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CSI Effect & Changes in Public Perception
In the 21st century, from the average person to the media expert or professional, people are aware of the affects media has on culture. In the late 20th century, it was very popular for experts to blame certain kinds of music and certain kinds of film and television programming for the increasing acts of violence perpetuated by youth in America and around the world. Media Studies is a respected and reputed academic discipline. Media Studies is the science by which scholars and artists prove and demonstrate the variety of ways in which media affects perception. Film, television, and media in general affect the consuming public in various ways. Film and television can open audiences to new perspectives or inspire their imaginations. Film and television also fully retain the power to affect consuming audiences and other communities in a negative or unintentionally harmful ways.…
Bergslien, Elisa. "Teaching to Avoid the 'CSI Effect' -- Keeping the Science in Forensic Science." Journal of Chemical Education, Volume 83, Number 5, 2006. Web:
Podlas, Kimberlianne. "The CSI Effect': Exposing the Media Myth." Fordham Intellectual Property, Media, and Entertainment Law Journal, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 428 -- 465. University of North Carolina, Greensboro, The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2005.
Roane, Kit R. "The CSI Effect -- On TV it's all slam-dunk evidence and quick convictions. Now juries expect the same thing -- and that's a big problem." U.S. News & World Report, Web.
CSI and eality TV effects
Media has been used fro quite a long time to influence the perspective of the public. This was a major tool that was employed during the cold war to influence the perspective of nations towards the west with the view that those that inclined to the western countries enjoyed a relatively higher sense of freedom.
It is still a large debate whether the CSI and such like programs as well as the reality shows do influence the way the police conduct their daily official duties. William Nadeau Esq (2010) notes that, a significant number of police officers do watch such shows when they are off duty and in their spare time. He says that it thrills them to see a criminal being caught and even beaten up in these reality shows. This is just about all that the police and other law enforcing agents gain…
Veronica Stinson et.al (2007). The CSI Effect: Reflections from Police and Forensic
Investigators. The Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services. Vol.5, Issue ae Fall/Winter 2007. Retrieved November 17, 2011 from http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~mpatry/Stinsonetal07.pdf
William Nadeau Esq (2010). Do TV police dramas affect the way real police and criminals operate? . Retrieved November 17, 2011 from http://www.helium.com/items/1720577-police-dramma-influence-rules
The American justice system today is set up in such a way that no criminal can be convicted if reasonable doubt exists regarding the crime. This is particularly important when considering severe crimes such as murder or grand theft. A recent phenomenon that has created a stir in courtrooms, and especially among prosecutors, is the so-called "CSI Effect," which means that a public constantly bombarded by shows such as CSI and the like tend to harbor unrealistic expectations about evidence presented in criminal cases. Furthermore, these same viewers tend to acquit criminals that should be charged for their crimes. In this regard, Donald Shelton's article, "The CSI Effect: Does it really exist?" highlights several important elements, the most important of which is that there have not been any academic studies to investigate the severity of this concern. Furthermore, the article suggests that, while the CSI effect itself is…
CSI Effect and Public Perception
Forensic science is an umbrella term that includes a number of techniques designed to answer scientific questions within a legal environment. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries this may include the collection of trace elements from a crime scene, analysis and reconstruction of bones and/or faces, use of teeth to identify remains, crime scene analysis and one of the most popular for the media -- DNA typing. Essentially, forensics is a discipline which uses standardized techniques to pull apart an event, analyze what happened, and find a more accurate conclusion to the data analysis than just witness testimony. For centuries, lacking even rudimentary techniques like fingerprinting or blood type analysis, the legal system relied on confessions and witness testimony. We may turn to Ancient Greece for one of the first recorded examples of a type of forensic inquiry. In the anecdote…
Archimedes' Principle. (2004, January). Retrieved from Physics.Weber.edu: http://www.physics.weber.edu/carroll/Archimedes/principle.htm
Police Chief Criticizes Forensic Courses. (2003, December 10). Retrieved from BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/3307089.stm
Barak, G. (2007). Battleground: criminal justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bible, S. (June 14, 2012). CSI Crime Scene is the most Watched TV Show. TV By the Numbers. Retrieved from: http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2012/06/14/csi-crime-scene-investigation-is-the-most-watched-show-in-the-world-2/138212/
CSI, and its offshoots, CSI: Miami, and CSI: New York are popular American television dramas. The premier of the show was in 2000, and since then, interest in forensics, forensic science, and criminal justice in general has increased noticeably. The effects are evident not only in the United States, but also in other countries. In one university in the United Kingdom, forensic science is now the number one major on campus with 400 students enrolled -- up from just four in 1999, which is the year prior to the airing of the first CSI episode. Clearly, the media is having a major impact on the ways the general public perceives crime, crime investigations, and the procedures of criminal justice.
In the television show, there are a lot of different characters who play different roles in the Las Vegas Police Department. None of the main characters are police officers or lawyers,…
Gildea, J. (n.d.). America falls for the 'CSI Effect'" The Daily Cardinal. Retrieved online: http://truthinjustice.org/CSI-effect.htm
Layton, J. (n.d.). How Crime Scene Investigation Works. Retrieved online: http://science.howstuffworks.com/csi6.htm
Podlas, K. (2007). The 'CSI Effect' and other forensic fictions. 27 Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. 87 (2006-2007)
Reagan, B. (2009). CSI myths: The shaky science behind forensics. Popular Mechanics. Dec 17, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/health/a4535/4325774/
Baldwin (2006) outlines the two major paths by which a person can become a crime scene investigator either through law enforcement or as a civilian. Approaching CSI work as a law enforcement official provides increased job prospects, notes Baldwin (2006) because few law enforcement agencies need full-time civilian crime scene specialists. Still, the wide range of CSI positions means that either civilian or law enforcement crime scene investigators will be called on to help solve crimes. As Layton (nd) points out, no two crime scenes are alike. Therefore, no two crime scenes demand the same approach using the same array of CSI specialists.
Crime scene investigation is not limited to murders. All types of crimes ranging from simple property crime or robberies to aggravated assault to rape are all scenes that demand the presence of crime scene investigators. As Baldwin points out in an autobiographical account of the life of…
Baldwin, H.B. (nd). "Becoming a Crime Scene Investigator." Retrieved Feb 27, 2008 at http://www.feinc.net/csi.htm
Baldwin, H.B. (nd). Crime scene processing protocol. Retrieved Feb 27, 2008 from v
Baldwin, H.B. (2006). How to become a CSI. International Crime Scene Investigators Association. Retrieved Feb 27, 2008 at http://www.icsia.org/faq.html
Becoming a Crime Scene Investigator." (2008). Retrieved Feb 27, 2008 at http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/ becomeone.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
CSI Effect in Criminal Forensics
It has long been suspected that the scenes, stories and situations people are exposed to through the medium of television can eventually distort their view of reality. Phenomena such as the desensitization to violence exhibited by children who watch hours of cartoon combat daily, or the shifting sense of body image experienced by women who only see slim, attractive models on screen serve to confirm the suspicion that television can alter one's perception of the real world. Although these effects are undoubtedly disconcerting on a personal level, another consequence of televised media's pervasiveness in modern society has recently emerged, and with it a series of serious implications for the criminal justice system. Dubbed the "CSI Effect" by increasingly incredulous prosecuting attorneys across America, a disturbing trend has developed within courtrooms in all corners of the country. According to proponents of the CSI Effect, Americans serving…
McRoberts, F., Mills, S., & Possley, M. (2005, June 05). Fact or fiction? The jury is still out on the csi effect; a tv-inspired interest in forensics has left the courtroom vulnerable to junk science. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2005-06 -
Schweitzer, N.J., & Saks, M.J. (2006). The CSI Effect: Popular Fiction about Forensic Science
Affects the Public's Expectations about Real Forensic Science. Jurimetrics, 47, 357.
Blood evidence collection and sampling has always been an important topic. The subject has been idealized and glamorized by entertainment shows like CSI and others. However, the field is not as easy and basic as it may seem and the field is indeed complex and a large amount of work that absolutely has to be done right the first time so as to preserve convictions and other legal events or standards. The attached documents will look into scholarly articles relating to blood sample evidence and the field at large. What the data means for the wider criminal justice and scientific communities will also be summarized.
Blood evidence has become more and more of a prominent facet of crime investigations that in any way involved blood. This can include the form of blood splatter patterns, whose blood is where in general, how blood does or does not place people…
Becue, A.A., Moret, S.S., Champod, C.C., & Margot, P.P. (2011). Use of stains to detect fingermarks. Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 86(3), 140-160.
