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For many, the focus is on creating a workable treatment plan based on solid diagnosis. Earning trust through consistency of communication, deciding when and if the level of detail about their diagnosis needs to be shared, and focusing on the patient through customer skills all when combined lead to a cured patient. Client or patient skills are an area that is the most rapid in learning from a critical thinking standpoint. To be effective as a Respiratory Therapist the client or patient skill set must improve with every interaction, because each patient is really a new learning experience as well in this area.
Technical skills require a continual state of learning and passion for improving through knwoedlge. Critical thinking from the previous years of my career to today have also taught me this can never be done in isolation. Technology only matters when patients know you care. The use of…
Critical thinking is unfortunately not a path that all students use to become enlightened as to proper behavior outside the classroom, and in this paper will provide examples of poor judgment by students based on the lack of critical thinking. Basically, critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process in which a person carefully and with skill (based on practice) goes through a process of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation to determine upon deep reflection what is the best thing to do or best plan of action. Critical thinking is not a matter of manipulating ideas to suit a person's pre-designed plans and schemes. t involves taking information, processing that information, having the ability to objectively review in one's mind what the consequences of any action will be.
A Critical Thinking ssue
For myself, have given a great deal of thinking -- critically evaluating as fairly as can do -- about the…
It makes me do some critical thinking today how many Jews actually had the time and the presence of mind to think critically about how to escape. There is no accurate number of course, but upon critically evaluating what my options might have been, I know if I had been a rabbi in the Jewish faith I would have been following the news beginning in 1938 when Hitler annexed Austria. The writing was on the wall at that time for alert Jews who could see some very dark days coming in Europe. I would have put my critical thinking skills to good use and seen that Hitler intended to continue gobbling up countries in Europe and killing Jews in the process.
Research shows me that many rabbis and other Jews escaped to the United States during the years in which Hitler's march across Europe was continuing. Imagine a young rabbi who has recently been made pastor of a synagogue in France. He clearly is following the news and because he is a critical thinker, he is not only thinking about escaping with his family, but how he will do that, where he will go, what means of transportation is available to him and how his wife and family are thinking and feeling about this process.
Thinking critically about how Nazi Germany came to be such a brutal killing machine, gives a student a perspective not only of history, but of what behaviors are appropriate in order to create a civil society. Reflecting on the 50 drunken students who caused a roof to collapse is not to be compared with the Nazis, but it is definitely not appropriate student behavior.
exercises improve critical thinking skills?, Cotter and Tally take a closer look at how effective the teaching of critical thinking skills actually is. They had students complete a number of different tests. The authors noted that while there was a correlation between the scores of the different tests, that these scores and the correlation did not improve over the course of the semester. They suggest that "critical thinking assignments did not have a positive effect on either formal thought or critical thinking skills."
So the authors here are investigating the idea that teaching critical thinking skills needs to be tested against actual outcomes that would demonstrate improvements in critical thinking skills. They sought to basically examine this by studying the issue on a before-and-after basis.
The literature review covers a variety of subjects. It begins with a definition of critical thinking, which includes "evaluating the sources of information, challenging assumptions,…
Cotter, E. & Tally, C. (2009). Do critical thinking exercises improve critical thinking skills? Educational Research Quarterly Vol. 33 (2)
self-explores critical thinking skills and the future that is hoped for in this endeavor. There were no sources used to complete this paper because it is a personal self-analysis.
I have discovered over the years that my thinking skills and my ability to think critically have changed as I have aged. The thinking habits and skills I currently use are different than the way I thought at earlier stages of my life. Before I can fully explore and understand my current and future thinking skills it is important for me to explore and explain how I got to this place.
When I was a small child I saw everything in black and white. If someone was mean to me I no longer liked them. I didn't' look for reasons that the problem happened and it never occurred to me that there may be underlying reasons for someone's actions. If I…
According to Miller and Wright (2002), "When it comes to plea bargaining, we have created a false dilemma. The dilemma grows out of the central reality of criminal adjudication in the United States. The vast majority of criminal cases are resolved through guilty pleas rather than trials. Most of those guilty pleas result from negotiations between prosecution and defense" (p. 29).
According to Walton (2004), "The straw man fallacy is committed when the proponent's argument is based on premises that do not represent the commitments of the other party in the dispute, and where his argument used a distorted version of these commitments to try to refute the other party" (p. 25). The straw man fallacy represents a common technique that is used to divert attention away from the actual issues involve to irrelevant or even imaginary ones that can be impossible to defend against. In this regard,…
Baarsma, W. (2002). Shafer v. South Carolina: Another missed opportunity to remove juror ignorance as a factor in capital sentencing. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 93(1), 23.
Entine, J. (2001, September). The straw man of 'race.' World and I, 16(9), 294.
Hutchenson, M. (2006). AP English Language Definitions. Retrieved July 4, 2006 at http://annahutcheson.tripod.com/id8.html.
Miller, M., & Wright, R. (2002). The screening/bargaining tradeoff. Stanford Law Review, 55(1), 29.
elf-regulation and analysis are interpersonal skills used by the nurse to convey potentially upsetting news, or to analyze the nurse's own behavior and professionalism in his or her nursing duties.
Critical thinking in nursing is further delineated by the UNM College of Nursing (2005). As seen above, this aspect of the profession is not only essential in terms of the patient-nurse relationship, but also in terms of the intrapersonal relationship of the nurse with him- or herself. The self-regulation and morality developed by means of critical thinking in the profession helps the nurse to make the often difficult decisions required on a daily basis. It also provides the nurse with the ability to serve as a liberating force for patients and their families, as the nurse helps them to face medical dilemmas.
Facione, Peter A. (2004). "Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts." California Academic Press. http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why2004.pdf…
Facione, Peter A. (2004). "Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts." California Academic Press. http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why2004.pdf
UNM College of Nursing. (2005, Sept. 16-17). "What is critical thinking? http://hsc.unm.edu/consg/conct/whatis.shtml
Critical Thinking Application
"Every job, and every company, can benefit from critical thinking" (Pauker, 2010). Pauker makes this assertion with good reason. In considering this argument, Pauker suggests taking a second to think about any job, and the daily responsibilities and decisions that people need to make. She argues that if one considers the margin of error that could ultimately cost a company a project, a client, profits or even its reputation, it is clear how dependent every company is on its employees' ability to execute critical thinking in every position. Pauker concludes that, after several days of pondering, she could not come up with any job that would not benefit from critical thinking. She supports this conclusion by quoting a survey of 400 senior H professionals who, when asked what skills their employees will need in the next five years, put critical thinking skills at the top of the…
Chartrand, J., Ishikawa, H., and Flander, S. (2009). Critical thinking means business: Learn to apply and develop the new #1 workplace skill. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from http://www.talentlens.com/en/downloads/whitepapers/Pearson_TalentLens_Critical_Thinking_Means_Business.pdf
Pauker, L. (2010). What job doesn't benefit from critical thinking? Critical Thinkers website. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from http://critical-thinkers.com/2010/06/what-job-doesnt-benefit-from-critical-thinking/
Paul, R., Elder, L. & Bartell, T. (1997). California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations: State of California, California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from http://www.criticalthinking.org/ aboutCT/briefHistoryCT.cfm
Sumner, W.G. (1906). Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals, pp. 632, 633. New York: Ginn and Company. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from
During the critical thinking process the thinker will use all of these components, evaluating the implications and consequences of each, until they reach a satisfactory answer.
In order to reach a conclusion using critical thinking, one must hold off making judgment until all available facts are given and fully evaluated. However, the very nature of the critical thinking process means that there is no end to the critical thinking process. Although one may end at a conclusion, this conclusion is only tentative based on the evidence used in the evaluation that led to that particular conclusion. However, a conclusion is always subject to new information and evidence, thus the critical thinking process goes on.
Each of will employ the methods of critical thinking on a regular basis. Often times we find ourselves using critical thinking when we are presented with a situation where our perception of reality is far from…
Damer, T. Edward. (2005): Attacking Faulty Reasoning. New York: Wadsworth.
