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Cultural psychology concerns itself with the significant links or connections that there are between the psychology of individuals within a culture and their psychology. Cultural psychology emphasizes on the relevance of human behavior to understanding the psychology of the individual if only the sociocultural setting and context in which the behavior occurs. One good instance of this is the way religious views about extramarital activities shapes the behavior and the attitudes of the married people in a given religion or country.
In a nutshell, the cultural psychology concentrates on the whether, when and how people growing up in given cultures tend to internalize the culture. It tends to emphasize on the fact that the mental processes are the product of the interaction between an individual and a culture.
There is a wide variation in the way people live in different places, this variation may therefore dictate the human…
Shiraev, E.B. & Levy, D.A. (2010). Cross-cultural psychology: Critical thinking and contemporary applications (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn Bacon
Cross-Cultural Psychology in West Is West
Culture affects the psychology of an individual because it prescribes certain norms and values that affect the perceptions, attitudes and behaviors of an individual. Culture varies by geography and philosophical traditions. As technology makes geographical barriers irrelevant, people from diverse cultures are brought close together resulting in frequent interaction. An understanding of cross-cultural differences can help to make these interactions productive opportunities for personal and social development. The setting of the movie West is West during 1970s Britain and Pakistan has enabled archival data to be used for the purpose of analyzing cross-cultural differences between the East and the West in the movie.
The Movie: West is West
West is West is a British 2010 movie that illustrates the challenges of living in a culturally diverse family. The movie is about a British-Pakistani man trying to bridge the gap between his British life and…
Alleyne, Richard. "Britain's "me culture" making us depressed." The Telegraph. The Telegraph, 06, November 2009. Web. 15 Aug 2012. .
Bam-Hutchison, June. "Race, Faith, and UK Policy: a brief history." Institute for the Public Understanding of the Past. University of York, 2012. Web. 15 Aug 2012. .
Charsley, Katharine, Nicholas Van Hear, Michaela Benson, and Brooke Storer-Church. United Kingdom. Home Office. Marriage-related Migration to the UK. Bristol: University of Bristol, 2011. Print. .
Home Office. United Kingdom. Department for Communities and Local Government. Pakistani Muslim Community in England. London: Department for Communities and Local Government, 2009. Web. .
The practice attempts to explain how the human psyche is influenced by the diverse cultures around it, as well as how the common patterns which are shared between such diverse groups portray innate aspects of human nature. It aims to understand individual cultures and their differences from other cultures "to generate a more nearly universal psychology that will be valid for a broader range of cultures," (Berry et al. 1992:3). Within even a solid group there are isolated sub-groups. Cross-cultural psychology then examines how sub-groups can develop within a larger group. These different groups within a larger one represent the idea that each culture does have its differences, but that there are some shared elements; "Cross-cultural psychology may also be practiced within a given society by studying the contrasts between its dominant culture and subcultures," (Gale Group 2001:1). There are several developments within the field of cross-cultural psychology which have…
Berry, John W.; Poortinga, Ype H.; Segall, Marshall H.; & Dasen, Pierre R. (1992). Cross-cultural Psychology. Cambridge University Press.
Gale Group. (2001). Cross-cultural psychology. Encyclopedia of Psychology. Retrieved October 28, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0000/ai_2699000080/
Ratner, Carl. (2008). Cultural Psychology, Cross-Cultural Psychology, and Indigenous Psychology. Nova Science Publishers.
cross-cultural psychology can easily be applied to the field of graphic design. In fact, graphic designers can greatly improve their practice by incorporating cross-cultural psychology into their framework and philosophy. Aesthetics and design principles are culturally embedded. Likewise, the role and function of graphic design varies depending on cultural context. Norms, superstitions, and traditions all guide the way consumers will react to a graphic design product or image. Therefore, it is critical that at the organizational level, companies understand how to harmonize their graphic design departments with the principles of cross-cultural psychology. What works in one cultural context may not work at all in another, and might even offend somewhere else. In a globalized marketplace, the integration of graphic design with cross-cultural psychology becomes a business imperative.
Graphic designers need to take into account the psychological impact their work will have on an audience. Moreover, designers need to take into…
Tversky, B., Kugelmass, S. & Winter, A. (1991). Cross-cultural and developmental trends in graphic productions. Cognitive Psychology 23(4): 515-557.
cultural psychology and cross-cultural psychology are closely linked and interrelated, yet offer distinct methodologies permitting the most nuanced understanding of the diversity of human experiences. Cultural psychology generally uses the tools of ethnography and other anthropological methods when gathering data, and may also use case studies and other qualitative research as well. On the other hand, cross-cultural psychology applies quantitative measures that have been standardized, enabling a rigorous data set. When these two methods are combined, it is possible to better understand the experiences of individuals living in complex societies, particularly immigrant societies, multiracial communities, and communities that exhibit wide diversity in other demographic areas such as income or educational attainment. An ongoing research project in New Zealand called the Pacific Islands Family Study has provided a huge data set that researchers in multiple fields can access. Cross-cultural psychologists can use the Pacific Islands Family Study to test hypotheses like…
Borrows, W. et al. (2011). Pacific Islands family study: The association of infant health risk indicators. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 42(5): 699-724.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). What is cross-cultural psychology? About Education. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/branchesofpsycholog1/f/cross-cultural.htm
Praslova, L. (2008).Cross-cultural and cultural psychology: Are there curricular differences? Poster to be presented at the III International Conference on the Teaching of Psychology, July 12-16, St. Petersburg, Russia
Ratner, C. (2011). Cultural psychology and cross-cultural psychology. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture 2(1).
Internal and external customers are both considered important and their needs must be anticipated and satisfied in the most suitable manner. The decisions that the executive leader makes must be based on solid information. He must be aware of the consequences of his decisions. At the same time, he must have a long-term perspective and make the best choice even if at the beginning its consequences might seem negative.
A further competency that must be taken into consideration refers to the ability to efficaciously manage strategic resources including the human ones, the financial ones and the information ones. From this point-of-view, one needs to be updated with the technological development which are relevant for his work area. In addition, he must make sure that everything from the recruitment process to the selection and rewarding of the staff members is done in the manner which best serves the organization.
Executive Competencies, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: https://www.opm.gov/ses/ecq.asp
Executive management, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: http://www.govexec.com/features/0404-15/0404-15view.htm
Krishnan, R. (2002). Impact of gender on influence, power and authoritarianism, Women in management review, vol.17, 197-206
Leadership, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: http://www.leadershiplouisville.org/programs/network
To deal with these difficulties, several recommendations can be formulated:
1. Cross-cultural variables: Ethnic matches should be arranged between client and therapist. These will be effective in dealing not only with communication problems, but also with cultural perceptions of the disease as well as with possible social stigmas attached to the disease. The therapist, sharing similar cultural background to the patient understands the patient's concern and speaks the patient's language therefore is more able than another to 'pull' her through.
