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Criminal Justice Management
Mapping Crime Hotspots to Deter Crime
educing crime is a constant concern of law enforcement and community leaders. Police strategies for reducing crime rely heavily on deterrence, in the form of police patrols (reviewed by Koper, 1995, p. 649-650). esearch has shown that a police presence reminds offenders and potential offenders of the certainty of punishment, which is a more effective deterrent than the promised severity of a punishment. The findings from early studies on the effectiveness of police patrols as a crime deterrent were mixed, but with publication of a well-controlled Kansas City study in 1986 the debate moved on to what factors influence the deterrence effect.
Of the variables that have been found to influence criminal activity, geographic location stands out (Koper, 1995, p. 652). A study done in Minneapolis revealed that just 3.3% of the city's addresses and intersections accounted for over 50% of…
Stephens, Darrel W. (2010). Enhancing the impact of research on police practice. Police Practice and Research, 11, 150-154.
In fact, the study showed that most citizens in Kansas City couldn't even tell when the frequency of police patrols were increased or decreased. The conclusions were clear to me that the increase in police patrols did not significantly deter crime.
Yet, still, we continue to practice such increased police presence strategies. Personally, I believe this is more to help ease citizens and tax payers' minds. With the police forces having huge budgets, increased police presence is a shallow way to make it look like those budgets are actually doing something positive for the community.
ssignment 3: Rand Study
The Rand study of 1976 examined municipal and county police and how these agencies were productive in enforcing local laws. The study examined the process of individual investigators and departments and the processes they implemented in the process of trying to solve crimes. The study used statistical data, interviews, and observations…
Assignment 3: Rand Study
The Rand study of 1976 examined municipal and county police and how these agencies were productive in enforcing local laws. The study examined the process of individual investigators and departments and the processes they implemented in the process of trying to solve crimes. The study used statistical data, interviews, and observations to record the entire process from start to finish, as a way to evaluate its overall efficiency. However, the study found that only about 7% of investigator activities were directly related to crime solving. More than half of activities were actually conducted post arrest, showing how ineffective the actual process of closing investigations through arrests was. Moreover, the physical processing of evidence was not nearly as efficient as many would like to think.
As such, the writers of the report recommended policy suggestions to increase the effectiveness of local law enforcement agencies and help reduce costs. One of those recommendations was to increase the working relationship between investigators and prosecutors in order to help speed up time preparing for trial and the effectiveness of state cases against defendants. This could possibly include prosecutors having investigators on their own staff.
Furthermore, several of the partnerships that COPS agencies were able to produce within their disparate communities were little more than simple name recognition, and were not able to produce a significantly impactful relationship between those agencies and the surrounding communities. This lack of a true cooperative partnership also accounts for why the research conducted for the COPS program did not truly have as successful an impact as it probably could have had.
The strengths of CompStat policing is that it fosters a spirit of competition amongst precinct leaders to reduce crime in their precinct. Knowing that their jobs are on the line based on how successful they are with this task, precinct leaders have a great deal of motivation and management of resources to reduce criminal activity within their jurisdiction. The major limitation is that some criminal behavior -- such as the car thefts and the incidents of stalker reports…
Rather, research findings should be available in a more condense manner, with options for greater detail provided for later review. Annual or semiannual journals could be disseminated that contain the latest research findings. This would make the process of reading and keeping up-to-date with research findings easier to do in the actual field and can be logged for use later in the creation of more specific strategies.
Lum presents her idea that something as serious as policing must be tied to more reliable and valid measurements. Law enforcement is a very complex concept, and must be approached with the same scientific reasoning that other complex sciences must. This has led to many within the field to continue working on more evidence-based practices. Such methods have proven successful in strategies such as increasing citizen policing measures where residents are more supportive in law enforcement strategies. As such, Lum helps construct a…
Criminal Justice Management and Administration
The objective of this work in writing is to describe the historical and theoretical development of organizational management and to list and summarize the most common positions, functions and positions in various Criminal Justice Organizations.
The work of Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas (2008) reports that criminal justice administration Management "has come a long way since the President's Commission in 1967 called for a closer look at the administration of criminal justice organizations. Concerns about effective management practices are still central to criminal justice professionals, as well as to the academic researchers who must evaluate and question their methods." Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas define organization and state that the term organization hinges on "three important issues: (1) structure; (2) purpose; and (3) activity. (2008) These three issues serve to shape the organizational view. Organizations are stated to be "fascinating beast[s]" and of the nature that develops…
Cole, George F. And Smith, Christopher E. (2007) The American System of Criminal Justice. Thomson Learning, Inc. 2007. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=hVdlGTXssyoC&pg=PA293&dq=criminal+justice:+management+and+administration&hl=en&ei=DKT8Te7XH4Ls0gGLz_3CAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=criminal%20justice%3A%20management%20and%20administration&f=false
Fastest-Growing Careers in Criminal Justice. (2009) Criminal Justice USA Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljusticeusa.com/articles/fastest-growing-careers-in-criminal-justice.html
Fact vs. Fiction: Criminology & Criminal Justice Careers (2011) Portland University. Retrieved from: http://online.ccj.pdx.edu/fact-vs.-fiction-criminal-justice-career/
Careers in Criminal Justice (2011) Squidoo. Retrieved from: http://www.squidoo.com/criminal-justice-jobs
Policy Analysis: Interior Enforcement of the Employment of Immigrants
History of the Problem and Need for Change
In 2004, three U.S. companies were issued penalty notices by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for knowingly employing unauthorized workers (Porter, 2006). At the time, demographers estimated that six to seven million illegal immigrants were employed in the America -- that number is approximately equivalent to 5% of the U.S. workforce (Porter, 2006). In 2007, DHS reported that 275,000 non-citizen immigrants were caused to leave the U.S. By DHS action (Lee, 2009). In 2009, the unauthorized immigrant population was believed to stand at approximately 12 million (Lee, 2009). In April 2009, the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, Janet Napolitano, instructed United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to intensify targeted investigation of employers who knowingly hire unauthorized workers. During 2010, ICE broke its record for…
AgJOBS: The Agricultural Job Opportunities, Benefits, and Securities Act, Farmworker Justice. [Web] Retrieved http://www.fwjustice.org/what-is-agjobs
Carafano, J.J. (2009, July 10). Homeland Security Department guts workplace enforcement, WebMemo, The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved Edwards, J. (2010). E-Verify: setting the record straight, NumbersUSA. Retrieved http;//www.numbersusa.com/content
Jordan, M. (2011, April 14). Fast food managers accused of selling stolen IDs, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704547804576261354204299950.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_sections_news
Lee, S. (2009, March). Private immigration screening in the workplace. Stanford Law Review, 61, 1103. Retrieved https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com / webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=61+Stan.+L.+Rev.+1103&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&key=5b7596686892955e74f8e75688c51ed8
They use the one-way system of communication. Such communication implies that they do not consult with the other members of the organization on critical issues that affect organizational performance. Autocratic leaders consider employee motivation to arise from the provision of structures rewards and punishments. They perform their tasks by using threats and punishment to evoke fear among the employees. In addition, these leaders focus on dealing with their assigned duties rather than developmental activities. Autocratic leadership is undesirable for the organization because it does not focus on empowering the junior followers and fails to recognize their varied personal and professional needs (Mary & Peter, 2014).
