canada in areas that should be a concern to the general public but part of the seeming significant increase is really only increased media coverage for the purpose of getting ratings.
Across the nation teenagers are performing good deeds, getting good grades, becoming Eagle Scouts and moving on to college and careers, yet the public never hears about those teenagers. The media focuses only on what will bring in ratings and that unfortunately includes violent exciting events.
Fear of crime is…… [Read More]