Other recommendations include items such as that Government should allocate more funding to establishing specific mental health treatments that are run by and appeal to the various ethnic minorities. In a similar manner, government should increase their funding for research and clinical training of ethnic and racial minority members (e.g. The minority Fellowship Program and the CO). Finally, general Mental health services should incorporate cross-cultural communication variables in…
Leong, F.T.L., & Lau, A.S.L. (2001). Barriers to providing effective mental health services to Asian-Americans. Mental Health Services Research, 3, 201 -- 214.
Leong, F.T.L., & Kalibatseva, Z. (2011) Cross-cultura Barriers to mental Health services in United States. Cerebrum. The DANA Foundation. http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=31364
Coss Cultual Moes and Values: Middle-Easten Ameicans, South Asian-Ameicans and Native Ameicans
No longe a melting pot but moe like a salad bowl, the United States has always been a land of immigants and its divese demogaphic composition today is a eflection of this pocess. In fact, just one goup, Native Ameicans, can be egaded as being the oiginal inhabitants, but anthopologists ague that even these people likely migated fom othe continents tens of thousands of yeas ago, making them immigants in a sense as well. Thee goups in paticula stand out in the Ameican demogaphic mix as being in need of thoughtful attention in coss-cultual counseling situations, namely Middle-Easten Ameicans, South Asian-Ameicans and Native Ameicans. To detemine what counselos need to know in ode to develop effective inteventions fo membes fom these thee goups, this pape povides a eview of the liteatue, followed by a summay of the eseach…
A study of Lumbee undergraduates. Journal of College Counseling, 9(1), 47-55.
South Asia countries. (2014). World Bank. Retrieved from http://web.worldbank.org/ .
Cross Cultural Psychology
Comparing cross-cultural approaches to psychology:
An ecocultural vs. An integrated approach
The need to take into account different cultural perspectives when treating patients has become increasingly recognized within the profession of psychology. Cross-cultural psychology, in contrast to other branches of psychology, allows that the definition of what is psychologically 'normal' is often highly dependent upon one's cultural context. Two similar, but slightly different approaches to cross-cultural psychology include the ecocultural model and the integrative model.
The ecocultural model, posits "that the individual cannot be separated from his or her environmental context. People constantly exchange messages with the environment, thus transforming it and themselves" (Chapter 1 summary, n.d). Someone acculturated in a nation other than the U.S. will show different developmental features than someone acculturated in America. The United States' culture supports a particularly long adolescence, and leaving home and beginning a family is no longer…
Chapter 1 summary. (n.d). Retrieved:
Trommsdorff, G. (2002). An eco-cultural and interpersonal relations approach to development over the life span. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 6 (2).1-15 Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=orpc
Cross-cultural comparison on work value between U.S. And China
A value is "what a person consciously or subconsciously desires, wants, or seeks to attain" (Locke, 1983). Peterson and Gonzalez (2005) say values "are motivational forces," and "influence the role work plays in people's lives." Dawis (2005) asserts that each person (P) has requirements that need to be met, most through their environments (E). In fact, Dawis claims that "Many of P's needs in adulthood can be met at work." The ones that matter most to P. are E's ability to deliver rein forcers (e.g., pay, prestige, and working conditions) that satisfy P's needs. Similarly, E has parallel and complementary requirements that can be met by P. And make P. A satisfactory worker. Thus, understanding work values has a benefit for both individuals (as they look for work environments that support their values), and also for organizations (if they…
Bernstein, Paul. (1997). American Work Values: Their Origin and Development. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Cappelli, P., Bassi, L., Katz, H., Knoke, D., Osterman, P. And Useem, M. (1997). Change at Work. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dawis, R.V. (2005). The Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. (Eds.) Career development and counselling: putting theory and research to work. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Farber, Henry S. (1997). "Changing Face of Job Loss in the United States, 1981-1995." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: Microeconomics: 55-128.
Krentzman and Townsend (2008) indicates that multicultural competence means "having the beliefs, knowledge, and skills necessary to work effectively with individuals different from one's self; that cultural competence includes all forms of difference; and that issues of social justice cannot be overlooked" (p. 7). Although improved cultural competency is widely regarded as being an important element of high quality health care services, it is not a "magic bullet" for mitigating existing inequities in the provision of such care (Larson & Ott, 2010). Nevertheless, developing cross-cultural competencies is viewed by many health care providers as an essential first step in improving access and the quality of health care services in Australia today (Sharma & Phillion, 2011). Therefore, in this context, the term "multicultural competence" is used to describe the relationship between a counselor and a patient in cross-cultural settings (An introduction to cultural competency, 2012). The focus of cultural competence is…
An introduction to cultural competency. (2012). Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Retrieved July 21, 2014 from https://www.racp.edu.au/index.cfm?objectid=FCBB0411 -
Hawley, L.D. (2006, Fall). Reflecting teams and microcounseling in beginning counselor training: Practice in collaboration. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 45(2), 198-202.
Cross Culture Psychology
Introduction into ST. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Jude hospital is one of the leading research hospitals helping to find ways of dealing with and managing childhood cancer (St. Jude Hospital, 2015). The Hospital has spent over 50 years in finding cures and helping children to live to adulthood. Their studies are an instrumental part in helping the survival rate of cancer grow from a low of 20% in 1962 to a high of 80% in the year 2015 (St. Jude Hospital, 2015). The main value proposition of the hospital is to "find cures and save children" (St. Jude Hospital, 2015).
Organizational Core Values
'Core values' are principles to guide an organization's actions and the actions of its employees. According to authors Porras and Collins, core values are inherent in the organization and can never be compromised. Core values are also made to reflect the values of an…
Lencioni, P. (2002, July). Make your values mean something. Retrieved from Harvard Business Review: https://hbr.org/2002/07/make-your-values-mean-something
St. Jude Hospital. (2015). About Us. Retrieved from https://www.stjude.org/?sc_cid=kwp93&ef_id=VS8mWQAAAF2sXQC5:20151030220421
St. Jude Hospital. (2015). Our History. Retrieved from https://www.stjude.org/about-st-jude/history.html
Complexities and Potential in Cross-Cultural Counseling
In 1897 the French sociologist Emile Durkheim wrote about the influence of culture on suicide rates among different groups. He found that while suicide seems to be the most private and most individualistic choice that a person can make (what could be more private than the dialogue that an individual has with eternity, after all) cultural values still hold sway. His research has been criticized over the decades, but its central point remains valid. Culture seeps into every level of both our conscious and unconscious behaviors, and therefore must be attended to in every aspect of the therapeutic process. However, while at least most therapists as well as most of those individuals studying to become therapists are certainly aware of this fact, this awareness does not necessarily translate into sufficient care taken to minimize the harm that cross-cultural misunderstandings or blindnesses that…
Bimrose, J. (1996). Multiculturalism, in Bayne, R., Horton, I. & Bimrose, J. (Eds.) New directions in counseling. London: Routledge.
Fouad, N. et al. (2012). Qualitative study of the dislocated working class. Journal of career development 39, 287-310.
