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An Overview of the Most Pertinent Facts Relating to Crohn's Disease
Crohn's Disease Affects the Digestive System (Journey with Crohn's, N.d.)
Crohn's disease is a serious condition that afflicts roughly half a million people in North America alone. The disease affects the bowels of a patient, anywhere between the mouth all the way to the anus, and has a wide range of symptoms associated with it. Some of the symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, skin problems, arthritis, eye inflammation, lethargy, and concentration issues. Although the disease is produced by a bacterial which is introduced to the body through the environment, there are certain risks factors that make people susceptible to the disease. For example, there seems to be a genetic component to the disease and people with a family history of the disease are more susceptible to contracting the condition. Certain lifestyle choices can also…
Boye, B., Lundin, K., Leganger, S., Mokleby, K., Tangen, T.J., Pripp, A., . . . Jahnsen, J. (2011). INSPIRE study: does stress management improve the course of inflammatory bowel disease and disease-specific quality of life in distressed patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease? A randomized controlled trial. Inflammatory bowel diseases, 1863-1873.
Cho, J. (2001). The Nod2 gene in Crohn's disease: implications for future research into the genetics and immunology of Crohn's disease. . Inflammatory Bowel, 271-275.
Journey with Crohn's. (N.d.). What is Crohns Disease? Retrieved from Journey with Crohns: http://www.journey-with-crohns-disease.com/what-is-crohns-disease.html
Koutrooubakis, I., Manousos, O., Meuwissen, S., & Pena, A. (1996). Environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease. Department of Gastroenterology, 381-393.
Cronh's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Background
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis are the major forms of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in the western world, and occur in young adults with an estimated prevalence of more than one per thousand inhabitants (Hugot, et al., 1996). These diseases can affect any portion of the gastrointestinal system all the way from the mouth to the anus and are associated with many other medical problems such as arthritis, skin condition, cancer, and kidney stones. Ulcerative Colitis is most likely to be diagnosed in early adolescence while Cronh's Disease is more likely to be diagnosed between the ages of fifteen and thirty but can more rarely be diagnosed later in life. Both of these diseases are still being researched thoroughly and many questions remain.
The most common symptoms of IBD include abdominal pain, cramping, and diarrhea. In some more severe cases symptoms…
Anderson, C., & al, e. (2009). Investigation of Crohn's Disease Risk Loci in Ulcerative Colitis Further Defines Their Molecular Relationship . Gastroenterology, 523-529.
Columbia St. Mary's. (N.d.). Differences Between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Retrieved from Gastroenterology Services: http://www.columbia-stmarys.org/Crohn_vs_Ulcerative_Colitis
Hugot, J., Puig, P.R., Olson, J., Lee, J.B., naom, I.D., Gossum, A., . . . Thomas, G. (1996). Mapping of a susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease on chromosome 16. Nature, 821-823.
Shaw, S., Blanchard, J., & Bernstein, C. (2011). Association Between the Use of Antibiotics and New Diagnoses of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2133-2142.
Crohn's Disease In Canada
Crohn's disease has another name of regional enteritis. It is an intestinal disease which is inflammatory and can affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract which can be from mouth to the anus having array of symptoms. Its effects are pain in the abdomen, diarrhea which when is at the worst inflammation it can contain blood in the diarrhea, vomiting and all these may result to weight loss. There are also effects on the outside part of gastrointestinal tract like arthritis, skin rashes, tiredness, inflammation of the eyes and lack of concentration.
Crohn's disease is considered to be a disease of autoimmune where the immune system of the body infects the gastrointestinal tract which causes inflammation making it to be classified as inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's disease has genetic connection, making the sibling afflicted with the disease at high risk. It is considered to…
Bernstein, Charles N.; Wajda, A; Svenson, LW; Mackenzie, A; Koehoorn, M; Jackson, M; Fedorak, R; Israel, D et al.( July 2006). ("The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: a population-based study." The American Journal of Gastroenterology
Fix, Oren K.; Jorge A. Soto, Charles W. Andrews and Francis A. Farraye (2004). "Gastroduodenal Crohn's disease." Gastrointestinel Endoscopy 60 (6): 985.
