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Ciminal Justice - Reseach Methods
Soucebook of ciminal justice statistics Online
Respondents' concen ove effects of illegal immigants
Gallup, Inc., The Gallup Poll [Online]. Available: http://www.gallup.com/poll/
127649/Ameicans-Value-Aspects-Immigation-Refom.aspx [June 16, 2010].
Table adapted by SOURCEBOOK staff.
Oveall, the suvey espondents indicate substantive concens with the pesence of illegal immigants in the U.S. Thee items elate to the oveall question: (1) Unfai buden on U.S. schools, hospitals, and govenment; (2) Encouages othe immigants to move hee illegally; (3) Low wages eaned by illegal immigants educes oveall wages paid to Ameican wokes. The oveaching question is how concened espondents ae fo each of the items, and the highest anking item was elated to the unfai buden immigants place on schools, hospitals, and govenment. Fo all thee items, thee is significant diffeence in the pecentage of esponses unde vey concened vs. unde somewhat concened. A majoity of U.S. citizens ae vey concened about…
references the Audits and Strategies Toolkit. The URL to that paper is http://www.leics.gov.uk/nwl_2_method.pdf Specifically, the resource that I located was an audit report from a work group conducted by the Research and Information Team of Leicestershire County Council, the focus of which was crime, disorder, and drugs. The audit workshop was conducted on February 13, 2004. From this paper, I was able to make some comparisons between the Audits and Strategies toolkit and our readings about Problem Analysis Evaluation methods and strategies. Both approaches have a problem-centered focus that helps to generate strategies for addressing problems that include: (1) Summarization of data that embeds considerations about spatial analysis (i.e., mapping crimes presented a challenge as the data sources vary with respect to the type of census and mesh maps -- based on a grid system --employed); (2) key problem identification; (3) deep data analysis
Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory
British Crime Survey (BCS) Review
The survey I reviewed is from primary research that provided a transcript for an interview, presumably to use in a face-to-face interview -- there are directions for showing cards to the respondents that give them a change to read response options and choices. Demographic data was collected at the beginning of the survey either to act as a screener or because it is essential to the data collection -- having this information at the start of the survey ensures that the interview will not conclude or be aborted without collecting this information. Demographic data tends to be categorized, which provides quantitative data analysis capability. A fairly consistent use of a 5-point Likert scale is used to record participants' responses. In other places, respondents are asked to choose from a list of distinct responses or simply answer yes or…
Criminal Justice esearch
Torres, A.N., Boccaccini, M.T., and Miller, H.A. (2006). Perceptions of the validity and utility of criminal profiling among forensic psychologists and psychiatrists, American Psychological Association, 37 (1), 51-58.
Study purpose, research topic, and research questions. This research explores the perceptions of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists in regard to the utility and validity of criminal profiling. It is important to first establish a clear definition of the key term used in this research: Criminal profiling. The definition of criminal profiling in this research is not the same as in the vernacular. The authors discriminate forensic criminal profiling as the use of "behavioral evidence left at a crime scene to make inferences about the offender, including inferences about personality characteristics and psychopathology" (Torres, et al., 2006, p. 51). From the literature (Davis & Follette, 2002), the authors overly the simplest of definitions: "…profiling is simply the postdiction of behavior;…
Bartol, C.R. (1996). Police psychology: Then, now, and beyond. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23, 70-89.
Cook, C., Heath, F., and Thompson, R.L. (2000). A meta-analysis of response rates in web- or Internet-based surveys. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 821-836.
Davis, D. And Follette, W.C. (2002). Rethinking the probative value of evidence: Base rates, intuitive profiling, and the "postdiction" of behavior. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 133-158.
Douglas, J.H., and Olshaker, M. (1995). Mind hunter: Inside the FBI's elite serial crime unit. New York, NY: Mindhunters.
Criminal Justice esearch
Overview- The authors of a research study examined 715 high school students in a large suburban area. They wished to define the relationship between a preference for heavy metal music and delinquency; controlling for parental and school related variables. The results showed that there was a statistically viable relationship when parental control was low; but no support between music preference and delinquency otherwise. In fact, they found it odd that students with both a preference for heavy metal music and high grades reported a higher degree of self-reported delinquency, almost leading to the view of a self-view of rebellion rather than actual delinquent behavior (Singer, et al., 1993).
esearch Issue: Is Music preference linked to juvenile delinquency?
ationale: Heavy Metal is not just a musical preference, but a cultural and life-style paradigm. Fans dress different, display different symbols, and typically emulate the behavior of some of the…
The Beatles' first Ed Sullivan Show. (2013). The Beatles Bible. Retrieved from: http://www.beatlesbible.com/1964/02/09/the-beatles-first-ed-sullivan-show/
McBurney, D., & White, T. (2010). Research Methods (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Richards, J. (2005). Open vs. Closed Ended Questions. UCLA Information Studies. Retrieved from: http://polaris.gseis.ucla.edu/jrichardson/dis220/openclosed.htm
Singer, S. (1993). Heavy Metal Music Preference, Deliquent Friends, Social Control and Delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 30 (3): 317-29.
Surveys also provide the ability to reach large numbers of participants and if needed, a wide geographic area can be reached through mail surveys.
Surveys provide the ability to gather data and categorize it by several headings including demographic, geographic or other criteria.
The survey will be divided into three different sections. The first section will be used to collect demographic data. The survey questions will be about race, family structure, age and other things that determine demographic information about the participants.
The second section of the survey will move to the study at hand. Questions will be asked about past performance and habits, current performance and habits and future performance and habits. This is an important part of the survey as it allow the researcher to look into the mind and thinking of the participant with regards to the topic of this study.
The third section will…
Cross, Geoffrey A. David, Carol S. Graham, Margaret Baker Thralls, Charlotte; (1996) Thinking and rethinking research methodology. Business Communication Quarterly
Goldman, Irvin (1999) Q. METHODOLOGY AS PROCESS AND CONTEXT IN INTERPRETIVISM, COMMUNICATION, AND PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY RESEARCH. The Psychological Record
Overcash, Janine. (2004) Narrative research: a viable methodology for clinical nursing.
Data collected in the survey questionnaires is then translated into the dialect of the country by professionals from that country who then regulate the fielding of the study in their country of origin (Cohen, 2008).
Benefits and drawbacks to using this type of research in criminology
With the increase in global criminal justice and crime, more scientists are devoting their interest in comparative studies. Comparative studies have limited implications on policies of a country unlike researches directed to a country where discoveries are drawn with significant approach suggestions provided. Therefore, funding for comparative studies is the major hindrance. Any study that includes more than one country will be very expensive regardless of whether it engages original observations, data, and interviews (Bennett, 2009).
Access to the research subjects has demonstrated to be challenging. Access could involve securing confidential and sensitive data, interviewing groups of sensitive agencies and observing clandestine activities. While…
Bennett, R.R. (2009). Comparative criminological and criminal justice research and the data that drive them*. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 33(2), 171-192. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/236984614?accountid=33337
Cohen, S. (2008). Against criminology. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Books.
Winterdyk, J., Reichel, P.L., & Dammer, H.R. (2009). A guided reader to research in comparative criminology/criminal justice. Bochum: Universita-tsverlag Brockmeyer.
Criminal Justice Research Review
Ricciardelli, R., Bell, J., & Clow, K. (2009). Student attitudes toward wrongful conviction, Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 51(3), 411-427.
There has been considerable research addressing the underlying factors regarding wrongful conviction; however, minimal research has been completed that investigates attitudes toward wrongful conviction. First and third year Canadian undergraduate students in criminal and non-criminal justice majors were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward various facets of wrongful conviction, the need to educate criminal justice personnel regarding contributing factors to wrongful conviction, the Blackstone ratio ("better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer), and the question as to whether wrongful conviction causes individuals to lose faith in the criminal justice system.
The problem was sufficiently narrowed down into a researchable problem, and is certainly formidable enough to warrant formal research efforts. The authors complete a significant comparison to the most…
Hickle, K., & Roe-Sepowitz, D. (2010). Female juvenile arsonists: An exploratory look at characteristics and solo and group arson offences, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15, 385-399.
The purpose of the study was to examine a sample of 114 female juveniles charged with arson in a large juvenile justice system, as there is limited descriptive literature about female juvenile arsonists. The methodology included looking into familial characteristics, abuse, neglect, school related issues, mental health, substance abuse, and crime characteristics. Individual and group offenders were explored in depth, and were followed over a five-year period of time.
The literature review was very detailed and provided comparative as well as empirical information that highlighted the current gap that this study was designed to address. T test and chi square tests were used to establish whether the 86 that were excluded from the study demonstrated any significant differences than those who participated in the study. The 114 females included represented 22 counties in the state of Florida. The supervision Risk Classification Instrument was completed by juvenile probation officers within 6 hours of custody. This is a standard tool used for all juvenile offenders. It was difficult to discern from the study whether or not the participants assented to participation in the study, or whether it was required. The study did indicate that permission for the study was granted by the Florida Juvenile Justice Review board. The research design is appropriate to address the research problem; and issues of internal and external validity are adequately addressed. Data collection instruments are adequately described and the statistical tests are correct for answering the questions posited by the hypothesis.
Policing Action Plan for Mountain View, New Mexico
Police forces have to handle various operations and incidents, which are often resolved by the assignation of available resources. However, in certain operations or instances, a different police response strategy is required. Further, a specialized command structure may be needed. Control and command refers to an organization's capacity and power to guide its staff's actions and put its resources to use. Control and command standards are scalable and may be applied in operations and cases of different scope and size, right from the supervising of any local community occasion to a serious crime investigation (e.g., a multi-seated terror attack) that necessitates extensive police force mobilization (College of Policing, 2013).
In this paper, a novel action plan will be described, which may be utilized for the purpose of dealing with the growing crime rate of New Mexico's Mountain View (MV). In view of…
College of Policing. (2013). Command and control. Retrieved December 15, 2015, from College of Policing Limited: https://www.app.college.police.uk/app-content/operations/command-and-control/
College of Policing. (2013). Strategic planning. Retrieved December 15, 2015, from College of Policing Limited: https://www.app.college.police.uk/app-content/operations/operational-planning/strategic-planning/
Plant, J. B., & Scott, M. S. (2009). Effective Policing and Crime Prevention. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
Criminal Justice Career
How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice?
Criminal justice is seen as the practices, system and the concerned government institutions that are focused on implementing social control, participating in crime mitigation and sanctioning the law violator by imposing penalties and rehabilitation programs. It covers the private sector, the pubic sector, NGOs, state and the local governments as well (Oregon Laws, 2007). To handle effectively such a wide spectrum of departments with professionals without a chance foe making the wrong interpretation of the law once needs to be well equipped with the legal terms.
How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research?
When one lacks the proper terminology in the criminal justice, this can be a fundamental barrier in the execution of duty and definition of the offences committed as well as interpretation of…
Cambridge Dictionary Online (2011). Research: Definition. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/research_1
CDC (2011). Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.orau.gov/cdcynergy/demo/Content/phase05/phase05_step03_deeper_qualitative_and_quantitative.htm
Chris Williams, (2009). Scientific Research and Quantitative Research. Retrieved May 21, 2011
Criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained from direct and indirect observation of a complex social issue whereas anecdotal data is data obtained from someone else's observation or experience of an issue. In the criminal justice field, empirical research data is used to inform evidence-based practices in this field because it's based on well-designed analytical approaches and studies. In some cases, empirical research evidence is used to confirm anecdotal data as…
A researcher must limit the number of external and internal variables outside of the study variable that could affect the outcome of the study.
What are the disadvantages to the classic experiment?
The primary disadvantage of an experiment is that the controls imposed by a researcher to control for rival causation may create artificial conditions that alter the ability for the results of the study to be generalized to other populations. This is known as artificiality. Other disadvantages include difficulty in mimicking real-life situations in experimental situations, difficulty in retaining subjects, increased ethical considerations, researcher bias, higher risks to internal and external validity, and more difficult generalization of findings.
Differentiate between probability sampling and non-probability sampling.
Probability sampling refers to samples that permit estimation of the likelihood of each element of the population being selected in the sample. These include simple random samples, where each element has an equal likelihood…
The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).
Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…
Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.
Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.
Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.
However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…
Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.
Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.
Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.
Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
Criminal justice research presents a unique set of ethical challenges. Two of the most significant ethical challenges include the need to protect participant confidentiality, and the need to pursue research that promotes social justice. Lowman & Palys (2001) analyze some of the ethical and legal threats to confidentiality, showing how criminal justice researchers can balance their legal and ethical obligations with their commitment to research efficacy, validity, and reliability. Nouwen (2014), on the other hand, is concerned with the research questions and methodologies used to investigate issues related to social justice, advocacy, and human rights. Both of these are important issues to consider when designing and applying criminal justice research.