LaFromboise, T., Trimble, J., & Mohatt, G. (1990). Counseling intervention and American Indian tradition: An integrative approach.The counseling psychologist 18(4), 628-654.
Jones, A.C. (1985). Psychological functioning in black Americans: A conceptual guide for use in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy 22 (2), 363-369.
cross-cultural values and mores to identify the author's interactions with gay, lesbian, and transgendered individuals, Latinas and individuals with disabilities. Further, this paper integrates the case study analyses provided in "Case Studies in Multicultural Counseling and Therapy" and relevant Social Justice Counseling issues to support the discussions. In addition, for each of these three cultures, a discussion concerning what factors should be kept in mind during interfaces with each so that all parties are honored to facilitate work with them as a therapist, colleague, social acquaintance, partner, and neighbor. Finally, an analysis concerning what was especially easy and fun and what was challenging to understand about these cultures given the author's unique worldview is followed by a summary of the research and important findings about these three cultures and cross-cultural values and mores in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Gay, Lesbian, and Transgendered Individuals
With growing numbers of states legalizing…
Beam, C. (2014). Is Hispanic the same thing as Latina? Slate. Retrieved from http://www.
Beecher, M.E. & Rabe, R.A. (2007, Spring). Practical guidelines for counseling students with disabilities. Journal of College Counseling, 7(1), 83-87.
Bess, J.A. & Stabb, S.D. (2009, July). The experiences of transgendered persons in psychotherapy: Voices and recommendations. Journal of Mental Health Counseling,
Cross Cultural Education
The information gathered was mostly from my grandparents and my parents. From the interviews conducted, I found out that my ancestors came to the United States in 1850. The main reason why they came to the United States is due to famine. According to information obtained, at the time, Ireland was facing a severe famine, owing to upsetting crop disasters. Due to lack of food for lengthy periods, my ancestors were left with no other option but to move to the United States. However, there are quite a number of challenges they faced upon arrival. To begin with, they had no expertise and no preceding experience in becoming accustomed to a new nation. In addition, they also faced the challenge of having no cash, minimal clothes and lack of education. Another distinctive challenge that they faced upon arrival to the United States was a great…
Colin, M., O'Dea, M. (2006). The Feckin' Book of Everything Irish. New York, Barnes & Noble.
Derderian-Aghajanian, A., & Wang, C. C. (2012). How culture affects on English language learners'(ELL's) outcomes, with Chinese and Middle Eastern Immigrant Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(5).
Frontline. (n.d). A Class Divided. PBS. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/class-divided/
McDonald, K. E., Keys, C. B., & Balcazar, F. E. (2007). Disability, race/ethnicity and gender: themes of cultural oppression, acts of individual resistance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39(1-2), 145-161.
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…
Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.
Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"
Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."
Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.
The Cognitive Perspective:
The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.
According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…
REFERENCES Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., Carson, R.C. (1984) Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…
Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf
Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading
Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
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Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016
Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health esearch with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99086817
Lewis, D. (1960). Quantitative Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9395983
Newman, I., & Benz, C.. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative esearch Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006987353
Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…
Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.
Geert Hofstede.com (2012). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com
Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.
Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.
An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…
references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.
Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.
Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.
Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.
Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.
cultural differences in today's world. Then explain two ways you might address those challenges in your professional life. Support your responses using current literature.
Challenges of diversity: Positives and negatives
Affirmative action embodies many of the paradoxes of the diversity of American society. On one hand, America has long proclaimed itself a land of freedom and equality. However, for many years, African-Americans and other minority groups were discriminated against, resulting in economic, educational, as well as political disenfranchisement. Affirmative action, or taking race into consideration to promote a more diverse environment in schools and in the workplace, is one way to create a fairer and more pluralistic society. It reflects the fact that persons who are privileged in America have historically come from specific races, classes, and ethnicities. However, many people believe that affirmative action's use of racial preference is, in effect, a form of discrimination itself. The courts have…
Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H.R. (2010). Social psychology. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
The Harvard Clinical and Translation Science Center (2009). Cultural Competence in Research. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from http://www.mfdp.med.harvard.edu/catalyst/publications/Cultural_Competence_Annotated_Bibliograp
Write Response to colleague's
The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.
The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:
Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?
My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…
Branine, M. (2011). Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practices. Sage.
Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence?. Business Horizons,51(5), 391-399.
De Bono, S., & Van Der Heijden, B. (2011). Managing cultural diversity. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Duncan, T. (2005). Current issues in the global hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(4), 359-366.
Review of Saudi Arabia
Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.
These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western…
Psychology -- Aspects of the Self
As a women, I have been intimately familiar with interdependency for the majority of my life. It is only in the last few years that I have embraced a level of independence that rivals that of the men I know. Triandis (1994) suggests that we draw on the interdependent and independent aspects of ourselves as we need to, but I suspect that these construals are also established by the moment-by-moment interactions we have with others. My independence is represented by the social roles that I adopt: I am a sister and a girlfriend. In these roles, I proceed from a relational construal. My actions are fundamentally considered to be my own, reflecting well or poorly on me -- not on my brother and not on my girlfriends. Similarly, my interdependency is reflected in my role as a daughter. Social and familial regard for me…
Kitayama, S., Marcus, H.R., Matsumoto, H., & Norasakkunkit, V. (1997). Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: self-enhancement in the United States and self -criticism in Japan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1245-1267.
Kuo, B.C.H., & Gingrich, L. (2004). Correlates of self-construals among Asian and Caucasian undergraduates in Canada: Cultural patterns and implications for counseling. Guidance and Counceling, 20, 78-88.
Triandis, H.C. (1994). Culture and social psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
Psychology and Culture
Lynn's parenting of her son takes an authoritarian approach to child-rearing. In her culture, parental authority is rarely questioned. Not only would she find support in her family, but she would also find support for her parenting decisions in the community and in the Cambodian interpretation of the Buddhist religion. One of the parenting practices that is acceptable in her culture is the use of physical punishment for children. Children are expected to be obedient in her culture and to listen, without argument, when a parent gives instructions. This obedience is part of the authoritarian approach to parenting. In addition, it is clear that she expects the child to conform to her standards. Despite the fact that the child was having a difficult day, she decided to go to the mall, which is reflective of the attitude that children should be obedient.
I think that this question…
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
The research into how young women perceive their own bodies -- in response to constant exposure to media images of un-naturally thin and extraordinarily beautiful females -- has been a popular topic for many years. But when it comes to male models that are nearly perfect, handsome and muscular in exactly the right places, there has not been as much attention or research. This paper reviews the potential of -- and reality of -- dissatisfaction in males based on the media's model images of males.
Body Image for Males -- Background
Annette La Greca is Professor of Psychology at the University of Miami and Gerald Koocher is the Dean of the School for Health Studies at Simmons College. As co-authors of The Parents' Guide to Psychological First Aid: Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Predictable Life Crises they assert that the research for body dissatisfaction among…
Cassell, Dana K, and Gleaves, David H. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating
Disorders, Third Edition. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Grogan, Sarah. (2007). Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women, and Children. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Koocher, Gerald P., and La Greca, Annette. (2010). The Parents' Guide to Psychological First
Upon meeting an individual, the first distinction observed is whether the person is male or female. More often than not, this first impression is made from what the individual is wearing, such as a man's suit or a woman's dress. However, sexual gender cannot always be assumed by what one is wearing.