Loftus, E.V.; P. Schoenfeld, W.J. Sandborn (January 2002). "The epidemiology and natural history of Crohn's disease in population-based patient cohorts from North America: a systematic review." Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Rod Riley 1990 'Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis morbilty and mortality' Health rep.
The study supports the findings of the recent NF-kB research given that infliximab neutralizes an inflammation-causing protein called tumor necrosis factor alpha. This protein regulates "a common inflammation pathway that just happens to be important in Crohn's disease," suggesting that a specific, targeted molecular approach to treatment may be more helpful for Crohn's patients than steroids (Seppa 2008)
Future drugs, however, could directly address the problems regarding NF-kB, rather than simply treating the symptoms of inflammation. "NF-kB acts as a survival signal for cells. ithout the molecule cells are much more likely to die and this is what happened in the intestines of... [the] mice; individual epithelial cells died disrupting the gut lining. Through these gaps bacteria could penetrate the intestinal wall. Right behind the gut epithelium lie cells of the intestinal immune system, the biggest immune system of our body. It detects the invading bacteria and generates a strong…
Feller, Edward R. (2001, Nov. 15). "Gynecologic Aspects of Crohn's Disease." American Family
Physician. Retrieved through FindArticles.com 27 Jul. 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_10_64/ai_80099745
Metcalf, Jane (1997, 17 Jan). "Is measles infection associated with Crohn's disease?" British
Medical Journal. Jan 17, 1998. Retrieved through FindArticles.com 27 Jul. 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0999/is_n7126_v316/ai_20209769
Inflammatory Bowel Disease:
Immunological, Demographical, and Genetic Findings
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects the colon and the small intestine. Though there are many subtypes of IBD, the most common and well-known are Crowns disease and ulcerative colitis (WebMD.com, 2011). Crohn's disease causes symptoms such as abdominal pains, diarrhea, vomit, weight loss, as well as many non-digestive system related pains (WebMD.com, 2011). Ulcerative colitis is quite similar to Crohn's disease due to noticeable symptoms, however, internally the two attack different areas of the body. Ulcerative colitis is experienced in the large intestine or colon, but goes through phases of outbreak and dormancy, while Crohn's disease is specific to the intestine (WebMD.com, 2011).
The estimation of diagnosed Americans with IBD is roughly near 1.4 million, and patients are usually diagnosed in their early teenage years through early adulthood (Tresca, 2006). With such a large amount of people suffering from this disease, scientists…
Achkar, J.P. (2011). Inflammatory bowel disease. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://www.acg.gi.org/patients/gihealth/ibd.asp
American Nursing Association. (2011). Professional nursing practice. Retrieved March 24, 2011
Andrews, E.B., Eaton, S.C., Hollis, K.A., Hopkins, J.S., Ameen, V., Hamm, L.R., Cook, S.F.,
ileitis, enteritis, or regional enteritis, Crohn's disease is a relapsing, inflammatory bowel disease that affects the ileum (lower part of the small intestine), which becomes inflamed and swells deep into its lining ("Crohn's Disease," 2006; Nachimuthi, 2005; Baumgart & Sandborn, 2007). It can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract -- from the mouth to the anus -- but is typically found in the lower part of the intestine ("Crohn's Disease," 2006; Baumgart & Sandborn, 2007).
Crohn's is most commonly characterized by symptomology such as diarrhea and abdominal pain in the lower right area ("Crohn's Disease," 2006). Symptoms can range from mild to severe, occurring gradually or suddenly (MayoClinic.com, 2009). Patients can become malnourished, dehydrated, and experience weight loss as the result of low or no water absorption by their intestine ("Insights into Crohn's Disease," 2006; Nachimuthi, 2005). Other possible symptoms include rectal bleeding, weight loss, arthritis, skin affectations, and fever ("Crohn's…
Barrett, Jeffrey, C. et al. (2008). Genome-wide Association Defines More Than 30 Distinct
Susceptibility Loci for Crohn's Disease. Nature Genetics, 40(8): 955-962.