Democratic leadership is defined as the leadership that takes into consideration the opinions of the employees for decision-making. A democratic leader emphasizes on great participation of the employees and the other stakeholders in decision-making. They constantly seek other people's views on the actions adopted by…
Allen, J.M., & Sawhney, R. (2010). Administration and management in criminal justice: A service quality approach. Los Angeles: Sage.
Mary K.S. & Peter a.C. (2014). Criminal Justice Management Theory and Practice in justice- centered organizations. New York, Routledge Publishing.
Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.
Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…
Corrections officers. (2008). 2008 Occupational Outlook. Department of Labor Statistics 2008-
2009 Edition. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm
Diel, Stan. (2008, September 25) Corrections officers at seven Alabama prisons to work 12-hour shifts. Birmingham News. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.
Under the stewardship of Police Commissioner Howard Safir, the NYPD began analyzing daily crime statistics collected from its 40,000 officers throughout the five boroughs of New York City and generating computer modeling of crime trends in a system dubbed CompStat that allowed the accurate identification of crime trends with pinpoint accuracy, often permitting nearly as precise predictive modeling via extrapolation (Safir, 2003).
The other main benefit and purpose of CompStat was that is enabled police administrators to grade the performance of every precinct according to any criteria defined by policy considerations. That aspect of CompStat is relied upon heavily by NYPD administration to the extent that Commissioner Safir reassigned, removed, or demoted fifty-four precinct commanders during his tenure as commissioner between 1996 and 2000 (Safir, 2003). Naturally, the technical means of data collection and analysis techniques differ quite profoundly from those available to previous generations of police administrators, but the…
Coleman, J.L., Thomas, C.C. (2002). Operational Mid-Level Management for Police. Illinois: Springfield.
Conlon, E. (2004). Blue Blood. New York: Riverhead.
Lee, W.D. (2007). Program Evaluations: Improving Operational Effectiveness and Organizational Efficiency; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Nov/07 Vol. 76
No. 11, pp. 1-6).
Other specific risks to patrol officers, including those operating in pairs, include standard procedures suggested by past studies of the circumstances in which attacks on officers have occurred. For example, interviews with prisoners who assaulted officers during their arrests disclosed that many such attacks were initiated by the subject upon realization that their arrest was imminent. In many cases, it was the radio transmission alerting the officers of the subject's wanted status that was overheard by the subject.
Effective risk management in this regard led to the use of police codes, both for the officer to alert dispatch that the subject was in hearing range, and also for police dispatchers to advise officers as to the subject's status without alerting the offender simultaneously (Sweeney, 2005).
Likewise, other specific risks associated with the policing and correctional environment are effectively reduced by the application of risk management principles, including the prohibition of…
Buerger, M., Levin, B. (2005) the Future of Officer Safety in an Age of Terrorism. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74 No. 9, (pp. 2-8).
Larsen, R. (2007) Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
Sweeney, E. (2005) the Patrol Officer. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74 No. 9, (pp. 14-21).
Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…
Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at http://szabo.best.vwh.net/JurisdictionAsProperty.pdf
As an alternative, on the foundation of information obtained from confidential informants, the government petitioned the district court to give permission for the placement of an electronic surveillance wire tap on Jesus Zambrana's private telephone. Information obtained over this wire tap led law enforcement officers to think that Ernest Lonzo and another unidentified person were carrying narcotics from Miami, Florida, to Jesus Zambrana's house in Gary, Indiana.
On the foundation of this wire tap information, DEA agents, with the help of police officers from Lake County, Indiana, and East Chicago, Indiana, began the surveillance of Interstate Highway I-65 in the area of Crown Point, Indian. Prior to starting the surveillance, a DEA agent met with Lake County, Indiana, police officers and gave them a list of five people suspected as being involved in the carrying of narcotics between Florida and Indiana, as well as a list of four vehicles thought…
Informants, Surveillance, and Undercover Operations. (2010). Retreived from http://www.drtomoconnor.com/3220/3220lect02c.htm
United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee v. Jesus Zambrana, Sr., Charles Cole and Jay
Zambrana, 841 F.2d 1320. (1988). Retreived from http://ftp.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/841/841.F2d.1320.86-1501.86-1402.86-1115.html
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
Patterns Juvenile Delinquency Throughout the World/How Determine Who Juvenile?
Patterns in juvenile delinquency also vary throughout the world, as do the way countries define "delinquency" among juveniles. The Japanese according to Platt (2005) have taken on a much more philosophical approach to juvenile delinquency, supporting a Confucian style structure of education and support, one that works toward educating children to become part of the larger social collective (p. 965). In this environment, children are encouraged to become more socially aware and to self-regulate, often given the opportunity to reform before they are punished for wrongdoings.
This conflicts sharply with juvenile delinquency programs and structures elsewhere in the world. In Australia, juvenile delinquency is often associated with being a member of a juvenile gang, which is defined as "youth hanging out on the streets with gang activity" or street activity that has the potential to lead to mischievous behaviors (Duffy &…
Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S. (2004). Teen gangs: A global view. Westport: Greenwood Press.
ICMBA. (2007). American Legal System. Internet Center for Management and Business
Administration, Inc. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved 22, May, 2007:
This study indicates that introducing new policing methods can be extremely problematic, (at least in the CMP organization), and that it can lead to dissention in departments and even in executive areas. It also shows a shift in overall thinking and governance to a more liberal outlook, both on crime and in the public, and it seems this shift is likely to continue. This seems to be a result of an overall shift in the public's awareness and needs in policing, and it should continue in the future. This seems to be continued in the public outcry and legislative response introducing legislation to get tougher on crime, as well.
Finally, the final article expresses the views of Canadians on three key issues: sentencing severity, the purposes of sentencing, and mandatory sentences of imprisonment. Canadians over the past 30 years have felt these issues are too lenient, and this continues, even…
Deukmedjian, J.E. (July 2006). From community to intelligence: Executive realignment of RCMP mission. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. 523-542.
Office of the Prime Minister, (2006). Tackling crime: Stronger laws. Retrieved from the Government of Canada Web site: http://www.tacklingcrime.gc.ca/stronger_laws_e.asp19 Oct. 2007.
Roberts, J.V., Crutcher, N. And Verbrugge, P. (2007). Public attitudes to sentencing in Canada: Exploring recent findings. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. 75-107.
Prosecutors consider several factors. For effective prosecution to take place there should be the required selected readings, methodology and analysis of the findings of the case (Siegel 2012). A standard case set is also crucial since it is a tool used for decision making in the criminal justice system. These tools enable us to understand how prosecutors view a case and how they come up with justified decisions.