Based on history and culture, people have been conditioned to visually assess whether an individual appears as they are expected, meaning, a woman looks like a woman and a man looks like a man based on how he or she is dressed (Lyons pp). "Dress is the most visible manifestation of gender and status because it provides information about an individual's characteristics and expected role behaviors," thus, establishing an social path for communication (Lyons pp). This process of gender appropriate dress begins at birth, as parents dress their children in "gender-symbolic dress that encourages other to…
Moulton, John L. III; Adams-Price, Carolyn E. "Homosexuality heterosexuality and cross-dressing: perceptions of gender discordant behavior."
Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Sept, 1997; pp.
Dugaw, Dianne. "Transgender Warriors: Making History from Joan of Arc to RuPaul." The Women's Review of Books; 4/1/1997; pp.
Psychology of Gender in usiness
Traditional gender roles have defined the business lives as well as the home lives of families and breadwinners for numerous generations. Certain expectations were put in place at what seems to be the dawn of time. The evolution of these decided obligations went on to shape the traditional family and the roster of the traditional workplace. Expansions and millenniums of progression in this historical framework then gave way to what the modern world still often considers gender specific job roles. Though, without question, this segregative and selective approach to the business world is surely archaic. Nevertheless, over the last decade or so there has been a revolution that is gaining steam in the business community. The idea of equality is becoming more and more popular among businesses and government agencies. Such powerful and influential entities have finally realized that the furthering and promotion of gender…
Adams, S.M., Gupta, A., Haughton, D.M., & Leeth, J.D. (2007). Gender Differences in CEO Compensation: Evidence from the U.S.A. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 22 (3), 208-224.
Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L.E. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris, France.
Blau, F.D., & Kahn, L.M. (2000). Gender Differences in Pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (4), 75-99.
Bowling, N.A., & Beehr, T.A. (2006). Workplace Harassment from the Victim's Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 998-1012.
The researchers found that the student's minimum performance rate correlated more closely with their IQ scores than any other single variable. High and low IQ scores were predicted on the basis of the worst performance (minimum recall) and the best performance (maximum recall). When compared, those that were predicted on the basis of the worst performance were more accurate, indicating that "worst performance reveals more about intelligence than best performance" (p. 9). The study was significant because it measured preparatory strategies which earlier research did not. It was also the first time the Worst Performance rule was tested on children rather than adults. The findings suggested "developmental invariance," that is, no difference between people of different ages. But this should be tested in a project that puts adults and children together and gives them the same task. The researcher points out that low-IQ participants sometimes do well, but they dip…
Coyle, T.R. (2001). IQ is related to the worst performance rule in a memory task involving children. Ablex Publishing Corporation, 29 (2), 117. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Hogan, R. (2002). Might outdoor education help develop intelligence? Outdoor Council of Australia, 6 (2), 2. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Holden, C. (2003). The practical benefits of general intelligence. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 299 (5604), 192. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Nunley, M. (1995). "The bell curve" too smooth to be true, 39 (1), 74. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from General OneFile database via Gale.
Hispanic psychology has allowed clinical researchers to study the unique complexities of the Hispanic experience. Among the cornerstones of Hispanic psychology include issues related to biculturalism, acculturation, the immigrant experience, racism, oppression, in-group/out-group relations, and identity construction. Hispanic psychology has both individual, behavioral-cognitive components, as well as social-psychological components.
This article is relevant to both the text and lecture material on ethnicity, identity, and psychology. Issues related to cultural competence, and the biases within the social science are also relevant. This article helps to remove cultural bias in the field of psychology in particular because instead of imposing culturally biased frameworks and paradigms, Hispanic psychology uses a culturally specific and relevant paradigm. Also, this article is relevant to specific lessons and readings on Hispanic culture. Hispanic culture is itself heterogeneous, and within the overall rubric of Hispanic culture there are many subsets of identity from Nicaraguan to Cuban.
Image 1: https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjHsLvG2aHQAhUWzWMKHYqyDfEQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dealerelite.net%2Fprofiles%2Fblogs%2Fa-recipe-for-connecting-hispanic-consumers-to-your-dealership&psig=AFQjCNG-EddH0a69-1l2n3tyhKXpbh9DOw&ust=1478987719707085
Image 2: https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http%3A%2F%2Fhispanic-marketing.com%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2014%2F06%2FGatorade-World-Cup-2014-Ad1-495x400.png&imgrefurl=http%3A%2F%2Fhispanic-marketing.com%2Fhispanic-culture%2F&docid=3sf5IC2qRhJNXM&tbnid=KIIetigIR8hY9M%3A&vet=1&w=495&h=400&safe=off&bih=676&biw=1191&ved=0ahUKEwi-m6Te2KHQAhUQ8GMKHSkQBIQQMwhxKDEwMQ&iact=mrc&uact=8
Padilla, A. M. (2002). Hispanic psychology: A 25-year retrospective look. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 3, Chapter 3), Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA.
Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…
An Ecological Approach
Community psychology uses an ecological or systems approach, recognizing that individuals are inseparable from their social networks and communities. According to Dalton, Elias & Wandersman (2012), community psychology also works with seven core values. Those values include individual and family wellness, a sense of community, respect for human diversity, social justice, empowerment and citizen participation, collaboration and community struggle, and empirical grounding. Thus, community psychology can be viewed as an interface between traditional individualistic psychology, sociology, and social work. Community psychology has been called a “common sense” approach given its broad focus on the ecological connections between individuals and their environments (Scileppi, Teed & Toerres, 1999, p. 1). Rather than focus only on individual variables, community psychologists take into account multiple dimensions and contextual constraints and influences on human behavior, identity, and relationships.
Using a systems or ecological approach also transforms the nature of the social scientist’s…
Nature vs. Nurture
To any decently educated or aware person, the "nature versus nurture" argument is nothing new. Something else that is not new is the idea that while there are arguments for both, there always seems to be one idea that is more prevalent and "true" than the others. Such is the case with the microcosm of "nature versus nurture" that is in play when it comes to the work of Patricia Greenfield. Her initial statements in a recent article are very much a framing of a "nature versus nurture" argument and then she provides her version of the answer. While some might disagree with what Ms. Greenfield has to say, it is fairly clear that she is rather spot-on in her analysis and decision when it comes to the subject in question.