Giardino, E., & Drake, S. (2010). Blood Secrets: Chronicles of a Crime Scene
Reconstructionist. On The Edge, 16(3), 1.
The may differ considerably. In fact smaller agencies may not require a degree, while a degree will usually be required with larger metropolitan agencies. (How to become a CSI)
In conclusion, a central aspect that research into this field reveals is that Crime Scene investigation differs considerably from the popular media presentations. CSI is a complex sector of criminal law enforcement and is characterized by the input form various specializations and disciplines. It is also usually a very time-consuming process. The CSI officer or team have to be extremely competent in terms of communication, liaison and organization in order to successfully coordinate these various specializations and provide insight and knowledge into the actual events surrounding the crime scene.
Forensic Odontologist. Retrieved September 3, 2008, at http://www.kilvington.vic.edu.au/cyber/forensic/Odontologist.htm www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108726206
Horswell, J. (2004). The Practice of Crime Scene Investigation. oca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from Questia database:…
Forensic Odontologist. Retrieved September 3, 2008, at http://www.kilvington.vic.edu.au/cyber/forensic/Odontologist.htm www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108726206
Horswell, J. (2004). The Practice of Crime Scene Investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108726208
Horswell, J., & Fowler, C. (2004). Associative Evidence - the Locard Exchange Principle. In the Practice of Crime Scene Investigation (pp. 45-55). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108726282
How to become a CSI. The International Crime Scene Investigators Association. Retrieved September 3, 2008, at http://www.icsia.org/faq.html
Social Issues (CSI) topic that was selected by the author. That topic, to be specific, is the impact of immigration from Mexico on women in the United States including implications related to the Mexican border crossing as well as the women's justice center. The impacts to women are multi-dimensional and actually end up impacting both citizens of the United States as well as the legal and illegal immigrants that come to the United States either from or through Mexico.
As noted in the introduction, the impacts to women as it relates to immigration at the Mexican border are very multi-dimensional and are actually quite disparate and similar at the same time depending on how one looks at it. Legal and illegal immigrant women face challenges because they often come across the border with their partner and/or their children. Other times, they cohabitate or even marry an American spouse and have…
CSAC. (2013, July 30). California Dream Act. CSAC California Student Aid Commission. Retrieved July 30, 2013, from http://www.csac.ca.gov/dream_act.asp
Mascaro, L. (2013, July 23). House GOP reconsiders Dream Act idea for young immigrants - latimes.com. Los Angeles Times - California, national and world news - latimes.com. Retrieved July 30, 2013, from http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-immigration-kids-20130724,0,1230382.story
crime scenes in this case. What are they?
The first scene can be called the trap and stop scene, starting from the point at which the raiders driving the car with the faulty light lured the lorry into slowing down by posing as a party in need of help. When the lorry slowed, the drivers of the 4x4 cut off the lorry and purposely caused the accident and the full stop. At this point, the lorry itself becomes a primary crime scene both in terms of the assault and later, during the hijacking and larceny.
The second scene takes place in the field as Philip and Alison are separated and kidnapped. There are actually three fields of evidence and thus three individual crimes scenes under the same rubric: the 4x4, the vehicle with the broken taillight, and the exterior surrounding areas. Philip was placed in the 4x4 and Alison in…
Television and film script writers have gained from crime and courtroom proceedings for many years. The use of the courtroom as a drama channel has significantly changed in the recent years among media options. The use of the courtroom as the basic source of drama action among these media houses has increased and changed focus from sheer creative imagination to real life cases. Indeed, many courtroom dramas today are based on real life cases. There is an increasing thin line between reality and drama. TV shows such as American Justice, 48 hours Mystery and Dateline NBC present dramas that are based on real life cases, with heavy editing and incorporating narration for the dramatic effect, of the original details but the storyline is retained. Irrespective of the nature; whether the courtroom dramas are pure fiction or edited versions of the real, most courtroom dramas today make use of new science…
CSI Profile: Investigating the Crime Scene
Given the proximity of the time of death to the neighbor's call, a 'hot search' would be deployed. This means that the search would be conducted with the assumption that the perpetrator of the crime might still be on the premises. Although there was no information or eyewitness accounts about the individual possibly lurking in the bushes or lingering in the area, the possibility that he (or she) might still be presents warrants caution ("Crime scene search and processing," 2015). Once it has been determined the scene is safe, then the investigators can begin to take the necessary photographs. "Photographs should be taken as soon as possible, to depict the scene as it is observed before anything is handled, moved, or initiated into the scene" ("Crime scene search and processing," 2015).
The first photographs involve panoramic-type shots of the whole crime scene ("Snapping up…
Crime scene response for police officer. (2006). Police Magazine. Retrieved from:
Crime scene search and processing. (2015). Texas Association of Police Explorers. Retrieved from: http://www.co.wise.tx.us/constable/Downloads/Crime%20Scene%20Search%20and%20Processing.pdf
Schiro, G. (2015). Collection and preservation of evidence. Crime Scene Investigator.
This places a significant burden upon the labs and the forensic experts that prosecutors depend on to produce forensic evidence. The article explains that there is a serious problem associated with crime lab ethics, which has been heightened in recent years. The article asserts that many crime labs have been cited for sloppy procedures and producing erroneous evidence (Morrison and Roane, 2005). The fact that crime labs are not required to be accredited adds to the problem because there are not any standard procedures that govern the management of the labs. Under new laws all federally funded crime labs will have to be accredited by 2006 but currently 30% of the federally funded crime labs do not have any accredidation (Morrison and Roane, 2005).
The article also reports that many experts such as crime lab technicians, coroners, forensic anthropologists and police chemists have been fired for presenting erroneous evidence in…
Botluk, D., Mitchell B. 2005. "Getting a Grip on the 'CSI Effect': The National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law at Stetson University College of Law. http://www.llrx.com/features/csieffect.htm
Morrison D., Roane K.R. (2005) The CSI Effect.. U.S. News. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/050425/25csi.htm
Prosecutors feel the CSI Effect. February 10, 2005. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/02/10/eveningnews/main670360.shtml
Rincon, P. (2005). CSI shows give "unrealistic view." BBC News. Retrieved August 13 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4284335.stm
DNC Forensics Workgroup Planning
It is the duty of this committee to set up sufficient security and forensic measures, while still ensuring "that the event continues safely and at the same time respect Constitutional rights, including freedom of speech and assembly" (Connors, 2007). Because of the highly controversy own nature of politics in the United States today, this will be a calculated effort. Undoubtedly, there will be issues with law enforcement dealing with protesters. The forensics task force must then be fully equipped to investigate any crimes committed sufficiently to produce evidence that can convict individuals later in a court of law.
To get started, it is important to understand what agencies are per feeding and how they will need to contribute their services at the time of the event. For planning purposes, it is important to set these responsibilities as early as possible to ensure that those responsible for…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling yourself the truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to help people change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
It has been observed that architecture is a discipline with its own 'language' just like any other type of vocational subculture. ith this in mind, all prospective architects, indeed, anyone who might be involved in the construction of the building (engineers and plumbers alike) should be familiar with MasterFormat. The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) publishes the MasterFormat "the standard that is used most often for formatting construction specifications" ("MasterFormat Specifications Divisions," Arch Tool Box, 2013). ithout having such a 'common language,' all persons involved in construction would not have the ability to be on the same page when merging the artistic and practical needs of a structure. Having a common language can improve the speed at which a project can be constructed, always a critical component of building.
Critics of the use of the MasterFormat have noted that it has been a financial boon for the CSI, given…
"009 Techniques -- Blueprints." Carnation Construction. [23 Sept 2013]
"About BIM." Graphisoft. [23 Sept 2013]
The Sprint PCS address all kinds of customer categories.
This fact is shown by the product's commercial also. In the ad, the people participating in the successful wireless emailing are representative for all age groups, genders, they seem to have different professions, different levels of education, different types of jobs.
Their appearance also reveals the diversity of the targeted customers. The commercial shows business managers, wearing suits, pensioners, housewives, students, young professionals wearing casual outfits and hairstyles. The mentor of the program is portrayed by a woman around 50 years of age, helping the participants in the program with information and guidance, in a casual, funny way.
