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Television has become a necessity in today's world. From news to entertainment, from gossips to drama, from cooking to adventure, everything is showcased on it and this grab the attention of everyone despite of the race, gender, age, ethnicity or nationality they belong to. Almost all the people consider TV as their friend and an essential part of their lives and scientists, theorists and researchers have proved that what is shown on TV changes the viewer's perceptions and attitudes over the period of time. As rightly pointed out by Hammermeister, Winterstein, and Page (2005) in their research, "aside from occupational duties and sleep, the American nation spends more time watching television than at any other activity." (p.253) They also highlighted the fact that a normal American spends around 3-4 hours daily on watching TV which makes it 7-10 years of watching TV by the time he turns 70.…
Aber.ac.uk (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/short/cultiv.html [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Fisherhouse.com (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.fisherhouse.com/courses/cultivation_theory.pdf [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Gulisano, L. (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Gulisano.htm [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Hammermeister, J., Brock, B., Winterstein, D., Page, R. And Y (2005). Life without TV? Cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts. Health communication, 17 (3), pp. 253-264.
Cultivation Effects Analysis
As Gerber asserts, cultivation theory helps explain the effects that violent television has on viewers. e can also find that sexuality on radio, television, and magazines has cultivation effects on society. Sex and violence is, after all, the one-two combo that dominates prime-time television. Therefore, if the latter can be shown to have cultivation effects on the viewing public, it stands to reason that the former will too. Common sense tells us as much after a mere cursory glance at our surroundings. The flood of sexuality in advertising, musical beats and lyrics, and on screen and in the printed media surely have an effect on the way societal attitudes interpret sex. In fact, plenty of evidence exists to support the notion that views toward homosexuality, for example, are changing in radical ways. In the decade that has passed since prime-time television began representing homosexual characters…
Associated Press. High Court Rules Against Fallen Marine's Father In Funeral
Protest Suit. KWTX. 2011. Web. 30 July 2011. http://www.kwtx.com/home/headlines/High_Court_Rules_Against_Fallen_Marines_Father_In_Funeral_Protest_Suit_117242333.html
Bonds-Raacke, J.M., et al. "Remembering gay/lesbian media characters: can
Ellen and Will improve attitudes toward homosexuals?" Journal of Homosexuality vol 53, no. 3: (2007): 9-34. Web. 24 July 2011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18032285
Theories of Mass Communication and the Culture Industry
Gerbner’s cultivation theory posited that an individual’s behavior is associated with how much TV that person has watched. In other words, media plays an instrumental role in determining how one thinks and acts. Behavior is cultivated by the media in the individual (Griffin, Ledbetter & Sparks, 2015). Cultivation theory is part of the larger field of mass communication theories, such as agenda-setting theory. The idea behind cultivation theory is that mass media is the main source of information for people, and so they take all their ideas about the world and themselves from the media. People engage in whatever behaviors they do as a result; if they are violent or fearful it is an effect of their engagement with TV. The message system of TV media deals with the content; the cultivation aspect of the system deals with how the content affects…
Griffin, E., Ledbetter, A. & Sparks, G. (2015). A first look at communication theory. McGraw Hill.
Identify and explain the four-step process used by cultivation analysis researchers.
The cultivation analysis as a theory is a four step process. Cultivation researchers use these four steps to demonstrate their belief that watching of television has an effect on the culture of people. The first step is the system analysis. This is a comprehensive analysis of the programs that run in the television. Ninety eight percent of all households in America own a television (Morgan, 2012). This indicates that the programs in television have a wide audience. Thus, an analysis of the content of the program is critical to the cultivation theorist.
The message analysis demonstrates that a repetitive pattern in the themes, values and images in televisions. The message system analysis focuses violence in television programs. It is evident that there are high doses of violence in programs and television broadcasts. The image of the real world that…
Morgan, M. (2012). George Gerbner: A critical introduction to media and communication theory. New York: Peter Lang.
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
Theory guides practice. This is true of many things, but is especially true of nursing. While many processes, actions, and rules are involved in becoming a great nurse, understanding and applying theory must be the most important aspect. Nursing theory allows for one to examine concepts and then attempt practical application of these concepts when theories are tested. Evidence-based practice for example, is the wonderful lovechild of theory and application in that when theories are constructed, they are then tested, and if they work, are applied to standard practice via modification. This essay aims to provide a deeper synthesis of nursing theory by examining two important nursing theories: Orem's Self-care Theory and Watsons Nursing Theory. Additionally, one will see how nursing theory has evolved since its beginnings.
Background on Nursing Theory
Many say nursing is as old as humankind. If there was someone sick, there was someone willing to…
Erick Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
Erik Erikson, American psychoanalyst, is known in the field of psychology for his contribution in studying the socioemotional aspect of development among humans. Called the theory of socioemotional development, Erikson posits in his theory that, "people grow and develop "socialized by and socialize others -- parents, siblings, peers, teachers... processes that involve changes in an individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality" (Santrock, 2001:338). Erikson identified different dichotomies that specifically delineate positive and negative aspects of socioemotional developments among individuals. These dichotomies are placed at various levels, where different socioemotional characteristics are manifested at each level of the individual's development.
Erikson's theory is an essential tool to understanding human behavior because it serves as a guideline for people to understand the different changes in socioemotional characteristics of people as they grow older. Of course, there are certain exceptions…
Dundy, E. (1976). "Life is all ups and no downs on this carousel." New York Times Web site (NYTimes.com). Available at http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson-carousel.html .
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
S. combating the current Taliban threat? David Kilcullen is the chief strategist in the "Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism" at the U.S. Department of State in ashington, D.C. In a 2006 ashington D.C. speech, Kilcullen stated that "insurgency, including terrorism," will be America's enemies' "weapon of choice" against the "unprecedented superiority" of U.S. military firepower (Kilcullen, 2006, p. 1). Citing Bill Murray's iconic film Groundhog Day, Kilcullen notes that until the U.S. masters a form of counterinsurgency that truly is effective, "we are going to live this day over, and over, and over again -- until we get it right."