The primary so-called battlefield of nature versus nurture that Ms. Greenfield approaches and talks about…
Gaynor, M. (2016). Genes, Depression, and Anxiety. Psychology Today. Retrieved 25 October 2016, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/your-genetic-destiny/201411/genes-depression-and-anxiety
Greenfield, P. (1997). YOU CAN'T TAKE IT WITH YOU: Why Ability Assessments Don't Cross Cultures.
ecdgroup.com. Retrieved 25 October 2016, from http://www.ecdgroup.com/download/ sa1yctii.pdf#search='cross%20cultural%20psychology%20and%20intelligence
ecruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity
The Effects of ecruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity
Maintaining cultural diversity in an organization can lead to innovation and an increased competitive advantage in the marketplace. In the past, the term cultural diversity referred to differences in race or religion. Now, the term cultural diversity means much more than that. As the uniqueness of each individual is recognized, the term cultural diversity has grown to encompass many factors about a person and their background. Cultural diversity is no longer delineated by major lines of color and national origin. This research will explore the effects of human resources on cultural diversity within an organization.
Cultural Diversity and the Workforce
acial diversity issues have increased in importance since the Civil ights Movement of 1964. It was recognized that white, Caucasian, males still constituted the majority in the workforce. Until that time, the select group was treated as…
Avery, D.R. & McKay, P.F. (2006). Target practice. An organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants. Personal Psychology.
Chrobot-Mason, D. & Leslie, J.B. (2003). The role of multicultural competence and emotional intelligence in managing diversity. 32 (3): 269-263.
Cox, T. (1993). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco,
CA: Berrett-Koehle Publishers, Inc.
Cross-Cultural Case Study
Definition and an example of cultural and cross-cultural psychology
elationship between cultural and cross-cultural psychology
The methodology associated with cross-cultural research
The case study helps better understand how ethnicity, race, and worldviews are separate yet related concepts and role of enculturation.
"Pacific Islands Families Study: The Association of Infant Health isk Indicators and Acculturation of Pacific Island Mothers Living in New Zealand" examines the associations between maternal acculturation which was measured by an abbreviated version of the General Ethnicity Questionnaire and selected infant and maternal health risk indicators. The study was conducted on 1,398 Pacific infants born in Auckland, New Zealand (Borrows, Williams, Schluter, Paterson & Langitoto Helu, 2010).
The study finds out that the families who had a strong alignment to Pacific culture were found to have a higher degree of better infant and mortality risk factor outcomes than the families which did not possess a…
Betts, K., & Bottomley, G. (1993). From Another Place: Migration and the Politics of Culture. International Migration Review, 27(4), 899. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2546925
Borrows, J., Williams, M., Schluter, P., Paterson, J., & Langitoto Helu, S. (2010). Pacific Islands Families Study: The Association of Infant Health Risk Indicators and Acculturation of Pacific Island Mothers Living in New Zealand. Journal Of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(5), 699-724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022110362750
C. C.,. (1996). Culture Health and Illness, Third Edition (Book). Sociol Health & Illness, 18(2), 290-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10935353
Connell, J. (2008). Niue: Embracing a Culture of Migration. Journal Of Ethnic And Migration Studies, 34(6), 1021-1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691830802211315
" (Ivin, 2005)
The notion of utilizing sevant leadeship to enhance team wokgoups to pefom such as in the case study scenaio is a contempoay viewpoint with empiical evidence to show thee is effectiveness in implementing this fom of leadeship within the oganizational development famewok.
Poblem solving within the oganizational hieachy is often elegated to job specific activity to which one may o may not actual solve the poblem inheently active in thei domain. Often, poblem solving becomes a function of the goup think to which individual identities in the poblem solving pocess ae meged into a collective membane fo joint analysis. The use of motivational methods (Dubin, 2004) to incease the motivation to poblem solve has yielded meitocatic oganizations that focus on delivey of pefomance above all othe vaiables.
Additionally, the use of meta-communication (Dubin, 2004) evolves aound impoving oganizational communication such as teamwok communication and infomal netwok communication.…
references. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(09631798), 315-315-337. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/199345870?accountid=13044
Irving, J.A. (2005). Servant leadership and the effectiveness of teams. Regent University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305356267?accountid=13044
Moliver, N. (2010). Psychological wellness, physical wellness, and subjective vitality in long-term yoginis over 45.Northcentral University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/506140189?accountid=13044
Petison, P. (2010). Intercultural communication and relationship marketing: A conceptual perspective. The Business Review, Cambridge, 16(2), 127-127-133. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/818338248?accountid=13044
More specifically, my goal as a student, for example, is to achieve grades that are as high as possible, which will determine the type of work I will be able to get in my future. As employee, I will strive to reward my employer's trust in me by delivering work of as high quality as possible. As family member, my goal is to spend enough time with those close to me to maintain my relationship with them. As citizen, my goals are to further the principles and values of my country by participating in public debate and politics. As human being, my goals are to make my best effort to help those in need of assistance and to be part of the interconnected network of humanity in such a way that life and peace are promoted.
My main motivators can be found in McClelland's acquired needs theory (CliffsNotes, n.d.). These…
Antariksa, Y. (n.d.). Selection Error. Retrieved from: http://www.explorehr.org/articles/Selection_+_Recruitment/Selection_Error.html
Bingham, a. And Spradin, D. (2011, Apr. 18). Introduction ot the Open Innovation Marketplace. Financial Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ftpress.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1697886&seqNum=4
Brown, K. (2009, Oct. 3). Unions -- Good or Bad? Retrieved from: http://klbrown1.blogspot.com/2009/10/disadvantages-of-labor-unions.html
CliffsNotes. (n.d.) Motivation Theories: Individual Needs. Retrieved from: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Motivation-Theories-Individual-Needs.topicArticleId-8944,articleId-8908.html
Cross Culture Catholic Case Study
The impacts of culture on a society can be measured in the collective behaviors that manifest from those who celebrate some sort of culture. Culture is a combination of many aspects, but in totality suggest a background environment of impulses and forces which lay out a pathway of behavior for an individuals. These pathologies are not healthy or unhealthy in themselves, but serve as backdrops or roles for humans to play and interact within society.
Cross cultural psychology aims to examine the impact of culture on mind behavior. The strength and efficiency in which organized religion plays within one's culture cannot be argued. The spiritual content of human beings cannot be denied and the aims of religion is to make sense of these spiritual urges and blend them within our total and whole being. Organized religion makes this very difficult in many aspects and the…
Plante, T.G. (1996). Catholic priests who sexually abuse minors: Why do we hear so much yet know so little?. Pastoral Psychology, 44(5), 305-310.
Terry, K.J. (2008). Stained Glass The Nature and Scope of Child Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(5), 549-569.
Terry, K.J., & Ackerman, A. (2008). Child Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church How Situational Crime Prevention Strategies Can Help Create Safe Environments. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(5), 643-657.
Social and Cultural Diversity
The U.S.A. is widely viewed as a unifying state in which immigrants are accommodated and assimilated into the largely 'white' dominant socio cultural structure. This principle has allowed the country to facilitate a friendly environment for the nation to sustain a pluralistic perspective. The immigrants retain and maintain their beliefs and ideals even as they adjust their lives to be practically functional in their new American society. Multicultural counseling has come up against three core challenges linked to such diversity. There is the culture, attitude and theoretical perspective; then there is the culture of the client and, finally the many variables naturally wound around individual characteristics (olton-rownlee, n.d.).