The standard case set measures the level of agreement between prosecutors. Some of the well-known factors that contribute to the decision-making process of prosecutors categorized into two main types. These are legal and extra-legal. According to Siegel (2012), legal factors include the strength of evidence, culpability of the defendant and the seriousness of the offence. If the evidence against the defendant is strong, it is likely that the court will charge and convict the defendant for the offence. This also applies with…
Hancock, B.W., & Sharp, P.M. (2004). Criminal justice in America: Theory, practice, and policy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Siegel, L.J., & Worrall, J.L. (2012). Essentials of criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
McConville, M., & Mirsky, C.L. (2009). Jury trials and plea bargaining: A true history. Oxford [u.a.: Hart.
In that regard, unofficial policies are communicated informally and reinforced by peer pressure as well as various negative consequences ranging from social ostracism to outright harassment and intimidation by threat or innuendo referencing the importance of solidarity among fellow officers who are responsible for each other's safety on the job.
Improving the Effectiveness of Communications within Police Departments:
One of the problems identified within police agencies is the purposeful withholding of information by superior officers as a means of ensuring (or increasing) their perceived value within the organization (Schaffer 2008). Countering this tendency effectively requires a two-pronged approach that includes (1) establishing objective criteria for advancement based on the performance and improvement rate of supervisees, and (2) conducting inventories of the degree to which supervisors disclose relevant information to all recipients whose performance may be affected negatively by withholding information for selfish purposes.
Eliminating the established dynamic represented by the…
Grubb, R., Hemby, V. (2003) Effective Communication for Criminal Justice Professionals. New York: Little, Brown & Co.
Linsky, M., Heifetz, R. (2002). Leadership on the Line. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Schafer, J. (2008). Effective Police Leadership: Experiences and Perspectives of Law Enforcement Leaders; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 7, pp. 13-19.
Criminal Justice -- Sheriff's Departments Hiring Requirements
San Francisco County Sheriff's Department
The minimum qualifications for applying to the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) are as follows: the candidate must be at least 18 years of age; must be a U.S. citizen or a "permanent alien who is eligible and has applied for citizenship"; must have a U.S. high school diploma (or GED certificate) or a 2-year or 4-year college degree; cannot have any felony convictions (and certain misdemeanor convictions); must be physically and mentally healthy and be of good moral character.
The selection requirements include: a) testing reading and writing ability (an acceptable score must be obtained on the POST Entry-Level Law Enforcement Test Battery); b) an oral interview (the department head and another department employee, or an oral panel, gives this oral interview; a candidate's "experience, problem solving ability, communication skills, motivation/interest, interpersonal skills and community awareness /…
Saint Louis County Missouri. (2009). Law and Public Safety / Evaluating Quality Police
Services / What is Quality Police Service? Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.stlouisco.com .
San Diego County Sheriff's Department. (2011). Become a Deputy Sheriff / Lateral Program /
Join Our Team. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.joinsdsheriff.net/lateral.html.
Use of technology would promote public knowledge about the spread of confirmed criminal activity or patterns of behavior that might place people at risk, whether that risk involved theft, credit card scams or other behaviors (Farber, 2006).
Participation in shared networking technological programs would be required of private businesses, community agencies and policing authorities to ensure a true community policing structure is established. Communities would work to create neighborhood watch groups in response to "non-sensitive" security data that would help them better protect their community and collaborate with law enforcement agencies (Farber, 2006, p. 110).
Before a hearing is set, a judiciary authority should be appointed along with a trained criminal justice psychologist to determine what factors contributed to the criminal activity, the severity of criminal activity and whether prosecution is warranted, or whether rehabilitative measures would prove more helpful in the long-term. A meeting should be established where the…
American Law and Legal Information. (n.d.). Criminal justice system, structural and theoretical components of criminal justice systems, the systems of operation, the importance of viewing criminal justice as a system. American Law and Legal Information. Crime and Justice Volume 1. Accessed 22, May, 2007:
Bouza, a.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge: Perseus Books.
Farber, O. (2006, Jun). Positive SPIN on liaisons: Find out how the security police information network (SPIN) promotes public-private information sharing. Security Management, 50(6): 110.
Specifically, police tactical policy must outline criteria for the use of every tool and every technique authorized for use by officers.
Effective policy and procedure management also includes indirect methods of minimizing the potential need for increased levels of force. For example, a lone officer typically faces situations that allow for fewer options in force escalation, particularly where the officer is outnumbered by subjects or suspects (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). Therefore, some of the simplest but most effective administrative methods of minimizing the necessary use of force include assigning officers in pairs and establishing protocols detailing response and backup procedures corresponding to specific types of tactical situations or calls for service (McCauley, 2005). Training is essential for effective UOF control in modern policing, because stress and the perception of danger naturally detracts from decision making. epeatedly exposing officer candidates and cadets to simulated tactical situations in training ensures the…
McCauley, R. (2005). "Use of Force and High-Intensity Tactical Police Flashlight: Policy Concerns." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74
No.11. Montgomery, D. (2005). "Perspective: Excessive Force 101." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74 No.8. Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E, Miller, C. (2007). "The Deadly Mix: Officers, Offender, and the Circumstances that Bring them Together." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin;Vol. 76 No.1. Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice: Introductory Text for the 21st Century.
Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
In this regard, the law enforcement community has begun implementing scenario-based strategic planning in the nature of that used by American military strategists since the Cold War. Interagency strategic planning now includes scenario-based training wherein the specific components of local, state, and federal agencies charged with responding to critical incidents participate in joint exercises simulating the foreseeable demands for their joint services (Koestner 2006).
Benefits and Potential Difficulties:
Scenario-based tactical training in law enforcement has undoubtedly improved the safety of officers, subjects, and victims at crime scenes by conditioning officers to respond reflexively after hours of repetitive simulated tactical exposure (Lynch 2005). In the case of strategic planning, operational synchronicity and resource implementation are the goals rather than reflexive individual responses, but, the benefit is analogous. In much the same way that scenario-based tactical training ensures the desired application of force on the force continuum authorized for use by police…
Carlson, Joel, a. Demands on Police Services in a WMD Incident; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 77 No. 3, (Mar/08), pp. 1-6.
Lynch, Michael, D. Developing a Scenario-Based Training Programs: Giving Officers a Tactical Advantage; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 74 No. 10, (May/05), pp. 1-8.
Koestner, Lesley, G. Law Enforcement Online: Facing the Challenges of Katrina; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 75 No. 2, (Feb/06), pp. 1-6.
Thus, police patrols that are directed to specific areas for specific purposes are often more effective than general police patrols.
Both of these articles do reach the same basic conclusions. They study many different types of police patrols and community policing, and discover that generally, common police patrols are not that effective in reducing and maintaining reduced crime levels. However, directed or hot spots police patrols, that are geared specifically toward cracking down on one area of crime, such as gun violence, are effective at reducing crime and altering crime rates for a specific target area. The authors cite different studies, but both cite studies from the past to help lead them to their conclusions. While they use different studies and methods, it is interesting to note that their conclusions are so similar. Police patrols may deter crime in specific areas, and increased police patrols help bring down crime statistics…
McGarrell, Edmund F., Chermak, Stephen, Weiss, Alexander, and Wilson, Jeremy. Reducing Firearms Violence Through Directed Police Patrol. Indianapolis: Crime Control Policy Center, Hudson Institute, 2001. 119-148.
Weisburd, David, and Eck, John E. What Can Police Do to Reduce Crime, Disorder, and Fear?