Fisher, Alec. (2001): Critical Thinking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Paul, Richard and Linda Elder. (2002): Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. New York: Prentice Hall.
A full box of small finishing nails was accidentally spilt on the floor of a retail toy establishment, behind the counter where the cash registers were located. Softly clinging to the carpet and embedded in the hols and grooves of a rubber mat that was lying on the floor, the nails were quite difficult to pick up and the task looked like it would be quite time consuming, and with the store about to open time wasn't something there was a lot of. This is where critical thinking came into play: rather than simply dealing with the issue in the first way that came to mind -- i.e. laboriously picking up each individual nail, needing to pick some out of small spaces with some sort of tweezers -- this author recalled the large magnets sold as novelties at the other end of the store. One slow pass of the magnet…
Ennis, R. (2011). Critical thinking defintion, instruction, and assessment. Accessed 11 October 2011. www.criticalthinking.net
FCT. (2011). Defining critical thinking. Foundation for Critical Thinking. Accessed 11 October 2011. www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
Critical Thinking & Generational Teams
In the course of caring for patients, nurses deal with life threatening situations every day. This constitutes the necessity to develop critical thinking skills in order to know what to do, when to do it, and how it needs to be done to ensure safety and sensibility in patient care. Critical thinking skills develop over time with experience, developing deeper knowledge, and developing higher levels of judgment in the course of care (Alfaro-LeFevre, Apr 2000).
Critical thinking skills involve checking accuracy and reliability of information, recognizing inconsistencies, and identifying patterns of missing information. In the course of busy times, natural tendencies cause people to react without thinking. These patterns are dangerous in patient care. It is important to realize that critical thinking takes time to develop and implement. It requires knowledge, skills, practice, caution, and judgment and is best away from the patient…
Alfaro-LeFevre, R. (Apr 2000). Critical thinking: Usually not rapid fire. AACN News, 2(12).
Halfer, D.S.-L. (2013). Bridging the generational gaps. Retrieved from Nurse.com: http://ce.nurse.com/RetailCourseView.aspx?CourseNum=ce478&page=1&IsA=1
Personally, a critical thinker will be able to evaluate the world in which they live and make conscious choices about what will be most beneficial to their own life and the lives of those around them. They will be able to be an actively engaged citizen able to understand public policies that will impact their life and do something about it if they disagree. They will be able to enrich their mind through reading and study and have the tools to interpret information on their own. Critical thinkers can have more fulfilling conversations when they know how to incite thoughtfulness in others.
Professionally, a critical thinker will be more of an asset in the business world than someone who is not able to think critically. They will be able to work more independently and be able to come up with more creative ideas. A critical thinker will be able to…
Benson, H. (2000). Socratic Wisdom: The Model of Knowledge in Plato's Early Dialogue. New York: Oxford University Press.
Foundation for Critical Thinking. (2009). Defining Critical Thinking. Accessed 13 November 2010. http://www.criticalthinking.org/ aboutCT/define_critical_thinking.cfm.
Hooks, B. (2010). Teaching Critical Thinking: Practical Wisdom. New York: Routledge.
sphere of life, there needs to be thought process that precedes any action or decision, otherwise things would be done in erratic and haphazard manner and end up in absolute chaos and disorder. However, for better results and accurate outcomes as always envisioned and required, there is need for critical thinking. This is a step higher than merely thinking as an individual or sitting down to participate in a brainstorming session.
Critical thinking is therefore the dissection of a claim to determine whether the assertion is true, false or partially true or partially false. The ratio of partiality in the truth in an assertion can also be determined in a critical thinking process. This process hence leads to acquisition of skills or standpoints that can be mastered by the relevant persons or learned and used for better results in a process. Critical thinking is a type of reasoning and is…
Foundation for Critical Thinking, (2013). Defining Critical Thinking. Retrieved March 27, 2014 from https://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
Moira Wilson, (2009). Critical thinking: What is this critical thinking and how do you do it? Retrieved March 27, 2014 from http://www.sussex.ac.uk/s3/?id=87
Part One: Main Ideas and Insights
Critical thinking does not necessarily come naturally to people, who are subject to biases and prejudicial assumptions. According to Paul & Elder (2016), critical thinking can be learned and mastered. Critical thinking is essential for improving quality of life and promoting best practices in any field. With critical thinking, a person actively seeks answers and solutions to problems, probing multiple points of view and perspectives. Therefore, critical thinking requires open-mindedness and strong communication skills. Critical thinking also requires time and self-discipline, including the painstaking gathering of data, information, and evidence, and picking apart each issue using systematic methods. Rather than being reactive or subjective, critical thinking involves thorough analyses and assessments, with problem solving as its primary goal. Critical thinking is clear, accurate, significant, and ultimately, fair.
According to Paul & Elder (2016), all thought involves the same eight elements including point of view,…
Responsibilities of a Critical Thinker in a Contemporary Society
Some thinkers consider critical thinking to be solely a type of mental skill, devoid of any moral value; it is often utilized to rationalize prejudice and to promote self-interest. While moral integrity is understood as good heartedness, it is also susceptible to manipulation to satisfy vested interests in the same way as responsible citizenship can be manipulated. The human mind, regardless of conscious goodwill, is subject to the more powerful and self-deceptive egocentricity of the unconscious part of the mind. The complete development of each and every characteristic, be it critical thought, responsible citizenship, and moral integrity - needs to include cultivation of each other characteristic, in a parallel strong sense (Paul, 1993). The three characteristics of higher thought can only be developed in an environment that promotes intellectual virtues such as integrity, intellectual courage, intellectual fair-mindedness, intellectual empathy, intellectual perseverance,…
Ambert, A. Parents, (1997) Children, and Adolescents: Interactive Relationships and Development in Context. New York, NY: Hayworth Press.
Duffy, A. & Momirov, J.(1997) Family Violence: A Canadian Introduction. Toronto: James Lorimer and Company.
Duperrin, B. (2013). Social Media make critical thinking critical. Www.duperrin.com. Retrieved from www.dupperin.com: http://www.duperrin.com/english/2013/06/28/social-media-critical-thinking/
Erdur-Baker, O. (2010). .Cyberbullying and its correlation to traditional bullying, gender and frequent and risky usage of internet-mediated communication tools. New Media & Society, 12(1), 109-125. DOI: 10.1177/1461444809341260
Critical Thinking in Nursing Education
For far too long nursing has been seen as a profession that requires compassion along with obedience to the orders of doctors who were traditionally considered to be the "real" medical professionals. Nurses were until recently inside and outside of the profession seen as sort of helpmeets to the doctors, a form of junior wife to the male doctor. Of course nurses were always more than this, but it has become true only relatively recently that the medical profession as a whole has begun to acknowledge that critical thinking is as important for nurses as it is for doctors and other medical professionals.
This paper examines the ways in which the teaching of critical thinking can be incorporated more fully (and more deeply) into the teaching curricula and praxis of nursing. Focusing on the importance of critical thinking from the first day that nursing students…
Duchscher, J.E. (1999). Catching the wave: understanding the concept of critical thinking. Journal of Advanced Nursing 29(3): 577-583.
Fowler, L.P. (1998). Improving critical thinking in nursing practice. Journal of Nurses Staff Development 14(4): 183-7.
Kuhar M.B. (1998). Critical thinking: A framework for problem solving in the occupational setting. AAOHN Journal 46(2): 80-81.
Simpson, E. & Courtney, M. (n.d.). Critical thinking in nursing education: A literature review. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/263/1/SIMPSON_CRITICAL_THINKING.PDF.
Finally, as he or she goes to express which type of furniture he or she means to buy, he or she uses "couch" to denote an informal piece of furniture and "sofa" to denote a formal one. If others have different interpretations of these two words, then they will have trouble understanding what this buyer wants to purchase.