Oversimplifying the Client's Social asis: Application of universal categories is essential for our understanding of human experiences. However, if we lose sight of differences between individuals, it would lead to a range of ethical breaches. Clients are influenced…
ACA. (2014). 2014 ACA Code of Ethics. American Counselling Association.
Banks, J. A. (1996). Multicultural Education, Transformative Knowledge, and Action. New York: Teachers College Press.
Barnett, J., & Bivings, N. (n.d.). Culturally Sensitive Treatment and Ethical Practice. APA Divisions.
Bolton-Brownlee, A. (n.d.). Issues in Multicultural Counseling. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest. Retrieved from Eric Digests: http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-925/issues.htm
Art is processed in the brain, and neuropsychological principles show how. One of the prime examples showing the way art influences the brain is with the Mona Lisa. Da Vinci's painting is notable for the peculiar and ambiguous smile on the subject's face. There is "dynamism" in the smile, artist understood this and deliberately make optical illusion of sorts (Chakravarty 69). The illusion is a product of "imaginative thinking which involves frontal cortical activation in the viewer's brain coupled with activation of the motion area (area V5/MT) of the viewer's visual cortex," (Chakravarty 69). Thus, some viewers may perceive La Gioconda as smiling, and others may not.
Cave art proves that creative expression has always been a part of human history. As Dutton points out, the ancient Greeks were the first to recognize that art had a distinct psychological component. Art has functioned differently in different cultures…
"Behavior Genetics." Retrieved online: http://www.personalityresearch.org/bg.html
Chakravarty, Ambar. "Mona Lisa's Smile." Medical Hypotheses. Vol. 75, No. 1, July 2010, pp. 69-72.
Dutton, Dennis. "Aesthetics and Evolutionary Psychology." The Oxford Handbook for Aesthetics, edited by Jerrold Levinson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). Retrieved online: http://www.denisdutton.com/aesthetics_&_evolutionary_psychology.htm
Gallese, Vittorio. "Mirror Neurons and Art." Chapter 22. Retrieved online: http://old.unipr.it/arpa/mirror/pubs/pdffiles/Gallese/2010/bacci_melcher_22_2010.pdf
Delta Airlines is a U.S. airline that services primarily domestic routes, in addition to some routes between the U.S. and other countries. Because of restrictions in the airline industry, airlines are barred from servicing domestic routes in foreign countries. Thus, the U.S. is effectively closed to non-U.S. airlines for travel between American cities, and Delta cannot expand to routes that do not include an American city. The socio-cultural context for Delta is therefore almost entirely related to the American market.
For the airline industry, there is actually little difference in the relationship that consumers have with airlines. Airlines provide a service that is highly standardized the world over. Where there are consumer differnces, these are reflected in the service-price dimension primarily. In some countries, consumers prefer to pay more to get a better in-flight experience. This is true of the focus country in this report, Japan. In the United States,…
Bloom, N., Genakos, C., Sadun, R. & Van Reenen, J. (2012). Management practices across firms and countries. NBER Working Paper No. 17850.
Hamamura, T. (2012). Are cultures becoming individualistic? A cross-temporal comparison of individualism -- collectivism in the United States and Japan. Personality and Social Psychology Review. Vol. 16 (1) 3-24.
Hofstede, G. (2015). Japan. Geert-Hofstede.com Retrieved October 18, 2015 from http://geert-hofstede.com /japan.html
Hofstede, G. (2015). United States. Geert-Hofstede.com Retrieved October 18, 2015 from
Cultural differences acts as communication barrier and can affect my ability to motivate the group I lead and build connections. There are many ways to start understanding these differences and work with effectiveness with my group from different cultures. Learning how to work with co-workers and different teams from all over the world is important. Based upon Hofstede’s Six Dimensions, I would adapt my leadership approach in the below mentioned ways to lead a group if I were the CEO of a multinational organization. Hofstede’s Six Dimension works effectively with different groups of individuals from different geographical and cultural backgrounds. It is used internationally as a recognized standard for understanding differences in cultures. The six dimensions include; high verses low power distance index, individualism verses collectivism, masculinity verses femininity, high verses low uncertainty avoidance index, long term verses short term orientation and indulgence verses restraint (Hofstede, 2006).
Power distance index…
multicultural business environment, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimension provide an interesting framework by which to understand the management function. Hofstede proposed that there are five dimensions along which cultures differ -- power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, and time horizon. Managers today must understand each of these dimensions, because they closely relate to how well the workers in the company are going to respond to management challenges.
Since their inception, Hofstede's dimensions have come under scrutiny by the academic community, even though people in business have found them particularly useful to put intercultural interactions into their appropriate context. Hofstede (2011) himself notes that the dimensions are aggregate, and should not be placed on any given individual, because while some individuals more readily fit the dimensions, every individual is different and it is risky to assume that there is going to always be a perfect fit.…
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: the Hofstede model in context. Psychology and Culture. Article 8, retrieved April 24, 2014 from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014
Minkov, M. & Hofstede, G. (2011). The evolution of Hofstede's doctrine. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal. Vol. 18 (1) 10-20.
Taras, V., Kirkman, B. & Steel, P. (2014). Examining the impact of culture's consequences. University of North Carolina
Jones, R., Lyu, J., Runyan, R., Fairhurst, A., Kim, Y., Jolly, L. (2014). Cross cultural consensus: Development of the universal leadership model. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. Vol. 42 (4)
Adjustment to a new environment or culture with unfamiliar people is often marred by significant challenges, one of which is culture shock. Culture shock is the confusion and anxiety that arises when one is exposed to unfamiliar social surroundings that are noticeably different from their own (Anjalin, Mazumdar, & Whiteside, 2017). Students, expatriates, and business people who move from one culture to another are at risk of experiencing culture shock, and need to cope with the same to enhance their performance. This text outlines some of the coping strategies that an expatriate moving to a foreign country could adapt to manage culture shock.
An expatriate has received a promotion that requires him and his family to transfer to another country to run operations in that country. The country is not only third-world, but has different cultural norms and speaks a different language. It would be prudent to identify…
Anjalin, U., Mazumdar, A., & Whiteside, E. (2017). Asian Students’ Experience of Culture Shock and Coping Strategies. Journal of Education and Social Development, 1(1), 7-13.
Chen, M. (2019). The Impact of Expatriates’ Cross-Cultural Adjustment on Work Stress and Job Involvement in the High-Tech Industry. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1), doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02228
Kim, J., Suh, W., Kim, S., & Gopalan, H. (2012). Coping Strategies to Manage Acculturative Stress: Meaningful Activity, Participation, Social Support, and Positive Emotion among Korean Immigrant Adolescents in the USA. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Health and Well-Being, 7(1), doi: 10.3402/qhw.v7i0.18870
Rempel, J. N. (2011). Coping Strategies for culture Shock as Indicators of Cultural Identity. Anthro Journal. Retrieved from https://anthrojournal.binghamton.edu/wp-contentuploads/2011/05/COPING-STRATEGIES-FOR-CULTURE-SHOCK.pdf
Smith, A. (2019). Helping Expatriate Employees Deal with Culture Shock. Society of Human Resource Management (SHRM). Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/summer2019/pages/helping-expatriate-employees-deal-with-culture-shock.aspx
Cultural Diversity in Rural Settings for Nurses
On a continuum of cultural awareness to cultural relativity, how do you view yourself and your interactions with others?