The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 2004; 593; 42-65..
Adverse circumstances and heated verbal attacks by angry citizens sometimes triggers a (natural) response on the part of police officers to respond in kind, or, at the extreme, with verbal abuse in the form of threats to use their lawful powers of arrest for intimidation purposes where, in fact, any such use of arrest powers is unlawful under the given circumstances.
Typical examples with potential to trigger verbal abuse by police would include responding to members of the public who are indeed complying with a lawful order to disperse, or to vacate a specific area, but who do so while expressing their verbal disagreement or displeasure with the officer's command. They may even choose to insult the officer personally, but provided their actions do not constitute a threat to the officer or a refusal to obey his lawful orders, and as long as their manner of expression does not constitute…
Geeting, J. (2005) the Badge: Thoughts from a State Trooper.
Indian Wells: Mckenna
McCauley, R. (2005) Use of Force and High-Intensity Tactical Police Flashlight: Policy Concerns; the FBI Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 74 No.11 Montgomery, D. (2005) Perspective: Excessive Force 101; the FBI Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 74 No.8 Schmalleger, F. (1997) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
At a minimum, the emergency plan should outline the respective risks capable of being anticipated along with appropriate procedures for implementing necessary response procedures and resource allocation. The emergency plan must include procedures for ensuring continual communication among responders as well as alternate means of communication; procedures for contacting entities outside the immediate area affected by the emergency; and multiple means of providing essential response to every foreseeable type of emergency and every foreseeable type of malfunction or breakdown of primary processes along with secondary plans for each.
Effective emergency response requires training and practice implementing procedures and resources and that practice is also essential for communicating awareness of the plan among first responders. Non-first responders should also be informed of all elements of the plan that pertain to them specifically.
4. What role, if any, should emergency managers play in ensuring emergency medical care for a mass-casualty incident? In…
The strongest case in the criminal law annals for race-based affirmative action occurs in "drug possession offenses," Heffernan writes. The drug busts show "compelling evidence of discrimination against blacks," the author insists; moreover, he claims that many law enforcement personnel have admitted that they practice "a kind of affirmative action: they admit that they selectively enforce anti-drug laws in the black community." The justification for busting black people in the inner city is that "heightened enforcement is good for the community," and further, the reason so many African-American men are caught dealing drugs is that is much easier for police to find crimes among poor people -- this assumes that many blacks in inner cities are low income -- because poor people "are more likely to commit those crimes in public places" (Heffernan, p. 225).
All of the issues that Heffernan has referenced contribute to the reason that the…
Eckholm, Erik. (2010). Congress Moves to Narrow Cocaine Sentencing Disparities. The New
York Times (p. a-16). Retrieved February 2, 2011, from General Reference Center Gold.
Heffernan, William C., and Kleinig, John. (2000). From Social Justice to Criminal Justice:
Poverty and the Administration of Criminal law. New York: Oxford University Press U.S..
(Dunkelberger, 1) This is, of course, a statement of direct reflection on
the approach taken by lawmakers to building a lagging budget, which
determines to impose heavier fines and fees upon members of the public.
Rather than raising taxes, here the economic struggles are in a certain
matter only compounded amongst those who have in some manner run aground of
local or state law.
And as point of fact, the article points to another recommendation
which seems to reinforce this tack. As Dunkelberger tells, "one of the few
winners in the budget process was the Florida Highway Patrol, where
troopers will be in line for a 5 percent pay raise on Oct. 1. Lawmakers
approved the raise after hearing the agency was steadily losing personnel
to other law enforcement agencies that can pay higher salaries."
(Dunkelberger, 1) To say nothing of the fact that this pay raise was a…
Dunkelberger, L. (Apr. 28, 2008). Grim Budget Brings Deep Cuts.
In addition, they could be effective in super high-crime hot spots, such as the bar the authors describe in Minneapolis, which recorded an astounding number of assaults throughout the year; roughly 1 in 4 patrons would suffer an assault during the study (Sherman et al. 44). Thus, random patrols in a hot-spot area like this could help deter crime and apprehend offenders. However, chances are that the very nature of the random patrol would be so random that it would not encounter criminal activity, and so, it would be less effective than other forms of patrol.
Interestingly, most patrol officers disagree with the findings of these studies. Author Kelling and his colleagues write, "Three-fourths of those surveyed in the South Patrol Division [in Kansas City] more than moderately agreed that routine patrol was the most important function of the department" (Kelling, et al. 38). This is not only because they…
Kelling, George L., Pate, Tony, Dieckman, Duane, and Brown, Charles E. The Kansas City
Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Summary Report. Washington DC: Police Foundation, 1974.
Kessler, David a. "One or Two Officer Cars? A Perspective From Kansas City." Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 13, 1985. pp. 49-64.
Sherman, Lawrence W., Gartin, Patrick R, and Buerger, Michael E. "Hot Spots of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities and the Criminology of Place." Criminology, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1989. 27-55.
The federal government along with several states introduced mandatory sentencing and life terms for habitual criminals often called three strikes laws, meaning that after three convictions you're out. They also restricted the use of probation, parole, and time off for good behavior (Prevention History of Corrections -- Punishment or ehabilitation - Justice Model, 2010).
The rapid increase in the 1990s in the number of people confined in prisons and jails was thought to correspond with falling crime rates. Experts though could not agree as to why this decrease in crime occurred. Some thought that imprisoning more criminals naturally led to less crime in society, while others believed that new policing strategies and tactics such as community policing and zero-tolerance reduced crime. The growing number of offenders on parole and in prisons and jails has put a real burden on the system. Facilities have become overcrowded and states have had problems…
Alighieri, Dante. (2009). Institutional Corrections. Retrieved January 31, 2010, from Web site:
Corrections. (2010). Retrieved January 31, 2010, from Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site:
He will try to achieve balance in his life so that the work does not become all-consuming and then ultimately lead to burn out and frustration.
5. Delegate but don't detach (New Word City, 2010).
It is impossible to manage every aspect of a facility or a program. A leader must delegate, but in so doing, he must remain focused on the goals and the actions of each person who contributes to them. A good leader must avoid placing himself in the position of being unaware of what is happening around him. He must delegate in a way that supports a culture of collaboration and mutual dedication towards achieving goals, without ever seeming as though he is "passing the buck."
6. Build a narrative (New Word City, 2010).
Challenging staff to "be the best we can be" is meaningless. There is no clear direction. Building a narrative means creating picture…
New Word City. (2010) Ronald Reagan's leadership lessons. Kindle version.
Strock, J.M. (1999) Reagan on leadership: Executive lessons from the great communicator. Rosevile, CA: Prima Lifestyles.
This ownership of the issue will ensure that any changes that need to be implemented will not be met with resistance as well as ensuring their motivation toward the potentially changing tasks (Wagner & Gooding, 1987).
A leader in this environment will need to continue to reinforce the level of achievement motivation in each employee, emphasizing department excellence and pride in job performance (Sing, 2002). eminders about the goal of the police department to ensure the safety of the general public will take the focus off of the increased work load and put it back on the larger picture of the importance of police work to the community.