Granted, Kilcullen offered his remarks nearly 5 years ago, but his context is fully up-to-date when one reviews the current lack of effectiveness of the United States' counterinsurgency strategy. For one thing, trying to institute "democratic processes" in Afghanistan without the "foundation of a robust civil society" tends to…
Ackerman, Spencer. (2010). From Kandahar, a View of a 'Counterproductive
Counterinsurgency'. The Washington Independent Newspaper. Retrieved March 6, 2011,
Jones, Seth G. (2008). The Rise of Afghanistan's Insurgency. International Security, 32(4),
Kant's Theories of Good Will
One of Kant's examples of good well is an action that is taken with good intentions; he calls it good because the volition of the action is good. There is no good will in an action taken for the good it might do for others or for the good it might do potentially for the person taking the action. Kant's sense of good will dictates that good will is not good for what the consequences it effects. Kant's concept of good will dictates that something is not good because of how appropriate the action is toward accomplishing a specific end. Even if the action taken did not result in the desired action or even a good action, the value of the good will is not lost, forgotten, or diminished.
Good will rises above personal motivation or desire of the person taking the action and…
Novice to expert theory
The novice to expert theory postulated by Patricia Benner revolves around cultivation of skills in an individual. Benner basically states how important it is for nurses to gain skills through practical experience. In the formulation of this theory, Benner employs the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition for practicing nurses. The Dreyfus Model has it that an expert in the making passes through five skill levels namely: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. As the person in question climbs up this skill ladder, his skill set changes positively in a number of ways (Benner, 1984).
The foundation stage, as mentioned above, is novice. According to Benner (1984), a novice is an individual just fresh in the field without prior experience of the environment they currently work in. It is important for a novice nurse to be exposed to new clinical environments so that they can grow…
Teaching is one of the most important, although also the most underrated, professions in the world. Teachers today prepare young people not only for their next level of schooling, but also for tertiary education and ultimately to become gainfully employed and contributing citizens themselves. The problem is that there are so many varying levels of education today, ranging from the extremely poor to the extremely excellent. One factor that plays a major role in how well teachers are able to present materials in the classroom is the education they receive themselves. Although the quality of teacher education depends on several factors, one major argument revolves around whether they should be exposed to unproven theory or not. On the one hand, the argument may be that exposing them to unproven theory may only detract from the central purpose of their education, which is to provide them with the tools…
Chye, T.E. (2008, Jul.) Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn: A handbook for NUS teachers. Retrieved from: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/handbook/home/foreword.htm
The Critical Thinking Community (2013). The Role of Questions in Teaching, Thinking and Learning. Retrieved from: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/the-role-of-questions-in-teaching-thinking-and-learning/524
National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) (2007, Jul.) Quality Indicators for Teacher Education. Retrieved from: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/PUB_QITE.pdf
Porter-Magee, K. (2013, Feb. 8). Common Core v. The false promise of leveled literacy programs. Common Core Watch. Retrieved from: http://edexcellence.net/commentary/education-gadfly-daily/common-core-watch/2013/common-core-v-the-false-promise-of-leveled-literacy-programs.html
Nursing theory, research, and practice
Scenario in which theory, research, and practice interact to create good patient outcomes
Imogene King’s theory
Using the Imogene King’s theory to enhance Nurse-Patient Relationship
Enhanced Patient care
narrative explanation of your visual representation following the diagram.
Nursing theories have been developed as a way of trying to explain the fundamental importance of clinical practice (INSCOL, 2014). Even though these theories are used to guide practice, it is true to claim that most of them have not been put to the test as a way of determining whether the proposed nursing actions produce the claimed effects. If nursing asserts itself as the professional practice it is a professional practice environment must be supported and practiced. In order to enhance the outcome of patients and nursing staff then the professional nursing practice must be supported (INSCOL, 2014). There exist several nursing theories…
The primary theoretical models of conflict include the cooperative model, principled negotiation, human needs model, conflict transformation, and conflict transmutation (Dixit, 2004). Theoretical bases for conflict resolution include both macro-level and micro-level frameworks that guide understanding of human behavior and decision-making (Cunningham, 1998). Many theories of conflict resolution at some point refer to human needs theory, which helps clarify sources of conflict as being traceable to unmet needs. Conflict arises when fundamental needs are not being met, and resolutions are more likely to arise when parties recognize what their needs are as well as those of their opponents. Conflict resolution theories based on needs theory focus on how multiple parties with differential needs can reach peaceable and mutually beneficial solutions (Burton, 1990). The goal of conflict resolution will be to attain win-win outcomes, which may ironically require both personal humility and the offering of concessions.
Although human needs…
Contextual Family Theory
Following are the foremost suppositions for change in the contextual methodology
Morals and principles are conveyed and transmitted across generations.
All dimensions are tangled and motivate people's relationships and behavioral patterns.
Evidence -- facts like genetic information, physical attributes, ethnic upbringing, fundamental histories, personal events and cycle of life.
Specific psychology: The sphere of most distinct psychotherapies and their effects.
Systemic dealings: The essentials of the traditional systemic family therapy sphere which covers configurations, rules, control, orientations, connections, reactions, etc.
Interpersonal consciences: These usually entail the "justice system" or ethical setup that particularly deals with roles, responsibilities, connectedness, caring, reciprocity, devotion, heritage, culpability, equality, and trust within tight knit relationships (mft2011, 2011).
elational ethics rely a great deal on the level of trust involved in the relationship. If the involved are not trusting or trustworthy, obligations and claims to emotions and time tend to pile…
Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., Grunebaum, J., & Ulrich, D. (1991). Contextual therapy. In A. S. Gurman, & D. P. Kniskern (Eds.), Handbook of family therapy (Vol. II, pp. 200-238). Bristol: Brunner/Mazel.
Fitzgerald, P. (2009, Setptember 28). Invisible Loyalties: Life-Giving 0r Life-Taking? Retrieved from The Bridgemaker: http://www.thebridgemaker.com/invisible-loyalties-life-giving-or-life-taking/
Goldenthal, P. (2005). Helping children and families: A new treatment model integrating psychodynamic, behavioral, and contextual approaches. Wiley.