Thus, language and the diversity of language greatly impact the critical thinking process. People assign linguistic terms to objects, ideas, and abstractions, which impacts how they are characterized in a person's mind. In addition, these characterizations affect the expression of one's thoughts, limiting that expression. These expressions are limited because no two people have the exact same understanding of different words and phrases. Each word or phrase has, for each individual person, a repertoire of childhood memories, connotations, associations, etc. Thus, it is never possible to be sure that what you are…
Critical Thinking Case Study: Let it Pour - My First Assignment as Executive Assistant
Key Problems and Issues
The first of the problems are coming from the origin of the hospital as it is an organization with a lot of spiritual heritage and values. These have to be retained even while providing all the required services and satisfaction for the patients. The second problem that the hospital is facing is due to the difficulties that exist in the operations of any hospital, and those difficulties exist irrespective of the mission or the origin of the hospital. One of the problems from this origin is the headlines and extensive coverage given by the media to medical errors that hospitals are committing. These are mentioned and reflect on all hospitals whether they are a party to such errors or not. Another problem arises from the differences within the issues of living up…
Baldwin, Fred. "Emergency Room Drama: Be Prepared Before a Crisis Happens" Retrieved
from http://www.icepts.com/pennmed/25-147.htm Accessed on 23 June, 2005
Colliver, Victoria. (12 April, 2005) "St. Luke's could face merger California Pacific may join forces with S.F. hospital known for treating poor" San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved from http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2005/04/12/BUG63C6H4T1.DTL& ; type=business Accessed on 23 June, 2005
Evans BJ; Kiellerup FD; Stanley RO; Burrows GD; Sweet B. "A communication skills program for increasing patient's satisfaction with general practice consultations" Br Journal of Medical Psychology. 1987; December: 60 (Pt 4):373-378. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& db=PubMed& list_uids=3426975& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 23 June, 2005
Critical Thinking Action Project
The fact that Manager Michael Lee Ray is in trouble "yet again" for an inappropriate interaction with the Tokyo office is a reminder that ExtraVert has not addressed its most serious problem. An observer can presuppose that Ray is intellectually or morally deficient -- but on the other hand, an observer doesn't know that but it is unlikely that a global organization would place a social outcast in a position of authority. who lacks cultural intelligence. How many times is corporate management for ExtraVert going to allow this problem to exist and fester like an open wound that hasn't been cleaned or disinfected?
First of all, the proper name of the employee in Tokyo should always be used, so "Hey Itchy" is a sign of ignorance of the cultural realities in Japan. "Too much sake…" is a bigoted and insensitive phrase that shows a lack of…
Dewhurst, M., Harris, J., and Heywood, S. (2012). The global Company's challenge. McKinsey
Quarterly. Retrieved February 20, 2014, from http://www.mckinsey.com
Economist Intelligence Unit. (2012). Competing across Borders: How cultural and communication barriers affect business. The Economist. Retrieved February 20, 2014,
from http://www.economistinsights.com .
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
Everyone navigates their way through the world using a set of preconceived ideas, stereotypes, notions and beliefs concerning how things work and how others will behave in any given situation. Not surprisingly, many people are surprised and even shocked to learn that some of the things they have firmly believed to be true all of their lives are inaccurate or even false. These frailties of the human condition mean that the search for the truth is ongoing and learning how to find it represents a critical part of the skill set needed in the 21st century. This paper provides a discussion and comparison of "elements of truth" and the "right questions" that should be asked in any given situation to discern the facts, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Not only does…
Browne, N. & Keeley, S.M. (2012). Asking the right questions. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice.
In my experience, this is quite rarely the case. In fact, the truth in most families appears to be quite opposite: namely, the holiday season is the time that most people associate with their highest degrees of stress that highlights and exacerbates long-standing family conflicts and feuds. For every family where holiday arrangements are primarily a time of great joy and unity, there might be as many as ten times that many families where holidays generate annual arguments over whose turn it is to host (or not to host), whose families to visit in what order, and whom to invite. As often as not, hosting holiday parties involves keeping separate members of extended family who actually detest one another from coming to blows after drinking to much alcohol.
Instead of being the most peaceful time of year, the newspapers report that the holiday season is always the peak of suicides.…
UPB management will be able to capitalize on the five years of training and other investments in Mark Williams
The colleagues will feel a sense of security as Williams has decided to stick with the company
Costs with replacing him will now be incurred and the money could be used in another direction
UPB clients will be content as they will not have to switch consultants
Mark Williams will feel loyal and the sense that he has betrayed his 'savior' will not torment him
Mark Williams will continually feel frustrated with the sense of things at UPB
He will give up his opportunities for further professional development and promotions
It is highly possible that his sacrifice will not even be recognized by the UPB stakeholders
Mark Williams graduated Business College and found a job at UBP Consulting in a time in which nobody else…
Brown, C., Ethical Theories Compared, Trinity University, 2001, http://www.trinity.edu/cbrown/intro/ethical_theories.html last accessed on June 26, 2009
Geuras, D., Garofalo, C., Practical Ethics in Public Administration, 2nd Edition, 2005, Management Concepts, ISBN 1567261612
Todd, H.C., Speaking of Ethics -- Changing Jobs, The District of Columbia Bar, 2009, http://www.dcbar.org/for_lawyers/resources/publications/washington_lawyer/march_2009/ethics.cfm last accessed on June 26, 2009
The decade-old system that specifies least standards for staffing in nursing homes need to be restructured, the report says. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services must call for nursing homes to have at least one N within the facility during all times. Based on the departments' 2001 report to Congress on minimum staff-to-patient ratios for nursing homes, the HHS should mention the staffing levels that increased with the number of patients. Central and state report cards on nursing homes should give information on levels of nursing staff, and measuring of staffing levels should be developed for hospital report cards. The healthcare facilities should avoid using nurses from temporary agencies to fill the vacancy. (Substantial Changes equired in Nurses Work Environment to Protect Patients from Health Care Errors)
Working for long hours on the part of the nurse's makes them fatigue since it decreases their energy and reduces their…
ANA Commends IOM Report Outlining Critical Role of Nursing Work Environment in Patient Safety" (November 5, 2003) Retrieved at http://www.nursingworld.org/pressrel/2003/pr1105.htm . Accessed on 11 February 2005
Hallmarks of the Professional Nursing Practice Environment" (January, 2002) AACN White Paper. Retrieved at http://www.aacn.nche.edu/Publications/positions/hallmarks.htm . Accessed on 11 February 2005
Statement of the American Nurses Association for the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Work Environment for Nurses and Patient Safety" (September 24, 2002) Retrieved at http://www.nursingworld.org/pressrel/2002/iom924.htm . Accessed on 11 February 2005
Substantial Changes Required in Nurses Work Environment
The other problem is regarding third party reimbursements and state regulators which have had a significant effect on hospitals during the last ten years. Another factor that is brought out by the study is that during both 1983 and 1986 there were important variations in the inpatient reimbursement system that helped in improving the operating and final margins of hospitals. At the same time there are the health insurance companies who provide a large portion of the funds to hospitals are continually on the look out for reducing payment amounts. There are methods through which this is done and one of that is changing from inpatient settings to ambulatory surgery. Another set of problems come from settlements with labor unions. As an example a major portion of the health care providers were affected due to the settlement with Local 1199. This settlement also created similar effects in other…
Brennan, Phil. (April 12, 2002) "Church Crises Threaten Charities, Schools, Hospitals"
Retrieved from http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/4/11/212641.shtml Accessed on 27 June, 2005
"Challenge of being chief of the hospitals" Retrieved from http://www.thisisworcester.co.uk/worcestershire/worcester/news/WEN_NEWS_FEATURES_COUNTY9.html Accessed on 27 June, 2005
Donoghue, Richard J. (December, 1990) "Evaluation of hospitals as entities able to continue as going concerns" The CPA Journal. Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/old/09691991.htm Accessed on 27 June, 2005
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The capacity of a government to protect its citizens pivots on the ability of its leaders and high-placed specialists to think critically. Few times in history point so clearly to this principle than the 9/11 disaster. In 1941, the same year that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred, Edward M. Glaser published a book titled, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. Glaser's practice of psychiatry was remarkable in that he dispensed with the Freudian deep dive into past events, pushing his patients to deal with problem solving in the present -- a critical thinking practice he called reality therapy. Many of Glaser's tenets were adopted by other disciplines because of their universal utility and association with positive results. Glaser defined critical thinking as, "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports…
Albert Einstein. Brainy Quotes. Retrieved from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html
Chow, D. (2011, January 25). Space Shuttle Challenger disaster FAQ: What went wrong? www.SPACE.com. Retrieved from http://www.space.com/10677-challenger-tragedy-overview.html
Eichorn, R. (2012). Developing thinking skills: Critical thinking at the Army Management Staff College. Fort Belvoir, VA: Strategic Systems Department. [Webpage, last modified: 4 2012 January.] Retreived from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/critical/roy.htm
Glaser, E.M. (1941). An experiment in the development of critical thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.