Therefore, it is easy to derive from the product's commercial that basically anyone can use the product, that anyone can find important use for the product. Also, given the fact that people are more and more oriented to include the Internet in most…
1. Milestone Events Making Sprint History (2009). Sprint. Retrieved October 31, 2009 from http://www.sprint.com/companyinfo/history/ .
2. Lambert, David (2009). CSI: NY: The 5th Season Formally Announced: Street Date, Specs and Cover Art. Retrieved November 1, 2009 from http://www.tvshowsondvd.com/news/CSI-NY-Season-5/12203.
3. Steinberg, Brian (2009). TV Advertising. Advertising Age. Retrieved November 1, 2009 from http://adage.com/article?article_id=139923 .
4. Product Strategies (2009). Learn Marketing. Retrieved November 1, 2009 from http://learnmarketing.net/product.htm .
(Steamboats, incidentally, did even better.)
Due to the heavy emphasis on steam transportation, especially by rail the government was better equipped to man and supply vast areas of the nation in combat. The train also traveled at a far greater speed than other more traditional forms of transport, as much as 5 times faster than the mule-drawn wagons of the day. Therefore fewer vehicles were needed and supplies and people arrived in far better condition than they had in the past.
Troops traveling by train rather than on foot experienced less fatigue and fewer instances of straggling and desertion, even though the freight cars used for most troop movements were anything but comfortable. Supplies hauled by rail were more likely to reach the troops in useable condition, owing both to the speed of delivery and to the shelter afforded by enclosed railroad cars.
There are countless examples of the alterations…
Basler, Roy P., ed. Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1946.
Black, Robert C. The Railroads of the Confederacy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Fite, Emerson David. Social and Industrial Conditions in the North during the Civil War. Williamstown, MA: Corner House, 1976.
Gable, Dr. Christopher R. "Railroad Generalship: Foundations of Civil War Strategy " at http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/gabel4/gabel4.asp
Coral reefs began declining when more and more large fish, turtles and seals were killed, species which in the past had frequented coral reef systems. The "reduced visits" have led to a reduced number of herbivorous fish and "added nutrients from pollution" all of which result in seaweed overgrowth and destruction of the reef (Houlder, 2003).
Methods for Addressing Over fishing
The government has encouraged many fisheries and local agents to develop strategic plans for combating the problem of deep sea over fishing. In particular much attention has been spent on an 'ecosystem' approach to fishery management which is adaptive, geographically specified and works to balance diverse objectives (Shotton, 2003). An ecosystem approach aims at "conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems and the fishery resource" (Shotton, 2003).
Longlines can be weighted so that bait sinks faster, and hooks can be set at night, thus reducing the impacts on…
Clarke, T. (September, 2003). "North sea fish have shrunk." Nature Science - European
Cetacean Bycatch Campaign. 1, December 2004: http://www.eurocbc.org/northsea_number_small_fish_increased_due_to_overfishing_25sept2003page1290.html
CSI. "Destructive Fishing Practices." Conservation Science Institute. 1, December, 2004 from: http://www.conservationinstitute.org/destructivefishingpractices.htm
Dayton, P.K., Thrush, S.F., Agardy, M.T., & Hofman, R.J. (1995). "Environmental effects of marine fishing." Aquatic Conservation 5: 205-32
"The goal is for counselors to be able to move to any state" and yet not face tedious new licensure application processes.
The second issue is medical insurance reimbursement: according to the Minnesota Board of Behavioral Health and Therapy, there has been a great deal of "anger and frustration" and confusion over whether or not licensed professional counselors will be (or are now) able to be recognized as eligible for medical assistance (MA) reimbursement. This is a problem that is not unique to Minnesota, but in fact boards across the country are dealing with MA reimbursement issues. In the case of the Minnesota board, rumors have been circulating that insurance companies are not credentialing professional counselors; but the truth is, most insurance companies will indeed issue credentials to those professionals recognized as Mental Health Professionals under applicable state and federal laws. It may mean extra effort on the part of…
All Psychology Schools. (2006). Become a Psychologist: Psychology Careers, Psychology
Degrees: Common Q & a. Retrieved 11 Feb. 2007 at http://www.allpsychologyschools.com/faqs/becoming.php .
American Association of State Counseling Boards. (2006). Counselor Portability. Retrieved 12 Feb. 2007 at http://www.aascb.org .
Chi Sigma Iota. (2006). Principles and Practices of Leadership Excellence. Retrieved 11 Feb. 2007 at http://www.csi-net.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=79.
Regardless, "it is sensible to extend the scope of the mapping exercise to include those habitats which most strongly resemble the habitat of interest…By incorporating those habitats which are most likely to create misclassifications and errors in the habitat maps, the accuracy of the mapping objective can be determined" (Mumby 2009). Comparing the images of known habitat areas, to see if the images are distinct, lends greater credence to the portrait generated of the area as a whole. Sensors can be used to map both geomorphological zones and more broadly-defined ecological habitats.
Properly executed, with the use of 'control' groupings and 'ground-truthing,' the technology can be highly effective. "The number of ground-truthing sites required per habitat is difficult to quantify and depends on the size of the area and distribution (i.e. complexity) of habitats: smaller study areas and areas of relatively uniform habitat (e.g. sand banks) require less ground-truthing. For…
Edwards, A. "Part 1: Remote Sensing for Coastal Managers An Introduction."
From Remote Sensing Handbook for Tropical Coastal Management. Edited by Edmund P. Green, Peter J. Mumby, Alasdair J. Edwards, & Christopher D. Clark
January 9, 2010. http://www.unesco.org/csi/pub/source/rs.htm
Mumby, P., E. Green, A. Edwards, & C. Clark. "Cost-effectiveness of Remote Sensing for Coastal Management." From Remote Sensing Handbook for Tropical Coastal
In 1996 Westinghouse/CS bought Infinity radio broadcasting and outdoor advertising group for $4.7 billion, a deal that was largely the result of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The Telecommunications Act heavily deregulated the media industry and allowed a company to significantly increase the amount radio stations it could own. In 1997, Viacom dealt its educational, professional and reference publishing businesses to Pearson for $4.6 billion, and retains Simon & Schuster. In 1999, CS bought King World Productions, the leading television program syndicator at that time, for $2.5 billion. On September 7, 1999, Viacom and CS announced their merger, a $50 billion deal. This was the largest media merger of that era, which came one-month after the FCC approved duopolies. Under this merger, the new Viacom had 33 television stations, eclipsing the FCC's 35% ownership cap. This cap was based on the amount of stations one company owns that reach 35%…
America Online. (2005). AOL.com. Retrieved October 2, 2005 at http://www.corp.aol.com/ .
Bloomberg News. (2005). Viacom Explains Slip into Units. Retrieved October 4, 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com /2005/01/06/business/media/06viacom.html.
Columbia Journalism Review. (2005). Viacom Corporate Timeline. Retrieved October 1, 2005 at http://www.cjr.org/tools/owners/viacom-timeline.asp .
Goldsmith, J. (2005). Viacom Looks to the Future. Retrieved October 4, 2005 at http://www.variety.com/article/ur1117929452?cs=1&5=h&p=0 .
Ngo Dinh Diem
orn in the year 1901 to an aristocratic family, Ngo Dinh Diem rose to become the Prime Minister of South Vietnam in the year 1954. This paper looks in detail at the events during the life of Ngo Dinh Diem, his era of governance and the events that took place in the aftermath of his assassination. Catholic missionaries converted his predecessors into Christianity several years back in the 17th century. Much like his pervious family generations, he too was educated in French Catholic schools. Following his successful graduation he was trained as an administrator who worked in conjunction with the French authorities based in Vietnam. At a very young age of twenty-five, he became a provincial governor. This was his foray into a long political career, which marked dramatic incidents both in his personal life and the history of Vietnam.
At a time when communism was rising…
Diem, Ngo Diem' Retrieved at http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/bios/29.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Ngo Dinh Diem - Encarta: An Encyclopedia Article' Retrieved at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576219/Ngo_Dinh_Diem.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Colby's Vietnam: History Misrepresented' Retrieved at http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54/099.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Letter to John F. Kennedy' Retrieved at http://pages.xtn.net/~wingman/docs/lettdiem.htm Accessed on April 5, 2004
The MdTA Police and the Office of Security (and thus the private security personnel under its supervision) are the extent of the state's commitment in terms of securing the port, aside from the Maryland Area Maritime Security Committee, which works to coordinate the efforts of the MdTA and Office of Security with the relevant federal agencies.