As a nurse practitioner, it is easy to see the patient simply as a patient, as a sick person needing treatment, rather than a well person who perceives his or her body as only temporarily ill, but sees his or her person as permanently a part of a family and culture outside of the hospital. As Small and Dennis (2003) counsel, the increase in immigration has resulted in greater diversity of both patients and practitioners within the United States, rather than in traditional urban locations. Thus Small and Dennis remind the nurse that it is not simply enough to treat the patient, but the patient must also understand his or her illness in culturally comprehensible terms. A nurse must be able to communicate to…
Dennis, Betty Pierce & Ernestine B. Small. (Jan-Feb, 2003) "Incorporating cultural diversity in nursing care: an action plan" The ABNF Journal.
"New Position Statement Originated by: Council on Cultural Diversity in Nursing Practice, Congress of Nursing." (1996) Adopted by: ANA Board of Directors.
cultural diversity issue of non-American employees communicating frequently in their own native language creating an environment of sensitivity and bias amongst the non-Hispanic community.
Handling Diversity in an Organization
The contents of this paper focus on the cultural diversity involving Films ecovery Systems, an American company located at the heart of Chicago, Illinois. The paper takes an insight into the issue and also proposes solutions that can resolve the problem. The most important aspect of the paper is that it takes into account the material we find and read in books and compares to what degree the literature is actually applicable in real life situations.
The study of public administration includes a spectrum of many disciplines, which include psychology, sociology, philosophy and also management sciences. Even though, the nature of public administration does not conveniently classify its elements into components, public administration is primarily categorized to highlight the…
Leaders are Learned Optimists - The CLEMMER Group Management
Consulting, available at http://www.clemmer.net/excerpts/leaders_learned.shtml accessed on: March 31, 2004
Robert Bacal, Conflict Prevention In The Workplace, available at http://www.work911.com/products/i-coop.htm , accessed on March 31, 2004
QSM Consulting - Leadership Driving Change, available at http://www.qsmconsulting.com/lds/index.shtml, accessed on: March 31, 2004
Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities
One might originally think it odd to approach a question about the experienced childhood development of minorities by opening a discussion of the children who will grow to be sexual and gender-identity minorities. Unlike most other minorities, these children are not generally being raised in a minority culture and family, and do not have the immediate support of their own race or culture about them to help prepare them for life as a minority. So in some ways, this is actually the ideal place to start such a discussion, because in this area one has unmitigated access to the experience of being a minority on the child's development, without the sheltering environment that surrounds other minorities. These children will, a majority of the time, emerge from the crucible of childhood as homosexual or possibly bisexual adults. A few more will go on to actually have…
ACPM. "Report XX of the Council on Scientific Affairs." American College of Preventive Medicine. http://www.acpm.org/pol_compNOTPOLICYbullying.htm
GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER IN YOUNG PEOPLE. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2000), vol.6,pp. 458-466, http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/gidyp.html
Mermaids. "Newspaper Archive http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/newarch.html
psychological research there a thousands of pressing questions, yet among all those questions one rises to the top of the list. In the area of family psychology and family therapy the question of the psychological affects of domestic violence on children has been hotly debated and eternally researched, yet many questions remain unanswered. These questions are pressing as the institution of family in our culture evolves and emerges as an entirely different social dynamic than existed even twenty years ago. The psychological effects of violence, in the family upon children are vast and will probably always need further address.
Many families garner a different definition as more and more family units are head primarily by one parent and many families combine to become families consisting of several members who are related only by law, rather than by genetics. These trends began many years ago but continue to change the face…
Breggin, P.R. (2000). Reclaiming Our Children: A Healing Solution for a Nation in Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Cummings, E.M., El-sheikh, M., Cummings, E.M., & El-sheikh, M. (1991). 7 Children's Coping with Angry Environments: A Process-Oriented Approach. In Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Perspectives on Stress and Coping, Cummings, E.M., Greene, a.L., & Karraker, K.H. (Eds.) (pp. 131-147). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dakof, G.A. (1996). Meaning and Measurement of Family: Comment on Gorman-Smith Et Al. (1996). Journal of Family Psychology, 10(2), 142-146.
Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P.H., Zelli, a., & Huesmann, L.R. (1996). The Relation of Family Functioning to Violence Among Inner-City Minority Youths. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(2), 115-129.
Introduction and Theory
Cognitive psychology is an area of scientific research that explores the human mental processes and their impact on human behavior. Using cognitive psychology, researchers can study a variety of subjects including how people perceive the world, how those perceptions impact behavior, and how both emotions and thoughts influence behavior. The article "Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain injury" uses a cognitive psychology perspective to study behavioral responses and changes in persons who have experienced a traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury is associated with social isolation and withdrawal, which in turn leads to depression and other serious mental health issues. For this reason, it is important to study ways to mitigate the tendency toward social withdrawal. Because Facebook can be used to connect with people in a non-threatening way, from the safety of one's own home, the…
Tsaousides, T., Matsuzawa, Y. & Lebowitz, M. (2011). Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 25(12): 1155-1162.
As one might expect, cultural psychology is no different. The author of this brief report has been asked to consider a brief case study and example from the cultural psychology field. Specifically, the author has been asked to go to a grocery store or restaurant that is different than one's own culture. Concurrent and primary to that will be a review of an article that is relevant to the field and example given above. Included in that would be items such as the narrative of the article, the methods and samples used, the reporting/findings delivered, the relevance to the class and a few other things. While it would be optimal to be a "fly on the wall" in areas of different cultures, there is the recognition and reaction that reflects that one is not of that culture, even if it is subtle.
The author of this report, as part…
Cartwright, L. (2016). Cultural considerations when working with Mexicans. human-kinetics.
Retrieved 24 October 2016, from http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/ cultural-considerations-when-working-with-mexicans
Mendoza, R. (1989). An Empirical Scale to Measure Type and Degree of Acculturation in Mexican-American Adolescents and Adults. Journal Of Cross-Cultural Psychology,
20(4), 372-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022189204003
Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment
Intelligence assessments have existed since the early twentieth century and have continued to be a topic of debate. We all know full well that intelligence assessment is critical to the type if academic success that we achieve in life. One of the primary tools used to assess intelligence is the IQ test. However, the intelligence quotient test has been under scrutiny for decades because it is believed to harbor culturally biased precepts.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the cultural bias' that exist in intelligence quotient testing. We will begin with a literary review which will start by explaining the definition of cultural bias in testing and the historical implications. We will explain the origins of the IQ test and the reasons why the cultural bias exist. Our discussion will then focus on how cultural bias in intelligence assessment has produced historical implications.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132.