Baumgart, Daniel C. & Sandborn, William J. (2007). Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Clinical
Aspects and Established and Evolving Therapies. Lancet, 369: 1641-57.
Crohn's disease, ileitis or enteritis is a medical condition that is known to cause inflammation of the digestive system also known as gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This condition affects any part of the gastrointestinal tract, starting from the mouth to the anus, but it mostly affecting the ileum (USFDA,2008). The inflammation may penetrate deep into the lining of the organs affected thereby causing pain making the intestines occasionally empty, resulting in diarrhoea.
Similarity in symptoms with other intestinal disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative colitis, makes Crohn's disease difficult to diagnose. Ulcerative colitis results in inflamed ulcers on the top lining of the large intestine while in Crohn's disease all the layers of the intestines are involved, and healthy bowel may be occur in between parts of the affected bowel. Other symptoms include, fever, unintentional weight loss, fatigue, tenesmus, and persistent, watery diarrhoea.
Barratt, S, Leeds, J.Robinson, K.,Lobo, A. McAlindon, M.Sanders, D. (2011)Prodromal Irritable Bowel Syndrome May Be Responsible for Delays in Diagnosis in Patients Presenting with Unrecognized Crohn's Disease and Celiac Disease, but Not Ulcerative Colitis. Digestive Diseases & Sciences; Nov2011, Vol. 56 Issue 11, p3270-3275.
Leaner, A (2012).Aluminum as an adjuvant in Crohn's disease induction. Lupus; Feb2012, Vol. 21 Issue 2, p231-238.
Marks DJ, Segal AW. (January 2008). "Innate immunity in inflammatory bowel disease: a disease hypothesis." J. Pathol.214 (2): 260 -- 6. doi:10.1002/path.2291. PMC 2635948.PMID 18161747.
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse .(2006).Crohn's Disease
Yet it appears to have a profound effect to benefit the process of healing. Gentle circular movements, sweeping motions, and a light touch are employed to lift the soft tissue. By doing this, blood circulation and the lymphatic system are stimulated to promote natural healing.
hythmical Massage is an exciting treatment because the patient gets considerable relief without the use of drugs or steroids; thus, adverse side-effects are avoided. This is an approach that nurses and massage therapists can learn to do that can really help patients with Crohn's Disease to harmonize the body and rest. Liddy's article states that hymical Massage is a medical treatment that requires training and practice. Usually, it is prescribed by a physician who can use it alone or in conjunction with traditional medicine and/or natural remedies. Because it is a specific technique for stimulating healing in the intestines, it must be done correctly so…
Liddy, O. (2007). Case study: Rhythmical massage therapy for Crohn's disease. Positive Health Online: Integrated Medicine for the 21st Century, 140, retrieved December 3, 2008 from E4 PSYCH database.
Functional Symptoms and Psychological States: An Electronic Diary Study by Burton, C., Weller, D. And Sharpe, M.
This study reported the findings from a time series study that compared day-to-day variation in physical symptoms that are related to Somatoform disorders with levels of anxiety, mood, and the subject's level of concern for their symptoms. The authors acknowledge that according to psychosomatic models of the relationship between vague physical symptoms and psychological concerns stress individuals often recognize the physical symptoms they experience and ignore the psychiatric components of their presentation. Theoretical models often assume that a variety of factors including psychiatric factors influence physical illness. The authors also note that there are a few other studies documenting the co-occurrence of psychological distress and functional somatic symptoms over time; however, previous studies have focused on a single psychological symptom such as depression or anxiety and have used pen and paper retrospective recording…
Blankenstein, A.H., Van der Horst, H.E., Schilte, A.F., de Vries, D., Zaat, J.O., Knottnerus, A.J., van Eijk, J.T., & de Haan. M. (2002). Development and feasibility of a modified reattribution model for somatising patients, applied by their own general practitioners. Patient Education Counseling, 47, 229-235.