Teaching Critical Thinking
Critical thinking has been explained as the capability to evaluate and assess information and facts. Critical thinkers establish important issues and concerns, construct them clearly, collect and examine pertinent data, make use of abstract concepts, contemplate open-mindedly, and also communicate efficiently with other individuals (Duron et al., 2006).
I recommend the following 4 teaching strategies to be the most relevant to critical thinking. (We will only discuss two in detail here):
Utilize higher order thinking questions during instruction and assessment
Teach the process
Adapt tasks and assessments
Incorporate games into lessons
Teaching Strategy 1: Utilize higher order thinking questions during instruction and assessment
"Teachers who have been great questioners inspire their learners, promote higher level thinking, support creativeness, as well as improve self-concept in their learners and also themselves." (Johnson, 1990)
Teaching that encourages critical thinking utilizes questioning methods that demand students to evaluate, synthesize, and also…
Duron, R., Limbach, B. And Waugh, W. (2006). Critical Thinking Framework For Any Discipline. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Volume 17, Number 2, 160-166.
Hemming, H.E. (2000). Encouraging critical thinking: "But.. .what does that mean?" Journal of Education, 35(2), 173.
Johnson, N.L. (1990). Questioning makes the Difference. Beavercreek, OH; Pieces of Learning.
Wyatt, M.A. And O'Malley, P. (2011). Instructional Approaches and Strategies to Foster Critical Thinking. Maryland Assessment Group Conference.
Applying Critical Thinking
Best Practices in Critical Thinking
"Applying Critical Thinking Skills to Making Post-Graduate Education Decisions"
"Applying Critical Thinking Skills to Making Post-Graduate Education Decisions"
Introduction/Critical Thinking Defined
Using critical thinking skills nearly always results in better decision making and therefore better actions. Personal change is always accompanied by a long list of critical issues that require thought and development in order to cement into a cost-benefit balance. Long-term goals are likely to be those best developed with critical thinking skills, but sometimes long-term goals do not actually create a beneficial outcome, largely as a result of those goals not being well thought out or well researched. Seeking to further one's education is a higher goal that can and often does result in greater long-term earning potential but is also often associated with immediate sacrifices and challenges, such as limiting income in the present for deferred promises of greater…
Halpern, D.F. (1997). Critical Thinking across the Curriculum: A Brief Edition of Thought and Knowledge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Keith-Spiegel, P., & Wiederman, M.W. (2000). The Complete Guide to Graduate School Admission: Psychology, Counseling, and Related Professions (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Pederson, D.J., & Daniels, M.H. (2001). 13 Stresses and Strategies for Graduate Student Couples. In Succeeding in Graduate School: The Career Guide for Psychology Students, Walfish, S. & Hess, A.K. (Eds.) (pp. 171-184). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Perlman. (2001). 3 Choosing the Master's Degree in Psychology. In Succeeding in Graduate School: The Career Guide for Psychology Students, Walfish, S. & Hess, A.K. (Eds.) (pp. 31-40). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Nurse Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking and Other Intellectual Skills: Documented Benefits and Skill Application in Nursing
There are many academic skills that are necessary for nursing students that also serve nurses well in professional practice. This paper will examine three such academic skills both in their general benefits to learners and professionals in all sectors and personally to my own advances in nursing knowledge and practice. Active reading, effective writing, and critical thinking skills are essential tools for helping one to properly take in, analyze, and communicate information in efficient and effective manners, and each of these individual thinking areas benefits the other two, as well. There are certain challenges that one might be face with in acquiring these skills, and I will detail my own personal challenges below following a general investigation of benefits and prior to a discussion of my application of these skills.
Psychologist Benjamin Bloom…
Braverman, M. (2010). "Effective wirting." Accessed 28 November 2010. http://effectivewriting.org/
FTC. (2009). "The Critical Thinking Community." Accessed 28 November 2010. http://www.criticalthinking.org/ resources/HE/ctandnursing.cfm
Greenall, S. & Swan, M. (1986). Effective reading: reading skills for advanced students. New York: Cambridge University Press.
OfficePort. (2010). "Bloom's taxonomy." Accessed 28 November 2010. http://www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm
university education. Critical thinking requires that the thinker consider all elements of an idea, concept or statement. There is a wide range of such elements, including the motives of the communicator, the subtext, the timing and more. The ability to analyze these elements and to criticize them and to make conclusions based on sound inferences about these elements is core to critical thinking (Freeley & Steinberg, 2008). orldview is just one of the different elements that must be considered in the context of critical thinking. However, it is a trap to fall into the idea that all worldviews should be given equal consideration -- some can be substantiated with facts while others cannot; some are more objective while others are more subjective. Indeed, attempts to be more inclusive of worldviews often suffer from the same myopia that characterizes non-inclusion.
As part of their learning in university, students should be exposed…
Walters, K. (1994). Re-thinking reason: New perspectives in critical thinking. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Freeley, A. & Steinberg, D. (2008). Argumentation and debate: Critical thinking for reasoned decision making. Boston: Cengage.
Rusbult, C. (2003). Critical thinking in public schools and the potential dangers of worldview education. American Scientific Affiliation: A Network of Christians in Science. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/views/dangers.htm
Language and Critical Thinking
Language and language diversity has a significant effect in influencing critical thinking because it shapes the individual's worldview or his/her perceptions of the realities that s/he experiences everyday. One of the most often used comparisons in order to illustrate the influence of language diversity in critical thinking is the differences in worldviews of the Eastern and Western cultures.
Looking into the basic differences in their language, Eastern societies and cultures have greater symbols representing various and subjective meanings in it. Chinese language, for instance, has many symbols or characters for every meaning or interpretation generated by the speaker/writer. This kind of language, in turn, makes the Chinese worldview subjective and varied also. Meanings in Chinese culture are embedded in language, and not explicitly expressed, thereby necessitating the individual to think about the meaning of an utterance in the context of the culture of the speaker.
Dilenschneider, R. (2001). "The coming age of content and critical thinking." Executive Speeches, Vol. 15, Issue 5.
Stern, S. (2002). "Critical thinking in the former Societ Union bloc." Christian Science Monitor, Vol. 95, Issue 11.
Components of Critical Thinking
Critical thinking skills have become the focus of a growing body of research in recent years (Borg & Stranahan, 2010), due in large part to the flood of information that is now available and the need to analyze and interpret this information to identify flawed reasoning (Halpern, 2009; Hummell, 2016). To this end, this paper applies all of the eight steps recommended by the U.S. Army Management Staff College's critical thinking model developed by Dr. on Paul as disseminated by Eichhorn (n.d.) to assess selected arguments made in a memorandum to the board of directors of Penn-Mart concerning its health care strategy by highlighting the fallacies identified by Almossawi (2013) in his book, An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the application of critical thinking skills to identify fallacious reasoning are presented in the conclusion.
Almossawi, A. (2013). An illustrated book of bad arguments. Retrieved from https://bookof badarguments.com/?view=allpages.
Borg, M. O. & Stranahan, H. A. (2010, January). Evidence on the relationship between economics and critical thinking skills. Contemporary Economic Policy, 28(1), 80-85.