Enriching the Focus on ethnicity and race. (1998). APA Monitor. VOLUME 29, NUMBER 3 - March 1998 www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=95784671
Alexander, K.L. (1997). Public Schools and the Public Good. Social Forces, 76(1), 1-30.
The implication of this hypothesis, and research into the subject in general, shows that test outcomes do reflect at least in part cultural factors. There are "cultural differences in valued and therefore trained strategies to solve certain cognitive tasks" as well (Ibid). That these differences have been identified within cognitive science illustrates that cultural bias does not simply reflect differences in cognitive potential among members of certain groups, but rather that it reflects differences in the ways that cognitive potential is operationalized.
Shiraev and Levy (n.d.) argue this case further. They cite research that shows that people adapt the way that they operationalize their intelligence to their local setting. They cite the examples of an Indian chess master, who uses the same psychological mechanisms in playing chess as a farmer would use to secure a deal on a new tractor. The example is apt -- chess-like problem solving strategies are…
Malda, M.; van de Vijver, F. & Temane, Q. (2010). Rugby vs. soccer in South Africa: Content familiarity contributes to cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores. Intelligence. Vol. 38 (6) 582-595.
Shiraev, E. & Levy, D. (no date). Cross-cultural psychology: Critical thinking and contemporary applications, fourth edition.
Desciptive statistics wee used to summaize data. The esults evealed that paticipants had stonge positive feelings about the wods that wee in yellow vs. The same wods that wee in bown. The wods in bown aveaged a "4," so the espondents still ecognized the wod as somewhat positive. Both males and females scoed the yellows similaly, and males scoed the bown highe than gils.
The esults of this study suggest that wods ead online o in pint have diffeent emotional esponses based moe on the colo of the wod than they do on the wod itself.
This efes back to the Jones (1997) and Gacia and Bohle (1986) studies noted above who wee analyzing business maketing and communication emotional esponses on vaious audiences.
They found that mateials in colo bette gabbed the attention of the eades/viewes when in colo vs. black and white. Thei studies wee concened only with…
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Clore, G.L., Ortony, a., & Foss, M.A. (1987). The psychological foundations of the affective lexicon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 751-766.
Hemphill M (1996) a note on adults' color-emotion associations. J Genet Psychol.157(3):275-80.
Hupka Ralph B, Zbigniew, Zaleski, Jurgen Otto, Lucy Reidl and Nadia V. Tarabrina the colors of anger, envy, fear, and jealousy: a cross-cultural study. Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology 28.(2)156-162
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Whether the rejecter's brain functions differ was not studied in their research, but in the future merging neurobiology with cultural psychology would yield even more fruitful results about the extent to which our culture does and does not produce specific responses in terms of how we think and act.
Delude, Cathryn (2008).Culture influences brain function, study shows. MIT News.
etrieved October 9, 2011 at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2008/psychology-0111.html
Fischer, onald & Shalom Schwartz. (2011). Whence differences in value priorities?:
individual, cultural, or artifactual sources. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Hofstede, Geert. (2001). Culture's Consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA.
Leung, Angela K.-Y. & Dov Cohen. (2011). Within- and between-culture variation: Individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100 (3): 507 -- 526.
Nauert, . (2010). Cultural environment influences brain function. Psych Central. etrieved on…
Delude, Cathryn (2008).Culture influences brain function, study shows. MIT News.
Retrieved October 9, 2011 at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2008/psychology-0111.html
Fischer, Ronald & Shalom Schwartz. (2011). Whence differences in value priorities?:
individual, cultural, or artifactual sources. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent usually has saved enough money through life insurance scheme and retirement savings to cater for himself after retirement. hen the child is grown, there is no dependence between the parents and children. Traits like hard work and honesty are encouraged towards children to ensure their survival in different societies when he grows up. In some cases when the parent is too weak and old to look after himself, he is taken to a home for the elderly since none of his children is available to take care of him (Stewart et al. 580).
The other model of family model is the model of psychological or emotional interdependence. In this model, the children are of less material help to the family. Parenting,…
Chou, K.L. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, pp 161-169, 2000.
Jose, P.E., Huntsinger, C.S., Huntsinger, P.R. & Liaw, F-R. Parental values and practices relevant to young children's social development in Taiwan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, pp 677-702, 2000.
Misra, G., & Agarwal, R. The meaning of achievement: Implications for a cross-cultural theory of achievement motivation, from a different perspective: Studies of behavior across cultures, Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger, pp 250-266. 1985.
Phalet, K. & Schonpflug, U. Intergenerational transmission of collectivism and achievement values in two acculturation contexts: the case of Turkish families in Germany and Turkish and Moroccan families in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol 32, pp 186-201, 2001.
"Critically evaluate the usefulness of rational decision-making for managers when making strategic choices"
Characteristics of strategic decisions
Long-term survival of the organization
Scope of organization activities
esources and competences / Competitive advantage
Then strategy is concerned with the strategic fit to the external environment
Power in the organization - The expectations and worth of powerful agents in and around the company
Strategy as ational decision making
Improvement in strategic decision making
Involvement of different stakeholders
Organization should have focus and flexibility
Organization should learn the strategy
Strategic management is the process of determining clear objectives of the company, and evaluation of internal and external environment in order to form a strategy solution, implement it, assess the progression, and make adjustments accordingly. In this report we will discuss the usefulness of rationale decision making for managers while making…
Bazer. M 2006, 'Judgement in Managerial decision making', Ed. 6th, New York, Publisher, Wiley.
Bontempo, R., Lobel, S. & Triandis. H 1990, 'Compliance and value internalization in Brazil & the U.S. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology', 20, pp., 200-213
Cooke, S & Slack, N 1991, 'Making Management Decisions', Ed. 2nd, Publisher, Prentice Hall.
David Hunger & Thoman L.Wheelen 2010, 'Strategic Management and business policy' Ed.12th, Saint Peterburg, Florida, Publisher, Prentice Hall.
Lifespan development is a field of study that involves growth patterns stability and change in one's behavior in the whole stretch of life. The definition does not fully capture the intricate process of the study. The study employs scientific approaches to establish these trends. We need a close examination of the elements of the definition above. In examining stability, growth and change, lifespan development checks the assumptions about the course and nature of the development of a human being. This is a scientific way of establishing the facts in the study. Scientists evolve development theories and apply systematic scientific methods to establish the exactness of these assumptions. The focus of the studies is the development of human beings (FLDNMC, 2010).Lifespan Development scientists select a topical area of focus and consider the age range of study. The span normally spreads out in broad age range segments. These segments include…
Adolescence. (n.d.). Pearson Highered. Retrieved from:https://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/020559526X.pdf
Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (2007). Life Span Theory in Developmental Psychology. In Handbook of Child Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0111/abstract
Chand, S. (2013). How to Adapt CBT for Older Adults? Current Psychiatry, 12(3), 10-15.
Cooper, J., Masi, R., & Vick, J. (2009). Social-emotional Development in Early Childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty.