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Criminal Justice Process a Felony

Words: 2551 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52581112

A plea-bargain is frequently attained at this time in order to circumvent a trial. In the event that a plea-bargain is reached, the case does not move forward to a trial but failure to offer enough evidence to establish a plea bargain will mean that the case goes on to trial (Criminal Justice System Handbook, 2009).

The trail

Trials consist of a sequence of proceedings where the prosecutor presents evidence which will be used to prove the defendant guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. In felony cases, the defendant is given chances to admit their innocence but there are also times where they are presented that they may dispute the validity of evidence that has been presented by the prosecutor. Felony cases normally entail the services of a jury who listen to the case proceedings together with the judge and then after careful assessment of the evidence that is presented; they…… [Read More]

References

Criminal Justice. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/publiced/practical/books/famil  y_legal_guide/chapter_14.authcheckdam.pdf

Criminal Justice System Handbook. (2009). Retrieved from  http://www.nycourts.gov/litigants/crimjusticesyshandbk.shtml 

Criminal Justice Process. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.courtwatchflorida.org/uploads/Training_-_Criminal_Justice_Process.pdf 

Steps in the Criminal Justice Process. (n.d.). Retreived from http://sao.co.sarasota.fl.us/legal.htm
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Criminal Justice When the Constitution Replaced the

Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77748473

Criminal Justice

When the Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation in 1789, the United States of America formed a government that specifically divided its powers between three separate branches. This was done in order to make certain that no one branch of government could accumulate too much power. These three are called the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches of government, and the Constitution defines the powers each branch of government is allowed to exercise. While the Executive and Legislative branches of government deal with the running of the government, the Judicial branch is limited to dealing with legal matters. While it may seem that the Judicial branch is someone less important, it is the judiciary that decides whether the actions taken by the other two branches of government are legitimate.

Alexander Hamilton argued in the Federalist Papers that a separation of powers was necessary in order to prevent one particular…… [Read More]

References

"Court Procedures." United States Courts Web Page. Retrieved from  http://www.uscourts.gov/FederalCourts.aspx 

"Criminal Justice System - Structural and Theoretical Components of Criminal Justice Systems, The Systems in Operation, The importance of Viewing Criminal Justice as a System." Retrieved from Criminal Justice System - Structural And Theoretical Components Of Criminal Justice Systems, The Systems In Operation, The Importance Of Viewing Criminal Justice As A System

Kaiser, Frederick. (2003). American National Government: An Overview. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from  http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/RS20443.pdf 

"Federal Courts." United States Courts Web Page. Retrieved from
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Criminal Justice Career How Will This New

Words: 2315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45479853

Criminal Justice Career

How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice?

Criminal justice is seen as the practices, system and the concerned government institutions that are focused on implementing social control, participating in crime mitigation and sanctioning the law violator by imposing penalties and rehabilitation programs. It covers the private sector, the pubic sector, NGOs, state and the local governments as well (Oregon Laws, 2007). To handle effectively such a wide spectrum of departments with professionals without a chance foe making the wrong interpretation of the law once needs to be well equipped with the legal terms.

How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research?

When one lacks the proper terminology in the criminal justice, this can be a fundamental barrier in the execution of duty and definition of the offences committed as well as interpretation of…… [Read More]

References

Cambridge Dictionary Online (2011). Research: Definition. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from  http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/research_1 

CDC (2011). Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from  http://www.orau.gov/cdcynergy/demo/Content/phase05/phase05_step03_deeper_qualitative_and_quantitative.htm 

Chris Williams, (2009). Scientific Research and Quantitative Research. Retrieved May 21, 2011

from  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2479012/scientific_research_and_quantitative.html?cat=17
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Criminal Justice Leadership Learning to

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62886685

The unique circumstances indicate that this event is an isolated one and that absent the abuse the offender is not likely to repeat the behavior. However, the seriousness of the crime, that is, a homicide, demands that the offender be treated firmly. The homicide is certainly understandable under the facts of the case but not necessarily justifiable. The discretion of the judge will determine to what extent the extenuating circumstances will affect the offenders sentencing.

A recommendation short of incarceration must include some form of intensive supervision for a period of time to ensure that the offender is as he appears to be, that is, a non-violent offender (U.S. Department of Justice, 1997). Such supervision should also include a period of counseling to ensure that the offender can effectively deal with any residual guilt arising from the homicide and the years of intensive abuse. Specific recommendations to this effect should…… [Read More]

References

Burke, P.B. (1997). Policy-Driven Responses to Probation and Parole Violations. Silver Spring, MD: Center for Effective Public Policy.

Farlex. (2002, April 1). Media Access. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from the Free Library:  http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Media+access.+%28Survey+Summary%29.-a085462614 

U.S. Department of Justice. (1997, May). Intermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from NIJ Issues and Practices:  http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/165043.txt
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Criminal Verdicts

Words: 1115 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92723214

Criminal Cases and Their esolutions

Discuss one (1) real-life criminal case, taken from current events, and identify the court that took jurisdiction. Explain why the court that took the case was the appropriate one for the particular circumstances. (Jodie Arias)

The Jodi Arias case is being tried in Maricopa County by the Maricopa Superior Court. The reason why that court took jurisdiction is because the crime was allegedly committed in Mesa Arizona. Mesa is located in Maricopa County. Part of the reason that the court was tried by the Superior Court was connected to the fact that the Arias was charged with murder in the first and because the state sought the death penalty. Thus, the stakes are high enough to warrant the use of the superior court. "The case has not yet been sent to the jury for their determination on whether Petitioner is not guilty or guilty of…… [Read More]

References

Doward, J. (2005). 'My home is now my prison cell'. Retrieved from thguardian.com:  http://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/feb/20/broadcasting.childrensservices 

Newcomb, A. (2013, Jan 27). Former Ms. Washington Takes Plea Bargain in Murder Case. Retrieved from abcnews.go.com:  http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2013/01/former-ms-washington-takes-plea-bargain-in-murder-case/ 

Nurmi, L. (2012). APPLICATION FOR INTERLOCUTORY STAY OF AGGRAVATION TRIAL . Retrieved from abc15.com:  http://media2.abc15.com/html/pdf/Stay.pdf 

Palta, R. (2012, June 13). Researchers say plea bargains actually send innocent defendants to jail. Retrieved from scpr.org:  http://www.scpr.org/blogs/news/2012/06/13/6603/plea-bargainings-innocence-problem/
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Criminal Justice Theory

Words: 2525 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51732386

Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department

Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.

That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology. about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fthunder1.cudenver.edu%2F%2Fsociology%2Fintrosoc%2Ftopics%2FUnitNotes%2Fweek05.html

Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/q16.html

Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/brunet. html

Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from  http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/publicat  / primer/prim1.html
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Criminal Profile Tyrell Tank Williams South Bronx

Words: 790 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 96278707

Criminal Profile

Tyrell "Tank" Williams; South Bronx, New York City

When asked why people call him Tank, Tyrell Benjamin Williams responded, "because I'm huge and you can't stop me." This attitude is clearly represented in Mr. Williams' lifestyle of street crime and drug dealing. Tyrell was born in the Stuyvesant district of Brooklyn, New York on a cold morning in January of 1984. He spent his very early years in a traditional family in this relatively pleasant neighborhood. Though on the eve of Williams' entry into kindergarten, his father informed his mother than he had found another woman and he was moving out. Tyrell recalls this as one of the most traumatic experiences of his young life. He remembers looking up to his father and wanting to make him proud. When asked about his feelings directly regarding this experience Mr. Williams said he was "heartbroken."