On the federal level, regular port security is handled by the United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP), while threat response and emergencies involves the U.S. Coast Guard. CBP is responsible for maintaining and disseminating examination standards and procedures, and in recent years has placed a special emphasis on cargo container examinations with its program the Container Security Initiative (CSI) (U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012). The CSI program has three core elements geared towards identifying and stopping threats in cargo containers: "identify high-risk containers […] prescreen and evaluate containers before they are shipped…
Department of homeland security. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm
Maryland department of transportation: Port administration. (2012). Retrieved from http://mpa.maryland.gov/content/port-security.php
United States coast guard. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.uscg.mil/
US customs and border protection. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cbp.gov/
She had been struck several times in the head with a Toney Penna golf club -- so ferociously that the club had shattered into multiple pieces -- and then stabbed in the neck with the broken shaft the club's handle and part of the shaft had vanished. (Kennedy Jr., 2003, Martha Moxley section, ¶ 1)
From evidence retrieved from the autopsy, police determined Moxley's murder occurred at approximately10:00 P.M..
On July 10, 1998, 23 years after Moxley's murder, "Connecticut authorities convened a one-man grand jury consisting of Judge George Thim. The state's attorney Jonathan Benedict took over the Moxley case and began a multimillion-dollar effort to convict Michael Skakel" (Kennedy Jr., 2003, Mark Fuhrman section, ¶ 5). Until this time, Greenwich police and state investigators considered Ken Littleton as the primary suspect for the murder of Moxley (Fuhrman, cited in Kennedy Jr., Mark Fuhrman section, ¶ 7). According to prosecutors'…
Caldwell, Lori. (2004, June 8). Post-Tribune. Gun missing as evidence, so Gary man acquitted. Post-Tribune (in). Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research database.
Givens, Ann. (2006). Evidence bungled?: Blood work in DWI death trial might have been mishandled, according to testimony of troopers, others. Newsday (Melville, NY). McClatchy-Tribune Information Services. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research database.
Caldwell, Lori. (2004, June 8). Post-Tribune. "Gun missing as evidence, so Gary man acquitted." Post-Tribune (in). 2004. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research: www.highbeam.com/doc/1N11032253A4EBD8A1C.html
Complete coverage: Limo crash. (2008). Retrieved November 20, 2008 at http://www.newsday.com/news/local/longisland/ny-licrashsg,0,390101.storygallery?coll=ny-linews-headlines
Appoximately one in six students enolled in a college o univesity, o ove 3 million individuals, paticipated in one o moe online couse in 2004. This was despite the fact that a leveling off was expected.
Anothe epot fo 2005 by Sloan showed that 850,000 moe students took distance couses in the fall this yea than 2004, an incease of nealy 40%. Once again the slowing o leveling did not come. Many seconday schools ae putting consideable esouces towad online leaning, in expectation that this appoach will be moe economical than taditional classes and also expanding thei each.
In addition, a suvey by the consulting and eseach fim Eduventues found 50% of the consumes who planned to enoll in a highe education pogam stated they would instead like to take some of thei couses online. About 80% of online students ae undegaduates, but ae nomally olde and moe apt to…
references when there is a contingency change. The relative response strength is changed by differential reinforcement of alternative courses of action. It is then that behaviors change. It is possible to conclude that adult students' observations about educational technology will change when the contingencies toward participation are strengthened. The clientele of higher education, its students, now enroll in college with expectations of learning about and to learn with technology (Green 1999).
How students deal with change and their ability to accept it has much to do with their observed satisfaction of the course that implements the most up-to-date technologies.
Merriam and Caffarella (1991) say that the more that is known about adult learners and the changes they go through and how these changes motivate and interact with learning, the better educators will be able to develop learning experiences that respond and stimulate development. This is an essential factor in adult learning and requires additional research regarding the implications for quality educational programs. This present research acknowledges the influence of the adult learners' attitudes and observations toward change. However, so that the emphasis remains on learning styles, no data will be collected to measure change in attitudes and perspectives.
Tools for Measuring Distance Education Courses
It is essential that there is an evaluation of educational curricula to determine what is and is not efficient in relationship to learning style. Technological courses have altered the evaluation process due to the additional factors of equipment, cost and knowledge of using technology. It is critical to keep in mind, however, that educators control technology, since technology is only one of many different tools. Technology is easy to assess; one knows immediately if an software does not work. It is necessary for instructors to spend more time considering the educational experience that they want to create and what is not working properly in terms of education results. Are students interested and engaged? Are they communicating with one another? Do they find the information challenging and productive? Are they receiving enough feedback from the instructor? Ultimately, an effective evaluation tool will help the teacher recognize if the conditions for quality learning are present or need improving and that the instructors and students feel their use of technology was considerably helpful.
Cousin Vinny and American Criminal Justice
The 1992 film My Cousin Vinny starring Joe Pesci and Marisa Tomei is a typical Hollywood foray into the realm of jurisprudence. So comical and seemingly realistic is the film (it takes place in the South -- where the unexpected nature of the backwoods setting gives the fish-out-of-water antics of Pesci's Gambini a convincing legitimacy) that one is willing to believe that it actually gives accurate representation of the criminal justice system and the court process in America. This paper will compare and contrast My Cousin Vinny with the actual American criminal justice system and court process, showing where the two meet and where (as in all Hollywood fare) they eventually depart.
The Film in eality
In reality, it may be noted that even the United States is using My Cousin Vinny as a guide when it comes to justice and jurisprudence -- at…
Alshamsa, B. (2010). The U.S.A. uses My Cousin Vinny & CSI: Las Vegas as foundations for Afghan Judicial Procedures. My Private Casbah. Retrieved from http://bintalshamsa.blogspot.com/2010/03/usa-uses-my-cousin-vinny-csi-las-vegas.html
Bergman, P., Asimow, M. (2006). Reel Justice: The Courtroom Goes to the Movies.
Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel.
My Cousin Vinny cited by 7th Cir. (2009). LawofCriminalDefense.com. Retrieved from http://lawofcriminaldefense.com/blog/index.php?blog=1&title=my_cousin_vinny_cited_by_7th_cir&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1
Sources of Information for a Porters Five Forces Analysis on Kraft Foods
To undertake a Porters Five Forces analysis it is necessary to identify potential sources of information that will give the required information. The Five Forces analysis will require an assessment of the five areas; degree of rivalry among competitors, threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of customers, and availability of substitutes. This process can be examined by looking at the sources which may be used for a Porters Five Forces analysis of Kraft Foods, a firm that competes in the food industry. Each of the forces will be considered separately.
Degree of rivalry among competitors
Source 1; CSI Market; UL is http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KFT
This is a very useful web site which has the primary aim of providing information to potential investors. The page on Kraft Foods is particularly useful in assessing the firm's position…
Baertlein, L, (2014, Sept 30), Kraft challenged by "healthier" macaroni and cheese brands, didReuters, accessed at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/30/us-kraft-macandcheese-idUSBREA2T09C20140330
CSI Market (2014), Kraft accessed at http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KRFT on 7th Sept 2014
Food and Drug Administration, (2004), accessed at http://www.fda.gov/Food / on 7th September 2014
K-Mart, (2014), accessed at http://www.kmart.com/en_us/grocery-pet.html on 7th Sept 2014
Kraft Foods' Competitive Strategy
Kraft Foods is a one of North America's largest packaged food companies. To reach its current competitive position the organization is changed to great deal of the last decade, with increased focus on the core products, and the sale or spin-off of the non-core divisions, for example the sale of the frozen pizza division 2010 to Nestle, and in 2012 the demerger of Mondel-z International (Kraft Foods, 2014). This has left the company with a high level of focus in selected product categories and North American markets. The shift in the company's focus has impacted on the way in which they compete, but despite this change narrowing of focus, the organization still be seen as one which serves the mass market, with some type of Kraft Food product 90% of all households in the United States, 99% of all households in Canada (Kraft Foods, 2014).
CSI Market, (2014), Kraft Foods, accessed at http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KRFT
Kotler Philip; Keller Kevin, (2011), Marketing Management, Prentice Hall
Kraft Foods (2014), Home Page, accessed at http://www.kraftfoodsgroup.com
Kraft Foods, (2014) 10=k, accessed at http://ir.kraftfoodsgroup.com/secfiling.cfm?filingID=1545158-14-3&CIK=1545158
After September 11th, President ush authorized the use of water boarding, as a way to gain knowledge of terrorist groups and their activities. The problem is that many of the civil rights-based groups believe that this is in violation of American law. When the people, who are interrogated (terrorists), are not American citizens and they want to do as much harm to the country as possible. Given the fact that these individuals, are more than likely hard core terrorists and posses knowledge about imminent terrorist activities, meant that the this technique would be utilized to obtain information. Even though this was successful and was used on limited number of people, the press and Congress continued to debate the issue. (Froomkin, 2010) This is troubling, because it undermines the activities of U.S. intelligence officials (who are trying to protect the nation). As they are inserted into a game of political chicken,…
Congressional Reports. (2004). Go Access to Congress. Retrieved from: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/intel_reform.html
Five Bombshells from Wiki Leaks Iraq War Documents. (2010). Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2010/1022/Five-bombshells-from-WikiLeaks-Iraq-war-documents/Details-of-torture-and-abuse
Key Provisions. (2004). CNN. Retrieved from: http://articles.cnn.com/2004-12-08/politics/intelligence.key.facts_1_civil-liberties-board-intelligence-reform-bill-number-of-detention-beds?_s=PM:ALLPOLITICS
Overall U.S. Intelligence Budget Tops $80 Billion. (2010). LA Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.latimes.com/2010/oct/28/nation/la-na-intel-budget-20101029
The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.
The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the 2004 enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…
Baranovsky, Vladimir. "Russia: A Part of Europe or Apart from Europe?" International Affairs Vol. 76, No. 3, Europe: Where Does it Begin and End?. (Jul., 2000), pp. 443-458.
BBC. "EU-Russia relations 'at low ebb'." BBC News. 20 April 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6574615.stm (accessed 13 December 2007)
Emerson, Michael, and Irina Kobrinskaya. "Russia and the West." Working Paper 2004. European Security Forum. Center for European Policy Studies. International Institute for Strategic Studies.
European Commission. "EU-Russia: Preparations for the Summit on 26 October." European Parliament. Strasbourg, 24 October, 2007. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/653&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (accessed 13 December 2007)
hile some in the intelligence community may have resented the intrusion of Congress and calls for transparency, the investigations and oversight gave the CIA and the intelligence community a stronger moral footing in the U.S. democracy (DeYoung and Pincus). In a nation in which freedom and open-ness are core values, the continuance of an intelligence community that operates outside of those bounds and values is ethically unacceptable. The long-term health of the intelligence community in the nation was predicated on those Congressional investigations of the 1970s, which successfully infused the U.S. intelligence community with some degree of a "conscience."
DeYoung, Karen and Pincus, alter. "CIA Releases Files on Past Misdeeds." ashington Post 27 June 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/26/AR2007062600861.html.
Van agenen, James S. "A Review of Congressional Oversight." Central Intelligence Agency. 14 Apr. 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/wagenen.html.
DeYoung, Karen and Pincus, Walter. "CIA Releases Files on Past Misdeeds." Washington Post 27 June 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/26/AR2007062600861.html .
Van Wagenen, James S. "A Review of Congressional Oversight." Central Intelligence Agency. 14 Apr. 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/wagenen.html .
They did not have any problems fighting with their enemies that had inferior technologies but when the United States came into the picture, Japan saw itself fighting not only a technologically superior enemy but one with information / intelligence gathering capabilities unbeknownst of in previous warfare history. In addition, Japan indeed woke up a "sleeping dragon" that not only was capable of evening the battlefield but mobilizing all efforts to withstand Japan's aggression in the pacific theatre of operations.
The Pacific war provided a venue to demonstrate the technological and information superiority of the United States against the Japanese Imperial forces. The use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the ultimate proof of these abilities but the deployment and utilization thereof could never have been possible without the people behind the invention, manufacturing, production, and implementation of these advanced military technologies and information superiority. Thus, it has…
Advameg, Inc. (2011). Science and technology -- World War II and the early Cold War. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/O-W/Science-and-Technology-World-war-ii-and-the-early-cold-war.html
Grunden, W.E. (2005). Secret weapons and World War II: Japan in the shadow of big science. Wichita, KS: University Press of Kansas.
Harper, M.M., Jeffries, J.W., Tuttle, W.M. Jr., Lichtenstein, N., & Sitkoff, H. (2007, October). World War II and the American home front: A National Historic Landmarks theme study. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/nhl/themes/HomefrontStudy.pdf
Mercado, S. (2009, January 7). "Book review: Nisei linguists: Japanese-Americans in the military intelligence service during World War II by James C. McNaughton." Intelligence in Recent public literature. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol-52-no-4/nisei-linguists.html
The German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 is perhaps one of the most crucial turning points of World War II, as hubris of Adolf Hitler and the German high command was rewarded with an unexpected defeat. Code-named Operation Barbarossa, after a medieval German ruler, the German invasion was doomed from the start, based as it was upon a number of assumptions regarding the Soviet ability to repel an attack and the estimated length of the operation. By examining the immediate context of Barbarossa as well as the planning and outcome of the operation, one is able to see how the catastrophic German defeat in the Soviet Union set the stage for the Nazi's eventual downfall.
The plans for Operation Barbarossa were first drawn up in February of 1941, but Hitler's desire to invade ussia had been made clear years before, such that one may view Barbarossa…
Dziewanowski, M.K. (1994). Polish intelligence during world war II: The case of barbarossa.
East European Quarterly, 28(3), 381-381.
Hooker, R.D., J. (1999). "The world will hold its breath": Reinterpreting operation barbarossa.
Parameters, 29(1), 150-150-164.
Then after Homer disappeared, she gave china painting lessons until a new generation lost interest, and then "The front door closed...remained closed for good" (Faulkner pp). Emily's depression caused her to become a recluse.
All three female protagonists are so dominated by male authority figures that their loneliness leads to severe depression, which in turn leads to madness, then eventually acts of violence. None of the women have active control of their lives, however, each in their own way makes a desperate attempt to take action, to seek a type of redemption for the misery and humiliation they have endured by the male figures in their lives.
Curry, Renee R. "Gender and authorial limitation in Faulkner's 'A Rose for Emily.'" The Mississippi Quarterly. June 22, 1994. Retrieved July 28, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Faulkner, illiam. "A Rose for Emily." Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~drbr/wf_rose.html…
Curry, Renee R. "Gender and authorial limitation in Faulkner's 'A Rose for Emily.'" The Mississippi Quarterly. June 22, 1994. Retrieved July 28, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily." Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~drbr/wf_rose.html
Gilman1, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper (1899)." Retrieved July 29, 2005 at http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/wallpaper.html
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "Why I Wrote The Yellow Wallpaper" 1913. Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/whyyw.html
North America into Sub-Regions
By total area, the United States is the world's third largest country, with landscape that varies from temperate forestland and rolling hills on the East coast, mangrove in Florida, the Great Plains in the center of the country, the Mississippi and Missouri river system, the Great Lakes which are shared with Canada, the Rocky Mountains west of the plains, the deserts and temperate coastal zones west of the Rocky Mountains, the temperate rain forests in the Pacific Northwest, and the tundra of Alaska (United). Canada, the second largest country in the world, occupies the northern half of the North American continent, and is divided into six regions, the Pacific Coast, the Interior Plains, the Canadian Shield, the St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachian Region, and the Arctic Lowlands (Geographic). The majority of the regions of both countries tend to correspond with one another. Aside from the South…
Canadian Shield. Retrieved November 05, 2005 from:
Exterior Form of North America. Retrieved November 05, 2005 from:
There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include the two-way radio used in police cars to help the officers to multiply their productivity in responding to and dealing with incidents. Police agencies across the nation are obtaining new technology that is developed to lessen response time and speed of information dissemination. The use of these efforts has helped in improving patrol function and capitalizes on the impact of community policing programs.