Criminal justice research frequently involves situations in which participants divulge sensitive information about a crime they were involved in, a crime they witnessed, or a criminal justice procedure they participated in such as the arrest or processing of an offender.…
What do you Think
Paradigm of Laws
Paradigm of Laws
• the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons
Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a prisoners. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates. Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action.
The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. The…
Jensen, O.C., (1934), "Kant's Ethical Formalism," Philosophy, 9(34), 195-208
Retributive vs. Restorative Justice, (2009), Retrieved from:
This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion.
Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…
As an alternative, on the foundation of information obtained from confidential informants, the government petitioned the district court to give permission for the placement of an electronic surveillance wire tap on Jesus Zambrana's private telephone. Information obtained over this wire tap led law enforcement officers to think that Ernest Lonzo and another unidentified person were carrying narcotics from Miami, Florida, to Jesus Zambrana's house in Gary, Indiana.
On the foundation of this wire tap information, DEA agents, with the help of police officers from Lake County, Indiana, and East Chicago, Indiana, began the surveillance of Interstate Highway I-65 in the area of Crown Point, Indian. Prior to starting the surveillance, a DEA agent met with Lake County, Indiana, police officers and gave them a list of five people suspected as being involved in the carrying of narcotics between Florida and Indiana, as well as a list of four vehicles thought…
Informants, Surveillance, and Undercover Operations. (2010). Retreived from http://www.drtomoconnor.com/3220/3220lect02c.htm
United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee v. Jesus Zambrana, Sr., Charles Cole and Jay
Zambrana, 841 F.2d 1320. (1988). Retreived from http://ftp.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/841/841.F2d.1320.86-1501.86-1402.86-1115.html
Drumming my hands on the desk before me, I finally spoke. "You're right, you're absolutely right." My academic advisor patiently raised a single eyebrow. "What? You thought I would steer you wrong?"
I didn't believe her when she called me; I definitely thought she would be joking. Yet as I gazed at the piece of paper, reading for the third time the letter addressed to me, I had to admit, she had me pegged.
'Congratulations," she said with a huge grin. "You got the internship.
'I can't believe it," I finally managed, and stood up abruptly. Far less stunned than I was, my advisor had watched me blossom from a fledgling freshman into an academically accomplished senior. When in my junior year I finally realized that I was beginning to accomplish all I had set out to do, I did not feel as relaxed as some of my…
e. height, weight, age, race, etc.), in connection with the investigation of specific criminal activity, that information allows authorities to narrow the search for individuals who match those identifying characteristics. The process is perfectly logical and obviously makes infinitely more sense than continuing to search for individuals who bear no resemblance to the descriptions provided by reliable sources.
However, the same legitimate techniques with respect to specific evidence of crimes also has a history of impermissible application in ways that deprive subjects of police investigation of their fundamental constitutional rights. For example, in the late 20th century, the U.S. Customs Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration both made extensive use of what they called "criminal indicators" in connection with their efforts to apprehend criminal drug traffickers as they attempted to enter the U.S. At the borders (Schmalleger, 2007).
Among other criteria, those sets of indicators including Hispanic origin and language,…
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Peak, K. (2002) Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges (Third Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
U.S. Institute of Justice and Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (1999) Police-Public Contact Survey; Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences; Mar 2004
Equal protection is a fundamental constitutional protection, that in modern times, guarantees the equal effect of law to all persons. In that regard, the Supreme Court has established specific suspect classes of individuals, such as membership in a minority race, whose rights to equal protection must be guarded most scrupulously, primarily because the need to do so has been more than adequately demonstrated by aspects of relatively recent American history.
According to criminologists and researchers who have conducted studies of the impact of criminal laws in general, and of capital punishment in particular, criminal defendants who are members of minority races (as well as those who are poor) are statistically much more likely to receive the death penalty in comparison with non- minority (and wealthier) criminals convicted of identical death-penalty-eligible offenses (Schmalleger, 2007; Zalman, 2008). This discrepancy suggests that capital punishment in the U.S. still violates one of…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Bantam Books.
Friedman, a. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Kaveny, C. (2008). Justice or vengeance: is the death penalty cruel and unusual?
Commonwealth; Feb 18/08.
The future technologies will assure authentication along with evidence. Another advancement that will assist to recognize the criminal is the "Face Software" that will help to create the image of the suspected criminal and it will be a great help for the police department. DNA profiling and fingerprinting is also under process for the purpose of identification of the criminals. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the fluid present inside the human cell. DNA is the content of the human body that remains unchanged throughout the life, and every human has the different composition of the DNA form another human. Even the two identical twins with same physical features have different DNAs. Therefore, any person can be identified through his/her DNA profile. DNA is a powerful investigation tool for the Criminal justice system and the FBI to stop the anti-human activities in the world. The scientific progress will also help to manufacture…
Pattavina, a. (2005). Information Technology and the Criminal Justice System. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, cop.
Ritter, N.M. (2006). Preparing for the Future: Criminal Justice. National Institute of Justice, 45.
Sorensen, J.R. (2009). An assessment of the relative impact of criminal justice and criminology. Journal of criminal justice, 505-511.
To the extent that crime is a function of larger social issues, it is unrealistic to expect those underlying social problems to be rectified by law enforcement efforts. Even with respect to specific incidence of criminal behavior, law enforcement authorities must address two competing interests that fall within the purview and responsibility of law enforcement.
Specifically, poverty, unwanted pregnancy, lack of educational and vocational opportunities, and perceived social "disenfranchisement" within communities contribute heavily to crime in those areas but none of those social factors are capable of being redressed directly by law enforcement authorities. Likewise, even within the realm of law enforcement responsibilities, emphasis on quality-of-life-oriented policing and crime prevention-oriented policing conflict with the goal of preventing crime in light of empirical evidence and anecdotal experience demonstrating that efforts directed at the former do not necessarily achieve the goals of the latter appreciably.
In that regard, directed police patrols and…
To be honest I tend to think that crime has been trending in the late night news since the early 90s to an extent that it has become some sort of entertainment. It is mostly featured in the prime time news as a mass magnet for news corporations which are business entities and would therefore; capitalize on the expectant audience it has attracted. A large proportion of the crime reported is usually projected as individual subversions rather than socially motivated misdemeanors. It is from this perspective that criminals are feared beyond their capability without proper dissemination of the causes leaving an audience that is always pregnant with political, or sexual related crimes as a form of entertainment than a source of crime prevention issues that would go a long way in making their neighborhoods safer.
This paper will delve into the three main parts; the study…
Catalano, S.M. (2006). The Measurement of Crime: Victim Reporting and Police Recording.
New York: LFB Scholarly.
Conklin, J. (2010). Criminology. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
Kornhauser, R. (1978). Social Causes of Delinquency. Chicago: University of Chacago Press.
Since ICO focuses on a pattern of behavior instead of just on the criminal acts that are involved prosecutors find it relatively easy to prove these cases. If an organization is convicted of committing two of the specified crimes within a ten-year period then they can be convicted of racketeering.
Legitimate business owners deserve to have protection from groups that wish to pursue illegal activity. The ICO Act was put into place in order to afford these legitimate businesses this protection. Since the interpretation of the ICO Act has been expanded we have also seen protections from mail fraud and wire tapping to be included in the protections that are guaranteed to the people. The ICO Act is always going to be subject to interpretation, but the protections that if gives business owners will always be seen as good.
Cecil, Greek. (1991). Is This The End of ico? Or…
Cecil, Greek. (1991). Is This The End of Rico? Or Only The Beginning: The Ongoing Debate
Over the Expanded Use of Criminal and Civil Rico. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from Web
Chapter 96 -- Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations. (2000). Retrieved April 20, 2009,
Criminal Justice Data Interpretation
In December of 2014 the National Center for Juvenile Justice published its fourth "comprehensive report on juvenile crime, victimization, and the juvenile justice system." (Sickmund, 2014, pg iii) This report was prepared in order to present the most important information on the juvenile justice system and those who come under its jurisdiction. In order to understand the many influences on the lives of juveniles, the report examines the variety of characteristics within the population of juveniles included in the report. While this includes such information as demographics, population data, living arrangements and high school dropout rates, one of the most important characteristics is the rate of births attributed to juveniles. Page 13 of the report includes a table which describes the teenage birthrate in the United States compared with a number of other industrialized nations. The data used was collected from the United Nations…
Sickmund, Melissa and Charles Puzzanchere, Editors. (2014). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2014 National Report. National Center for Juvenile Justice. Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/nr2014/downloads/NR2014.pdf
Durose, Matthew, Alezia Cooper, and Howard Snyder. (2014 Apr). Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rprts05p0510.pdf
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…
Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at http://szabo.best.vwh.net/JurisdictionAsProperty.pdf
Choices, controlled by fear are another core principle that advocates for fear inducement that will enable individuals keep away from crime. This principle supports three strikes legislation, since with a repetition of crime it comes with a severe judgment that enables first crime offenders fear and keep away from crime. Core principle of severity calls for a severe punishment on a violent crime and depending on the nature of crime. The theory supports three strikes legislation, since a repetition of violent crime faces severe charges than the first time (Siegel, 2010).
Criminal policy proposal
Criminal justice, over the years, has faced many challenges in administering proper justice. Drug and substance abuse and mental illness are examples of disorders that need to be corrected to minimize crime rates. Criminals who prove to be mentally ill or under the influence of drug or substance should be treated different from criminals who are…
Davies, G.A. (2012). Forensic Psycholgy: Crime, Justice, Law, Interventions. London: John Wiley and Sons.
Landsberg, G. (2002). Serving Mentally III Offenders: Challenges and Opportunities for Mental Health Professions. Chicago: Spring Publishing Company.
Roth, M. (2010). Crime and Punishment: AHistory of the Criminal Justice System. London: Cengage Learning Publishers.
Shute, S.A. (2002). Criminal LawTheory: Doctrines of the General Part. Chicago: Oxford University Press.
The role of a judge includes interpretation and enforcement of the law. The judiciary is responsible for upholding and applying laws as made by the legislature. Such laws require interpretation and application by the judicial rules to diverse cases. The concept is inclusive of guidelines that promote appropriate sentencing (Gibson & Cavadino, 2008). Where the jury finds defendants guilty, the judges decide on appropriate sentencing. Magistrates find defendants guilty and issue sentences or refer to higher Courts for sentencing. Such is normally the case where the offences are too serious for the sentencing powers. The sentencing criterion is influenced by various factors such as the circumstances of each case and impact of the crime on the victims. Other components include relevant law that guides Court of Appeal cases. The judges equally take into consideration the mitigation provisions that include hard personal circumstances and remorseful expressions on guilty pleas…
Ashworth, A., (2005) Sentencing, and Criminal Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press
Gibson, B., Cavadino, P., (2008) The Criminal Justice System: An Introduction. New York: Waterside Press
Shahidullah, S.M., (2012) Comparative Criminal Justice Systems: Global and Local Perspectives. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Siegel, L., (2009) Introduction to Criminal Justice. New York: Cengage Learning
In that regard, unofficial policies are communicated informally and reinforced by peer pressure as well as various negative consequences ranging from social ostracism to outright harassment and intimidation by threat or innuendo referencing the importance of solidarity among fellow officers who are responsible for each other's safety on the job.
Improving the Effectiveness of Communications within Police Departments:
One of the problems identified within police agencies is the purposeful withholding of information by superior officers as a means of ensuring (or increasing) their perceived value within the organization (Schaffer 2008). Countering this tendency effectively requires a two-pronged approach that includes (1) establishing objective criteria for advancement based on the performance and improvement rate of supervisees, and (2) conducting inventories of the degree to which supervisors disclose relevant information to all recipients whose performance may be affected negatively by withholding information for selfish purposes.
Eliminating the established dynamic represented by the…
Grubb, R., Hemby, V. (2003) Effective Communication for Criminal Justice Professionals. New York: Little, Brown & Co.
Linsky, M., Heifetz, R. (2002). Leadership on the Line. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Schafer, J. (2008). Effective Police Leadership: Experiences and Perspectives of Law Enforcement Leaders; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 7, pp. 13-19.
Criminal Justice -- Sheriff's Departments Hiring Requirements
San Francisco County Sheriff's Department
The minimum qualifications for applying to the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) are as follows: the candidate must be at least 18 years of age; must be a U.S. citizen or a "permanent alien who is eligible and has applied for citizenship"; must have a U.S. high school diploma (or GED certificate) or a 2-year or 4-year college degree; cannot have any felony convictions (and certain misdemeanor convictions); must be physically and mentally healthy and be of good moral character.
The selection requirements include: a) testing reading and writing ability (an acceptable score must be obtained on the POST Entry-Level Law Enforcement Test Battery); b) an oral interview (the department head and another department employee, or an oral panel, gives this oral interview; a candidate's "experience, problem solving ability, communication skills, motivation/interest, interpersonal skills and community awareness /…
Saint Louis County Missouri. (2009). Law and Public Safety / Evaluating Quality Police
Services / What is Quality Police Service? Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.stlouisco.com .
San Diego County Sheriff's Department. (2011). Become a Deputy Sheriff / Lateral Program /
Join Our Team. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.joinsdsheriff.net/lateral.html.
It appears to have become popular in the early 1990's by advocates and not police officers. Prior to those in charge telling the police what they are doing incorrect, they must outline it for themselves first. Criminologists are still trying to figure out how much profiling really goes on. It is very hard to measure since there is no set definition been determined. It has been suggested that the police are more probable to look for minorities because they commit an uneven amount of crimes. According to statistics in 2001, blacks were twelve percent of the nation's population but accounted for twenty seven percent of all sexual-assault convictions, sixty six percent of all robbery convictions and thirty eight percent of all fraud and embezzlement convictions.
If one sets aside the numbers and goes back to Cincinnati. In 2001, riots exploded following a white officer shooting and killing a black man…
Cloud, John. (2001). What's Race Got to Do With it? Retrieved November 10, 2010, from Time
Web site: http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/
In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.
Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…
Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.
Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35
Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Another form of punishment is by restraint or incarceration. By keeping the person under state control, then the state can avert the person from committing another crime. On the other hand, many times incarceration is only a temporary answer. ehabilitation is an alternative when it is possible. The person who violates criminal laws gets punishment but also learns how to alter their bad behavior and work toward becoming a productive citizen. The last reason of punishment is retribution, or to make the person suffer for the pain caused to the victim and the victim's family. Many times, this reason is most relevant to the victim or the victim's family when a violent crime is committed (the Purpose of Criminal Laws, 2012).
In very broad terms punishment may be anticipated to affect deterrence in one of two ways. First, by escalating the certainty of punishment, potential offenders may be deterred…
Bundy, D. (2011). Philosophy of Criminal Law Protection. Retrieved from http://suite101.com/article/philosophy-of-criminal-law-protection
The Purposes of Criminal Law. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.federationpress.com.au/pdf/Lanham%20Ch1B.pdf
The Purpose of Criminal Laws. (2012). Retreived from http://www.superpages.com/supertips/criminal-laws.html
Wright, V. (2010). Deterrence in Criminal Justice. Retrieved from http://www.asca.net/system/assets/attachments/1463/Deterrence_Briefing_.pdf?12901
There are three basic types of research designs including: (1) experimental designs; (2) quasi-experimental designs; and (3) non-experimental designs. (Shadish, Cook and Campbell, 2002) the 'gold standard' is stated to be represented by "...experimental evaluations that make use of the random assignment of individuals to interventions and control groups..." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)
Mulhlhausen (2009) reports that randomized evaluations are of the nature that serve to "ensure that pre-progam differences between the intervention and control groups do not confound or obscure the true impact of the programs being evaluated." In addition, random assignment is stated to enable the evaluator in testing "for differences between the experimental and control groups that are due to the intervention and not to pre-intervention discrepancies between the groups. y drawing members of the interaction and comparison groups from the same source of eligible participants, these experimental evaluations are superior to other evaluations using weaker designs." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)…
David Weisburd, Cynthia M. Lum, and Anthony Petrosino, "Does Research Design Affect Study Outcomes in Criminal Justice?" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, No. 578 (November 2001), pp. 50-70.
Nathan James, "Offender Reentry; Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism," CRS Report for Congress, April 21, 2009.
William R. Shadish, Thomas D. Cook, and Donald T. Campbell, Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002).
Muhlhlausen, David B. (2009) Prisoner Reentry: A Limited Federal Government Role. The heritage foundation. 5 Nov 2009. Online available at: http://www.heritage.org/Research/Crime/tst110509a.cfm#_edn35
However, in order to establish a private facility the consent of state legislature is required. Once a state makes the decision for allowing establishment of a private for-profit prison then corporations are asked to participate in bidding by submitting their proposals. The highest bidder offering better services is awarded the contract. Many states attach certain conditions such as maintenance and provision of educational and rehabilitation services before actually awarding the contract. After awarding the contract government exercises the right of monitoring and accountability by means of thorough inspections, interviews, observations, hearings, and meetings. For example, in the state of Florida there is a legal requirement that such prison facilities can be inspected at least once annually. Some argue that annual and semi-annual inspections are not enough and full-time government monitoring is required but this too may have issues of costs and corruption. To counter this some private firms have taken…
Campbell, A., Coyle, A., & Neufeld, R. (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Clarity Press. Atlanta.
Gandy, J. & Hurl, L. (1987). Private Sector Involvement in Prison Industries: Options and Issues. Canadian Journal of Criminology. Volume: 29. Issue: 2.
Use of technology would promote public knowledge about the spread of confirmed criminal activity or patterns of behavior that might place people at risk, whether that risk involved theft, credit card scams or other behaviors (Farber, 2006).
Participation in shared networking technological programs would be required of private businesses, community agencies and policing authorities to ensure a true community policing structure is established. Communities would work to create neighborhood watch groups in response to "non-sensitive" security data that would help them better protect their community and collaborate with law enforcement agencies (Farber, 2006, p. 110).
Before a hearing is set, a judiciary authority should be appointed along with a trained criminal justice psychologist to determine what factors contributed to the criminal activity, the severity of criminal activity and whether prosecution is warranted, or whether rehabilitative measures would prove more helpful in the long-term. A meeting should be established where the…
American Law and Legal Information. (n.d.). Criminal justice system, structural and theoretical components of criminal justice systems, the systems of operation, the importance of viewing criminal justice as a system. American Law and Legal Information. Crime and Justice Volume 1. Accessed 22, May, 2007:
Bouza, a.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge: Perseus Books.
Farber, O. (2006, Jun). Positive SPIN on liaisons: Find out how the security police information network (SPIN) promotes public-private information sharing. Security Management, 50(6): 110.
The two should know better but their emotions got the best of them. In this case I would myself (or ask another person who knows the two) pull one of the two aside gently but firmly and ask that he take a deep breath and not cause commotion to the point where we all suffer. I would say, "Take a break guy, please cool your jets for a few moments because you are causing all of us to be distracted from what we are supposed to be doing here. You're forcing us to be involved and we aren't part of your problem, so please, quiet down…"
If that wouldn't work, the next step of course is to notify the supervisor or foreman that we need help -- or to follow company policy in whatever form is required in that situation.
Who are my heroes?
I don't have any "heroes" in…
Dershowitz and others have pointed out, rightfully, that Miranda principles were designed to prevent the use at trial of evidence obtained improperly and that the prevention of mass casualties may constitute a sufficiently important goal to suspend certain constitutional issues. In that regard, even the terrorist is entitled to the same protections against self-incrimination and prosecution using illegally-obtained evidence of guilt. However, the legitimate need to protect the public from wide-scale death and destruction may be another matter entirely.
Dershowitz (2002) outlined the principles for designing a "torture warrant" in connection with which authorities may interrogate suspects known to possess information necessary to prevent mass casualties and loss of innocent life in imminent terrorist attacks through means ordinarily strictly prohibited by the Constitution and the laws applicable to all fifty American states. The fundamental distinction is that those efforts would relate to securing information for the purposes of preventing mass…
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Why Terrorism Works.
New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.
New York: Little Brown & Co.
(oach, 1999, p. 15) Equality is very much a part of the "due process" model and it seeks equal treatment for each individual, for instance, the right to be represented by an attorney. When one's economic circumstances mean that they cannot afford a lawyer, in accordance with the principles of the "due process" model, American courts will provide an attorney for the defense.
As previously stated, the current American criminal justice system is so overloaded with cases that it is near the point of collapse. Those working in the system must incorporate the "crime control" model of criminal justice simply to keep up with the numbers involved. While the criminal justice system in the United States is based upon the idea that every person is innocent until proven guilty, the criminal justice system must accept the principles of the "crime control" model that the police investigators and other members of…
Barkan, Steven, and George Bryjak. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning International.
Packer, Herbert. (1968) "Two Models of the Criminal Process." In The Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP.
Roach, Kent. (1999) Due Process and Victims' Rights: The New Law and Politics of Criminal Justice. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…
American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?
Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013
Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
The traditional backup sanction for nonpayment of a fine has been the use of jail as an alternative sentence. Yet, because jail space is a scarce resource in most jurisdictions, it is important to have statutory authority for other sanctions that can be used when an offender does not pay the fine (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1996).
There are three types of sanctions that can be used as backups when an offender fails to pay the fine that has been imposed: community-based sanctions, civil mechanisms, and incarceration. The following are examples of community-based sanctions that can be used in the event of nonpayment: (1) Community Service, (2) Day eporting Centers, (3) Home Confinement, and (4) Halfway Houses/Work elease Centers (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1996).
Civil mechanisms that can be used include garnishment of wages, interception of income tax refunds, driver's license suspensions, denial of automobile registration renewals, or the use…
Bureau of Justice Assistance. (1996). How to Use Structured Fines (Day Fines) as an Intermediate Sanction. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice Web site:
Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. (2003). Day Fines. Retrieved from Web site:
A participant in the study notes, "The gang members were scared to come outside, scared to hang out together.' and, 'it is still working.' He noted that graffiti and other signs of gang activity have declined dramatically. He pointed out that a wall near the park had graffiti 24/7, 365 days a year prior to the injunction, but not lately" (Maxson, et al. vii). Thus, gang injunctions control a variety of gang-related activities, but they can help control the spread of graffiti and the actions of tagging crews, keeping neighborhoods not only safer, but less unsightly for the people who live there.
Alonso, Alex. "Gang Injunctions & Civil Abatement in Los Angeles." StreetGangs.com. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.streetgangs.com/injunctions/
Editors. "Gang Injunction." County of San Diego District Attorney. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.sdcda.org/protecting/gi_workflow.pdf
Maxson, Cheryl L. Karen Hennigan, David Sloane, and Kathy a. Kolnick. "Can Civil Gang Injunctions Change Communities?…
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." Gutenberg.com. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/5200/5200-h/5200-h.htm
The most common modern incarnation of this style has evolved into "community policing" including the establishment of specific units within police agency dedicated to public contact and community relations. Typical examples of the community relations element of service style approaches include making officers available to grade school presentations and the establishment of child safety seat checking facilities, inviting citizens to have their child safety seats inspected by officers to ensure correct use and optimal occupant protection.
According to many crime theorists (Ellison 2006), service style and community-oriented policing styles are not appropriate to all communities. In particular, high-crime communities are better served by more proactive, legalistic styles.
Surprisingly, while middle class communities provide the optimal environment for implementation of service style policing and community. On the other hand, more affluent communities manifested a definite preference for a more watchman-like policing style, preferring little or no direct involvement with police functions…
Black, D.J. (1971) the Social Organization of Arrest;. Stanford Law Review, Vol. 23, No. 6. (Jun., 1971), pp. 1087-1111.
Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Duff, H.W. Concerned Reliable Citizens' Program. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75 No. 8 (Aug/06).
Ellison, J. Community Policing: Implementation Issues. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75 No. 4 (Apr/06).
Klinger, D.A. (1997) Negotiating Order in Patrol Work: An Ecological Theory of Police Response to Deviance. Criminology, Vol. 35, No. 2. pp. 277-306
In addition, gang activity and association is a big problem in many schools today, and many school systems are turning to local law enforcement agencies to help them combat school violence on a number of levels.
One of the activities that is being utilized across the country is the COPS is Schools (CIS) program, which helps local agencies hire school resource officers (SOs) to work inside the schools and develop community oriented programs that reach out to students, educators, and parents to identify and address violence issues in their particular schools. This can help the law enforcement agencies to identify the biggest problem schools in their area and address these schools with distinct problem oriented policing techniques geared to control the specific issues at a specific school, whether it is gang activity, truancy, or vandalism.
These SOs can also develop student programs that help students understand how they can help…
Editors. "Gangs." Center for Problem Oriented Policing. 2007. 8 Nov. 2007. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=1593
Editors. "School Safety." Center for Problem Oriented Policing. 2007. 8 Nov. 2007. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=106
There should be a manual override system in place in regards to the cell doors. This would allow those in charge to manually lock down all cells to help make sure that no other ones opened on their own.
Providing training to all staff ahead of time so that they are enabled to handle any such situation that might arise is critical. Every staff member should know what they are supposed to do and when they are supposed to do it, if an emergency situation should arise. Training and practice drills should be conducted ahead of time so that everyone is one the same page. Because human lives are at stake every effort should be made to make sure that the best possible plan is developed and available.
The security threat plan should be reviewed an updated on a regular basis. This will help to ensure that any changes that…
MCI - Cedar Junction. (2009). Retrieved September 29, 2009, from Mass.gov Web site:
Ranalli, Ralph. (2005). Havoc created in jail cells. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Boston.com
All of the authors' hypotheses have been supported. Results of this study suggest that positive view of the ACA standards has a negative impact on job stress and a positive impact on job satisfaction. The same holds true with positive relations with coworkers and clear and consistently enforced institutional policies. Furthermore, results show that the impacts of these three are superior to that of personal characteristics of correctional workers.
This study has its own share of limitations and weaknesses. One, the sample was limited to employees of OCCD only. This creates an issue on the representativeness of the sample and thus, the accuracy and generalizability of the findings. Second, among the array of work environment factors that might possibly affect job stress and job satisfaction, discussion has been limited to only three. Lastly, the effects of these three factors on the organizational commitment and job involvement of correctional workers has…
Paoline, E.A., Lambert, E.G., & Hogan, N.L. (2006). A calm and happy keeper of the keys. The Prison Journal, 86 (2), 182-205.
The strongest case in the criminal law annals for race-based affirmative action occurs in "drug possession offenses," Heffernan writes. The drug busts show "compelling evidence of discrimination against blacks," the author insists; moreover, he claims that many law enforcement personnel have admitted that they practice "a kind of affirmative action: they admit that they selectively enforce anti-drug laws in the black community." The justification for busting black people in the inner city is that "heightened enforcement is good for the community," and further, the reason so many African-American men are caught dealing drugs is that is much easier for police to find crimes among poor people -- this assumes that many blacks in inner cities are low income -- because poor people "are more likely to commit those crimes in public places" (Heffernan, p. 225).
All of the issues that Heffernan has referenced contribute to the reason that the…
Eckholm, Erik. (2010). Congress Moves to Narrow Cocaine Sentencing Disparities. The New
York Times (p. a-16). Retrieved February 2, 2011, from General Reference Center Gold.
Heffernan, William C., and Kleinig, John. (2000). From Social Justice to Criminal Justice:
Poverty and the Administration of Criminal law. New York: Oxford University Press U.S..
Gaetz, S. (July 2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.
This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" (433). Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth. Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. 41.7% of the respondents who have been victimized "told a friend" about the incident of victimization, 33.1% "did not tell anyone," and a far 17.2% reported the victimization to their partner (boyfriend or girlfriend)…
Felson, R. et. al. (August 2002). Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Criminology, Vol. 40, Issue 3.
Felson et. al.'s research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey as its primary instrument in determining, assessing, and measuring the factors that lead to reporting (or not reporting) incidences of domestic violence. Survey findings show that there are three primary factors that are significantly relevant in inhibiting victims to reporting domestic violence to the police: "the desire for privacy, the desire to protect the offender ... And fear of reprisal."
The NCVS survey findings illustrate how the prevalence and continuous occurrence of abuse and domestic violence, especially among females, is still a social problem that needs unwavering attention by the government and civil society. New findings such as hesitance of male victims to report on their victimization reflect the changing nature of domestic violence in American society. In the same way that females need protection through the dissemination of proper and useful information about domestic violence, males are also in need of protection as well. Another important implication of the study is the changing nature of the respondents' (victims) concept of domestic violence, which varies significantly across gender.
If the defendant is acquitted by the jury or by the judge in a bench trial, the 5th Amendment government prohibits the government from trying the defendant for the same crime.
Although there are is no constitutional right to appeal convictions, every state has passed its own laws which allow a convicted defendant to appeal a conviction after trial.
The defendant may appeal to an appellate court below the state supreme court or, if there is none, directly to the state supreme court.
If the appellant is unsuccessful at this level, he/she can bring the appeal to a higher court.
If the appellant's complaint is based on a Constitutional issue, she may bring her case to federal court which has jurisdiction over that particular state.
However, if the appellant's complaint involves a right provided by the state's laws, he/she cannot bring this issue before a federal court.
Crime and Justice Volume II: The Criminal in the Arms of the Law, Edited by Sir Leon Radzinowicz and Marvin E. Wolfgang (1977). Basic Books Publishing.
Joshua Dressler and Alan C. Michaels, Understanding Criminal Procedure Vol. 2: Adjudication (4th Edition)(2006). Lexis-Nexis.
Larry J. Siegel, Introduction to Criminal Justice (12th Edition) (2010) Cengage Learning.
Bryan a. Garner, Black's Law Dictionary (8th Edition) (2004). Thomson West.
In addition, research shows that arrests actually dropped in San Diego after implementing COP policies, and even more dramatic, citizen complaints against police officers dropped, as well. Thus, COP activities seem to be more citizen-friendly than zero-tolerance policies, and they seem to bring dramatic drops in crime, as well.
Problem-oriented policing targets specific problem areas of crime, such as drug-trafficking neighborhoods or youth-oriented crimes. This type of policing strives to understand why crimes are occurring, and get to the root of the crime problem in specific areas. In Boston in the 1990s, youth-oriented homicide was a growing problem, and the city developed a POP program to address it. Called the "Boston Gun Project," the project targeted youth aged 24 and under, and it researched why there was a gun problem with youth in Boston, and then developed intervention and evaluating the impact of the intervention. It involved many different law…
Braga, a.A., Kennedy, D.M., Waring, E.J. And Piehl, a.M. (2001). Problem-oriented policing, deterrence, and youth violence: An evaluation of Boston's operation ceasefire. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 38 No. 3, 195-225.
Eck, J.E. And Spelman, W. (1987). Who ya gonna call? The police as problem-busters. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 33, No. 1, 31-52.
Greene, J.A., Kelling, G.L. And Bratton, W.J. (1998). Should zero-tolerance/broken windows policing be encouraged? Issue 16. 306-328.
Lurigio, a.J. And Rosenbaum, D.P. (?) the impact of community policing on police personnel. Police Organizational Reform. 149-153.
S.A., there is bound to be more problems relating to criminality as well as social problems. For instance legalization of drugs will lead to even more violence across the U.S. Mexico border with each cartel trying to control as much of the market as possible. It will be a magnification of what is currently experienced in the drug deals.
Factually, criminals will not stop being criminals because a drug has been legalized and start be law abiding citizens, paying their taxes and upholding moral standards within the society. This is in light of the fact that the drug dealers don't deal in drugs due to the challenge of making a proper sale but because that is what makes them more money and they will not change just because it is now legal.
Apparently the legalization of drugs will lead to more organized gang crimes like those in Mexico. These are…
Denis C., (1999). Zero-tolerance policies lack flexibility. U.S. Today. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/educate/ednews3.htm
Drug Enforcement Administration, (2013). Speaking out Against Drug Legalization. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://www.justice.gov/dea/pr/multimedia-library/publications/speaking_out.pdf
Drug Policy Alliance, (2013). Zero Tolerance Drug Policies. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://www.drugpolicy.org/zero-tolerance-drug-policies
Holemberg J., 2009). Narcoterrorism. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://traccc.gmu.edu/pdfs/student_research/HolmbergNarcoterrorism.pdf
5. Police and department decisions play a major role in the reliability and validity of hate crime data because they are the ones who classify and define hate crimes, and then send the data to the UCR. If a police department has very vague or confusing classifications and definitions, they may not report all hate crimes, or even recognize certain crimes as hate crimes. In that case, the crimes are underreported or even ignored, and the department is responsible for this. In addition, departments may fear their own self-preservation if they report too many hate crimes, so, they underreport them to "preserve" the department. For example, studies show that prosecutions are rare in hate crime cases, so departments may feel that reporting a hate crime will result in little justice in the justice system, and so, they will not report the crime as a hate crime. In addition, often violence…
In addition, after the Kansas City Patrol Experiment, the police department noted that it was going to develop a directed patrol system to help control and prevent crime in the city. This was a direct result of what the study found, that routine patrols did not help deter and prevent crime, and that other patrol methods, such as random or direct patrols, were better at deterring crimes, especially in certain hot spots in the city. Thus, the study showed that policing can have a positive affect on a city's crime rate, and it also showed that effective community involvement, combined with direct patrol, can be a serious deterrent to crime, especially in areas of known and continued criminal activity.
Kelling, George L., Pate, Tony, Dieckman, Duane, and Brown, Charles E. The Kansas City
Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Summary eport. Washington DC: Police Foundation, 1974.
Sherman, Lawrence W., Gartin, Patrick…
Kelling, George L., Pate, Tony, Dieckman, Duane, and Brown, Charles E. The Kansas City
Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Summary Report. Washington DC: Police Foundation, 1974.
Sherman, Lawrence W., Gartin, Patrick R, and Buerger, Michael E. "Hot Spots of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities and the Criminology of Place." Criminology, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1989. 27-55.
Gerber (2001) studied 75 precincts of New York City and 154 police teams to determine whether male and female police officers appeared to have different personality traits because male officers typically have a higher status than do women in American society; this investigation made it clear that the personalities individuals adopt are fluid, and that the status model of police personalities suggests that officers' perceptions of their personality traits vary with their status. "The critical test of the model involves individual status," she says, "the status of each officer vis-a-vis the partner" (p. 39). While everyone is probably familiar with the "good cop-bad cop" interrogation techniques used in motion pictures and television productions, this dichotomy of personalities is actually a standard characteristic of police personalities, although perhaps not to this degree or purpose (Gerber, 2001).
Based on the status model of personality, there is a distinct "pecking order" in place…
Farr, J.L., Schuler, H., & Smith, M. (1993). Personnel selection and assessment: Individual and organizational perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gerber, G.L. (2001). Women and men police officers: Status, gender, and personality. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Johnson, C.D., & Zeidner, J. (1991). The economic benefits of predicting job performance, Vol. 1. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Kurke, M.I., & Scrivner, E.M. (1995). Police psychology into the 21st century. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.
viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Packer, Herbert, L. (1968) the Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford University Press.
At the 66% and 60% of federal and state releases respectively, it spells a doom to the justice system and the society at large.
There are several arguments that have been put forth as to why the release of defendants keeps climbing each day. The one factor that stands out when the idea of bail is brought up is the lack of capacity and space for the federal and state retention centers. Most states do not have the capacity to hold many criminals in custody who are awaiting trial as well as those already incarcerated. For this reason they decide to set free those still on trial until their cases are duly determined.
The other reason could be because of lack of overwhelming evidence to keep a rogue criminal in court. Though one may have committed a serious offence, they may be given the benefit of doubt by the court…
The goals are often jointly incompatible and must be prioritized. A very essential example is the prohibiting of illegally obtained facts. hen this is done, the objective of defending civil liberties is served but the aim of finding the truth and shielding public safety are denied. The problem becomes what are the main concerns. The result is that criminal justice reforms have been a mixture of programs that serve dissimilar, often unequal, goals, leaving Taiwan's bench uncertain of what its objectives are and in what order they are to be pursued (Kennedy, 2003).
Another primary aspect of reform that seems to be forbidden is any contemplation of the costs of different criminal justice reforms. In the course of figuring out the new reforms there was never any cost analysis or cost projection done to find out what economic impact the new customized adversarial system or any of the other reform…
Kennedy, Brian L. 2003, "Taiwan's Criminal-Justice System: Clash of Cultures," viewed 26
October 26, 2010,
Outside of court, this takes place by way of affidavits and depositions (Sanders, 2007).
The Amendment's final part assures the accused person the right to aid of counsel. Legal representation was once a benefit only accessible to the rich. The poor were frequently left to their own devices in English courts. While defendants in America can decide to represent themselves, the right to counsel gives one the right to gratis legal help. In criminal trials, poor defendants are given legal counsel. Nationwide, community legal services, legal aid societies and other factions help the poor deal with civil issues. No matter how well the founding fathers' accomplished on their plan, our judicial system is not ideal. It is well-known that injustices and frustrations are daily legal incidences. Even so, the framers made enormous progress for daily citizens through the 6th Amendment to make sure American courts truly are the people's courts…
Sixth Amendment. (2011). Retrieved April 4, 2011, from Web site:
Sanders, Monica. (2007). The People's Court: Understanding the 6th Amendment. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from Web site: http://www.legalzoom.com/us-law/equal-protection/peoples-court-understanding
The 6th Amendment. (2011). Retrieved April 4, 2011, from Web site: http://www.revolutionary-
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…
Air Resources Board. 2007 Annual Enforcement Report. 2008.
Bellenger, Gail. What is the Clean Water Act? 2002.