Burton, C., Weller, D. & Sharpe, M. (2009). Functional symptoms and psychological states: An electronic diary study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 77-83.
McKillip, J. & Voss, J.R. (1978). Why Do We Need a Control Group? Why Should We Randomize? Some Answers for Evaluative Researchers. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Personnel and Guidance Association. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED160924&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED160924 .
Rutter, D.R. (2002) Illness Representation, Coping and Outcome in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). British Journal of Health Psychology, 7 (4), 377-391.
John Frewin is a young child who lives with his parents. The 12-year-old is on a sustaining income of his parents. The parents of the child are low-income earners. The amount they receive can only sustain partial needs of the family thus aspects of the poor state of the society. John Frewin was diagnosis of Crohn's disease was at the age of 10 through a critical examination in the health institution. The main objective of this research exercise is to integrate ABCD's of nutritional assessment in the evaluation of Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease or Crohn syndrome refers to a condition involving inflammation of the lining of the digestive system (Ferrara & Saccomano, 2012). This disease affects the intestines as well as rare cases in any place from the mouth to the end of the rectum. The cause of Crohn syndrome is unknown. Despite this aspect, various elements might contribute…
Triantafillidis, J.K., Durakis, S., & Merikas, E. (2013). Crohn's disease of the small bowel, complicated by primary biliary cirrhosis, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and Raynaud's phenomenon: favorable response of all disorders to adalimumab treatment.
Gastroenterology & Hepatology From Bed To Bench, 6(2), 101-105.
Rochelle, T., & Fidler, H. (2013). The importance of illness perceptions, quality of life and psychological status in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Journal Of
Health Psychology, 18(7), 972-983.
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…
Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.
Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.
"Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common inflammatory bowel diseases are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease" (IBD, 2013, CDC). Ulcerative colitis affects the large colon; Crohn's usually affects the small colon and the beginning portion of the large colon. egardless in both manifestations of IBD, the body attacks the cells of the intestine, mistaking 'good' things like food and bacteria for dangerous invaders and thus causing chronic inflammation.
The effects of IBD can be extremely severe because of the nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and subsequent weight loss and malnutrition that they cause. Crohn's is particularly dangerous because it can cause intestinal blockage from severe swelling and scaring. Ulcers can cause fistulas which become infected. Unlike lupus, both forms of IBD can be treated with surgery as well as various anti-inflammatory drugs.…
Systemic Lupus Erythematous (Lupus). (2013). American College of Rheumatology.
IBD. (2013). CDC. Retrieved:
On a basic level, patients can make attempts to restructure their diet and general lifestyle choices to promote a more positive, health body in general. If this approach does not work, there are many sorts of antibiotics, painkillers, laxatives or anti-diarrhea pills that one can take to negate the effects of noxious symptoms. Corrective surgery is also an option, although it does not always work.
Some of the treatments for inflammatory bowel disease can work for irritable bowel syndrome, such as the taking of antibiotics, anti-diarrhea medicine, and fiber supplements. Additionally, corrective measures to one's diet and lifestyle to attempt to procure a stress free environment may work as well. Treatments specific to this condition, however, include antidepressants and counseling to assist with stress. Additionally, medications such as lubiprostone and alosetron also pertain strictly to this condition, and not to inflammatory bowel disease.
PATIENT FACTO: AGE
Age certainly has a…
Pace, F., Molteni, P., Bollani, S., Sarzi-Puttini, P., Stockbrugger, R., Porro, Bianchi, Drossman, D.A. (2003). "Inflammatory bowel disease vs. irritable bowel syndrome: a hospital-based, case-control study of disease impact on quality of life.." BMC Gastroenterol. 38 (10): 1031-1038.
Porter, C.K., Brooks, D.C., Pimentel, M., Akinseye, a., Riddle, M.S. (2012). "Risk of inflammatory bowel disease following a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome." BMC Gastroenterol. 12: 55. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3444908/
According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it was unethical to test Tysabri in the way it has been done, and furthermore irresponsible to enter it into the market before all side-effects were ascertained.