Cantu, D. (2016, May 1). The importance of critical thinking skills. Children's Technology and Engineering, 20(4), 4.
Eichhorn, R. (n.d.). Developing critical thinking skills at the Army Management Staff College. Critical Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/ critical/roy.htm.
Martin Luther King believed intelligence strengthened character. My life experiences have added to my intelligence and my intelligence has strengthened my ability to handle situations more effectively by applying critical thinking into my objectives. To begin, I will say where I am from. I was born in Kuwait, situated in the Middle East. Moving to the United States was a difficult time because I had to readjust to a new culture, a new people, and a different way of life. While it took some time to adapt to my new surroundings, I managed to learn several things along the way.
The first was my deep appreciation of nature. Kuwait exists within one of the least hospitable and driest deserts on earth. While the Kuwait Bay has a deep harbor located on the Persian Gulf, other parts have extended views of the sands. Coming to the United States the shift of…
business and my personal life. Critical thinking entails the evaluation of communication, information, observations, and arguments, and I believe that I critically evaluate these things to come to a good interpretation of the issues being addressed. For example, I do not take things at face value, but I question them, attempting to look at them from all angles before I make a decision. As an example, if I am told a task should take me X hours to complete, I assess that with my own evaluation of what methods I will use to complete the task, I do not simply accept the idea that someone else knows how long it will take me to complete the assigned task.
Critical thinking is also about determining judgement about a claim, and having the confidence in your decision that allows you to reject or accept that claim. It is necessary in almost all…
Critical thinking, a higher order of thinking about and dealing with issues, is quite relevant in many contemporary disciplines, particularly social work. It is a way of looking at information, of processing that information in an analytical manner, and having the ability to bring both life experience and other information to bear on the regular processes of one's discipline. Certainly, it can be used as an approach to daily lie, reading, public speaking, even watching movies or attending a concert. Within the social work discipline, it is a way to take a careful appraisal of beliefs and actions and then arrive at well-reasoned and thoughtful interventions that increase the likelihood of helping clients and avoiding harm -- reasonable and reflecting attitudes that help decide what to do and when (Papell and Skolnik, 1992).
Social work, and other medical and sociological and medical disciplines often turn toward theory as…
Hoshmand, L.T. And Polkinghorne, D.E. (1992). Redefining the Science-
Practice Relationship and Professional Training. American Psychologist.
47 (1): 55-66.
Pappell, C.P. And Skolnik, L. (1992). The Reflective Practitioner: A Contemporary
Letter to the Editor
The Washington Post
1150 15th Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20071
Enhancing the American education system to increase the higher order thinking ability of learners for a better opportunity to achieve future success in the workforce
Through your renowned newspaper, it is an honor to express our views on enhancing the American education system to increase the higher order thinking ability of learners.
The writer has worked in a training capacity for a major corporation in the north for five years and with the University of Harvard for four years. The writer has spent four years volunteering at the local community center working with both secondary and postsecondary children. The writer's role at the Harvard University was as program coordinator for a special committee working with the local communities, universities, and school districts in developing a community of higher order thinkers that can contribute to…
Cavanagh, S. (2004). Students ill-prepared for college-ACT warns. Education Week, 24(8), .
Conley, D.T., & Barton, P.E. (2007). The challenge of college readiness. Educational Leadership, (), 23.
Horn, C.E., & Schaffner, H.A. (2003). Work in America: an encyclopedia of history, policy, and society. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
McCarthy, M., & Kuh, G. (2006). Are students ready for college? What student engagement data says. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(9), 664.
Critical Thinking and Divorce
Critical thinking refers to reflective thinking whereby a person views an event or incident objectively to develop arguments and then tries to reach some sound unbiased conclusions. The ability to think critically has occupied a pivotal position in last few decades because it allows a person to reach a conclusion that has not been colored by bias or pre-conceived notions about a certain person or issue. However critical thinking is something that most people are required to learn and not everyone is born with the skills to critically analyze a situation. Let us see how critical thinking has been defined and that will help us understand what exactly is meant by this term. We can then go on to apply critical thinking to the process of divorce.
John Dewey was one of the early thinkers to develop and present a sound definition of critical thinking. To…
Dewey, J. (1909) revised edition (1993). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
McPeck, John. 1981. Critical Thinking and Education. New York: St. Martin's.
Siegel, Harvey. 1988. Educating Reason: Rationality, Critical Thinking and Education. New York: Routledge.
Watson, G., & Glaser, E. (1941, 1980). Manual: The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. New York: Harcourt
thinking is multi-faceted. As president and founder of Compass, a real estate company in Italy, my approach needed to be multi-demensional in nature. For one, Italy has high debt burdens which are often financed through governments and large corporations. Starting a real estate company therefore was challenging as I had to analyze the potential market in a manner that was unconventional. In many areas, particularly in the United States, commercial real estate is often driven by consumer demand. In Italy however, the exact opposite it true. Through my analytical ability, I was able to successfully navigate through nearly 5 years of recession like macroeconomic cycles. In addition, I was able to deliver profits that exceed nearly 60% of my peers in the industry.
Prior to my experience in Italian real estate, I accepted a role as a consultant at AB Studio Inc. This position, much like the real estate position…
1) Production Information: a code of procedure for the construction industry Construction Production Information Committee, 2003 BS 7000-4:1996 Design Management Systems
Business Critical Thinking
To whom it may concern:
'Logically speaking...' How often do we say this simple phrase? There is a presumption that logic is not only good, but that the human mind can easily calculate the pros and cons of most decisions. However, the human brain did not evolve to naturally gravitate to an emotion-free, Spock-like way of evaluating options. "hen people face an uncertain situation, they don't carefully evaluate the information or look up relevant statistics. Instead, their decisions depend on mental short cuts, which often lead them to make foolish decisions. The short cuts aren't a faster way of doing the math; they're a way of skipping the math altogether" (Lehrer 2011). The sooner we admit this, the better we can cope with the challenges with which life presents us; the sooner a business organization admits this, the better it can guard against irrationality, or at least…
Gabor, Deborah. "Deirdre McCloskey's market path to virtue." Strategy + Business. 43 (2006)
[4 Jul 2012] http://www.strategy-business.com/article/06211?pg=2
Holt, Jim. "Two brains running." The New York Times. 27 Nov 2011. [4 Jul 2012]
concrete sequential thinking are crucial for survival in the current challenging world. The primary reason people need to nurture abstract, critical, and concrete sequential is that these abilities are beneficial for educational, personal, and economic growth. This essay examines abstract, critical, and concrete sequential thinking styles and gives examples of each thinking style because they are crucial in my daily life.
Today, critical thinking style is a vital and important topic in modern educations. Educators have tailored the curriculum to the needs of the current era because it has become a tool used to learn how to survive. Therefore, I became interested in learning to think critically. As a critical thinker, I always use my cognitive strategies and skills to increase the chances of a desirable outcome. This kind of thinking is involved in problem solving, calculating possibilities, and decision-making. As the thinker, when I am making use of this…
Lau, J.Y.F. (2013). An introduction to critical thinking and creativity: Think more, think better. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Appropriate time management facilitates a student's ability to learn and to improve one's overall quality of life, as well as make the most of the quantity of time one has for certain tasks.
For instance, when studying, tackling the most difficult subjects first, when one is mentally fresh, whether one is a morning or a night person, can be an effective method to grasp a difficult study area. Using short and frequent study sessions throughout the semester rather than cramming is another important time management technique -- and even simply making the most of one's spare moments leaves one with the satisfaction that one does not simply have clean laundry, but can go to bed an extra hour earlier, rather than begin one's calculus homework at midnight! ("Time Management," 2002)
Understanding the dangers of fallacious thinking is the last important step in taking what is learned in the classroom and…
Time Management." (20 Feb 2002) the Achievement Center. Retrieved 8 Jun 2005 at http://www.d.umn.edu/student/loon/acad/strat/time_man_princ.html
Steven's Guide to Fallacies." (1996) Data Nation. Retrieved 8 Jun 2005 at http://www.datanation.com/fallacies/index.htm
eflexive Practice, Leadership and Critical Thinking
All three themes -- critically reflective practice, leadership, and critical thinking, can be summarized in the following snippet: An American president, as President eagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan (1990), discovered experiences America by looking down. Much of his time is spent encountering his country and people via helicopter from which he sees tiny houses, tiny people, tiny cars, tiny roads. Noonan wondered how this affected eagan's perspective. She later found out that it compelled him to see them as outside of himself and as himself as distinct from them.