GoodTherapy. (2015, July 30). Systems Theory / Therapy. Retrieved from GoodTherapy.org: http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/systems-theory-therapy
autobiography of the author of this report. The remainder of the report will mostly focus on the four meta-paradigms of nursing. Of course, those meta-paradigms are patient, nurse, health and environment. The author will also offer two practice-specific concepts from the scholarly literature that can be applied to the career and environment of the author of this report. Next up will be a list of propositions that will number five in total. As suggested and required by the assignment, the paper will integrate these discrete elements and in a way that connects to the concepts described. While analysis of the nursing professional can get a little silly and/or delve too much into a bit of navel-gazing, the profession is indeed noble and deep and is thus worthy of the proper full analysis.
The author of this report started as an electrocardiogram (EKG) technician and nursing assistant while the author…
Lee, R.C., & Fawcett, J. (2013). The Influence of the Metaparadigm of Nursing on Professional Identity Development Among RN-BSN Students. Nursing Science
Quarterly, 26(1), 96-98. doi:10.1177/0894318412466734
Schim, S.M., Benkert, R., Bell, S.E., Walker, D.S., & Danford, C.A. (2007). Social
Justice: Added Metaparadigm Concept for Urban Health Nursing. Public Health
What is interesting about this way of parenting is that the parents are the ones who have to go out of their way to make sure that Alexander gets to all of his appointments, rehearsals and games on time. The parents are able to do this precisely because they are in an upper-middle-class economic level. Parents such as the ones in the McAllister family would not be able to take off from work early to bring their children to piano, choir and other lessons. This, undoubtedly, gives children like Alexander an advantage when it comes to how he will be prepared for the world. Lareau (2003) states that the Williams' parenting technique "embraces the logic of concerted cultivation. They consider Alexander's many commitments an essential component in his overall development."
There are many consistencies between Lareau's theories and what she witnessed inside the homes of the families she visited. First…
Lareau, Annette. (2003). Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life. University of California Press; 1st edition.
The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…
Stone, D.A. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.
Payser, a (May 13, 2010).Mosque madness at Ground Zero.
But in instances where the TV does not provide good moral and role models for the teenagers then it is just to say that the TV programs are the major contributing factor towards homophobic tendencies among the society members. The lack of positive role modeling is also being viewed on the side of lesbians, gays and bisexual youth Kielwasser AP and olf MA ( 378)
. Most gays and lesbians in the society are brought up in a straight community with few gays and lesbians role models; thus they are specifically vulnerable to the portrayals of gay people in the mass media (Ryan & Futterman, 124).
The mainstream media has treated the sexual minorities as if they are not part of the human race, as if they do not exist. In addition, it was observed that the gay people of whichever age are rarely portrayed, and mostly the little portrayal…
Bandura a. "Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication." Media Psychology 3 (2001): 265 -- 99. Print.
Battles K, and Morrow-Hilton W. "Gay Characters in Conventional Spaces: Will and Grace and the Situation Comedy Genre." Critical Studies in Mass Communication 19.1 (2002): 87 -- 105. Print.
D'Augelli, a.R. "Lesbian and Gay Male Undergraduates' Experiences of Harassment and Fear on Campus." Journal of International Violence 7.383-395 (1992). Print.
David P. Pierson. "Hey, They're Just Like Us!" Representations of the Animal World in the Discovery Channel's Nature Programming." J. Pop Cult (2005): 698-712. Print.
In Part II of her book The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, Zuboff (2019) lays out how the advance of surveillance capitalism has unfolded and where it is headed. In chapters 7 and 8, she makes two very important points—one practical and the other ideological—that necessarily serve as the framework for the advance of surveillance capitalism. The practical point is this: the world has become so immersed in the Internet that it will seem as though the Internet has disappeared, to paraphrase the words of Eric Schmidt at Davos; but of course it is only disappearing in the same sense that water disappears to fish who swim in it. The reality is that everyone will have so thoroughly immersed themselves in the Internet-of-Things (IoT) that they will no longer realize just how dependent upon the Internet and by extension surveillance capitalism they truly are. It will be just like breathing air…
Watch at least three different episodes of the same television program. Analyze what behaviors are repeatedly observed, what influence these behaviors may have on individuals who watch the program regularly, what stereotypes are reinforced by the program, and what long-term effects may result from the program. Also examine the advertising content with regard to the target market of the ads (gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES)). Be sure to include SCHOLALY* research to help make sense of your results (with proper citations).
History of the Simpsons
The Simpsons is a TV sitcom that is full of stereotypes and that has been used for entertainment for years. In fact, it is the longest running sitcom in American history (Susman, 2003). The show is ranked 17th of today's most popular shows and is ranked 25th of all time. The program features the typical American dysfunctional family exaggerated to a comedic extent. There is…
Davis, Brian. (2009, October 12). Ratings: The Great Wife Hope. Message posted to http://www.simpsonschannel.com/2009/10/ratings-the-great-wife-hope/
Graves, SB (1999) Television and Prejudice Reduction: When Does Television as a Vicarious Experience Make a Difference? Journal of Social Issues
Volume 55, Issue 4, pages 707 -- 727,
Susman, Gary. (2003, January 17). Ay, Carumba. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved from http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,409190,00.html
Theories Of Collapse Of The Mayan Civilization
The Mayan civilization existed between the third and the tenth centuries A.D. In a region that covers the present parts of Guatemala, Yucatan, and Honduras. Historical analysis shows that the Mayan people had a lively trade irrespective of the poor nature of their soil and abundance of dense forest and insects. The marvel cities and advanced calendar system of the Mayan people attest to their prolific knowledge, expertise, and skills. The perfectly written and maintained manuscript compounds to the prowess nature of this population. However, most of the cities of the Mayan people remained deserted past the tenth century. The reasons behind their disappearance remain a mystery. An assortment of theories has been developed to explain their disappearance (Heley, 2010). Therefore, this research paper discusses two of the theories explaining the disappearance of the Mayan people alongside discussing the most effective…
Heley, M. (2010). The Everything Guide to 2012: All you need to know about the theories, beliefs, and history surrounding the ancient Mayan prophecies. Cincinnati: F+W Media.
Foster, L.V. (2007). A brief history of Central America. New York: Facts on File.
Gill, R.B. (2001). The great Maya droughts: Water, life, and death. Albuquerque: Univ. Of New Mexico Press.
Simonian, L. (1995). Defending the land of the jaguar: A history of conservation in Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Adults, especially seniors need a place where they can learn new things and express themselves. Sometimes seniors go to a senior community arts program where they learn to paint and create things for themselves and for their loved ones. Art theory in the field of physical therapy is a very helpful and useful way of integrating varied learning and complex tasks all while promoting growth and renewal. For anything to flourish, especially a program like a senior community arts program, it needs to integrate lessons and objectives that promote the growth and learning of its participants.
Therefore, it is important to understand and analyze prior and current research that not only offers a different perspective, but also assures the teacher that what they are instructing has been proven to succeed and assists the people learning, to achieve certain pre-planned objectives. This paper is a literature review of six scholarly research…
Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult Learning - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Adult_Learning
Dzubinski, L., Hentz, B., Davis, K.L., & Nicolaides, A. (2012). Envisioning an Adult Learning Graduate Program for the Early 21st Century A Developmental Action Inquiry Study.Adult Learning, 23(3), 103-110. doi:10.1177/1045159512452844
Edwards, C., Gaden, C., Marchant, R., Coventry, T., Dutton, P., & Scott, J.M. (2011). Delivering extension and adult learning outcomes from the Cicerone Project by comparing, measuring, learning and adopting'. Animal Production Science, 53(8), 827-840. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN11322
Longenecker, C., & Abernathy, R. (2013). The eight imperatives of effective adult learning: Designing, implementing and assessing experiences in the modern workplace. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21(7), 30-33. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17100953&show=abstract
Like the passages model, the leadership as a point of view model focuses on
developing one extraordinary leader its end result. The process of
achieving that end result is similar to the servant leadership process, in
that it requires the leader to focus not on levels or situations, but
instead on a formula for success, namely "seeing what needs to be done,
understanding all the underlying forces play in a situation, [and] having
the courage to initiate action to make things better" (Clawson, 2006,
chapt. 1). Still, the model's process contains facets similar to the
situational model by asking leaders to look at underlying forces, as well
as facets similar to passages model by suggesting that leadership is a
function of a person's own qualities, which must be developed over time.
By focusing on the leadership as point of view model, organizations can
solve problems relating to the confusion of…
Charan, R., Drotter S., & Noel, J. (2003). Six Leadership Passages. In J.
M. Kouzes (Ed.)
Business Leadership: A Jossey Bass Reader, 1e. (chap. 12).
Clawson, J. (2006). Level Three Leadership, Getting Below The Surface, 3e.
Greenleaf, R.K. (2003). The Servant as Leader. In J. M. Kouzes (Ed.)
Leadership: A Jossey Bass Reader, 1e. (chap. 9)
Hersey, P. & Blachard, K.H. (2003). Situational Leadership. In J.M. Kouzes
staff and the supervision of higher education staff members?
It is the primary assumption regarding the staff as well as the supervision of higher education staff members that they should influence the people around them in such a manner that they would work for the welfare of all rather than working for their own personal causes (Yukl, 2006). This staff acts as a leadership and therefore, they should have high ethical standards along with intrapersonal and interpersonal skills so that they can guide and influence the people around them in a positive manner and prove to be effective leaders (Jossey-Bass, 2003, p. 253).
Assumptions are opinion instinctively created to simplify a persons' rationale for considering and accepting something that one thinks to be right (uggiero, 2004, p. 94-95). I was given the responsibility to consider and decide a number of things regarding the current staff working in the higher education…
Bernhardt, V.L. (2004). Data Analysis for Continuous Improvement (2nd ed.). Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (pp.440-445).
Gaetane, Jean-Marie, Normove, Anthony H. (2010). "The Impact of Relational Leadership, Social Justice, and Spirituality among Female Secondary School Leaders." International Journal of Urban Educational Leadership 4(1) pg. 22-24.
Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S.P., Ross-Gordon, J.M. (2010). SuperVision and Instructional Leadership (8th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Perceptions and Expectations:
Analyzing The Concert Experience In A Live
versus televised format
Perceptions and Expectations: Analyzing the Concert Experience in a Live vs. Televised Format
In experiencing a real-life situation in the flesh rather than in viewing its projection through a medium such as television, one's experience differs significantly. The expectations one brings to a live performance vs. The expectations one brings to the viewing of that same performance on television are radically different, as experiencing the performance in the flesh brings with it an entirely different experience that one expects to achieve upon deciding to attend. This type of expectation can be seen in viewing the example of attending a rock concert vs. watching the same concert on television. In looking at the two situations in comparison to one another, it can be seen that several factors come into play to distinguish the two from one another most…
Balzer, W. (2004) Boredom: Practical Consequences and a Theory. Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology. 49(1): 289-294.
Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2009) Gatekeeping: A Critical Review. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. 43(1): 433-478.
Eilders, C. (2002) Conflict and Consonance in Media Opinion. European Journal of Communication. 17(1): 25-63.
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York, NY: Harper and Row. Available at: http://www.ccsr.ac.uk/methods / publications/frameanalysis/.
Other scholars have been more critical of ELM. The Morris, Woo, and Singh study, along with the Cook, Moore, and Steel study, focuses on the major shortcomings of ELM. Unlike Schroeder and Areni, these scholars evaluate ELM as an actual model for psychological studies, as opposed to just a conceptual framework. The Morris, Woo, and Singh study found that the model had an excessively narrow focus on the cognitive aspects of audience elaboration, neglecting the emotional aspects. The Cook, Moore, and Steel study found that ELM did not offer an actual causal explanation of persuasive communication and offered Positioning Theory for a causal explanation.
When Cook, Moore, and Steel use the term "causal explanation," they are getting at the predictive value of ELM, which is a very important element of a model's usefulness. One problem with the predictive value of the ELM is the model's argument variable. To test ELM,…
Petty, R.E., & Cacioppo, J.T. (1986). The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion. Advances in Experimental Psychology, Vol. 9).
Schroeder, L. (2005). Cultivation and the Elaboration Likelihood Model: A Test of the Learning and Construction and Availability Heuristic Models. Communication Studies, 56(3), p. 227 -- 242
Areni, C. (2003). The Effects of Structural and Grammatical Variables on Persuasion: An Elaboration Likelihood Model. Perspective Psychology & Marketing, 20(4): p. 349-375
Morris, Woo, and Singh. (2005). Elaboration Likelihood Model: A Missing Intrinsic Emotional Implication. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 14(1), p. 79 -- 98
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
Law enforcement and narcotics trafficking
In fact, one of the things that many Americans may fail to understand is that there is a relationship between the domestic narcotics industry and international terrorism. Illegal drug trafficking is an international crime problem, and it is rarer that criminal enterprises limit themselves to a single illegal activity. Many criminal enterprises involved in narcotics distribution are also involved in the trafficking of humans and weapons. Furthermore, much of America's narcotic supply comes from Afghanistan, where its production and distribution can provide revenue for terrorist organizations. "The specific dynamics of the linkage between narcotics and conflict remain poorly understood. Evolving theory on the link between organized crime and terrorism enhances and supplements the debate on economic incentives in civil war, proposing mechanisms whereby insurgent groups interact with narcotics production -- a crime -- rebellion nexus" (Cornell, 2007). This nexus is not yet fully understood and…
Cornell, S. (2007). Narcotics and armed conflict: Interactions and implications. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(3), 207-227.
Gorvin, I. (2008, May). Targeting blacks: drug law enforcement and race in the United States.
New York: Human Rights Watch Organization.
Hartney, E. (2012, February 6). How to prevent addiction in your kids. Retrieved February 22,
Unequal Childhoods is a very enjoyable and interesting book to read. Despite the complexity of the issues she discusses, the author's language and style is accessible. The families and their activities are described in a straightforward, sympathetic way. Each chapter gives a new view of the thesis and explores the real lives of each of the twelve families. The reader gets to know them and to understand their attitudes and behavior within the framework of the society in which they live and what is expected of them. The abundance of evidence given -- in descriptions of family dynamics and behavior -- makes a compelling argument for the impact of class on how children are raised and learn to see themselves. The author points out, also, that each way, concerted cultivation and the accomplishment of natural growth, offer benefits and drawbacks. It is our social institutions that judge and accord…
Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Berkley: University of California Press.
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…
Allred, K., Mallozzi, J., Matsui, F., Raia, C. (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70(3): 175-187.
Andonova, E., Taylor, H. (2012). Nodding in dis/agreement: a tale of two cultures.
Cognitive Process, 13(Suppl 1): S79-S82.
Aristotle. (1889). The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle. (Trans R.W. Browne).
andura's social cognitive theory is similar with Skinner's behaviorist theory, in so far as the role of the external environment on the individual is concerned. However, andura's theory differs from Skinner's in that the former extended the relationship between the individual and external environment to include, at the same time, the influence that the individual's behavior has on his/her external environment. andura's theory illustrates a seemingly 'reciprocal' relationship between the individual and the external environment: the latter affects the former in exchange for a positive outcome, while the former affects the latter as part of his/her continuous cycle of personality development (424).
From the discussion of these three perspectives of the psychology of human personality, significant differences that highlight the importance of each tradition emerge.
The humanistic tradition looks into the internal traits of the individual, positing that these internal traits are what ultimately shape the personality of a person.…
Buber, M. And C. Rogers. (1997). The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript with Commentary. Albany: University of New York Press.
Freedheim, D. And I. Weiner. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Woolworths limited is one of the renowned companies in the Australian retail industry and it has been operating since 1924. Woolworths is the largest food retailer in Australia and it is also the second largest retailer in New Zealand (Commission: ed Shed takeover would create a 'pure duopoly'. (2007). Woolworths was ranked as the 19th world largest retailer in the world in 2008 (Woolies makes top 25 global retailer list, 2008). Company recorded revenues of 54.28 billion Australian dollars along with profits of 2.14 billion Australian Dollars in 2011. In Australia, the company is considered as the largest takeaway liquor retailer.
Theory of Corporate Communication
The concept of corporate communication is not new to the organization. For centuries it has been in-build in the firms to have communication policy that theoretically supports the scholarly dimension of communication strategies and practically abide by the appropriateness, effectiveness and successfulness of the communication…
Cornelissen, J.P. (2003), "Change, continuity and progress: the concept of integrated marketing communications and marketing communications practice,"
Journal of Strategic Marketing, Vol. 11, pp. 217-34.
Culbertson, H.M. And Chen, N. (1997), "Communitarianism: a foundation for communication symmetry," Public Relations Quarterly, Vol. 42, pp. 36-42.
Grunig, J.E. And Hunt, T. (1984), Managing Public Relations, Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
The objective of this study is to conduct a critical analysis of issues in clinical education. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of literature in this area of inquiry.
The work of Strohschein, Hagler and May (2002) entitled 'Assessing the Need for Changes in Clinical Education Practice' reports a study that identifies areas of need within clinical education and well as describing "…various models and tools that are proposed and utilized in clinical education, as well as the exploration of the extent to which these models and tools might meet the identified needs of the clinical education process in physical therapy." (p.1) Physical therapists are reported as working in a health care climate "of increasing complexity and rapid change, of fiscal restraint and demands for accountability, of scrutiny from both internal and external sources. In such a climate, the ability to respond appropriately to these…
Cross V. (1997) The professional development diary: a case study of one cohort of physiotherapy students. Physiotherapy.1997; 83:375 -- 383.
Hagler P, McFarlane L. (1991) Achieving maximum student potential: the supervisor as coach. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation.1991; 5:5 -- 16.
Hayes KW, Huber G, Rogers J, Sanders B. (1999) Behaviors that cause clinical instructors to question the clinical competence of physical therapist students. Phys Ther.1999; 79:653 -- 667.
Higgs J, Glendinning M, Dunsford F, Panter J. Goals and components of clinical education in the allied health professions. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, London.1991: 305 -- 307.
External vs. The Internal View in Neo-Confucian Thought
Since the beginning of time, philosophers have made a living looking at how people conduct themselves and trying to make sense of it. Sometimes the philosopher will devise a theory about how the human world works by looking inside themselves and trying to determine the answer, and other times they will observe what people actually do and make comments based on that. Two Chinese philosophers and teachers, Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming, who were the most prominent Neo-Confucian thinkers, had different ideas with regard to how people developed a moral sense and translated that to the world. They also understood the law very differently. This paper looks at the two philosophers and their perspectives on some key issues so as to determine how they differed, were similar and how they relate to a modern world that often seems to be largely amoral…
De Bary, William Theodore, and Irene Bloom. Sources of Chinese Tradition, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 849.
De Weerdt, Hilde. "Changing Minds through Examinations: Examination Critics in Late Imperial China." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 126, no. 3 (2006): 367-375.
Gardner, Daniel K. Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary, and the Classical Tradition. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Guo, Xuezhi. The Ideal Chinese Political Leader: A Historical and Cultural Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
UK Wine Import Industry
Within this report, an analysis will be provided of the wine import industry in the UK. Initially, an environmental analysis will be provided. This will be followed by a competitive analysis of the UK wine import market. The report will conclude with a summary of key findings.
The history of grapevine cultivation, wine production and wine importing/exporting is both interesting and relevant to understanding the current marketing mix and importation of wine into the UK. While an in-depth historical analyses is beyond the scope of this paper, a brief overview of historical issues of relevance to the importation of wine into the UK and the globalization of the wine industry today will be provided.
Anderson, Norman and Wittwer (2001) have provided a succinct historical analysis of critical issues related to globalization and the wine industry. As described by the authors, grapevines were first cultivated…
Anderson, K. & Norman, D. (2001), Global Wine Production, Consumption and Trade, 1961 to 1999: A Statistical Compendium, Adelaide: Centre for International Economic Studies, Adelaide University, Adelaide, AU.
Anderson, K., Norman, D. & Wittwer, G. (2001). Globalization and the World's
Wine Markets: Overview. Discussion Paper No. 0413. Adelaide: Centre for International Economic Studies, Adelaide University, Adelaide, AU.
Berry Bros and Rudd (2003). UK Wine Consumption Soars. Wine News, (February 23, 2003). Found at http://www.bbr.com/GB/db/newsitem/457?ID=null&first_news_F=1 .
In developing countries, consumers are more affected for two reasons. One is that consumers are more likely to buy raw ingredients. ithout manufacturing entities to absorb some of the commodity price increases, consumers are left to absorb almost all of the increase (Ibid.). As a result, food prices have increased more in the developing world than in the developed world. Additionally, consumers in these countries already expend a significantly higher percentage of their income on food than do consumers in estern nations. Thus, demand for food in the developing world is price elastic and consumers suffer because they are unable to meet their food needs.
In the developed world, increased food prices suppress demand in other sectors of the economy, which can cause minor shocks in employment and investment in some businesses and industries. In the developing world, food price shocks can result in starvation and civil unrest. The recent…
Lapidos, Juliet. (2008) "Why are Global Food Prices Soaring?" Slate. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at http://www.slate.com/id/2187882/
Wiewel, Wim & Persky, Joseph. (2002) Suburban Sprawl M.E. Sharpe, Armonk NY, 2002.
Barnier, Michael. (2008) "Europe is Key to Solving Food Crisis" Tehran Times. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=184060
Clayton, Mark. (2008) "As Global Food Costs Rise, are Biofuels to Blame?" Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0128/p03s03-usec.html
Sociology -- Theoretical Paradigms
The Structural-Functionality of the Poor and Poverty
In the study of sociology, three classical paradigms dominate the process of sociological analysis: structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist theories. The structural-functionalist paradigm posits that individuals and groups in the society play specific roles in society that creates equilibrium to society's dysfunctions. The conflict theory, meanwhile, states that there exists, inevitably, oppression in the society, which results to a struggle by the oppressed group and social revolution that shall create reforms or changes in the society. Lastly, symbolic interactionism theorizes that symbols are the basis of life, and it is through interaction of these symbols that people reach an understanding of what s/he is and how society perceives him/her.
Given this set of paradigms in the study of sociology, this paper utilizes the structural-functionalist paradigm to discuss and analyze the role that the poor and poverty play in societies…
Gans, H. (1971). "The uses of poverty: the poor pay all." Available at: http://www.soc.duke.edu/~jcook/gans.html.
Lambert, B. "Free care for the poor varies widely in Nassau." The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/26/nyregion/26charity.html .
Maharaj, D. "When the push for survival is a full-time job." Los Angeles Times. Available at: http://www.latimes.com/news/specials/world/la-fg-work11jul11,0,7153984.story .
Zoroya, G. "Rise of drug trade threat to Afghanistan's security." USA Today. Available at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2004-10-26-opium-afghanistan_x.htm .
Like alcohol and tobacco, marijuana has been consumed in human societies for thousands of years, and likely since before recorded history. Also like alcohol and tobacco products, marijuana is associated with certain dangers that warrant appropriate government paternalism in the form of legislation prohibiting its use by minors, regulating its manufacture and sale to ensure its relative safety and quality, and preventing the use of any substances capable of altering human perception in connection with the operation of motor vehicles. However, there is no logical basis whatsoever for distinguishing between alcohol and marijuana in terms of criminal legislation, and both substances are considerably less harmful to human health in the manner of their typical consumption than tobacco products.
Instead of subjecting marijuana users to criminal prosecution, government authorities should simply apply the same approach to marijuana as has been traditionally applied to alcohol and tobacco. The Prohibition era…
Brecher, E.M. (1972). Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Bantam Books.