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement elationships:
The relationships between intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security organizations at the federal, state, and local level have continued to experience a revolution since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Before these terrorist attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created the wall at the federal level between law enforcement and intelligence. Furthermore, none of…
Foster, R.E. (n.d.). History of Police Technology. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.police-technology.net/id59.html
Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-than-lethal Weapons. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html
Schmidt, M.S. & Goldstein, J. (2012, April 9). The Dangers of Police Work. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.professionalsecurityarkansas.com/cms/the-dangers-of-police-work/
Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Center for the Study of Intelligence, 53(3). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Consumer perspectives on the emerging culture of consumption in Singapore
The consumption style of consumers alludes to the mental approach or orientation a purchaser has towards settling on decisions. Although purchaser choice making style depicts a consistent trend of affective and cognitive responses, national culture has been demonstrated to have an effect on individual attitudes and values. In this way, culture has a noteworthy impact on consumption trend in Singapore (Mooij & Mooij, 2011). This study will embrace buyer research into consumption styles to improve comprehension of how culture shapes consumption trends across Singapore. Primarily, this study will evaluate and confirm to the identified Singaporean culture. Minimal research analyzes cultural factors shaping buyer decision making. There is confirmation of cultural aspects in the purchaser's styles of making choices for fashion although no study has covered if this impact extends to the purchase of general…
Gelfand, M.J., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (2011). Advances in culture and psychology: Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mooij, M.K., & Mooij, M.K. (2011). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Recognition of Delirium: Literature Review
The objective of this study is to conduct a review of the literature on the assessment and recognition of delirium. The study, which follows reviews literature, related to the recognition of delirium in older patients by nurses and examines the variations of recognition of delirium by nurses as it relates to their own personal views of age and aging related symptoms.
Devline et al. (2013)
There are few data in existence relating to the current assessment practices used by nurses for delirium. (Devline, et al., 2013, p.555) Delirium is reported to be characterized by "an acutely changing or fluctuating mental status, inattention, disorganized thinking and altered level of consciousness." (Devline, et al., 2013, p.556) Devline et al. (2013) additionally reports that while it is believed by many that patients with delirium are hyperactive they are in fact more likely to be hypoactive or have a…
Inouye, S. et al., (2001) Nurses' Recognition of Delirium, and Its Symptoms: Comparison of Nurse and Researcher Ratings. Arch Intern Med. 161-2467-2473.
McCarthy, MC (2003) Detecting Acute Confusion in Older Adults: Comparing Clinical Reasoning of Nurses Working in Acute, Long-Term, and Community Health Care Environments. Research in Nursing & Health. 2003, 25, 203-212.
Ramaswamy, R. et al. (1993) Beyond Grand Rounds: A Comprehensive and Sequential Intervention to Improve Identification of Delirium.
Tabet, N. et al. (2005) An educational intervention can prevent delirium on acute medical wards. Age and Ageing 2005; 34: 152 -- 156.
Seaports Vulnerability to Submersible Vessels
All countries of the world are struggling hard to provide peace to its residents and masses. After all the efforts and struggle, countries are still not completely safe from the dangerous attacks on the borders including dry ports and seaports. In America, it is a severe issue to understand how to secure and protect the seaports of the country. The topic of discussion is also related to the protection of seaports of the country from different types of attacks such as nuclear attacks and submersible vessels (Jaffee and Russell 1997).
It is very important to understand all the seaports security issues and then suggest roadmap for protection policies development as well as its implementation immediately. There are three large seaports in America such as Los Angeles, Long Beach, and Oakland. These are the largest seaports of America and these ports are most vulnerable to…
Chalk, Peter, Bruce Hoffman, Robert T. Reville, and Anna-Britt Kasupski. Trends in Terrorism: Threats to the United States and the254 Future of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation MG-393-CTRMP, 2005.
Crist, Phillipe. Security in Maritime Transport: Risk Factors and Economic Impact. Paris: Maritime Transport Committee, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2003.
Flanagan, William. "CSI Operations and Overview," presentation to Fifth International Conference on Export Controls. Public, Hungary: Budapest, 2003.
Flynn, Stephen E. "America the Vulnerable,. Public, Washington D.C: " Foreign Affairs Department," 2002.
intelligence analysis process have been discussed. This paper puts light on what basically is intelligence analysis and how can it be improved. It discusses ways via which intelligence analysis can be made more focused and more effective. It puts light on how better sharing and provision of information, collection and analysis of correct data and fact and figures can benefit the intelligence analysis process.
This paper also puts light on different psychological issues that are being faced by intelligence analysts and it also examines the ways through which analysts can overcome such hurdles.
Before discussing how to improve intelligence analysis it is necessary to have proper understanding of the terms intelligence and analysis. Intelligence can be defined as an information which has added value in it whereas analysis is a process via which you can evaluate your intelligence, it helps you to understand a situation and then to…
Federation of American Scientists. (1996). Improving Intelligence Analysis. USA: FAS. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/int012.html .
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes. (2011). Criminal Intelligence. New York: UNODC. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.unodc.org/documents/organized-crime/Law-Enforcement/Criminal_Intelligence_for_Analysts.pdf .
Heuer, R.J. (1999). Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. USA: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 21, 2012 from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/psychology-of-intelligence-analysis/PsychofIntelNew.pdf .
Heuer, R.J. (2005). Limits of Intelligence Analysis. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.worldaffairsboard.com/attachments/staff-college/20727d1273228985-ebo-sod-limits-intelligence-analysis-fpri-winter-2005-heurer-.pdf.
attle of Cowpens
The ritish Are Not Coming: How the Read Coats Lost the attle of Cowpens
The attle of Cowpens is considered by many historians to be a critical battle, which to a large extent shaped the outcome of the American Revolutionary War or War of Independence. This is due to the fact that it was seen as a "…decisive first step by American forces in reclaiming South Carolina from the ritish and ultimately turning the tide of the Revolutionary War." [footnoteRef:1] The following discussion will provide a brief overview of the battle and attempt to provide an answer to the question, "how did the ritish lose the attle of Cowpens?" [1: "attle of Cowpens," accessed February 19. 2012, http://battleofcowpens.com/.]
Although, there were other factors involved, the defeat of the ritish at the attle of Cowpens was attributed to the superior strategy on the part of General…
Johnson, Correspondence, Sketches of the Life and Correspondence of Nathanael Greene. (Charleston, SC A.E. Miller, 1822), 370-371.
Skelton, Lynda Worley, ed.General Andrew Pickens: An Autobiography. (Clemson, SC: Pendleton District Historical and Recreational Commission, 1976.)
BV Analysis of Kraft Foods
Kraft Foods is a large corporation with interests in many sectors of the food and beverage markets. The basis of the firms' success, and challenges, can be appreciated by looking at the firm from an internal perspective using the resource-based view (BV). In a resource-based view analysis a firm can be seen as more than its output, instead it is viewed in the context of its combined assets and competences and the way in which they are configured, or can be reconfigured, in order to compete and create value.
The resources themselves may be considered in two main categories; the tangible and the intangible resources. The different asset types may be assessed individually, with consideration of the way they are configured.
A major category of Kraft Food assets, and an asset group on which the firm is highly reliant on,…
Alvarez, Jesus Timoteo; Gonzalez, Sonia A. Ferruz; Daguerre, Jesus Calzadilla, (2012, Dec), Pricing and Valuation of Intangible Assets, Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, 8(12), 1780-1788
CSI Market (2014), Kraft, accessed at http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KRFT on 17th Sept 2014
Kleinberg, Adam, (2011, Jan), Why Every Brand Needs an Open API for Developers, accessed at http://mashable.com/2011/01/04/brand-open-api-developers/
Kotler Philip; Keller Kevin, (2014), Marketing Management, Prentice Hall
Collecting National Security Intelligence
Intelligence gathering is one of the most important activities in law enforcement and plays a crucial role in the development of national security strategies. The significance of intelligence in law enforcement and national security strategies is attributed to the fact that it helps in lessening ambiguity intrinsic in observation of external initiatives and activities. National security intelligence is usually collected through a cycle which determines how information is obtained, created, and shared with users. This cycle has five major steps i.e. planning and direction, collection, processing, producing, and dissemination ("Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines," n.d.).
Generally, the responsibility of collecting national security intelligence is given to intelligence collection organizations at the national level. These organizations are mandated with the task of gathering, processing, and disseminating security information that is in turn used to develop suitable law enforcement and national security strategies and initiatives. The intelligence collection…
"Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines." (n.d.). Operations Security -- Intelligence Threat Handbook. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://fas.org/irp/nsa/ioss/threat96/part02.htm
Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency website: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
Whole Food Market Inc. (WFM) is one of America’s largest food products supermarket chain. The company refers to itself as “America’s healthiest grocery store” and submits that its food products are “the finest natural and organic foods available” (WFM, 2017). The foods the company stocks are largely devoid of hydrogenated fats, artificial preservatives, sweeteners, and flavors.