3. Interested parties: The interested parties in this case include Walter Smith, Anita's widower, as well as Cambridge biotechnology and Elan Corp. From Smith's point-of-view, the companies are at fault for causing harm to his wife, and potential harm to many others using the drug. His current assertions regarding the reentry of the drug into the market appear to be well thought out and mature, focusing on the future benefit of patients rather than on his own need for revenge.
From the point-of-view of the companies, the drug is developed to help those suffering from…
Nursing Case Study
Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study
The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.
The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.
The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…
1. Crisp J, Taylor C. (2010). Potter & Perry's fundaments of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier, Australia.
2. Kirk MD, Hall GV, Veitch MGK, Becker N. (2010). Assessing the ?incidence of gastroenteritis among elderly people living in long-term care facilities. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 12.
3. Australian Government: Department of Health and Ageing. (2007). Retrieved from- http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/icg-guidelinesindex.htm .
4. Andrew E, Simor MVD. (2010). Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Review. The-Americans Geriatric Societ, 58(8), 1557-1593.
Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it
Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine:
Absence of Evidence for Link
to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders
Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate
Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.
Dr. Anshu Kacker
5650 including Abstracts
Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.
Methods and materials: A literature search was performed using key phrases, including the search-requisite abbreviation 'MM' (measles, mumps, rubella), such as: 'autism mmr vaccine', 'colitis mmr vaccine', 'controversy mmr', 'mmr adverse results', 'vaccines autism-spectrum disorders', 'vaccine effects…
Anderberg, D. (2009). Anatomy of a Health Scare: Education, Income and the MMR Controversy in the UK. Wrong source cited -- found article ===> Journal of Health Economics 03/2011; 30(3):515-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.01.009
Andrews, N.,Miller, E., Taylor, B., Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Stowe, J., Waight, P. (2002). Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child, 87, 493-4.
Autism Watch (2015) http://www.autism-watch.org/news/lancet.shtml
My name is Tracy Sanchez. I currently live in Secane, Pennsylvania. It was a couple of years ago, in my mid-thirties, when my life took a dramatic turn. I had worked at a company for fourteen years when the company downsized. The downsizing forced me to do two difficult things, change occupations and take a cut in salary. I found a job as an Administrative Assistant at The American College.
The American College is unique in that it specializes in financial services, offering students designations, such as Certified Financial Planner (CFP), Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC), Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU), Chartered Leadership Fellow (CLF), Registered Health Underwriter (RHU), Registered Employee Benefits Consultant (REBC). The college is also different in that it offers students a way to learn outside of the traditional classroom (distance learning). Students earn their designations when they pass a computerized examination.
Being in the academic environment…
These biologically-based practices of alternative medicine include the use of vitamins, herbs, and food supplements found in nature, chief among which are probiotics: the living, beneficial bacteria found in the intestines. These benign bacteria counteract the presences of the malignant variety, which often cause digestive problems if allowed to overpopulate. Probiotics can be obtained as supplements or found in certain foods, and have been known to prolong periods of remission in ulcerative colitis patients, with no sever side effects.
The use of fish oils is another alternative medicinal treatment for ulcerative colitis. Fish oils contain omega-3 fatty acids, which are known for their anti-inflammatory properties (Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, 2011). Omega 3 fatty acids are found in certain green vegetables and in nuts, salmon, sardines and herring, as well as in oral supplemental form and are used to treat intestinal inflammation when ulcerative colitis is active. Aloe Vera…
1. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America. (2011). Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://www.ccfa.org/frameviewer/?url=/media/pdf/FactSheets/CAM.pdf
2. Life Extension. (2011).Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.lef.org/protocols/gastrointestinal/inflammatory_bowel_disease_01.htm
3. National Digestive Diseases Clearinghouse. (2006) Ulcerative Colitis. Retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/colitis/
4. Street, Erin. (2010, December). Nutritional Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis. Livestrong.com Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/335380-nutritional-therapy-for-ulcerative-colitis/
Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products. This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers (Hakkak, 2001). Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake (6 or more glasses of milk per day), also increase the chance for prostate cancer (Chen, 2007; Giovannucci, et.al. 1998). Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel ("How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" 2007).
The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Champe, P. (2008). "Introduction to Carbohydrates." Lippincott's Illustrated
Reviews: Biochemistry. Williams and Williams.
Chen, H., et.al. (2007). "Consumption of Dairy Products and Risk of Parkinson's
Disease." American Journal of Epidemiology. 165 (9): 998+.
Vitamin deficiency in food can cause different health deficiencies like Pellagra, Scurvy, ickets among others. Most of these negative health outcomes are evidenced in the staple diet of those in the developing and poor countries. We shall understand some diets that cause these deficiencies in this essay.
The characteristics of Pellagra are mental afflictions, diarrhea, and dermatitis. Inadequate quantity of nicotinic acid in the diet that causes niacin deficiency in the body causes Pellagra. Over dependence on maize is an observed cause of Pellagra. Though Maize contains Niacin, it cannot be absorbed in the body in the raw form. It has to be passed through alkaline hydrolysis to be absorbed by the body. Jowar also contains adequate quantities of Niacin. However, the presence of leucine in jowar inhibits the process of absorption of niacin. Additionally, chronic alcoholism is one known cause of lack of ability to absorb of niacin…
Allgrove, J., & Mughal, M.Z. (2014). Calcium deficiency rickets: extending the spectrum of almost forgotten. International Journal Of Dermatology, 45(8), 909-913. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2006.02844.x
Karthikeyan, K., & Thappa, D.M. (2002).Pellagra and skin. International Journal Of 'nutritional' rickets. Archives Of Disease In Childhood, 99(9), 794-795. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306465
Obadina, S. (2014).An overview of anorexia nervosa, bulimia and binge eating disorder. British Journal Of School Nursing, 9(9), 441-446.
Olmedo, J.M., Yiannias, J.A., Windgassen, E.B., & Gornet, M.K. (2006). Scurvy: a disease. Dermatology, 41(8), 476-481. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.2002.01551.x
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…
AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human
Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/
Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"
Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.
In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Lee, H., Park, Y., Jung, J. & Shin, W. (2003). Chitosan oligosaccharides, dp 2 -- 8, have prebiotic effect on the Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus sp.
Elsevier Science Ltd. Retrieved November 2, 2009, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W9T-48BKR97 -
Specifically focused on products for each phase of a persons' life, this business segment is the most mainstream in terms of promotional strategies. Skin Care, OTC and Nutritionals have successfully given JNJ a permanent marketing strategy for selling to women in the 25-34 and 25-45 segments, two of the fastest growing demographic markets for these products.
The biggest challenge for JNJ is the ability to quickly develop and launch products across all of their business units. This is the most challenging task internally for the entire company to coordinate on, specifically in the area of pharmaceuticals where Federal Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and the need for compliance are very high.
The costs of producing a new drug can be well over $800M according to AM esearch (2004). An analysis of each phase of the development of a new drug is shown in the following graphic from PhMA (2005).…
AMR Research (2006) - Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences Industry Overview. AMR Research Alert. Monday June 5, 2006. Hussain Moorai and Roddy Martin.
Credit Suisse (2006) - Johnson and Johnson Research Brief. January 24, 2007.New York, NY.