An increase in direct communication between the leader and the staff will also contribute to sustained motivation and job performance. This can take the form of an increase in regular supervision or support meetings between the manager and the individual staff. Specific…
Gagne, M. & Deci, E.L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331-363.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization. Organizational Dynamics, 42-63.
Singh, N. (2002). Human relations & organisational behaviour. Human relations & organisational behavior.
Wagner, J.A. & Gooding, R.Z. (1987). Shared influence and organizational behavior: A
The swing back and forth between rehabilitation and "lock them up and throw away the key" makes corrections officers' jobs more difficult than they might otherwise be. Police and corrections personnel must bend to winds of change that bring little regard for their own personal and familial welfare. Much has been said about the prisoners, and the effects of those prisoners on the larger society, but little account has been taken of the effects of constantly changing policies and objectives on those who must work in the nation's prisons. Certainly, their needs and quality of life bears on the future rehabilitation or punishment of wrongdoers. The needs of corrections personnel and police are directly related to the overall problem of how we deal with crime in America.
Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 estoring ationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford…
Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 Restoring Rationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bunzel, S.M. (1995). The Probation Officer and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Strange Philosophical Bedfellows. Yale Law Journal, 104(4), 933-966.
Cochrane, J., Melville, G., & Marsh, I. (2004). Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge.
Diiulio, J.J. (1991). No Escape: The Future of American Corrections. New York: Basic Books.
Managing Criminal Justice Organizations
Position Power: this is the power that emerges from the rank or the position one has within an organization. A supervisor of a group of custodians that also provide security at a university has a position from which he or she can decide what tasks to give the custodians (what buildings to clean and monitor for unusual behaviors). This kind of power is based on simple authority -- if you work for a supervisor his position gives him the license to direct your behavior while on the job. And for the supervisor, the position gives that person the latitude to make decisions as to how others should behave or to what tasks they are assigned.
Coercion Power: this leads into the negative use of power, as the word "coercion" carries with in a connotation of abusiveness. In this form of power a person uses his or…
Merchant, P. (2014). 5 Sources of Power in Organizations. Demand Media. Retrieved July 23, 2014, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com .
Varghese, S. (2010). The Power of Charisma. Forbes. Retrieved July 23, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com .
The problem of how to treat and processing juvenile offenders through the court system has been an issue before the establishment of the first juvenile court in 1899. Before it was recognized that minors needed their own court system, they were processed through the adult court and often received harsh punishment. Separate juvenile courts became evident within all states by 1945. However, the juvenile court system was based upon the adult system and was one that consisted of medical and rehabilitative measures to correct unacceptable behavior. The original goals of the juvenile court were to investigate, diagnose, and prescribe treatment for offenders, not to adjudicate guilt or fix blame. With this philosophy came the doctrine of parent's patriae. Under this doctrine, the state would become an acting agent in place of the parent and act on behalf of the misbehaving juvenile.
Juvenile court proceedings were usually informal and…
Bearden v. Georgia. Retrieved January 28, 2003, at http://www.usscplus.com / online/index.asp?case=4610660
The first officer has to make sure the crime scene is not damaged, and must keep onlookers and others away from the scene to avoid contamination of evidence. Thus, the first responder can ultimately be responsible for the overall success of the physical evidence gathering and evaluation.
Physical evidence can be anything from fingerprints to ballistic evidence and even footprints and tread prints. Physical evidence can also include weapons and other items left behind at the scene by the suspect. All of this evidence can be used later in trial, but it must be documented and evaluated correctly for it to be effective. No crime scene is without physical evidence, so understanding how to collect and evaluate it is extremely important for every police officer, no matter their function, because sooner or later, they could be the first responder on a crime scene, and collecting or managing physical evidence could…
Editors. "Crime Scene Response and Physical Evidence." SCCJA.org. 2007. 20 Nov. 2007. http://www.sccja.org/csr.htm
O'Connor, Thomas. "An Introduction to Criminalistics and Physical Evidence." Austin Peay State University. 2007. 20 Nov. 2007. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/TOCONNOR/315/315lect02.htm
Specifically, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) is one of the premier law enforcement organizations in the world. However, it was conceived, designed, and structured more for the purpose of investigating past crimes and apprehending and prosecuting criminals. For example, the FBI is, by design, a decentralized agency so that field offices in different states can pursue independent investigations. In the field of counterterrorism, the exact opposite structure is required: the counterterrorism mission demands a highly centralized structure whereby intelligence collected from many different locations and by many different agencies and entities is funneled into an integrated analysis center (Larsen, 2007). In many respects that deficiency still pervades the national homeland security mission, as evidenced by the failure of authorities to identify the perpetrator of the Northwest 253 plot on the basis of information that had previously been made available to the national counterterrorism and intelligence infrastructure.
Weapons of Mass…
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
DHS-FEMA. (2006). Fundamentals of Emergency Management: Introduction to Emergency Management. Accessed online December 28, 2009, from:
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…
Air Resources Board. 2007 Annual Enforcement Report. 2008.
Bellenger, Gail. What is the Clean Water Act? 2002.
" (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 22)
The U.S. Department of Justice report also states that upon evaluation of the management of the DEA of "selected practices governing its SIU Program...revealed significant deficiencies including: (1) poor recordkeeping; (2) inadequate control over SIU equipment; (3) inadequate practices for supply salary supplement payment to unit members; (4) excessive span of control ratios for management of the units; (5) insufficient evidence of training; and (7) failure to perform exit briefing of outgoing SIU members. (2007) Stated to be crucial in the DEA success or failure in investigative activity internationally are relationships with: (1) other DEA offices (foreign and domestic); (2) other U.S. law enforcement agencies abroad; and (3) foreign government and their law enforcement components charge with combating illicit drug trafficking." (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 26) the following chart shows the sources of international training funds for the DEA in 2005.
DEA Mission Statement (2008) U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/agency/mission.htm
Agency Budget Summaries: Drug Enforcement Administration (1999) Policy Office of National Drug Control Policy. Online available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/policy/budget98/agency-09f.html
The Drug Enforcement Administration's International Operations (2007) U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General Audit Division Audit Report 07-19 February 2007.
Drug Enforcement Administration (2006) U.S. Department of Justice. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/jmd/mps/manual/dea.htm
Criminal Justice Policy Issue
One of the increasing major concerns in the field of criminal justice is the rising fear of crime in public by juvenile violence, also known as 'youth violence'. This paper would discuss a selected journal article that is based on this issue and would highlight its key findings, issues, recommendations and the summary based on the discussion of the chosen issue.