After the separation of his…… [Read More]

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Criminal Science Applying the Scientific

Words: 1382 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30620261

At the same time, there is a different element introduced in the pursuit of forensic science that is not dealt with in other branches of scientific inquiry. As the question of justice is also central to any forensic proceeding, the suspect's account of events and/or hypothesized explanations for observations must also be taken account (Young 2009). In this way, both verification and falsification can be used during experimentation.

Before these experiments take place, however, the predictions must lay out a way to clearly identify the expectations of the experiments, as well as a way the methods by which they should be conducted. Several predictions can usually be made rather quickly after the hypothesis that are fully testable and easily determined. Based on hairs found at the crime scene, for instance, it could be predicted that skin found under the victim's fingernails was of the same DNA as the on-matching hairs…… [Read More]

References

Palmer, G. (1998). "Forensic Analysis in the Digital World." Accessed 16 November 2009. http://74.125.155.132/search?q=cache:mSArrV3VjMQJ:www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ecii/publications/articles/9C4E938F-E3BE-8D16-45D0BAD68CDBE77.doc+forensics+scientific+method&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari

Shodor. (2009). Forensic Science. Accessed 16 November 2009.  http://www.shodor.org/workshops/forensic/ 

Vogt, W. (2009). "Forensic investigation." Paradigm. Accessed 16 November 2009.  http://www.paradigmconsultants.com/content.asp?secnum=60&pid=73 

Young, T. (2009). "Forensic Science and the Scientific Method." Heartland Forensic Pathology. Accessed 16 November 2009.  http://www.heartlandforensic.com/writing/forensic-science-and-the-scientific-method
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Criminal Justice Systemic Malignity Racial

Words: 2221 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 3292173

aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).

Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?

Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013

from  http://law.jrank.org/pages/9628/Racial-Profiling.html 

Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
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Criminal Justice Two Models of

Words: 810 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15317386

(oach, 1999, p. 15) Equality is very much a part of the "due process" model and it seeks equal treatment for each individual, for instance, the right to be represented by an attorney. When one's economic circumstances mean that they cannot afford a lawyer, in accordance with the principles of the "due process" model, American courts will provide an attorney for the defense.

As previously stated, the current American criminal justice system is so overloaded with cases that it is near the point of collapse. Those working in the system must incorporate the "crime control" model of criminal justice simply to keep up with the numbers involved. While the criminal justice system in the United States is based upon the idea that every person is innocent until proven guilty, the criminal justice system must accept the principles of the "crime control" model that the police investigators and other members of…… [Read More]

References

Barkan, Steven, and George Bryjak. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning International.

Packer, Herbert. (1968) "Two Models of the Criminal Process." In The Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP.

Roach, Kent. (1999) Due Process and Victims' Rights: The New Law and Politics of Criminal Justice. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
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Criminal Justice Gaetz S July 2004 Safe

Words: 2782 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26021148

Criminal Justice

Gaetz, S. (July 2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.

This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" (433). Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth. Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. 41.7% of the respondents who have been victimized "told a friend" about the incident of victimization, 33.1% "did not tell anyone," and a far 17.2% reported the victimization to their partner (boyfriend or girlfriend)…… [Read More]

Felson, R. et. al. (August 2002). Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Criminology, Vol. 40, Issue 3.

Felson et. al.'s research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey as its primary instrument in determining, assessing, and measuring the factors that lead to reporting (or not reporting) incidences of domestic violence. Survey findings show that there are three primary factors that are significantly relevant in inhibiting victims to reporting domestic violence to the police: "the desire for privacy, the desire to protect the offender ... And fear of reprisal."

The NCVS survey findings illustrate how the prevalence and continuous occurrence of abuse and domestic violence, especially among females, is still a social problem that needs unwavering attention by the government and civil society. New findings such as hesitance of male victims to report on their victimization reflect the changing nature of domestic violence in American society. In the same way that females need protection through the dissemination of proper and useful information about domestic violence, males are also in need of protection as well. Another important implication of the study is the changing nature of the respondents' (victims) concept of domestic violence, which varies significantly across gender.
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Criminal Laws in the United States Are

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20430734

Criminal laws in the United States are largely and totally considered as the result of the constitutional authority and legislative bodies that enact them. The American constitution normally provides the basis for the development of legislative agencies that are empowered to criminal and other legislations. For instance, the country's constitution has established the Congress and provides it with the power to make laws. The importance of the Constitution to the substantive criminal law is evident from the fact that it establishes limits on the definitions of crime. In most cases, the criminal laws of specific states and federal governments as well as the definition of crimes and their respective penalties are found in the penal codes of every jurisdiction. The establishment of criminal legislations in the United States has evolved through the years and is based on several fundamental principles.

Creation of Laws in the United States:

Most of the…… [Read More]

References:

"History of American Law." (n.d.). Historyoflaw.info. Retrieved March 19, 2012, from  http://www.historyoflaw.info/history-of-american-law.html 

Kelly, M. (n.d.). Early Development of the United States Court System. Retrieved March 19,

2012, from  http://americanhistory.about.com/od/judicialbranch/a/Early-Development-Of-The-United-States-Court-System.htm 

"Lawmaking in the United States." (n.d.). UIC -- University Library. Retrieved from University
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Criminal Justice Aggravated Assault Which

Words: 2111 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37318109

Scholars believe the Fifth Amendment as competent of breaking down into five separate constitutional privileges. These include grand juries for capital offenses, a ban on double jeopardy, prevention against compulsory self-incrimination, an assurance that all criminal defendants will have a just trial, and an assurance that the government will not take private property without paying fair market worth. Although the Fifth Amendment initially only concerned federal courts, the U.S. Supreme Court has construed the Fifth Amendment's requirements as currently pertaining to the states by way of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment (Fifth Amendment, n.d.). In this case Victor Violent would be protected from testify against himself in his aggravated assault trial because of his Fifth Amendment protections.

In all criminal proceedings, the accused has the right to a speedy and open trial, by an unbiased jury of the State and district in which the crime was allegedly…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice System the Civilized Society Is

Words: 785 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40360331

Criminal Justice System

The civilized society is one that is founded on laws and values where each member of society thereto should abide by and adhere to. Any breach or non-conformance to said statutes and principles will be met with corresponding sanctions and more particularly in cases that are criminal in nature. Thus, the criminal justice system is the law enforcement mechanism that involves the investigation, arrest, prosecution, defense, all the way to sentencing and commitment to the penal institution for those accused of, suspected or charged with criminal offenses. Despite the raison d'etre of the criminal justice system existing to protect the members of society, the system is far from perfect and there are several issues that continually needed to be addressed. These issues vary such as the disparity between the types of defense the rich and the poor accused can avail of where the former can seek the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Leipold, A.D. (2010). What's wrong with the criminal justice system and how we can fix it? Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 7(515): 516-519. Retrieved July 4, 2011 from  http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/osjcl/Articles/Volume7_2/Leipold-FinalPDF.pdf 

West, T. (2009, May 7). Criminal justice system -- A pipeline with many problems. Philadelphia Public Record. Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://www.dc47afscme.org/local_810/public%20record/90507.htm
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Criminal Justice for Possible Outcome 2 Two

Words: 1421 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52689691

Criminal Justice

For Possible Outcome 2, two groups in a population have been subjected to different treatments. One group served as the control group and was not given the opportunity to engage in an educational program that featured the study of human rights violations. However, the group was given course credit for watching a series of films on nature. he second group watched films that dealt with the Holocaust, Darfur, Rwanda, and the famines in eastern Africa. he groups randomly selected from the prison population, but were not randomly selected for the groups. Both groups had been in the prison facility an average of five years. Both groups were surveyed before watching any films, following each film and at the completion of the courses to measure the effect of the film on the subjects' empathy scores using standardized instruments. Mean scores of empathy ratings were charted below, with the blue…… [Read More]

The study population. All homicides in the murder analysis files of the Chicago Police Department from 1965 through 1995

The observation unit. Individuals.

The sampling method. All homicides were included, but In cases where the offender data were completely missing in the victim-level data, no offender records were generated in the offender-level file. The offender-level data do not contain information about the victims in these cases.
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Criminal Justice System in Two Countries

Words: 4897 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49687414

Criminal Justice System

Ever since gaining independence status, both Mozambique and Zimbabwe have come under the scanner for violation of human rights incidences and extrajudicial excesses. The under trials, often arrested without formal sanctions have been continually processed through undemocratic norms and subjected to undue treatment when in confinement and under the control of policing authorities in spite of the fact that statutory provisions in the constitution provide assured guarantee for appeal and fundamental rights protecting the citizens in both the nations. The Dependant Variables hence comprise of use of force and even firearms against those in detention and secondly custodial executions and deaths.

Defining extrajudicial executions and deaths in detentions:

Extra judicial killing is the act of execution or subjecting an under trial to violent acts that may result in death of the person. Such uses of force or acts of violence precede, supersede or bypass any due judicial…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, S.R. (n.d.). Independence, political interference and corruption. Retrieved from:  http://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CB8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fresources.transparency.bg%2Fdownload.html%3Fid%3D674&ei=nmSFVJjfJsX3UIzXgpAL&usg=AFQjCNG3iXhyvEpGajwTxpO_2SO2oFiECw&sig2=qZhx2nM7AmhxVKqpdVdtOA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.d24 

BAR Human Rights Committee of England and Wales. (2010). A Place in the Sun Zimbabwe: A Report on the state of the rule of law in Zimbabwe after the Global Political Agreement of September. Retrieved from: www.barcouncil.org.uk/media/144602/7351_bhrc_zimbabwe_report.pdf

Barkow, R.E. (2008). Institutional Design and the Policing of Prosecutors: Lessons from Administrative Law. Stanford Law Review 61, 869-922.

Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking through bureaucracy. Berkeley: Univ. Of CA Press.
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Criminal process from arraignment to pre trial

Words: 3011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64366603

Criminal Process; Arraignment to Pre-Trial

The purpose of criminal law is to promote respect for the law by people and ensure a just, safe, and peaceful society. The American justice system has many commendable elements that are aligned to the objectives of a justice system. The trial system significantly addresses many point of subtlety and does a great job in its effort to uphold the rule of law. In the effort to deliver justice, it is important that the rights of the defendant be uphold. This paper seeks to shed light on three stages before the process of criminal trial, and how the rights of the defendant are catered for in each of the stages before trial commences. These stages include the information, arraignment and the subsequent hearings at pretrial.

Arraignment

The stage that precedes and leads to trial in a criminal case is called arraignment. Arraignment must be done…… [Read More]

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Criminal Commitment and Insanity During

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33456336

This new reformulation of the insanity defense, a kind of a fusion of the earlier M'Naghten and Durham tests, was intended to be a less constrictive version of the right-wrong and irresistible impulse tests. Today, "most states in the union allow this 'right-wrong' test and some states also allow defendants to argue that that they understood their behavior was criminal but were unable to control it. This is sometimes called the irresistible impulse defense" (Martin 1998).

Insanity defenses are controversial amongst the public, just like M'Naghten's acquittal. Yet despite the perception the defense is misused, "less than one percent of defendants plead insanity and, of them, only a quarter win acquittals" (Martin 1998). The majority of defendants acquitted by reason of insanity suffer from schizophrenia or some other mental illness (Martin 1998). To be criminally committed to a state mental institution is not a 'gift.' In almost all cases, a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Durham rule. (2009). Law Dictionary. Retrieved March 5, 2009 at  http://www.answers.com/topic/durham-rule 

Legal issues. (2009). University of Hawaii. Retrieved March 5, 2009  http://www2.hawaii.edu/~heiby/Legal_Issues_Revised.html 

Martin, John P. (1998, February 27). The insanity defense: A closer look. Washingtonpost.com.

Retrieved March 5, 2009  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/aron/qa227.htm
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Case Analysis for Murphy v Waterfront Commission 378 U S 52 1964

Words: 830 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29172910

Murphy v. Waterfront Commission, 378 U.S. 52 (1964)

Title and Citation: Murphy v. Waterfront Commission, 378 U.S. 52 (1964)

Type of Action: eview by the U.S. Supreme Court of a ruling made by the New Jersey State Supreme Court, which held that petitioners subpoenaed to testify at a hearing on the state level -- petitioners who had been immunized against prosecution on the state level -- were indeed in contempt of court for refusing to testify on the grounds that doing so would provide self-incriminating evidence which could be used against them on the federal level.

Facts of the Case: The petitioners had been subpoenaed to testify during a hearing overseen by the Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor, one which focused on a work stoppage at the piers in Hoboken, New Jersey. Petitioners refused to answer several questions during this hearing on the grounds that doing so may tend…… [Read More]

References

Feldman v. United States, 322 U.S. 487 (1944)

Malloy v. Hogan, 378 U.S. 1 (1964)

Murphy v. Waterfront Commission, 378 U.S. 52 (1964)

U.S. Const. amend. V
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Cases in Civil and Criminal Law

Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94425475

Criminal and Civil Law

A man is charged with brutally killing his ex-wife and her friend, and the family of the two victims also file civil lawsuits "against the man for the damages suffered by the families" (alston-Dunham, 99) because of the deaths. The first case is a criminal case because the state prosecutor files a case against the man. However, the second proceeding is a civil case because the families of the victims file lawsuits to claim the damages. In the first case, the man was not charged with the criminal offense because there was no proof beyond a reasonable doubt to find the man guilty. However, the man was found guilty in the civil proceeding based on the preponderance of the evidence.

The objective of this study to determine the reason the same evidence are not used for both the criminal and civil proceedings.

"Reason Same Standard of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

County Texas. Motion to Inspect, Examine, and Independently Test Physical Evidence. District Court Texas 2012.

Dabesu, Kaysay, and Eshetu, Adualem. Evidence law in civil and criminal cases. Abyssinia Law Report. 2012.

Walston-Dunham, Beth. Introduction to law. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
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Criminal Policy of Drug Court

Words: 3736 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85191739

Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts

For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.

A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.

Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm

Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.
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Criminal Law Terminologies and Their Meaning

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87843995

De minimus communication refers to occasional communication between defendants and jurors that would have no impact on the outcome of the case. Minimal communication like a hello or giving directions would not influence the case in anyway and this is allowed within the American legal system (Hess & Orthmann, 2009). This allows the defendants to not seem aloof or unfriendly to the jurors. Minimal communication is permissible and is at times unavoidable, and this rule ensures that one can have slight interactions with the jurors without it affecting their case. Unauthorized communication can affect the trial and result in a mistrial, but the law has recognized that it is not possible to avoid all contact especially with the jurors. This would ensure that greeting a juror or giving them directions does not result in a mistrial.

The discovery process is a formal process of exchanging information amongst the parties regarding…… [Read More]

References

General Books LLC (2010). 1963 in United States Case Law: Arizona V. California, Brady V. Maryland, Silver V. New York Stock Exchange, Florida Lime. General Books LLC.

Hess, K. M., & Orthmann, C. H. (2009). Criminal Investigation: Cengage Learning.
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Criminal Justice Systems and Terrorism

Words: 1970 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83918304

Globlal Organized Crime, ISIS and Criminal Justice

The impact of globalization has not just been felt around the planet in economic, political and social terms: it has also been felt in the sector of criminology. The current crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system on a global basis are, in other words, not as isolated or unconnected as they were a century ago. Today's world is connected in complex ways, especially thanks to the ease of communication that the digital era has provided. In places where the digital divide exists, crimes and criminal issues are more unique and remote (examples include genocide, such as that conducted by Boko Haram for instance in Africa). But in countries where there is no digital divide, the crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system range from counterfeiting to human trafficking to various forms of cyber crime and terrorist-related…… [Read More]

References

BBC. (2015). Facebook, Google, and Twitter agree German hate speech deal.

BBCNews. Retrieved from  http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35105003 

Baksi, C. (2015). China tackles problem of counterfeit goods head-on. Raconteur.

Retrieved from  http://raconteur.net/business/china-tackles-problem-of-counterfeit-goods-head-on
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Ethics for Criminal Justice Professionals

Words: 3047 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20025092

Criminal Justice

Ethical Dilemmas In Criminal Justice

Ethical dilemmas permeate almost all organizations globally. Members of an organization often find themselves in challenging situations that require the adoption of the most effective solution that meet the needs of the conflicting parties or situations. One of the organizations that often face the challenge of ethical dilemmas is the criminal justice organization. The criminal justice organizations have been known to perform activities that ensure safety of the population. Most of the ethical dilemmas focus on decisions that organizations can adopt with the aim of fostering the safety of the victims, convict, and the society. Significant evidence shows that ethics play a significant role in an organization. It ensures the recognition of the rights and freedom of the individual alongside prioritizing the safety of individuals in the society (oberson & Mire, 2010).

Therefore, this research paper analyzes different ethical issues that face the…… [Read More]

References

Hudson, B. (2003). Justice in the risk society challenging and re-affirming justice in late modernity. London: SAGE.

Roberson, C., & Mire, S. (2010). Ethics for criminal justice professionals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.
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Criminal Profiler 'The Role of

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 24986573

rown, in her biographic article for World of Forensic Science, states,

She views investigative criminal profiling as a dynamic process that does not conclude until a suspect is arrested and convicted. She deems it a support process for the criminal investigative team, made up of a combination of four skills: investigation, forensic analysis, psychological assessment, and the application of cultural anthropology. rown considers this type of profiling to be a real-time, speculative process requiring ongoing checking to avoid missing any significant data, and should never be done in isolation, but rather as one piece of the entire criminal investigative process (rown, ¶4).

rown works 'pro bono' on several cold case file crimes, trying to be closure for the family.

The profilers use a variety of known characteristics to start the profile. The years of research done by early profilers such as Douglas has enabled the profilers to obtain clearer pictures…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Pat. World of Forensic Science. Thomson Gale. 2005. HighBeam Research. 22 Jun.

2010 .

Cooper, Greg. The Violent Criminal Apprehension Program. The Forensic Examiner.

American College of Forensic Examiners. 2007. HighBeam Research. 22 Jun. 2010
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Criminal Justice as Portrayed in

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Movie Review Paper #: 12872871

The criminal association principle suggests that being socialized to regard crime as acceptable or to admire criminals plays a role in the choices made in that regard. The fact that Pistone and Napolitano were actually raised in very similar circumstances where each had the same type of exposure to organized crime families illustrates that rational choice is more important than criminal association because Pistone made the conscious choice to become a federal agent rather than one of the criminals who controlled his childhood neighborhood (Macionis, 2003; chmalleger, 2008).

The segment of the criminal justice system portrayed by Episode 71 is criminal investigations and the operations of the criminal justice system. Fisher was allowed to plea bargain the charges of attempted murder despite the fact that she deliberately shot the wife of her lover in the head in the attempt to murder her. The episode suggests that her age was a…… [Read More]

Sources Cited

Macionis J. (2003). Sociology. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.

Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Criminal Justice - Corrections Criminal

Words: 1119 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68878301



In that regard, sentences imposed for crack cocaine are so much harsher that approximately 100 times as much powdered cocaine is required to approach the sentences imposed in connection with crack cocaine offenses. This issue is particularly relevant to the disparity inherent in mandatory sentencing and arbitrariness in sentencing, especially since dealers in powdered cocaine are much more likely higher up on the supply chain than distributors of crack cocaine (USSC, 2007).

The issues concerning provisions of the U.S.A. PATIOT Act pertain to establishing sentences for crimes established and defined by the ACT, such as narco- terrorism, smuggling munitions or military equipment without a license for transport, mining U.S. waters, and interfering with maritime navigation equipment (USSC, 2007).

The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 requires sex offenders to register and imposes criminal penalties for failure to comply. The current federal sentencing issues authorize increasing sentences for…… [Read More]

References

Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002) Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision.

Lynch, M.J. (1999) Beating a Dead Horse: Is Their Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrent Effect of Imprisonment?

Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Sentencingproject.org
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Criminal Gang Enhancements in Sentencing

Words: 3593 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19512086

S. Senator Dianne Feinstein. The legislation makes the provision of over $ billion in funding "for gang prevention, intervention and law enforcement programs over five years and establishes new crimes and tougher penalties to deter and punish members of illegal street gangs." (Feinstein, 2007) the legislation proposed by Feinstein would make illegal participation in a criminal street gang a federal crime. The legislation criminalizes violent crimes in furtherance or in aid of criminal street gangs and creates a new criminal offense for murder and other violent crimes committed in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime. Under the present law, "a felon's criminal street gang involvement can be treated at most as a sentencing enhancement, adding no more than 10 years to a sentence. This bill establishes far higher penalties for violent gang crimes, including the possibility of life imprisonment without parole for murder, kidnapping, aggravated sexual abuse, or maiming. If…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Matthews, D. And Ruzicka, K. (2000) Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime. Capital Center for Government and Law Policy - California Initiative Review. March 2000 initiatives - Proposition 21. Pacific McGeorge School of Law. Online available at  http://www.mcgeorge.edu/government_law_and_policy/california_initiative_review/march_2000/ccglp_cir_march2000_prop_21.htm .

McKim, J.B. And Rhor, Monica (2007) Justice by Geography (Orange County Register) 3 June 2007. Online available at http://dist08.casen.govoffice.com/index.asp?Type=B_PR&SEC=%7BE917F382-8B46-4C4E-976E-64261965F209%7D&DE=%7BCA01ACE7-2B51-4E14-8DE4-3C7CC3E4DDFB%7D

Governor Scwarzenegger Endorsees Senator Feinstein's Comprehensive Gang Legislation. (2007) United States Senator Dianne Feinstein California. 20 March 2007. Online available at  http://feinstein.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=NewsRoom.PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=7189577e-cc9b-d379-16f3-c9194d249b56&Region_id=&Issue_id= 

Velasquez, N. (2007) L.A. City Attorney Delgadillo Establishes New Policy Regarding Gang Injunction Violations: New Policy Enables Check of Convicted Gang Injunction Violators' Residency Status. 5 April 2007. Online available at  http://www.lacity.org/atty/index/attyindex56044369_04052007.pdf .
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Criminal Justice Issues in School

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 51257422

Murder and rape are both legal terms that are used in contemporary society to describe the social construct of crime. Murder is a homicidal act resulting in death that is not permitted by the laws within society. Therefore, shooting a man to death as a lawful soldier engaged in a warranted military conflict with another country's group of soldiers is not considered murder. The same action between country members when there is no martial conflict, however, is considered murder. ape consists of unpermitted sexual acts that have not been condoned by one of the parties. In most instances men rape women and other men, although women have been known to rape men as well.

Evolutionary theory accounts for murder by positing it as a conflict of interests between two parties that is resolved violently (Dal and Wilson, 1997, p. 53). Moreover, this theory considers the fact that most crimes are…… [Read More]

References

Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1997). Crime and conflict: Homicide in evolutionary psychological perspective. Crime & Justice, 22, 51 -- 100. Retrieved from http://psych.mcmaster.ca/dalywilson/Crime&Conflict.pdf

Wood, M.E. (No date). "Criminality is a product of genes and environment." www.personalityresearch.org. Retrieved from  http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html
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Criminal Type

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49383291

Criminal Justice

The Criminal Type

What do you think of when someone talks to you about the 'criminal type'? Is there a specific 'type' of person that can be construed 'criminal?' According to Jessica Mitford, "Americans are preoccupied with crimes of the poor and as such the 'criminal type' has surfaced in American consciousness as a social creation." This paper is going to examine the concept of 'criminal types' and argues that anybody has the potential to be a criminal under certain definitions. We will also examine the concept of 'American ias' towards certain racial and socio-economic groups within the American justice system.

The word 'criminal' according to the Oxford Modern English Dictionary (1996) is "a person who has committed a crime." A crime, in the same dictionary is defined as, "a serious offence punishable by law" (Oxford, 1996). So it would be safe to assume from these definitions that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

King, Martin Luther. "Letter from Birmingham Jail, Speculations, Readings in Culture, Identity and Values (2nd Edition), Edited by Charles I. Schuster. William V.Van Pelt. Pp 220-235

Mitford, Jessica. "The Criminal Type." Speculations, Readings in Culture, Identity and Values (2nd Edition), Edited by Charles I. Schuster. William V.Van Pelt. Pp. 210-219.

Juveniles in Prison Fact Sheet

http://www.correctionassociation.org/juvenile_fact.html. accessed 10 March 2004
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Criminal Justice Final Define the

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 45567698

This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion.

Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Administration Corrections Officers

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 44740907

Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.

Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…… [Read More]

Works cited

Corrections officers. (2008). 2008 Occupational Outlook. Department of Labor Statistics 2008-

2009 Edition. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.  http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm 

Diel, Stan. (2008, September 25) Corrections officers at seven Alabama prisons to work 12-hour shifts. Birmingham News. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.

 http://www.al.com/news/birminghamnews/statebriefs.ssf?/base/news/1222330508324710.xml&coll=2
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Criminal Justice the Use of

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1240365

Officers simply enter information on these cases and the program attempts to make possible connections to other entered data. (FI).

Clearly this program increases understanding of criminal typologies because it allows a law enforcement agency to find patterns in behavior across numerous jurisdictions. More so, it is an easy and efficient method of tracking criminals, including sex offenders, especially in cases that have gone unsolved for numerous years.

Modus Operandi Database

Modus Operandi, which means, "mode of operation" is used to describe a criminal's characteristic patterns and style of going about their criminal acts. It is often used in offender profiling as tracking the modus operandi often leads to clues involving the offender's psychology. A modus operandi database merely collects and organizes information on modus operandi, allowing law enforcement agencies to make connections to other agency information.

Such database programs clearly allows law enforcement agencies to increase their understanding of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

FBI. Investigative Programs. www.fbi.gov.

Turvey, B.E. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. San Diego: Academic, 1999.
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Criminal Justice African-Americans and American

Words: 1486 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48864294

The stigmatization of African-Americans has caused terrible harm in many areas, and only exacerbates the perceived "problem."

T]hirty years of forced removal to prison of 150,000 young males from particular communities of New York represents collective losses similar in scale to the losses due to epidemics, wars, and terrorist attacks -- with the potential for comparable effects on the survivors and the social structure of their families and communities. (oberts, 2004)

By destroying African-American communities and social networks on a massive scale, law enforcement officials are contributing to the very problems they purport to be fighting.

The mass imprisonment of African-Americans further spreads and entrenches the notion that African-Americans are somehow incapable of conforming to the larger society's rules and regulations. The more common the prison experience becomes in African-American life, the more normative it becomes in both African-American and majority White culture. oberts underlines the terrible effects of this…… [Read More]

References  http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5002443832" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

Words: 2584 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 20694471

The reduction occurs through allowing the counties to acquire other methods of jailing apart from the prisons. This includes out-of custody rehabilitative treatments, which could serve in reducing the number of the criminals taken to the prisons. However, the AB109 criminals must be individuals whose crime are not violent and not that serious as provided by the law. This means that that jailing of the A109 criminals in other alternative would involve selection from the other criminals. However the unstated implication is that it would be much difficult to rate a crime as either more serious or not serious. Consequently, the rationale provides higher chances of biasness of selecting some non-serious cases while leaving others.