2. Current Strategic Position
2.1 Mission, Vision, and Values
The company’s culture is founded on eight core values. These include:
a. Sale of high quality natural and organic products
b. Satisfaction, delightment, and nourishment of customers
c. Support for team member excellence and happiness
d. Creation of wealth through profits and growth
e. Service and support for the local and global communities
f. Practice and advancement of environmental stewardship
g. Creation of ongoing win-win partnerships with suppliers
h. Promotion of the health of stakeholders through healthy eating education
esearch was the first to feel the effects. The shift in the material base of the university leaves the humanities entirely out in the cold. Corporations don't earmark donations for the humanities because our research culture is both self-contained and absurd. Essentially, we give the copyrights of our scholarly articles and monographs to university presses, and then buy them back, or demand that our libraries buy them back, at exorbitant markups. And then no one reads them. The current tenure system obliges us all to be producers of those things, but there are no consumers." (Donoghue 2008)
The idea in education is one of operating as a business. The academic partners within the university setting are essentially in competition with one another for funding and other resources. If the students with stellar marks from certain departments are highly recruited by business and academia, the department is heralded and viewed upon…
Bassett J. 2008. The Future of Humanities Education, or Ahab and His Humanities.. Interdisciplinary Humanities. Retrieved January from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=106&sid=0e20acd8-7fc3-4066-9e72-d2da6278a966%40sessionmgr113&vid=1
Bell D. 2010. Reimaging the Humanities. Proposals for a New Century. Dissent (00129846) Retrieved January from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=106&sid=4f0282e4-a846-49e1-a8af-110652799ccc%40sessionmgr112&vid=1
Pokrovskii N.E., 2007. What Is Happening to Humanities Education? Russian Education & Society. Retrieved January from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=106&sid=44770a98-2f1e-4057-bbef-2bd93b6e1bb0%40sessionmgr110&vid=1
Woodward K. 1980. The Humanities Crisis. Newsweek. Retrieved January from: http://www.lexisnexis.com.rlib.pace.edu/lnacui2api/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T10928153278&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T10928153281&cisb=22_T10928153280&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&selRCNodeID=9&nodeStateId=411en_US,1&docsInCategory=11&csi=5774&docNo=3
" (Johnson, 2005) the notion of ruling against the defendant in all identity theft or related cases may establish the wrong precedent for future cases. "On the other hand, if liability is too readily assessed, it will have the power to bankrupt valuable enterprises because of the often vast numbers of potential plaintiffs and consequent extensive resulting damages." (Johnson, 2005)
Internet security and identity theft is a very pervasive problem globally. In fact, most every nation with a web presence must deal with the same issue of hackers breaching server security or web browser security and stealing identities or other destructive behavior with malicious intent. The United States has a much more serious issue in this realm, however, when compared to countries within Europe, Asia, Africa, ussia, and South America. Although the threat remains global and can affect any nation at any time, the probability of identity theft in America…
Anthes, G. (2010) Security in the Cloud. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(11), 16. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2198161791).
Babcock, C. (2010) Cloud Computing Differences Between U.S. And Europe. Information Week. Retrieved from: http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224202598
2009. New Straits Times. Cyber security challenges. Retrieved from: http://www.lexisnexis.com.rlib.pace.edu/lnacui2api/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T10848791436&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T10848791439&cisb=22_T10848791438&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=151977&docNo=13
Campbell K., Gordon L., Loeb M., Zhou L. The economic cost of publicly announced information security breaches: empirical evidence from the stock market. Journal of Computer Security Vol.11 Number 3/2003 pgs 431-448
these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…
1. Schenkel, G. (2009, September 17). Livewave cctv system. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_ice_livewave.pdf
2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.trangobroadband.com/solutions/security-surveillance-cctv-systems.aspx
3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2010/apr/20/cctv-priority-asian-govts/
4. Post, . (2002). Cctv. POSTNOTE, (175), Retrieved from http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn175.pdf http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23412867-tens-of-thousands-of-cctv-cameras-yet-80-of-crime-unsolved.do
Models of Media and Politics
A review of media / political models sheds some light on why the United States' cultural themes have been such a dominant dynamic in Europe, among other global venues. In describing the three models of media and politics, Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini report that the media in Southern Europe (the "Mediterranean" or "Polarized Pluralist Model") is "an institution of the political and literary worlds" more than it is market-driven (Hallin, et al., 2004 90). The North and Central European model is called the "Democratic Corporatist Model" -- and is certainly more market-driven and far less politically driven; and the third model is the "North Atlantic" or "Liberal model" of media and politics (Hallin 87).
The North Atlantic or Democratic Corporatist model, according to Mark a. aker II encompasses Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the "Low Countries" and Scandinavia, and can be broken down into three…
Arango, Tim, 2008, 'World Falls for American Media, Even as it Sours on America. The New York Times, Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Artz, Lee, and Kamalipour, Yahya, 2007, the Media Globe: Trends in International Mass Media. Rowman & Littlefield: Landham, MD.
Baker, Mark a., 2010, 'Hallin & Mancini, the North / Central European or Democratic Corporatist Model by: Mark a. Baker II', Global Media. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://globalmediastudies.blogspot.com .
Hallin, Daniel C., and Mancini, Paolo, 2004, Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge University Press: New York.
In our humanity, we tend to feed such emotions, just as the speaker of the poems suns his tree with "smiles" (7). The wrath does not end but feeds on negativity.
"A Poison Tree" is a mental exercise. The scene of this poem is more significant than anything else because it never leaves the speaker's mind. This poem is about murder. However, it is not the kind of murder we might see on CSI. Instead, this murder takes place within the heart of the speaker. In his soul, where he is completely honest, he allows his enemy to consume the deadly fruit, much like Satan did in the Garden of Eden. Here we see the danger of anger. The tone of this poem is somber, which seems odd when coupled with the sing-song rhyme scheme. It wants to read like a nursery rhyme but its content is far too macabre.…
Blake, William. "A Poison Tree." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. II. Abrams,
M.H., Ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. Print.
Dupin becomes the "individual as the creature of history" (187) and the orangutan represents the "terror of a history secularized and devoid of design" (187). This pot was to usher in a new genre of plots that looked at the universe in a new way. The detective story, as a result, "responds to a new era of world history" (187). The crimes against the women can also be seen as symbols from Poe's own past as he lived through the deaths of the women he loved the most. Tragedy, of course, must make its way into Poe's fiction but the grisly murders of thee two women could easily be representations of the death of Poe's mother and cousin.
Society was all the inspiration Poe needed. Terrance halen maintains that Poe's tales "arose from within the specific conditions of capitalist development which were then emerging in antebellum America" (halen 386). Poe's…
Jordan, Cynthia. "Poe's Re-Vision: The Recovery of the Second Story." American Literature.
59.1. 1987. JSTOR Resource Database. http://www.jstor.org Information Retrieved
December 4, 2009.
Hutcherson, Dudley. "Poe's Reputation in England and America, 1850-1909." American
John is completely blind to his wife's needs. In fact, he is being completely selfish in this situation because he is placing himself over his wife's needs. This fact, on top of everything else, allows us to see how easily oppression could transform into anger.
Oppression, repression, and rage emerge as important aspects of "The Yellow allpaper." The narrator in this story represents countless women who suffered at the hands of uninterested and uneducated doctors. The story follows the course of madness through stages and reveals the delicate workings of the human psyche. Survival is an instinctive characteristic and the narrator does what she can to preserve herself before going over the edge. Gilman demonstrates the yearning for independence in a rather hopeless situation and, as a result, emphasizes the need for understanding before medication. In addition, she also demonstrates how doctors do not always know best. Perhaps one of…
Perkins-Gilman Charlotte. "The Yellow Wall-paper." The Heath Anthology of American
Literature. Vol. II. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990.
-. "Why I Wrote 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" City University of New York Online. http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/whyyw.html Site Accessed November 30, 2009.
Haney-Peritz, Janice. "Monumental Feminism and Literature's Ancestral House: Another Look
ISK Management - CAPM and APT
Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory
The contemporaneous business community is extremely competitive, meaning as such that the organizational leaders strive harder than ever to overcome the competitive forces. Virtually, they have to hire and retain the best skilled staff members; they have to develop and offer the best quality products and services and they must be able to raise the interest of a vast and large customer base. All these constitute competitive advantages.