The article chosen on the selected issue of 'youth violence' is "Youth Violence: Do parents make a difference" written by Laurence Steinberg. The author talks about the decreased rate in youth violence in America, especially the school related violence. The author makes a point that although school violence cannot be controlled or can be to a very limited extent with the help of surveillance cameras in the schools, but stricter measures need to be taken in order to completely eradicate it from America. The society,…
Bushman, B.J., Calvert, S.L., Dredze, M., Jablonski, N.G., Morrill, C., Romer, D., Newman, K., Downey, G., Goyyfredson, M., Masten, A.S., Neill, D.B., & Wenster, D.W. (0216). American Psychologist, 71 (1), 17-39. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039687
Elliott, D.S. (1994, February 18-21). Youth violence: An overview. Paper presented at The Aspen Institute's Children's Policy Forum "Children and Violence Conference." Retrieved from www.colorado.edu/cspv/publications/papers/CSPV-008.pdf
Hawkins, J.D., Herrenkohl, T.I., Farrington, D.P., Brewer, D., Catalano, R.F., Harachi, T.W., & Cothern, L. (2000). Predictors of youth violence. Retrieved from www.crim.cam.ac.uk/people/academic_research/david_farrington/predviol.pdf
Miller, W.B. (1973). Ideology and criminal justice policy: Some current issues. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 64. Retrieved from http://www.conservativecriminology.com/uploads/5/6/1/7/56173731/ideology_and_crimi nal_justice_policy___some_current_issues.pdf
Criminal Justice Organization and Management: The Paramilitary Model Adopted by Police Organizations
The paramilitary model provides a degree of discipline and training to police officers that they might not otherwise obtain. The paramilitary model not only gives law enforcement officers the knowledge and skills regarding how to use force in an effective manner, it also gives police a type of professionalism that helps them to be more organized and opposed to corrupting influences (Potter, 2013). I believe that the paramilitary model adopted by police organizations is effective in some ways but has its limitations in others. For that reason, I think that it should be balanced out by a model of policing that takes into account the fact that police are not engaged in a military campaign against an enemy but are actually working among civilians in communities and are there to serve and protect them. Because police are…
Criminal justice organizations have "varied and complex environments," and are affected by those environments in ways that makes them "malleable" and prone to frequent change (Stojkovie, Kalinich & Klofas, 2015, p. 15-16). Because of this, criminal justice administration reflects the core principles of learning organizations. Criminal justice organizations must be flexible, responsive to changes in social norms and public policies, and willing to account for developments in empirical research that might alter practice. Leadership in criminal justice organizations must therefore be visionary and transformative, motivated by core goals. Because the core goals of criminal justice organizations are as complex as their organizational structures and functions, it is important to explicitly clarify the missions, values, and goals of each organization under the criminal justice umbrella. Likewise, it is important to understand the role of the criminal justice organization within the overarching government.
As governmental institutions, criminal justice organizations are bureaucratic in…
Stojkovie, Kalinich, & Klofas. (2015) Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management - custom (6th ed.) Florence, KY: Wadsworth Publishing
Wiechmann, A.D. (2007). Public Administration in Criminal Justice Organizations. San Diego: University Readers.
Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.
However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…
Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.
Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.
Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.
Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
Criminal Justice Managers
Discuss the three ways leaders can manage ethical behavior in their organizations. Provide at least one example from a current law enforcement agency that supports your discussion.
Three ways that leaders can manage ethical behavior inside their organization include: training, policies / codes and accountability. In the case of training, supervisors can teach personnel the most effective procedures for addressing a variety of challenges they will face on a daily basis. This helps to prepare them for the issues they will encounter and how to respond in way which is taking into account the needs of stakeholders. (Barker, 2011) oss, 2011)
Policies and codes are establishing ethical practices inside any law enforcement agency. This is because these guidelines let everyone know what kind of behavior is acceptable and the consequences they will face when they deviate from it. These areas are providing a foundation for determining the…
Barker, T. (2011). Police Ethics. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.
Ross, J. (2011). Policing Issues. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Seelke, C. (2009). Gangs in Central America. Washington DC: Diane Publishing.
Vodde, R. (2009). Andragogical Instruction for Effective Police Training. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press.
Criminal Justice System
Ever since gaining independence status, both Mozambique and Zimbabwe have come under the scanner for violation of human rights incidences and extrajudicial excesses. The under trials, often arrested without formal sanctions have been continually processed through undemocratic norms and subjected to undue treatment when in confinement and under the control of policing authorities in spite of the fact that statutory provisions in the constitution provide assured guarantee for appeal and fundamental rights protecting the citizens in both the nations. The Dependant Variables hence comprise of use of force and even firearms against those in detention and secondly custodial executions and deaths.
Defining extrajudicial executions and deaths in detentions:
Extra judicial killing is the act of execution or subjecting an under trial to violent acts that may result in death of the person. Such uses of force or acts of violence precede, supersede or bypass any due judicial…
Ackerman, S.R. (n.d.). Independence, political interference and corruption. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CB8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fresources.transparency.bg%2Fdownload.html%3Fid%3D674&ei=nmSFVJjfJsX3UIzXgpAL&usg=AFQjCNG3iXhyvEpGajwTxpO_2SO2oFiECw&sig2=qZhx2nM7AmhxVKqpdVdtOA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.d24
BAR Human Rights Committee of England and Wales. (2010). A Place in the Sun Zimbabwe: A Report on the state of the rule of law in Zimbabwe after the Global Political Agreement of September. Retrieved from: www.barcouncil.org.uk/media/144602/7351_bhrc_zimbabwe_report.pdf
Barkow, R.E. (2008). Institutional Design and the Policing of Prosecutors: Lessons from Administrative Law. Stanford Law Review 61, 869-922.
Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking through bureaucracy. Berkeley: Univ. Of CA Press.
Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture
The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for incarceration where the primary purpose is to protect the public to instruments of punishment where the loss of freedom is penalty for breaking the law, to institutions for reform dedicated to mould the guilty to conform to society's norms. Initially imprisonment was a means of detaining debtors to ensure payment, the accused before trial, or the guilty before punishment. Courts imposed sentences including fines, personal mutilation such as flogging or branding, or death. In 18th-century England transportation to penal settlements in the Thirteen Colonies and later Australia, became an increasingly popular penalty because it removed the guilty from local society; length of sentence and destination reflected the severity with which the court viewed the offence. Eventually a new type of prison,…
Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009130
Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/14/magazine/14prisons-t.html?pagewanted=all
Week 1 Discussion
Decision making in large organizations can be difficult to properly grasp because its characterized by numerous issues that emerge within the organization. Quantitative and qualitative decision making processes in public finance are similar in the sense that they are utilized to analyze data relating to budget management and other relevant issues. These processes in turn help in effective decision-making with respect to the desired objectives. However, quantitative decision-making process is based solely on empirical data while qualitative decision-making is based on a more holistic perspective. An example of qualitative observation is police testing of new, less lethal gun technology through consideration of the cost benefit analysis (CBS, 2015). On the contrary, an example of quantitative observation is the big budget cuts by state leaders through consideration of empirical data (News9.com, 2010).
Quantitative decision-making seemingly takes precedence in budgeting and issues affecting criminal justice agencies. Quantitative decision-making provides…
.....abuse and/or neglect of children and the elderly is a major issue in the American criminal justice system because of increased prevalence of such cases. However, getting accurate information regarding the extent of child and elder abuse is increasingly challenging in the United States. Some of the major issues contributing to this problem include the fact that most child and elder abuse cases are not reported, misreporting of these cases, seeming inability of victims to report the cases, and the fact that most perpetrators are caregivers. Children and senior adults are more likely to be victims of abuse, neglect or maltreatment because of lesser physical and mental capabilities, dependence on caregivers, and tendency to trust easily. The likelihood of vulnerable children and the elderly to fall victims to abuse can be decreased through establishing suitable prevention and intervention measures that effectively identify and deal with risk factors and improve reporting…
These followers are also motivated to perform beyond expectations. This leadership principle of leading by example is important in the criminal justice organizations.