Implication of the policy

The criminal justice implication of the policy will mainly affect the non-violent arrestees. The decision of keeping them in custody, would affect their ability to avoid recividism future. The social implications…… [Read More]

Reference

Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd

Edition). Long Grove

Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,

NY: Prentice Hall
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Criminal Justice - Evaluations Evaluation

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 1367760

Under the stewardship of Police Commissioner Howard Safir, the NYPD began analyzing daily crime statistics collected from its 40,000 officers throughout the five boroughs of New York City and generating computer modeling of crime trends in a system dubbed CompStat that allowed the accurate identification of crime trends with pinpoint accuracy, often permitting nearly as precise predictive modeling via extrapolation (Safir, 2003).

The other main benefit and purpose of CompStat was that is enabled police administrators to grade the performance of every precinct according to any criteria defined by policy considerations. That aspect of CompStat is relied upon heavily by NYPD administration to the extent that Commissioner Safir reassigned, removed, or demoted fifty-four precinct commanders during his tenure as commissioner between 1996 and 2000 (Safir, 2003). Naturally, the technical means of data collection and analysis techniques differ quite profoundly from those available to previous generations of police administrators, but the…… [Read More]

References

Coleman, J.L., Thomas, C.C. (2002). Operational Mid-Level Management for Police. Illinois: Springfield.

Conlon, E. (2004). Blue Blood. New York: Riverhead.

Lee, W.D. (2007). Program Evaluations: Improving Operational Effectiveness and Organizational Efficiency; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Nov/07 Vol. 76

No. 11, pp. 1-6).
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Criminal Identification Procedures

Words: 1768 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56433870

Criminal Identification Procedures

The dawn of the twenty-first century has become the era of George Orwell's "1984." Technology that was found only in science fiction a few decades ago, is part of today's standards and procedures.

The world today is filled with cameras that can film an individual wherever he goes, his cell phone signal can pinpoint his location, and even one glance can reveal his true identity (Shenk 2003). Iris-recognition technology, soon to be common in places such as airports, offices, and banks, will simply scan an individual's eyes to reveal his idenity (Shenk 2003). Many feel that in this post-9/11 landscape, there is a serious need for these high-tech tools to help detect money laundering, encrypted e-mails, bio-weapons, and suitcase nukes (Shenk 2003).

Poseidon, a new electronic surveillance system, is a network of cameras that feeds a computer programmed to use a set of complex mathematical algorithms to…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Shenk, David. "Watching you the world of high-tech surveillance."

National Geographic. 11/1/2003.

Udall, Morris K. "Criminal Justice New Technologies and the Constitution:

Chapter 2 Investigation, Identification, Apprehension." U.S. History. 9/1/1990.
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Criminal Justice Response Cesare Beccaria

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95459108

These methods of informal deterrence would help to prevent Bobby's criminal behavior.

Since he already committed the crime, Bobby would certainly need to be punished. However, Beccaria strongly argued that punishment must not be cruel, and must fit the crime. Clearly, Bobby never intended to hurt the homeowner; he broke into the home when he knew she would not be there.

Depending on the amount of property stolen, Bobby would have to pay the consequences. If this is his first offense, Bobby could be sentenced to a public form of community service, such as picking up trash by the roadside. He would also have to regularly report to a counselor. Parents could impose a strict curfew. This mixture of informal and formal methods of deterrence would help to stop Bobby from engaging in more criminal behavior.

orks Cited

Beccaria, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishment.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beccaria, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishment. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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Criminal Justice Although Jeff's Confession

Words: 1709 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2903379

If this is indeed the case, Leach is within his rights to appeal for an overturn of his conviction. The Fourth Amendment protects travellers from unwarranted police searches, which appears to be what happened in this case.

The Fourth Amendment then protects the rights of individuals to reasonable expectation of privacy. While Archibald Leach voluntarily yielded his luggage for investigation, the search itself was not conducted in a legal manner if there was neither warrant, reasonable suspicion or probable cause. The case does not mention any of these, based upon which the conclusion can be that Leach has sound grounds for appeal.

ources

Criminal Law Lawyer ource. (2009). earch Warrant. http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html

Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause 'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession." http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm

Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? upreme Court Articles. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html

Walker, Jayme . (1998, Dec…… [Read More]

Sources

Criminal Law Lawyer Source. (2009). Search Warrant. http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html

Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary.  http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause  'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession."  http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm 

Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? Supreme Court Articles.  http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html 

Walker, Jayme S. (1998, Dec 1). Moving and touching stowed or checked luggage: Fourth Amendment considerations. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.  http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-53590199.html
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Criminal Justice - Gender Crime

Words: 403 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82213513

2. According to Merton's strain theory, who should commit more crime males or females? What is true in reality?

According to Merton's original strain theory, the primary source of strain in modern society relates to financial success and social status (Agnew & rezina 1997).

As the theory goes, males are more likely to succumb to the negative influences of strains simply because financial success and social status are more commonly considered to be within the realm of social expectations of males. Later theorists have suggested that Merton's strain theory focused too narrowly on socioeconomic factors because strain consists of many more elements, including those that pertain more to females. Generally, males do commit more crime than females (Ogle, et al. 1995), but this is less a function of strain theory, necessarily, than the fact that myriad other influences that lie wholly outside the realm of principles related to strain theory…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Agnew, R., Brezina, T. (1997). Relational Problems with Peers, Gender, and Delinquency; Youth & Society, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 84-111. Ogle, R., Maier-Katkin, D., Bernard, T. (1995). A Theory of Homicidal Behavior Among Women; Criminology, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 173-193.
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Criminal Justice Administration What Should

Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51018131

There should also be refresher courses given every year so that officers do not forget about their ethical responsibilities. t is important in the police arena that ethical behavior is top priority and that everyone is as ethical as they can be.

Web Field Trip

Tonry, M. (1997). ntermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/165043.pdf

The article ntermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines is a very comprehensive guide to what intermediate sanctions are and how they can be incorporated into sentencing guidelines. This article defines what intermediate sanctions are and how they can be used in sentencing guidelines in order to help those offenders who may not otherwise benefit from traditional sentencing practices. The guide also discusses the problems that can occur when implementing these types of sanctions and what can be done to try and avoid the issues that can occur. The overall gist of the article is to…… [Read More]

Intermediate Sanctions for Non-Violent Offenders Could Produce Savings. (2010). Retrieved

from  http://www.oppaga.state.fl.us/MonitorDocs/Reports/pdf/1027rpt.pdf 

The article Intermediate Sanctions for Non-Violent Offenders Could Produce Savings is a good discussion of how the use of intermediate sanctions used for certain offenders can lead to cost savings. In today's economy money for correctional institutions is at a low just like it is for everything else. Because of this it is becoming more and more important for corrections in general to cut costs. This article is a very good discussion on how intermediate sanctions can be used to help cut expenses in the criminal justice system. The article discusses how these types of sanctions can be used for certain offenders in order to benefit them the most while reducing the amount of money that it takes to lock every offender up for a specific period of time. This article also discusses the drawbacks that come along with implementing intermediate sanctions and how these issues can be addressed ahead of time in order to mitigate their effects.
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Criminal Justice Organized Crime the

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4022788

As an alternative, on the foundation of information obtained from confidential informants, the government petitioned the district court to give permission for the placement of an electronic surveillance wire tap on Jesus Zambrana's private telephone. Information obtained over this wire tap led law enforcement officers to think that Ernest Lonzo and another unidentified person were carrying narcotics from Miami, Florida, to Jesus Zambrana's house in Gary, Indiana.