This snippet, it seems to me, is somewhat what reflective thinking, critical thinking, and leadership are all about. Each concept contains a meta-analytic sort of substance, similarly to inhabiting a plateau where the air is more refined and where the person is separate from others.
Let's take these concepts one by one.
Critically reflexive practice: Pungently,…
Noonan, P. (1990). What I saw at the Revolution: A political life in the Reagan era, USA: Ivy Books.
Brookfield, S.(1998). Critically reflective practice. Journal of Continuing Education in health professions,18, 197
Ayers, M.(2002). Leadership.Shared meaning, and semantics.etc. Cetera, 59, 287
Elder, L., & Paul, R.(2003). Critical Thinking...and the art of close reading (Part I). Journal of Developnment Education 27, 36 -- 39..
The intellectual standards of critical thinking
Critical thinking is described as the ability of an individual to think in a rational and clear manner with the aim of improving the quality of the reasoning process (Moore, 2007). It requires mastery of the application of different intellectual standards to elements of reasoning in various scenarios or problems. Although there are many applicable intellectual standards, some of the most important are: clarity or understandability of points, accuracy of information, how exact or precise the details are, relevance of a specified subject or even topic area, the depth in handling complex issues, the breadth of the train of thought, the logic and sense behind a thought, and the fairness or biasness of the thinker in regard to an issue (Moore, 2007).
The benefits of critical thinking
Critical thinking enables an individual to solve problems in a systematic way in any area of…
Lavery, J. & Hughes, W. (2008). Critical Thinking: An Introduction to the Basic Skills. (5th Ed.). Buffallo, New York: Broadview Press.
Moore, T.D. (2007). Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis. Washington, DC: NDIC Press.
Palomar Community College District (2015). Blocks to Critical Thinking. The Palomar College Library. Retrieved on 20 January 2015 from http://www.palomar.edu/reading/Thomsons120/Blocks%20to%20Critical%20Thinking.htm
Palmer and coworkers (2007) write that the aspect of critical thinking forms a crucial part of the nursing profession, as nurses always encounter complex scenarios that call for precise judgments, constant learning, and taking clinical decisions. Therefore, critical thinking covers a large problem-solving and reasoning process wherein every view and clinical choice has its basis in evidence. This process incorporates the active components of deliberation, insight, and emotional intelligence, in addition to information credibility, learning, and scope for study. Critical thinking within the nursing context is impacted chiefly by environmental, psychological, and physiological factors such as confidence level, age, competences, anxiety, exhaustion, prejudice and colleagues.
The process of critical thinking proves critical to the development of evidence-based practices (EBPs) of nursing. These practices promote customized nursing care, are more efficient, dynamic, and modernized, and maximize clinical judgment outcomes. EBPs may exhibit a positive contribution to patient…
Palmer, A., Berman, C. L., Bernardo, L. D., Lobato, C., Howard, E., Cramer, S. (2007). Critical Thinking and Evidence-Based Nursing. The Journal of Nursing. Retrieved from American Society of Registered Nurses: http://www.asrn.org
Proffeto-Mcgrath, J. (2005). Critical Thinking and Evidence-Based Practice. Journal of Professional Nursing, Vol 21, No 63, 64 -- 371. Retrieved from HYPERLINK " https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ " National Center for Biotechnology Information: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Critical thinking is an acquired skill according to the Ellis (2015). Higher education promotes analysing abilities in students making them see different inferring techniques and how others deduce results and come to various conclusions, providing them with a basis on how to deal with tough personal and career related decision-making (p. 69).
Critical thinking involves the following aspects
Goal-directed reasoning and inferential skills
Systematic understanding of facts
Critical thinking demands a very specific skill set and its development (Moore, 2010).
Critical Thinking Process
Learning to think critically is important not because it enhances you as a thinker but also as a decision maker (Ellis, 2015, p. 71). Following are the elements required in a critical thinking process:
Knowledge and understanding of the problem (Elmansy, 2016)
Comprehending the facts and the situation (Elmansy, 2016)
Application of information and resources (Elmansy, 2016)
A complete and…
Ellis, D. (2015). From Master Student to Master Employee. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Elmansy, R. (2016, January 15). 6 Steps for Effective Critical Thinking. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from Designorate: http://www.designorate.com
Moore, K. (2010). The Three-Part Harmony of Adult Learning, Critical Thinking, and Decision-Making . Journal of Adult Education, Vol 39, No. 1, 1-40. Retrieved from https://www.mpaea.org
Individuals and researchers should never underestimate the importance of critical thinking. Critical thinking affects each and every individual's life, as well as society in general, both in the short-term and long run. Examples of decisions involving critical thinking include economic choices, educational decisions, occupational choices, political decisions, religious choices, social choices, etc. hat makes critical thinking so invaluable is that decisions made with little or no critical thinking frequently backfire, creating greater difficulties. In order to avoid potential difficulties and unexpected surprises, individuals and organizations must continually engage in critical thinking, adapting their ways as time and other factors dictate.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to the importance of critical thinking. Part II discusses the importance of critical thinking. In Part III, the essential elements of critical thinking are outlined. Part IV reviews tactics individuals use to guide their thinking process. Lastly, this paper concludes…
Facione, Peter. "Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts." Retrieved at http://www.calpress.com/pdf_files/what&why.pdfon December 10, 2002.
Van Gelder, Tim. "Critical Thinking on the Web." Retrieved at http://www.philosophy.unimelb.edu.au/reason/critical/on December 10, 2002.
Foundation for Critical Thinking." Retrieved at http://www.criticalthinking.org/ on December 10, 2002.
I also assumed that the nurse I was observing would likely support the doctor and try to talk the patient into changing her mind. My assumptions were incorrect. Later I took the time to reflect upon my reaction to the situation.
After thinking through the entire situation, it is my belief that she did make the right choice, she no longer wished to live a life tied to a machine, wheeled about in a chair and unable to enjoy even the smallest of pleasures. As a nurse, my approach would be to comfort the patient, understanding and giving support to the family and friends who are attempting to support the patient. The patient is experiencing enough trauma, and should be fully supported in making whatever decision is best for that particular individual.
Other nurses might disagree. One study determined that even though 80% of newly graduated nurses have developed a…
Drennan, J.; (2010) Critical thinking as an outcome of a Master's degree in nursing programme, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 66, Issue 2, pp. 422 -- 431
Wangensteen, S.; Johannson, I.S.; Bjorkstrom, M.E.; Nordstrom, G.; (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 66, Issue 10, pp. 2170-2181
In a world that favors early adopters and revolves around the latest technology, individuals will be better served if they continue to seek out learning opportunities after their formal education has ended. Local governments and communities should provide these opportunities through libraries, universities and community centers. The skills gap applies to all.
Although people are defined by their different skill sets and this diversity enhances the richness of life in America, it is also clear that some skills are more important than others. If young people aspire to be successful adults, they must gain the skills they need to succeed in higher education, and those higher education skills must then translate into useful skills for the workforce. Focusing on process and information application, rather than restricting curricula to the collection of facts and information, is a critical step for successful learning. Integrating business leaders in the effort of re-defining…
American Society for Training and Development 2006. 'Bridging the Skills Gap: How the Skills Shortage Threatens Growth and Competitiveness and What to do About It' Alexandria, VA.
Daggett, Willard R. 'Jobs and the Skills Gap. International Center for Leadership in Education' Rexford, N.Y. Available at: www.state.me.us/education/diploma/jobsandskills.pdf
'Job Skills Checklist', Purdue University. Available at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/626/01/
National Education Association 'Statement of Principles: 21st Century Skills and the Reauthorization of NCLB/ESEA'. Available at: http://www.nea.org/home/17154.htm
(Eljamal; Stark; Arnold; Sharp, 1999)
To conclude, it be said that if we will not be able to master imparting the capability to think in a developed form, our profession, as well as perhaps our world, would be influenced and taken over by someone who would be able to outsmart us to find it out. We would in that case not only remain thinking as to what happened but would also not have the skills required to provide answers to our own question.
Braun, N.M. (2004, March/April) Critical thinking in the business curriculum. Journal of Education for Business, 79(4). etrieved from ProQuest database on February 20, 2007.
Carroll-Johnson, .M. (2001, April - June). Learning to think. Nursing Diagnosis, 12(2).
etrieved from Thomson Gale database on February 14, 2007.
Cheung, C., udowicz, E., Kwan, a.S.F., & Yue, X.D. (2002, December). Assessing university students general and specific critical thinking. College Student…
Braun, N.M. (2004, March/April) Critical thinking in the business curriculum. Journal of Education for Business, 79(4). Retrieved from ProQuest database on February 20, 2007.
Carroll-Johnson, R.M. (2001, April - June). Learning to think. Nursing Diagnosis, 12(2).
Retrieved from Thomson Gale database on February 14, 2007.
Cheung, C., Rudowicz, E., Kwan, a.S.F., & Yue, X.D. (2002, December). Assessing university students general and specific critical thinking. College Student Journal, 36(4). Retrieved from ProQuest database February 14, 2007.
The chronological order of the seasons is used by the fashion industry to plan and market clothing appropriate to the season, while detectives use the five Ws to investigate crimes, and philosophers use both the causal and logical orders to explore moral and ethical issues. Of course, much of human thinking is guided by the scientific order of observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and validation (Kirby & Goodpaster, 1999, p. 122-3).
Orderly thinking also plays a role in debunking existing theories. Indeed, the organization of facts using the three-step method of clustering, analyzing, and prioritizing helps establish both the verifiable truth and logical fallacies in existing arguments. For instance, it is accepted practice to refute the arguments of opponents by effectively demonstrating how data can be regrouped, analyzed, and prioritized to reach a different set of conclusions. In fact, this method is often deployed in debating arguments on ethics, morals, or social…
Duplass, J.A., & Ziedler, D.L. (2002). Critical Thinking and Logical Argument.
Social Education. Vol. 66: 5, p. M10+. Retrieved Sept. 28, 2004: http://www.questia.com
Kirby, G.R., & Goodpaster, J.R. (1999). Thinking. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Second edition.
Thagard, P., & Shelley, C. (2004). Emotional Analogies and Analogical Inference.
Scientific thinking is related to the scientific method, a four step process of observation, hypothesis formulation, experimentation, and verification. Observation is the process of examining the world, events, nature and other phenomenon which make individuals question and wonder about the many causes and effects of how things work. A hypothesis is commonly derived by formulating if-then statements. For a hypothesis to be proven experimentation must take place. Experimentation is the process of testing a hypothesis in a controlled environment and results are then documented. Verification is the analysis of data to see if the data supports or disputes the hypothesis (Schafersman,1997).
Critical thinking is an intellectual habit that can be developed through practice. Logical and scientific thinking are rooted in objectivity. These methods employee steps and techniques to arrive at conclusions through series of procedures designed to prove validity.
Critical thinking can also be used to advance selfish motives. It…
Glaser, E.M. (1941). An experiment in the development of critical thinking. Teacher's College, Columbia University. In the Critical hinking Coimmunity. Foundation for Critcal Thinking (2009) Retrieved Novemder 12, 2010, from http://www.criticalthinking.org/ aboutCT/define_critical_thinking.cfm
Hawthorne, J. (2009, Fall). Inductive logic. Stanford encyclopedia of philosopy. Zalta, E.N. (ed.). Retrieved Novemder 7, 2010, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-inductive/
Mosley, H.F. (2009, December 13). Persuasive thinking. Business & finance. In associatedcontent. Retrieved November 7, 2010, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2454208/persuasive_thinking.html?cat=3
Schafersman, S.S. (1997, January). An introduction to science: Scientific thinking and the scientific method. Department of Geology, University of Miami. Retrieved November 7, 2010, from http://www.geo.sunysb.edu/esp/files/scientific-method.html
Logical thinking is a big part of the critical thinking process, because it affects how we analyze and process information, communication, and understanding, which is a big part of critical thinking. When a person thinks logically, they use analysis, deduction, induction, and reasoning in both abstract and concrete forms, in order to make a logical, educated decision about a problem or other information. It attempts to uncover the reasoning and characteristics of the problem to devise a solution -- a solution that is rational and makes sense, rather than simply making a quick, snap decision. Logical thinking occurs in a sequence of steps, and leads to a more objective view. This view does not depend on emotion or emotional decisions; they are instead rational and well thought out.
This is the essence of critical thinking, which allows us to make informed and rational decisions about a variety of information and…
Dharmadasa, I., & Silvern, S.B. (2000). Children's conceptualization of force: Experimenting and problem solving. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 15(1), 88+.
Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2001). Critical thinking skills: A comparison of doctoral- and master's-level students. College Student Journal, 35(3), 477+.
Some salient guidance concerning developing good note-taking skills from the literature include placing a date and the name of the class on the top of every page to make sorting class notes out later on easier. Likewise, many students with good typing skills will likely benefit from typing their notes after school, when the information is still fresh in their minds. Students can also learn how to improve their note-taking skills by reviewing the notes taken by students with known note-taking skills. For instance, according to Willis (2007), "Sharing notes is a valuable way for all students to hone their note-taking skills and gain metacognitive awareness of which content is crucial and which is not. Teachers can ask students who have clearly written notebook entries to share them verbally or post them on a bulletin board for the benefit of students who don't have adequate notes" (p. 157).
Snider, a. & Schnurer, M. (2006). Many sides: Debate across the curriculum. New York
International Debate Education Association.
Ware, M.E. & Millard, R.J. (1997). Handbook on student development: Advising, career development, and field placement. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Willis, J. (2007). Brain-friendly strategies for the inclusion classroom: Insights from a neurologist and classroom teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Open communication is key to organizational success, and this openness can be demonstrated to employers through honesty and forthrightness (within the bounds of professionalism, of course) during the interview process.
In addition to these directly employment-related knowledge and skill areas, the course I took in Personal Finance will have a substantial positive impact on the way I approach my profession and my attractiveness to potential employers. Not only have I been provided with information on how to spend wisely, save appropriately, and even gauge investment opportunities in my personal life -- all of which will give me enhanced stability and security, which will be seen as a benefit by potential employers -- but these skills will also transfer to my profession in terms of assisting home health care recipients and practitioners alike in reducing their own expenses and thus providing additional value to expected services and relationships. In addition, appropriate…
Treating the whole patient and the patient's family, social, and economic environment was essential, rather than merely regarding diabetes as a medical problem. I also referred her to a nutritionist who could provide additional assistance, as well as other local and community resources devoted to helping people eat more healthfully on a budget.
Different roles for the Advanced Practical Nurse (APN)
This is one example of how the program has influenced my development as an Advanced Practical Nurse (APN). I had to act as an educator, as well as merely a caregiver and dispenser of medical knowledge. As well as a practitioner who identifies areas of patient need, such as future health problems in need of correction along the lines of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and poor lifestyle choices that could lead to heart disease, a nurse must teach the patient about lifestyle changes that the patient can…
Merrill, Piper. (2001, May).Wake-up call for U.S. health care system and APNs. Nursing
Economics.. Retrieved 26 Jan. 2009 from FindArticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSW/is_3_19/ai_n18612037
Not only is the new economy information-based, but those who master unique skills have a competitive edge. In any field, computer programming skills are viewed as an asset. Just as programming skills help consumers troubleshoot their own problems and save money, programming skills can help corporations troubleshoot their problems in house, avoiding unnecessary expenditures on outsourced programmers or technicians. Computer programming skills can also be channeled into creative enterprise. For example, a person who masters programming skills can start a new business offering technical support to clients, or a business designing proprietary and custom-designed software for any number of industries. These entrepreneurial ideas may become full-time self-employment or may simply be adjuncts to one's standard job.