Yet, another element which has to be granted the adequate attention is that of the management of assets. The specialized literature offers a multitude of definitions of the concept of asset, yet the underlying idea is basically the same. Stickey, Weil and Schipper (2009) for instance argue that an asset is "a probable future economic benefit that a firm controls because of a past event or transaction" (p.108).…
Bailey, R.E., 2006, The Economics of Financial Markets, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052184827X
Cheng, B., Tong, H., 2008, Asset Pricing: A Structural Theory and Its Applications, World Scientific, ISBN 9812704558
Fabozzi, F.J., Markowitz, H., 2002, The Theory and Practice of Investment Management, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471228990
Fabozzi, F.J., Focardi, S., Kolm, P.N., 2006, Financial Modelling of the Equity Market: From CAPM to Cointegration, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471699004
It is evident that in his case, he tried to improve his condition by looking at his captors as providing him with guidance, and it is in this perception that Equiano's journey becomes meaningful, both literally and symbolically, as he eventually improved his status in life by educating himself after being a free man.
Bozeman (2003) considered Equiano's experience as beneficial and resulted to Equiano's changed worldview at how he looked at slavery and British society (his 'captors). Bozeman argued that Equiano's worldview became "fluid," wherein
…he is exceptional among his contemporary British brethren: not only is he able to stand both on the inside and outside of the window of British society, Equiano can move efficiently between the two…Accepting the essence of who Equiano is, in the end, is to acknowledge the reality he was a living oxymoron perpetuating a simply complex life (62).
It is this "fluid" worldview…
Bozeman, T. (2003). "Interstices, hybridity, and identity: Olaudah Equiano and the discourse of the African slave trade." Studies in Literary Imagination, Vol. 36, No. 2.
Burnham, M. (1993). "The journey between: liminality and dialogism in Mary White Rowlandson's captivity narrative." Early American Literature, Vol. 28.
Carrigan, a. (2006). "Negotiating personal identity and cultural memory in Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative." Wasafiri, Vol. 21, No. 2.
Derounian, K. (1987). "Puritan orthodoxy and the "survivor syndrome" in Mary Rowlandson's Indian captivity narrative." Early American Literature, Vol. 22.
The vision Oracle has is one of unifying all of their enterprise applications into their Fusion architecture and creating a single unifying Service oriented Architecture (SOA) was first announced in 2006 (Krill, 13). Since that time Oracle has continually strived to create an SOA in Fusion that would appeal to its corporate customers. The proposed Fusion SOA platform has been designed to be robust and scalable enough to encompass enterprise-level applications including Enterprise esource Planning (EP) applications while also being flexible enough to provide for individualized application development. There are critics of SOA in general and Fusion specifically, with industry analysts considering it too difficult to create a process-centric model that allows for pervasive, in-depth applications necessary for mission-critical business while at the same time allowing for significant scalability (Handy, 2005). Despite these concerns however Fusion continues to gain market acceptance and provide Oracle with a path to the fulfillment…
Alex Handy. 2005. Oracle Fusion: The 'Frankenstein' of SOA? Software Development Times, October 15, 6
Paul Krill. 2006. Oracle Does SOA. InfoWorld, August 14, 11-13
Some of these methods include plea agreements and the disclosure of incriminating evidence, along with witness testimony. Thus, defendants' rights do not tie the hands of officers and the courts because officers and the courts have an arsenal of ways to manage these rights and still perform their jobs.
While the myriad of rights offered to defendants in the United States may sometimes seem like ways to protect the guilty and harm the innocent, this is far from the case. Not only are these rights necessary for protecting the defendant, along with the rest of the democratic society of the United States, but the rights can also be managed through a plethora of legal tactics on the part of the courts and police officers. Established through the Constitution and landmark court cases, primarily, defendants' rights honor the intent of the constitution. Though it is true that some guilty defendants may…
Cima, Greg. (2006, 21 November). Marijuana charges dropped because of illegal search.
The Pantagraph. Retrieved at http://www.pantagraph.com/articles/2006/11/21/news/doc4563de8080933076324107.txt
Edgar, Timothy H. Interested Persons Memo. Retrieved November 23, 2008, at http://www.aclu.org/safefree/general/17203leg20030214.html
Farrell, Nick (2008, 20 November). Copper stole my Xbox. The Inquirer. Retrieved at http://www.theinquirer.net/gb/inquirer/news/2008/11/20/copper-stole-xbox
2. Interventions for teens and wayward youths are such appealing programs because no one wants to assume that children and youths are born with deviant minds. Most agree that children and youths commit criminal acts because something has gone wrong in their lives. Most suggest that these things that go wrong have to do with parents, schools, and most often deviant peer groups. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that deviant peer groups are some of the largest contributions to youth delinquency. Most want to assume that, if the cause of juvenile delinquency could be found, an intervention could cure the cause and cure the teen. Thus, the innocent child would not be faced with a criminal's life, but would instead be able to be put on the right path to self-development. An exploration of intervention programs will allow students of criminology to understand why the rehabilitation program is…
Braithwaite, John. (2002). Does Restorative Justice Work? In EDITOR (ed.), Restorative
Justice & Responsive Regulation. (pp. 45-71). New York: Oxford University Press.
Braithwaite, John. (1998). Restorative Justice. In M. Tonry (ed.), the Handbook of Crime and Punishment. (pp. 433-454). New York: Oxford University Press.
Henggeler, Scott. (1997). Treating Serious Anti-Social Behavior in Youth: The MST
In the case of Lenovo, it seems extremely important (and perceptive) to appoint an American CEO and adopt English as the corporate language. Even though they are attempting to take over the global PC market, IBM is a long-standing American company, and to quickly turn it into a foreign company would alienate millions of Americans, and quite possibly doom the entire operation due to bad press and bad feelings. Keeping the American CEO and moving to New York showed they took IBM and its products seriously, and knew that IBM had much more global recognition and appreciation than Lenovo had. They knew that they could make a statement by retaining the English, American components of the business, and they did. It was simply a very wise business decision that made perfect marketing and P sense.
Swinton, Captain D.E. "The Defense of Duffer's Drift." Command and General Staff College. 2008.…
Swinton, Captain D.E. "The Defense of Duffer's Drift." Command and General Staff College. 2008. 16 Aug. 2008. http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/Swinton/Swinton.asp
In the third dream, all the previous occurrences continue. He mounts guards, and sends men to round up all the surrounding farmers and their families. He chooses a new camp, and the detainees help the men dig the trenches. They guard the detainees, put men on watch, and sleep in the trenches. The next morning, they wake up without attack, and see the Boers entering the area, and then approaching a farm, where the women tell them of Swinton's position. The Boers mount an attack with shells, the trenches are not deep enough, and the Boers again gain victory. Swinton learns to gather all the settlers, even women, to dig deeper and narrower trenches.
In the forth dream, Swinton rounds up all the settlers and their animals, digs deeper, narrower trenches, and guard the settlers. At dawn, no attack occurs, and they continue digging the trenches. The enemy comes, eventually…
Swinton, Captain D.E. "The Defense of Duffer's Drift." Command and General Staff College. 2008. 16 Aug. 2008. http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/Swinton/Swinton.asp
Vermont's Junior Senator, Bernard Sanders introduced to the Senate the Stop Outsourcing Security Act S. 2398. The Stop Outsourcing Security Act will help solve the lack of oversight of contractors in Iraq by requiring that by June 2008, "the President shall submit to each specified congressional committee a report on the status of planning for the transition away from the use of private contractors for mission critical or emergency essential functions by January 1, 2009, in all conflict zones in which Congress has authorized the use of force" (s 2398). This bill will examine contractor activities and ensure that renewals will only happen if the president certifies that contractors have undergone background checks and are clear of any crimes that could lead to additional problems with their work in the future. It will also allow congress to have access to information of private military companies including, the number of persons…
Addicott, Jeffrey F. "Contractors on the "Battlefield": Providing Adequate Protection, Anti-Terrorism Training, and Personnel Recovery for Civilian Contractors Accompanying the Military in Combat and Contingency Operations." Houston Journal of International Law 28.2 (2006): 323. Questia. 16 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015737160 .
Broder, John M. "Report critical of guard firm; Blackwater sought to cover up Iraq shootings, study finds." 3 October 2007: 4. Lexis Nexis 13 June 2008. http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T3963560559&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T3963560562&cisb=22_T3963560561&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=8357&docNo=5
Greenwald, Robert "Iraq for Sale" (Documentary Film) 2005 Information Website: http://iraqforsale.org/
Krugman, Paul. "Hired Gun Fetish." The New York Times. A29. 28 September 2007. Proquest. 5 July 2008. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1343375061&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1215612063&clientId=27893