On the foundation of this wire tap information, DEA agents, with the help of police officers from Lake County, Indiana, and East Chicago, Indiana, began the surveillance of Interstate Highway I-65 in the area of Crown Point, Indian. Prior to starting the surveillance, a DEA agent met with Lake County, Indiana, police officers and gave them a list of five people suspected as being involved in the carrying of narcotics between Florida and Indiana, as well as a list of four vehicles thought…… [Read More]

References

Informants, Surveillance, and Undercover Operations. (2010). Retreived from  http://www.drtomoconnor.com/3220/3220lect02c.htm 

United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee v. Jesus Zambrana, Sr., Charles Cole and Jay

Zambrana, 841 F.2d 1320. (1988). Retreived from http://ftp.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/841/841.F2d.1320.86-1501.86-1402.86-1115.html
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Criminal Profile Detroit the Population of Young

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44214404

Criminal Profile Detroit

The population of young professionals in Downtown Detroit is increasing by the day and so is the retail of the region. There are many luxury buildings that have been built now. The development schemes towards the side of east river are now covering many luxury condominium progresses. This has resulted in attracting many young citizens to the Downtown of the city along with the renewed New Center and Midtown areas. According to a study that was conducted in the year 2007, it was found out that the residents of new downtown of Detroit were most young professionals. This meant that 57% of these people were aged between 25 to 34, 45% of them were graduates and 34% of them had obtained a master's level degree in their profession. There has been an ever increasing desire to live close to the urban areas and therefore has resulted in…… [Read More]

References:

"Detroit crime rates and statistics." (2010) Neighborhood Scout.

"Detroit Area Employment." (2012) United States Department of Labor.
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Criminal Justice Interoffice Memorandum Supervising Attorney Paralegal

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43185650

Criminal Justice

INTEROFFICE MEMORANDUM

Supervising Attorney

Paralegal

John Ebersol

Determine whether Mr. Ebersol was guilty of shoplifting. If Mr. Ebersol was guilty of shoplifting, determine what he can expect his punishment to be.

FACTS:

Mr. Ebersol purchased a flathead screwdriver from the hardware store on Saturday, but purchased a Phillips head screwdriver by mistake. Mr. Ebersol returned to the store with the intention of purchasing screws for his new screwdriver. When he discovered that the hardware store was out of flathead screws, Mr. Ebersol left the flathead screwdriver on the counter and left the store with a Phillips head screwdriver in his pocket. Mr. Ebersol was detained, interrogated for 2 1/2 hours, and released with shoplifting charges against him.

ISSUES:

(1) Is Mr. Ebersol guilty of shoplifting?

(2) If Mr. Ebersol is guilty of shoplifting, what can his expected punishment be?

BRIEF ANSWERS:

(1) Mr. Ebersol is not guilty of…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice -- Sentencing and Analysis Courtney

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91290330

Criminal Justice -- Sentencing and Analysis

Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez was indicted for kidnapping. Her case was handled in the Circuit Court for the Western District of Texas. Based on her attorney's advice, she accepted a plea bargain, pleading guilty to kidnapping. The normal sentence for kidnapping in Texas is 10 years in prison; however, Hernandez was sentenced to 15 years in prison, along with other punishments.

The Sentence

According to a plea bargain in which Defendant Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez pleaded guilty to kidnapping, she received a sentence of 15 years in Federal prison, and then three years of supervised release, plus she is order to pay $3,000 in restitution for the kidnapping of the 2-1/2-year-old girl (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010).

The Victim's Role in Sentencing

The 2-1/2-year-old girl is too young to participate in the sentencing process; however, her mother can participate. There is no indication that the mother…… [Read More]

Procedure after Sentencing and Possible Appeal

After sentencing, Hernandez would be taken into custody (if not already in custody) and handed over to the custody of the Federal Corrections Department to begin her sentence. Hernandez entered her plea in the Western District of Texas (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010), so her appeal would go to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit, which is the appellate court with jurisdiction over the Western District of Texas (United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, 2012, p. 9).

In order for Hernandez's appeal to be granted, Hernandez would have to show that something was materially wrong procedurally or substantively in the lower court and that her plea, her sentence or something else about her case should be overturned or sent back to the lower court for further action. That covers a lot of ground and many different arguments might be successfully made to the appellate court. For two examples: Hernandez might argue that she had ineffective assistance of counsel because her attorney had her accept a plea with
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Criminal Justice - Systematic Problem

Words: 1381 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 22618602

Equal Protection:

Equal protection is a fundamental constitutional protection, that in modern times, guarantees the equal effect of law to all persons. In that regard, the Supreme Court has established specific suspect classes of individuals, such as membership in a minority race, whose rights to equal protection must be guarded most scrupulously, primarily because the need to do so has been more than adequately demonstrated by aspects of relatively recent American history.

According to criminologists and researchers who have conducted studies of the impact of criminal laws in general, and of capital punishment in particular, criminal defendants who are members of minority races (as well as those who are poor) are statistically much more likely to receive the death penalty in comparison with non- minority (and wealthier) criminals convicted of identical death-penalty-eligible offenses (Schmalleger, 2007; Zalman, 2008). This discrepancy suggests that capital punishment in the U.S. still violates one of…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Bantam Books.

Friedman, a. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.

Kaveny, C. (2008). Justice or vengeance: is the death penalty cruel and unusual?

Commonwealth; Feb 18/08.
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Criminal Justice History of Criminalities

Words: 1199 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 79365365

Choices, controlled by fear are another core principle that advocates for fear inducement that will enable individuals keep away from crime. This principle supports three strikes legislation, since with a repetition of crime it comes with a severe judgment that enables first crime offenders fear and keep away from crime. Core principle of severity calls for a severe punishment on a violent crime and depending on the nature of crime. The theory supports three strikes legislation, since a repetition of violent crime faces severe charges than the first time (Siegel, 2010).

Criminal policy proposal

Criminal justice, over the years, has faced many challenges in administering proper justice. Drug and substance abuse and mental illness are examples of disorders that need to be corrected to minimize crime rates. Criminals who prove to be mentally ill or under the influence of drug or substance should be treated different from criminals who are…… [Read More]

References

Davies, G.A. (2012). Forensic Psycholgy: Crime, Justice, Law, Interventions. London: John Wiley and Sons.

Landsberg, G. (2002). Serving Mentally III Offenders: Challenges and Opportunities for Mental Health Professions. Chicago: Spring Publishing Company.

Roth, M. (2010). Crime and Punishment: AHistory of the Criminal Justice System. London: Cengage Learning Publishers.

Shute, S.A. (2002). Criminal LawTheory: Doctrines of the General Part. Chicago: Oxford University Press.
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Criminal Justice Organizations Since the

Words: 1593 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30134227

As practitioners of the law, court officials and subordinates are bound by the single powerful system of the law and governmental policy. Lawyers are bound by regulation rather than occupational socialization. Their interaction with the general public is also much more significant than that of the police, which provides a lower level of occupational intra-organizational loyalty than might be found among police officers.

Court decisions are obliged to abide by the law. The issue is however complicated by the fact that the upreme Court is partial towards the power-wielding authority in the White House. This tends to detract from objectivity when making constitutional decisions. The issue is further complicated by the 9/11 attacks and other similar factors.

The devastating attacks during 2001 have not only influenced political power, but also the way in which this power was used to influence decisions by courts, the police, and individuals working within these…… [Read More]

Sources

Bibas, Stephanos. (2005, Nov). Originalism and Formalism in Criminal Procedure: The Triumph of Justice Scalia, the Unlikely Friend of Criminal Defendants? Georgetown Law Journal. FindArticles.com:  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3805/is_200511/ai_n16013090 

Clayton, Cornell W. (2006, June). Politics of Criminal Justice. Georgetown Law Journal. FindArticles.com:

 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3805/is_200606/ai_n16618978 

Harrison, Stephen J. (1998) Police Organizational Culture: Using Ingrained Values to Build Positive Organizational Improvement. http://www.pamij.com/harrison.html
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Criminal Justice Forensics Undercover Is a

Words: 11198 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 97252031

However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).

y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.

Definition of Terms

Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.

Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html

Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.

Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.

Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
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Criminal Justice in Action

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58931766

Criminal Justice in Action:

The American prison system has throughout the years developed to become home to the increasing population of the nation's criminals. The increasing population of these criminals in the American prison system is due to the fact that incarceration has always been used even in cases where alternative punishment would be adequate. Furthermore, this growing population of inmates is due to sentence disparities that include both long and short sentences. Currently, the maintenance of these criminals in American prisons is entirely drawn from the taxes that citizens pay. The American prison system has now developed to become the largest across the globe since the number of inmates increases annually. While the purpose of American prisons is to serve as a place of punishment of criminals, they have now become places of leisure. Actually, it's widely considered that inmates in American prisons are treated like guests at a…… [Read More]

References:

Greene, J. (n.d.). Comparing Private and Public Prison Services and Programs in Minnesota:

Findings from Prisoner Interviews. Retrieved April 6, 2011, from http://archive.epinet.org/real_media/010111/materials/greene.pdf

Pray, R. T (n.d.). How Did Our Prisons Get That Way? Retrieved April 6, 2011, from  http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1987/5/1987_5_92.shtml 

"Prisons: History -- Modern Prisons." (n.d.). Jrank.org: Law Library -- American Law and Legal
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Criminal Justice - Gender and

Words: 3438 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 98457029

In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.

Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.

Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35

Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon
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Criminal Justice References in the

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35964776

hile this is the amendment that allows prison work camps and work programs, as well as the requirement that criminals participate in the maintaining of their prisons, it serves a much larger purpose, mainly expressing that a right contained in the constitution may be taken away if citizens do not behave lawfully.

The implications of these amendments and the others so similarly worded are indicative of the Classical School of Criminology. Offered as an incentive, the rights encourage rational, but criminally inclined humans to make the rational choice towards the non-criminal action. Because it would be in the humans' self-interest to keep their rights, they are encouraged to choose non-criminal action. Thus, the drafting of the constitution this way suggests that the founders were relying on the Classical School of Criminology when considering human behavior, rational choice, and the desire to keep a lawful society.

Further relying on the Classical…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Classical School." 1998. Crime Theory. 4 July, 2008. http://www.crimetheory.com/Theories/Classical.htm.
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Criminal Justice Is the Coordination

Words: 2218 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 395032

Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at http://szabo.best.vwh.net/JurisdictionAsProperty.pdf
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Criminal Justice RICO in 1970

Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 50410671



Since ICO focuses on a pattern of behavior instead of just on the criminal acts that are involved prosecutors find it relatively easy to prove these cases. If an organization is convicted of committing two of the specified crimes within a ten-year period then they can be convicted of racketeering.

Legitimate business owners deserve to have protection from groups that wish to pursue illegal activity. The ICO Act was put into place in order to afford these legitimate businesses this protection. Since the interpretation of the ICO Act has been expanded we have also seen protections from mail fraud and wire tapping to be included in the protections that are guaranteed to the people. The ICO Act is always going to be subject to interpretation, but the protections that if gives business owners will always be seen as good.

eferences

Cecil, Greek. (1991). Is This The End of ico? Or…… [Read More]

References

Cecil, Greek. (1991). Is This The End of Rico? Or Only The Beginning: The Ongoing Debate

Over the Expanded Use of Criminal and Civil Rico. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from Web

site:  http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html 

Chapter 96 -- Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations. (2000). Retrieved April 20, 2009,
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Criminal Justice Substantive vs Procedural

Words: 1473 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99639515



Patterns Juvenile Delinquency Throughout the World/How Determine Who Juvenile?

Patterns in juvenile delinquency also vary throughout the world, as do the way countries define "delinquency" among juveniles. The Japanese according to Platt (2005) have taken on a much more philosophical approach to juvenile delinquency, supporting a Confucian style structure of education and support, one that works toward educating children to become part of the larger social collective (p. 965). In this environment, children are encouraged to become more socially aware and to self-regulate, often given the opportunity to reform before they are punished for wrongdoings.

This conflicts sharply with juvenile delinquency programs and structures elsewhere in the world. In Australia, juvenile delinquency is often associated with being a member of a juvenile gang, which is defined as "youth hanging out on the streets with gang activity" or street activity that has the potential to lead to mischievous behaviors (Duffy &…… [Read More]

References

Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S. (2004). Teen gangs: A global view. Westport: Greenwood Press.

ICMBA. (2007). American Legal System. Internet Center for Management and Business

Administration, Inc. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved 22, May, 2007:

 http://www.quickmba.com/law/sys/
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Criminal Justice Grade Course to Be Honest

Words: 2099 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32028021

Criminal Justice

Grade Course

To be honest I tend to think that crime has been trending in the late night news since the early 90s to an extent that it has become some sort of entertainment. It is mostly featured in the prime time news as a mass magnet for news corporations which are business entities and would therefore; capitalize on the expectant audience it has attracted. A large proportion of the crime reported is usually projected as individual subversions rather than socially motivated misdemeanors. It is from this perspective that criminals are feared beyond their capability without proper dissemination of the causes leaving an audience that is always pregnant with political, or sexual related crimes as a form of entertainment than a source of crime prevention issues that would go a long way in making their neighborhoods safer.

This paper will delve into the three main parts; the study…… [Read More]

References

Catalano, S.M. (2006). The Measurement of Crime: Victim Reporting and Police Recording.

New York: LFB Scholarly.

Conklin, J. (2010). Criminology. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

Kornhauser, R. (1978). Social Causes of Delinquency. Chicago: University of Chacago Press.