There are also good personal reasons to master the special skill of computer programming. Computer programming is inherently creative. It encourages people to come up with novel solutions for problems. Programmers design interesting software,…
Computer Programmers." U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved Mar 16, 2007 at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos110.htm
Computer Programming for Everybody." Retrieved Mar 16, 2007 at http://www.python.org/doc/essays/cp4e.html
Individual Skills and Strength
INDIVIDUAL SKILLS AND STENGHT
Listening skills, communication skills, problem-solving skills and organizational skills are very critical to succeed in life. Communication and listening skills are the essential life skills required to excel in the professional career. Individual with good listening and communication skills are not only generally better informed, the person is perceived as being pleasant with colleagues in the job place. Communication skills are important in all facet of life, and communication skills are the key to achieve a bright career. People within the organization spend 75% of their daily time engaging in communication through writing, speaking, listening and inter-debate. Communication skill is the system of expressing information concisely and effectively in an oral and written mode as well as sharing information with others in order to facilitate exchange of ideas and information. On the other hand, problem-solving skills are the set-skills that allow an…
De Meuse, K.P. Dai, G. & Wu, J.(2011). A Closer Examination: Leadership Skills across Organizational Levels. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 14: 120 -- 139.
Lee, W. (2008). Speech, Language and Communication Needs and Primary School-aged Children. Royal Mail, London.
Omeroglu, E. Buyukozturk, S. Aydogan, Y. et al. (2009). Development of a Problem Solving Scale for Children Attending Class 1-5 of Primary Education and Norm Study for Turkey. International Journal of Learning. 16 ( 8): 117-123.
Sakofsky, M. (2009). The Impact of Empathy Skills Training on Middle School Children. Master's thesis. The College at Brockport: State University of New York.
eadership and Solitude
When talking about effective and compelling leaders in education and other important social fields most people tend to envision a certain type of individual. This individual is usually envisioned as a very social, affable, outspoken and extroverted person. William Dereziwics challenges and questions this character perception of leadership in his article titled earn To Be Alone With Your Thoughts. This article presents a clear connection that exists between leadership and solitude, Dereziwics supports his opinion about leadership by commenting and discussing several situations where solitude directly results in leadership. He also talks about social and media interaction and how this conflicts with leadership. Derecziwics begins his article by stating that solitude is necessary for leadership, he says that this is so because solitude allows a person to think and critically analyze. Derecziwics states that it is very difficult to become an effective leader for someone who is…
Leadership is a very important element in virtually all fields of employment, especially in education. Therefore, it is also very important to establish quality and effective leadership at the head of an organization or entity in order for it to be successful and accomplish its organizational goals. In her article titled What is Quality Leadership?, Misty Laucour explains and defines how delegation and empowerment are important as leadership strategies. She explains that it is important for leaders to delegate responsibilities to employees or members of an organization while at the same time empowering those individuals. Lacours states that leaders can empower individuals by allowing them to take part in the decisions making process, thus creating an environment where the quality of work goes up due to good employee morale. Lacour lists that following actions as vital to the empowerment of follower: " (a) effectively match people to assignments; (b) engage all in active listening; (c) engage in purposeful actions based on goals and vision; (d) focus on growth and opportunities, not failures; (e) encourage others to think critically"(Lacour).
Taking into account what is presented in the article one would have to agree with Lacour's assessment of what quality leadership really is. Our contemporary society is one that is heavily influenced by Democracy, in this type of social and political atmosphere people in general are encouraged to be involved and make decisions. Our society is not one where dictatorship is accepted, that is to say that people do not like being told what to without having any sort of input. It has been proven that the most effective workers and members of an organization are those that are happy and have good morale. In order for good employee morale to be established empowerment of the followers should be present, this way they can feel important and significant in the overall process, thus creating a more productive and effective atmosphere.
Lacour, M., et. al., What is Quality Leadership?. Academic Leadership v. 8 no. 3 (Summer 2010) p. 320-1
The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. acism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism. Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism. It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.
After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…
Bond J. & Bond S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. NY: Churchill Livingstone.
Parks, J.A. & Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wilson, W.K. & Kass, L.R. ( 1998).The ethics ofHuman Cloning.New York: AEI Press.
skills development and levels of knowledge acquisition based on clinical experience. Nurses move from novice making decisions based on rules to expert who are able to see connections between actions and outcomes using critical thinking
Some claim that expert nursing comes from habituation in making decisions. Benner (2001), for instance, posits 5 different levels of development that the nurse moves through: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. Each one builds on the other as the nurse uses the reflection gained from her experience to improve her practice. Each of these five different levels constitute proficiency and skill not only in practical labor, but also in other components -- such as skilled communication and mentoring -- that are integral to the field of nursing. The novice nurse, for instance, tends to see the patient as an object made up of discrete pieces of information / data and specific tasks that…
Benner, P. Tanner, C., Chesla, C. (1996) Expertise in nursing practice: Caring, clinical judgement and Ethics, New York. Springer Carper, B.A. (1978), Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing Advances in Nursing Science, 1 (16), 13-23.
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Lawler and Ledford (1987) argued twenty-six years ago that skill-based pay was going to become an increasingly popular concept in compensation management. Ledford and Heneman (2011) define skill-based pay as "a compensation system that rewards employees with additional pay in exchange for formal certification of the employee's mastery of skills, knowledge and/or competencies." The authors juxtapose this against a "job-based pay system," defined as a system where employees are entitled to receive their pay even if they are not proficient in their position.
There are two issues with the concept from the outset. The first is that employees should be proficient in their position, since they have been given that position. It makes little sense for an employee to remain in a position with no skills. Trotter (2013) notes that a person's skills and competencies contribute to them receiving the position, at least in any company where merit…
Giancola, F. (2011). Skill-based pay: Fad or classic? Compensation Benefits Review. Vol. 43 (4) 220-226.
Lawler, Edward E., III, & Ledford, Gerald E., Jr. (1987). Skill-based pay: A concept that's catching on. Management Review, 76(2), 46-46. Retrieved May 30, 2013
Ledford, G. & Heneman, H. (2011). Skill-based pay. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://www.siop.org/userfiles/image/SIOP_SHRM_Skill_Based_Pay.pdf
Trotter. R. (2013). Skills-based pay structures vs. job-based pay structures. Rory Trotter.com. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://rorytrotter.com/2013/04/10/skill-based-pay-structures-versus-job-based-pay-structures/
About two weeks ago, there came a time when a friend, Emmanuel, asked for help to answer some interview questions which they had been requested to answer. The first question was on the reason why they had chosen a career in customer development as opposed to other business functions. The second question was on what their contribution would be to the company and the last question asked them to give a recommendation to the company based on their interaction with the company. In order to answer these questions, it was common knowledge that we needed to be creative in answering the questions in order to set them apart from the rest of the candidates undertaking the same interview. It therefore required a broad mindset in order to think outside the box so as to captivate the interviewers and show that Emmanuel was a better candidate for the position.…
Grauerholz, L., & Sharon, B.-H. (2003). Exploring Critical Sociological Thinking. Teaching Sociology, 31(4), 485-496. doi: 10.2307/3211372
Greenlaw, S.A., & DeLoach, S.B. (2003). Teaching Critical Thinking with Electronic Discussion. The Journal of Economic Education, 34(1), 36-52. doi: 10.2307/30042522
Kassem, C.L. (2000). Implementation of a School-Wide Approach to Critical Thinking Instruction. American Secondary Education, 29(2), 26-36. doi: 10.2307/41064423
Kihn, M. (1995). Outside the Box': the Inside Story. New York: Random House.