It is therefore important for the transformational leaders to pay attention as well as be sensitive to the needs, demand and preferences of their leaders. By doing these, the transformational leaders manage to cultivate a high level of acceptance of group mission by their various followers via individualized consideration coupled with intellectual stimulation. This leadership principle encourages the unity of subordinates as they engage in working towards a common goal. In order for administrators in the criminal justice organizations to apply the principles of transformational leadership, there is a need for them to apply the six-step process that was suggested by Ulrich (1987). The first step that they must take is to ensure that they create and communicate the very need for organizational change. They then need…
Bass, M., & Avolio, B. (1992). Developing transformational leadership: 1992 and beyond. Journal of European Industrial Training, 14, 21-37.
Kelley, R. (1988). In praise of followers. Harvard Business Review, 66(6), 142-148.
Ulrich, D (1987).The role of transformational leaders in changing sport arenas.In the organization and administration of sport. University of Michigan Ann Arbor
Stojkovic,,S., Kalinich, D., Klofas, J (2007) Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management. Cengage Learning
positives and negatives of the criminal justice policy of surveillance in the age of homeland security is that it provides protection for citizens, but it also raises questions about privacy rights and causes citizens to be fearful that the government is spying on them. Thus there are both positives and negatives to the policy. This affects courts, corrections and juvenile justice in the sense that each has to be aware of rights of persons. The president's stance on this issue is that it is necessary to help combat the enemy. These policing concepts fit in with the concept of social justice because they promote safety and they help stakeholders to feel more secure (Friedman, Miles, 2002). This is imperative for promoting a society that rests on justice and tries to incorporate a framework for safety that protects citizens but also discourages criminal behavior by showing a strong framework for monitoring…
Macleod, S. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
Globlal Organized Crime, ISIS and Criminal Justice
The impact of globalization has not just been felt around the planet in economic, political and social terms: it has also been felt in the sector of criminology. The current crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system on a global basis are, in other words, not as isolated or unconnected as they were a century ago. Today's world is connected in complex ways, especially thanks to the ease of communication that the digital era has provided. In places where the digital divide exists, crimes and criminal issues are more unique and remote (examples include genocide, such as that conducted by Boko Haram for instance in Africa). But in countries where there is no digital divide, the crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system range from counterfeiting to human trafficking to various forms of cyber crime and terrorist-related…
BBC. (2015). Facebook, Google, and Twitter agree German hate speech deal.
BBCNews. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35105003
Baksi, C. (2015). China tackles problem of counterfeit goods head-on. Raconteur.
Retrieved from http://raconteur.net/business/china-tackles-problem-of-counterfeit-goods-head-on
Criminal Justice DQ
Criminal Justice Discussion Questions
The first change was the dramatic increment of offender populations that brought up variations in correctional and sentencing philosophies. The increase was unprecedented following a period loaded with relative stability. Such an increase with correctional populations was not entirely limited to prisons and jails. The second reason was that the scope number of people held in parole and probation grew substantially. The third change was limited expansion of prison capacity that affected all Federal and State prisons (Alarid, 2014). Besides, it formed a critical element in appreciating the individuals held in prison, community service, probation, or parole. The changes in these numbers over time differed based on jurisdiction and policy of the federal government. From the developments, technology has developed a great impact towards correctional activities in 21st century. The immediate effect of the concept is the application of computers aimed at collecting…
Alarid, L. (2014). Community-Based Corrections. New York: Cengage Learning.
Petersilia, J., & Reitz, K.R. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stemen, D. (2007). Policies of Imprisonment: Sentencing and Corrections Policy Innovation in the United States, 1970 -- 2002. New York: ProQuest.
Stinchcomb, J.B. (2011). Corrections: Foundations for the Future. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Ethical Dilemmas In Criminal Justice
Ethical dilemmas permeate almost all organizations globally. Members of an organization often find themselves in challenging situations that require the adoption of the most effective solution that meet the needs of the conflicting parties or situations. One of the organizations that often face the challenge of ethical dilemmas is the criminal justice organization. The criminal justice organizations have been known to perform activities that ensure safety of the population. Most of the ethical dilemmas focus on decisions that organizations can adopt with the aim of fostering the safety of the victims, convict, and the society. Significant evidence shows that ethics play a significant role in an organization. It ensures the recognition of the rights and freedom of the individual alongside prioritizing the safety of individuals in the society (oberson & Mire, 2010).
Therefore, this research paper analyzes different ethical issues that face the…
Hudson, B. (2003). Justice in the risk society challenging and re-affirming justice in late modernity. London: SAGE.
Roberson, C., & Mire, S. (2010). Ethics for criminal justice professionals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
Supervision in the Criminal Justice Field
Problems and challenges facing a criminal justice organization
Supervision in the criminal justice system is an integral aspect of the inmate rehabilitation process. In this paper, we conduct an intensive investigation and examination of the supervisory problems as well as challenges that are unique to the criminal justice organizations. In our analysis, we provide the details of general supervision, management, leadership, personnel evaluation, motivation, mentoring and training.
Keller (2002) pointed out that inmate violence, vandalism, escape, unsanitary conditions, inmate suicide, and high level of stress as well as low staff morale are the main issues that inspire supervision in the correctional facilities. It is therefore necessary that effective inmate supervision as well as behavioral management be made integral elements in all correctional facilities. Keller (2002) went on to indicate that in a historical perspective most correctional facilities have been designed and run…
Atlas, R (1989).Reducing the opportunity for inmate suicide: A design guide.Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol 60(2), Sum 1989, 161-171. doi: 10.1007/BF01064942
Berry, P.E., & Anderson, R. (2001). An evaluation of a private alternative probation and counseling program:Predicting program outcomes from client characteristics. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 26, 121-130.
Brimhall, J (2011).A SQL Experiment-Mentoring
Australian Criminal Justice System
Formal mechanisms are required to make certain there is no bias or discrimination against the people. With informal mechanisms there was unfair treatment of the accused even to the point of receiving unjust sentencing. Those who had the power within the informal mechanisms often received the property or other goods once held by the accused, withhold evidence for personal benefit, or acted as vigilantes exacting their own justice (Lincoln and obinson, 2010).
Social control is best managed by those that have been elected to oversee the management of the changing formats of punishment for criminal behavior. The formal mechanisms work best when connected with matters of state within society (oach Anleu, 1998). One theory that demonstrates the interconnected relations is the Behaviorists Concept. This theory asserts that social control lies within governmental administration of what is considered a normal lifestyle through
Legislation, legal action and negotiation…
Australian Government Department of Foreign Investment and Trade (2011). Legal System. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/legal_system.html
Indehmar, D and Roberts, L. (2009). Confidence in the criminal justice system. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/D/6/8/%7BD68CD7EA-536A-4025-A8C0-A5BADF59A6AC%7Dtandi387.pdf
Lincoln, R. And Robinson, S. (2010). Crime over Time. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle Tyne.
Roach Anleu, S.L. (1998). The role of civil sanctions of in social control: a social legal examination December 15, 2011 from http://www.popcenter.org/library/crimeprevention/volume_09/Role_ofCivilSanctions.pdf
Yet Arab-Americans are not necessarily hostile to the idea of greater community intervention, provided it is done to enhance community life, and not done to profile all Arab-American residents as terrorists. In fact, in the city of Chicago, there have been calls for greater police intervention in Arab-American communities by parents and local leaders, to reduce the threat of violent crime. Nizar Hasan, president of the Arab-American Police Association, believes Arab-American youth are increasingly falling into negative criminal behaviors. "It's getting worse…Some of these kids first try [drugs], get hooked, want more and look for ways to make money to support their habit, which means criminal activity" (Bohn & Schott 2009). However because Chicago, like many cities, does not track crime rates amongst Arab-Americans they are not labeled as 'minorities' -- "according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, persons from the Middle East and North Africa, like those…
Bohn, Lauren E. & Paul Schott. (2009, November 17). Blight of street crime creeping into Arab-
American community. Merrill reports. Northwestern University. Retrieved October 19,
2010 at http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=147319
Elliott, Andrea. (2006, June 13). After 9/11 Arab-Americans fear police, study finds. New York
Criminal Justice ystem Components Analysis
Research the questions below for each of the three criminal justice system components: police, criminal courts, and correctional agencies. Prepare a table or chart that compares and contrasts the information you gather on the components. For example:
Criminal Justice Components
management structure bureaucratic structure with hierarchy of authority and strict regulations
A collection of federal, state, and local public agencies that deal with. They are interdependent
Traditional organizational structures. The chief executive officer is at the top, with other functions dispersed at various layers down through the pyramid
The differences between the organizations in this component as compared to the other two?
The purpose of the police is to maintain order, enforce the criminal law, and provide services.
Courts are the place where defendants / the accused / plaintiffs come to have their please adjudged by judge and jury.…
Barbaree, H.E., Marshall, W.L. (2008). An introduction to the juvenile sex offender: Terms, concepts, and definitions (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Holmes, S.E, James, R.S & Javad K. (2001). Risk Factors in Childhood that Lead to the Development of Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, .31
Rozalski, M., Deignan, M., & Engel, S. (2008). The world of juvenile justice according to the numbers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24,143-147.
criminal justice system by providing the essential definition of terms like Antidotal, Qualitative, and Quantitative Evidence. 'Justice' in the context criminal justice is also defined. The definitions in this study extend to include endnotes, footnotes, crime control, rehabilitative, due process, and nonintervention. The aspect of racial profiling like racism, bias, prejudice, bigotry, and discrimination in criminal justice is also addressed in detail.
Anecdotal evidence defines evidence established through anecdotes. The small sample allows for larger probabilities in realizing unreliable information due to non-representative or otherwise cherry-picked samples for typical cases. An example of anecdotal statement is 'There is proof that water can cure cancer. I read of a man suffering from cancer and was cured after drinking'. Qualitative evidence is sourced from methods of inquiry engaged in different academic disciplines and traditional forms of social sciences. However, it also includes further contexts and market research. Qualitative research aims at gathering…
Inciardi, James. Criminal Justice. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2009. Print
Maxfield, Michael. And Babbie, Earl. Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology. New York: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print
Neubauer, David. And Fradella, Henry. America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print
Stojkovic, Stan, Kalinich, David, and John Klofas Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management. New York: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print
Culural Competence |
Cultural Competence in the Criminal Justice System
Culture determines people's experiences of their world. It is important in the reception and delivery of services. Cultural competence starts with knowing your cultural practices and beliefs, and recognizing the different practices and values of people from different cultures. This goes beyond speaking a different language, or just acknowledging a different group's cultural icons. Cultural competence involves changing your biases or prejudgments on a different people's cultural traditions or beliefs (Continuing Education Online, 2002-2016).
Cultural competence, therefore, can be described as a group of attitudes and behavior within a culture. These attitudes and behavior are incorporated into the methods of practice of an agency, system or its experts, and helps them work productively under cross-cultural circumstances. To successfully achieve cultural competency, knowledge about groups and individuals must be incorporated and translated into certain practices and rules applied in suitable cultural…
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Continuing Education Online. (2002-2016). Cultural Competency and Diversity. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from Continuing Education Online: http://www.getceusnow.com
Otu, N. (2015). Decoding Nonverbal Communication In Law Enforcement. Salus Journal, Issue 3, No. 2, 1-16. Retrieved from Salus Journal: http://www.salusjournal.com
Patel, S. (2016). Cultural Competency Training: Preparing Law Students for Practice in Our Multicultural World. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from UCLA Law Review: http://www.uclalawreview.org
1. Explain how a criminal justice agency can ensure that it hires moral individuals.
Criminal justice leaders are public servants responsible to their community. This responsibility, together with the huge amount of control and influence they have, necessitates that they display superior levels of ethical and moral conduct. Ethical practice guidelines remind criminal justice heads to realize the divide between integrity and friendship; corporate objectives and adeptness and client interests; between personal prejudices, interests, and views and professional values. In this respect, all law enforcement leaders are required to refrain from unethical conduct when carrying out their duties. Ethicality is crucial, considering their job involves making life-altering decisions targeted at involved individuals (both victims and offenders). For instance, policemen who put legislation into force and work within societal settings are empowered to snatch away citizens' freedom, undertake investigations, issue tickets and engage in covert operations. Arbitrariness may arise if police…
The debate regarding which form of protocol is more appropriate, custodial vs. treatment, is indeed one of the more controversial subjects in criminal justice today. Custodial treatment refers to the act of putting the convicted criminal in an institution of some sort, such as a jail or prison (hence the term, "custody"). Those who are in favor of this option stress the pros of this type of method, stressing that it is one of society's oldest forms of punishment: "When someone is sentenced to jail or prison, that individual is physically separated from society (the modern version of banishment- society's first form of punishment. In doing so, the person is quite literally deterred from committing any further crimes against the general public because (due to their incarceration) they simply no longer have physical access to the community" (Bayley, 2009). Bayley stresses one of the obvious advantages of custodial…
Bayley, B. (2009, July 1). Custody Vs. Treatment Debate: Deterrence -- The Two Great Lies.
Retrieved 8, 2012, June, from Correctionsone.com: http://www.correctionsone.com/corrections - training/articles/1851841-Custody-Vs- Treatment-Debate-Deterrence-The-Two-Great-Lies/
Doj.wisconsin.gov. (n.d.). What Is the Difference between Probation and Parole? Retrieved June 8, 2012, from Wisconsin Department of Justice: http://www.doj.wisconsin.gov/dles/cibmanuals/files/TIME/HTML/whatisthedifferencebe tweenprobationandparole.htm
Opm.gov. (n.d.). Position Classification Standard. Retrieved June 8, 2012, from U.S. Office of Personnel Management: http://www.opm.gov/fedclass/gs0007.pdf