Life Science Analytics (2007) - Life Science Analytics Johnson & Johnson Pipeline Report. January 3, 2007. Boston, MA
PhRMA (2005) - Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) Conference Proceedings. Accessed from the Internet on February 10, 2007 at http://www.phrma.org/innovation/
Hops (Humulus Lupulus) are well recognized and extensively grown for their use in preparing beer and lager. Whilst hops have been utilized in beer preparing in Europe from the oman times, they started their widespread utilization in Flanders in the 14th century. Hops got admired recognition in Britain in the 16th century for medical and drinking reasons. The pure characteristics given by the hops, developed beer as an everyday drink instead of water, in a lot of areas water was usually unhealthy for human utilization
The Hop plant is a perpetual climbing plant that in character strings itself around trees. It is an associate of the Cannabidaceae species. Hops and cannabis are the only two types in the family and there are a lot of resemblances amid hemp (Cannabis sativa) and the cultivated hop. However, there are no "chemical" connections amid them. The nettle family is in the…
Murakami, A. (2000). Hop variety classification using the genetic distance based on RAPD. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. May June 106(3): 157-161.
Yamazaki, T. (2000). Humulus lupulus L. var. cordifolius (Miq.) maxim. found in Chugoku District. Journal of Japanese Botany. April 75(2): 125.
Beatson, R.A. And T.E. Inglis (1999). Development of aroma hop cultivars in New Zealand. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. Nov. Dec. 105(6): 382-385.
De, K.D., F. David, et al. (1998). Automated reporting on the quality of hops and hop products. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 104(2): 75-82.
Strategic Analysis of Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Division
This study provides the strategic analysis of Johnson & Johnson's pharmaceutical division to assist the company developing an effective strategy to achieve the competitive market advantages. The paper uses the SWOT analysis, PEST analysis and Porter's five forces for the strategic analysis. The outcomes of the analysis reveal that Johnson & Johnson is one of the top players in the pharmaceutical industry making the company enjoying superior market advantages in the United States and outside the United States. However, the company is still facing stiff competitions with other key players in the industry. Moreover, the company has not been able to reduce its cost of operations. The study recommends that Johnson & Johnson should launch its products in China to enjoy huge Chinese markets. Moreover, the company should take advantage of Chinese low stringent laws and regulations to produce drugs for Indian…
Arnum, P.V. (2015). Outlook 2018: The Current and Future Direction of the Pharma Industry. IMS Market Prognosis.
Gates, L.P. (2010). Strategic Planning with Critical Success Factors and Future Scenarios: An Integrated Strategic Planning Framework. Technical Report. Carnegie Mellon University. Software Engineering Institute.
KPMG (2011). Future Pharma Five Strategies to Accelerate the Transformation of the Pharmaceutical Industry by 2020. KPMG LLP, UK.
Phrama (2016). 2016 Profile Biopharmaceutical Research Industry. Washington, DC: PhRMA.
controversy persists concerning the use of medicinal marijuana for patients with debilitating and/or terminal diseases such as HIV / AIDS, cancer, Crohn's, etc. According to the Associated ress, states such as California, Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington (state) are all in favor of medicinal marijuana, although the federal government retains ultimate power to enforce federal laws concerning marijuana, its growth, and the use thereof. Many state political authorities argue that the federal government should not have the power to "bust" marijuana users who grow the drug, if the user(s) is/are prescribed the drug by his/her doctor. As only one-fifth of the states of the United States have voiced an opinion on the issue, the states that have, offer many seemingly legitimate reasons why the issue should be left in the hands of each individual state, while the federal government argues that it should maintain control.…
Possibly the most controversial topic on the issue is the issue's structure or form; should marijuana be "grown" and smoked by patients or should it be provided by doctors in "pill" form to be ingested by those with debilitating and/or terminal illnesses? States like California say that the growing of "pot" in or around a patient's home, in small to moderate amounts, by the patient prescribed, should be allowed, while the federal government says that in order to control the drug, medicinal marijuana, if legalized, should be "manufactured" by pharmaceutical companies, in pill or capsule form, throughout the United States, and distributed only by drug stores and pharmacies. The "structure" on how the drug should be made and distributed is most certainly the prime topic at hand concerning the issue of medicinal marijuana for possible relief of symptomatic debilitating and terminal illnesses and diseases.
Another issue of conflict concerning medicinal marijuana is: should each individual state in the United States hold the power to write, regulate, enforce laws, etc., concerning the use of the drug for medicinal purposes, or should the federal government ultimately hold the power to write, regulate, enforce laws, etc., concerning medicinal marijuana, just as it retains the right to penalize those who grow, use, distribute, etc., marijuana illegally? According to the Associated Press, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor says that legal power concerning the use of medicinal marijuana should be left in the hands of individual states. "The states' core police powers have always included authority to define criminal law and to protect the health, safety, and welfare of their citizens," said O'Connor. However, according to the Coalition for Medical Marijuana-New Jersey, federal authorities argue that currently, "marijuana has no accepted medical uses in the U.S." At least, that was the response when Attorney General Paula Dow asked federal officials in April 2011, "their plans to punish New Jersey's Medicinal Marijuana Program participants." According to many patients with debilitating, terminal diseases, the use of marijuana aids in pain relief, appetite stimulation, etc., and therefore, should be legalized by the federal government. According to the Associated Press, an Oakland, California woman, suffering with scoliosis, says she was partially paralyzed until she was prescribed and began using marijuana for medicinal purposes.
In conclusion, as the United States slowly makes the transition to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes, controversy concerning the structure of the drug -- if it should be grown or manufactured and distributed, in order to control its use, will be among the issues that must be worked out between the "powers that be": the states, individually, and the federal government. The states and the federal government must also come to a conclusion on which will retain ultimate power to manufacture, distribute and ultimately control marijuana once it is legalized nationwide for medicinal purposes.
The nurse would need to explain the FOBT process along with what the results of this test would indicate. It would need to be explained that if the test were to come back positive then there would be a need to undergo diagnostic testing in order to determine what is really going on. The process of a colonoscopy would need to be explained in detail. The nurse would need to make sure that all of the tests and procedures were explained so that they patient could understand why the screening and testing was necessary and what their options are at every step of the way.
The ethical, legal and professional implications of providing this advice to the patient would lie in the fact that as a nurse a person has a reasonability to provide the best possible medical care to those who seek their services. This includes providing the correct…
Australia National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. (2009). Retrieved April 7, 2010, from Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing Web site:
co.uk 2001). Of those 1,795 reactions, "23 were fatal, 14 being actual suicides," the pressbox Web site reported. More than 200 of the "adverse reactions were psychiatric with 20 reports of suicidal thoughts of suicide attempts." Additionally, 80 reports of "depression" were logged and 13 reports of "mood swings."
The pressbox article stated that surprisingly, 74% of UK patients who had used Accutane "had mild or moderate acne according to a study among UK dermatologists." The MCA, through the article in pressbox, stated that Accutane "should only be used for severe recalcitrant cystic acne as a treatment of last resort."
Not all Accutane patients wind up depressed, psychotic or dead from suicide, of course, and Brandi Jones is one example of an Accutane success story. At least, she made it through six months of Accutane treatment, and now her skin is "mostly pimple-free" (Setoodeh, 2005), according to an article in…
The Accutane Lawyer (2004), "Accutane Side Effects, Accutane Lawsuit," [Online] Available at http://www.the-accutane-lawyer.com.
Acne-Rosacea.co.uk 2004, "Acne Treatments Page," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-rosacea.co.uk/Acne%20Treatments.htm .
Acne Resource Center 2004, "Understanding Acne," "Alternative Therapy Resources,"
The Potential Dangers of Prescription Medications," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-resource.org.
It seems sound to recommend that Adam stop taking Concerta, because it might aggravate underlying bipolar symptoms.
Strattera not stimulating, but it can have side effects, like prolonged erections, and it is also a fairly new drug. It should be prescribed with caution. It is still uncertain whether Adam's conduct disorders are due to his unstable home environment, and not due to any biological factors. Prescribing Strattera seems like a normal course of therapeutic action, but should not be regarded as a panacea.
If you were the clinician, counselor, or therapist, what would be the primary issue you would want to address?
To be diagnosed with ADHD, the individual should exhibit the symptoms in two environments, and Adam's behavior seems to primarily assert itself in the home. With support, he seems functional in school, and he is substantially less functional at home than at school or with his peers.…