Drug Policy Alliance. (2008). Medicinal Marijuana. Retrieved February 17, 2009 from the Drug Policy Alliance website, at http://www.drugpolicy.org/marijuana/medical/
Friedman, a. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
ather than lamenting the loss of a family structure from an admittedly anomalous decade, Stacy (1993) argues that social reforms are necessary to ensure that children are cared for.
In Beck-Gernsheim's (2002:85) assessment, the focus should not be on "the black-and-white alternative 'end of the family' or 'family as the future'" but on "the many grey areas or better, the many different shades in the niches inside and outside the traditional family network." According to Beck-Gernsheim (2002) traditional definitions of family exclude many groups such as single people, the childless and single-parent families who have never married. They also ignore the potential conflict that occurs within traditional families. Beck-Gernsheim (2002) explains that changes in families, which have been occurring since industrialization, are the result of individualization.
In pre-industrial times, family structure was centered on work and economics, which each family member having a role to support the family farm or…
Beck-Gernsheim, Elisabeth. 2002. Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and Its Social and Political Consequences, edited by Ulrich Beck and Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim. London: Sage Publications.
Lareau, Annette. 2002. "Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White Families." American Sociological Review 67:747-776.
Popenoe, David. 1993. "American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55(3):527-542.
Stacey, Judith. 1993. "Good Riddance to 'The Family' A Response to David Popenoe." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55(3):545-547.
Figure 1 below highlights briefly Hertzberg's two factor theory applications to the Southwest Airlines.
Figure 1: Hertzberg Two Factor Theory
To complete the analysis, the hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction should are considered to be:-
Quality of Supervision
These factors are necessary for the satisfaction of the employees, but will not lead to a motivated police force. Without these factors being present in an appropriate manner, these factors will lead to dissatisfaction, which may negate efforts to motivate the workforce.
The motivation factors include:
esponsibility for task
Interest in the job
Advancement to higher level tasks
Clearly, these factors are more connected with internal forces, and affect Southwest employees in a different way. These factors are the driving force behind motivation, and have been the mandate at Southwest Airlines, which explains the success of the company.
Another related motivational model that…
Gordon, Platt, (2004). "United States: Splitting Roles of CEO and Chairman May Harm Business Performance." Find Articles Publications. Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3715/is_200406/ai_n9455531
Govindarajan, Vijay and Lang, Julie (2002). Southwest Airlines Corporation. Dartmount College: Center for Global Motivation.
Greenberg, J., (2010). Managing Behavior in Organizations, 5th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Publishers.
Jaffe, Charles, (1991). Moving fast by standing still - Herbert D. Kelleher, Southwest Airlines, Nation's Business. Retrieved on March 21, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1154/is_n10_v79/ai_11319024/print
(Snyder & Deono quoted in Kjeldal 2003, Introduction section, ¶ 6).
The results from the study Kjeldal (2003) conducted with 70 participants in two stages suggest that the word association responses high self-monitors (HSMs) produce reflect selective activation of a personally meaningful, experiential, system. The responses low self-monitors (LSMs) produce, on the other hand, indicate an intellective factual system.
2. Decision Making Process Theories
Dr. onnie Halpern-Felsher (2009), an Associate Professor at theUniversity of California, San Francisco, identifies a number decision-making criteria in her report, "Adolescent decision making: an overview." According to Halpern-Felsher, determinations of definitions for a competent decision, the process of how the decision was made, differ dramatically. The actual behavior or outcome, albeit, does not determine competent decision making, however, during the normative model of decision-making process, one does consider the consequences to not choosing a particular behavior or a specific event.
Normative models of decision making,…
'Advertising, Public Relations' N.d. < http://courses.umass.edu/bmat352/lectures_and_readings/KA_16.pdf > [25 May 2009].
Bahaudin, M & Jue, A 2005. 'Deceptive and Subliminal Advertising in Corporate America: Value Adder or Value Destroyer?', Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. Nova Southeastern University Wayne Huizenga Graduate School of Business. HighBeam Research. Available from: < http://www.highbeam.com > [20 May 2009].
Barnard, N & Ehrenberg, A 1997. 'Advertising: Strongly Persuasive or Nudging',
Journal of Advertising Research - January/February 1997.
Saddling them with the idea that every work must have some kind of recognizable theory that speaks to the viewers may be too much for some artists to manage, and it could shut down their creative process. As another critic notes, "[I]n Western culture, after all, art is associated with the free expression of a unique vision or the pleasurable cultivation of individual tastes" (Williams 2004, p. 3). Thus, by branding a theory on a piece of art, the artist is pigeonholed into a certain genre, which reduces their "free expression," and the viewer is not as apt to enjoy the art according to their "individual tastes."
In conclusion, it is fine to have a theory when creating or admiring art, but that theory challenges creativity and the enjoyment of the piece. If a viewer or an artist is so busy attempting to figure out the theory of a piece…
Freeland, C. 2003, Art Theory: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
Hertel, C. 2003, 'Ivan Gaskell: Vermeer's Wager Speculations on Art History, Theory and Art Museums', the Art Bulletin, 85(3), 611+.
Irvine, M. 2008, 'Art Theory Concepts', Georgetown University [Online] Available at http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/visualarts/art-theory-intro.html .
Murray, D.C., & Murray, S. 2006, 'Uneasy Bedfellows: Canonical Art Theory and the Politics of Identity', Art Journal, 65(1), 22+.
Lobotomy is a popular medical procedure introduced in curing mentally ill individuals, which requires the removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain, the part of the brain wherein aggressive and violent behavior is triggered. However, in the movie, lobotomy is shown to have disastrous results: McMurphy's violent behavior is indeed abated, but as illustrated in the movie, the lobotomy had turned him into a 'vegetable' neither responding to his ward mates' call for attention nor displaying his usual rowdy, obnoxious, McMurphy self.
This instance in the movie is considered as patterned after the medical model of abnormal psychology, wherein "mental disorders are described as medical diseases with a biological origin" (450). ecause this is the prevalent thinking in medical science during the time the movie (and novel) was made, Nurse Ratched decided, in order to "treat" McMurphy, to let him undergo lobotomy. Subsistence to the medical…
Santorck, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Nursing Timeline Week 2 • Create a 700- 1,050-word timeline paper historical development nursing science, starting Florence Nightingale continuing present. • Format timeline, word count assignment requirements met
Historical development of nursing timeline
The foundation of modern nursing. Before, nursing was largely the profession of disreputable people and not exclusively female. Based on her experiences during the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale strove to make it a respectable profession with uniform, professional standards. Her approach reduced the death toll in hospitals by 2/3rds during the Crimean War (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 1). She established the Nightingale Training School and wrote her foundational Notes on Nursing (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 2-3). Nightingale's canons of nursing compromised everything from an emphasis on proper sanitation to how the nurse should socially interact with the patient.
1880: Famed Civil War nurse Clara Barton founds the American ed Cross.
1909. Hildegard Peplau is born. Heavily influenced…
Betty Neuman's Systems Theory, 2012, Current Nursing. Retrieved:
Clara Barton. (2012). The Civil War. Retrieved: http://www.civilwarhome.com/bartonbio.htm
Doctor of Philosophy. (2012). School of Nursing. Retrieved:
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Transactional leaders use the extrinsic motivators, to get goals met within an organization, as stated by Suliman (2009). This type of leadership used internal reward or punishment mechanisms to get employees to follow their directive. Transactional leaders usually leave the current organizational structure and goals intact, since the characteristic of these leaders is not effective in situations that require change. Suliman, (2009) also argue that some leaders are very passive and only get involved if the necessary actions are contrary to the overall goal or achievement of the organization.
Visionary leaders are usually characterized as individuals who do not compromise their personal integrity for the overall goal of any organization or process. These leaders do not portray ordinary character traits, since they are usually concerned with direction or organizing action based on new possibilities or a progressive agenda as argued by McIntosh and Tolson (2009). These are usually interested…
This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.
Polley and ibbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and ibbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).
Polley and ibbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high…
Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.
Amason, A.C., Thompson, K.R., Hochwarter, W.A. And Harrison, A.W. (1995). Conflict: an important dimension in successful management teams. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 20-35.
Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing leadership effectiveness. New York: Wiley.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2), 199±218.
Causes crime & process change): Choose country (*Iraq Afghanistan) crime (*Terrorism) relevant country. Obtain statistics crime show crime trends a period 8-9 years (e.g. 1995-2009). Then explain, criminological theories (*Conflict Theory Lableling Theory), crime relevant country (context), occurred place (causal factors), increased decreased years (change).
There has been much controversy in the last two decades regarding the issue of terrorism in Afghanistan, given that numerous countries have changed their international policies as a result of acknowledging the terrorist threat in the Middle East. ith the Taliban political group holding power for several years before the September 11, 2001, events at the orld Trade Center in New York, terrorism has reached a whole new level. It is difficult to determine the exact factors that fueled the terrorism movement in the country, with some of the most influential of them being the drug industry, the concept of jihad, and biased interpretation of…
Brecher, Irving. "Terrorism, Freedom and Social Justice: the War in Afghanistan," International Journal 57.1 (2002)
Chesterman, Simon. "Tiptoeing Through Afghanistan: The Future of UN State-Building" International Peace Academy. 2002.
Donohue, Laura K. In the Name of National Security: U.S. Counterterrorist Measures, 1960-2000. 2001.
Dunne, Michele Durocher. Integrating democracy promotion into U.S. Middle East Policy. Democracy and the rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. no 50, October 2004.
hen it comes to pedagogy, the art of teaching, there are many different interrelationships among different theories of knowledge, theories of learning, conceptions of curriculum and approaches of broad inquiry for the purposes of schooling. Every teacher is faced with a challenge to effectively convey his or her message of knowledge and inspire today's youth. It takes a certain amount of passion and consistency to pursue such a career.
This paper will argue the validity of Nel Noddings' groundbreaking work on the notion of care and take a look at her book Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. The thesis born out of the reading will also touch on her other works as well. To pursue a just argument that the notion of care works today, this paper will also look at Aristotle's Ethics. By examining his work, the paragraphs below will conduct a theoretical conversation…
Aristotle. (1976). Ethics (J.A.K. Thomson, Trans.). London: Penguin Classics.
Cunningham, L.L., & Mitchell, B. (1990). Educational Leadership and Changing Contexts
in Families, Communities, and Schools. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Esquith, R. (2003). There Are No Short Cuts. New York: Pantheon Books.
globalization that diversified cultures and backgrounds have converged and are working together in collaboration. Considering the scenario of today's world, the rapidly changing demographics have played a critical role in the emergence of new styles of leadership. The definition of competitiveness and the qualities associated with a leader have also changed in the current times. And among all the qualities the two most prominent qualities that every leader must possess is related to the consideration of equity of gender, and equity of diversified cultures.
Different cultures suggest different roles for males and females based on their unique value system. The mindsets, couture, and eating habits of almost all the cultures are traditionally unique. Countries belonging to a particular geographical area behave in a certain way, so do the organizations and leaders belonging to those areas. Their attitude and approach is derived from their cultural values. Some countries have common cultures…
Fiedler, F. (1972). Predicting the effects of leadership training and experience from the contingency model., Journal of Applied Psychology, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/56/2/114/
Fiedler, F. (1972). The effects of leadership training and experience: A contingency model interpretation, Administrative Science Quarterly, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2393826
Fiedler, F. (2005). CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP, Essential theories of motivation and leadership, retrieved April 25, 2011 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8yo2Fp6UAEMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA232&dq=fiedler%27s+leadership&ots=2YX-FkEKy0&sig=WEtmbDIw5HZywNFFIi5Z1zYYkTw
Harris, P. & Moran, R. (1996). Managing cultural differences, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.angelfire.com/nj4/ambass148/Harris_ch7.doc
According to the Ohio State University (2004), both could be equally appropriate in terms of overall company outcomes, as they are very similar in terms of valuing and inspiring follower excellence.
When considering the motivation towards leadership for each type of leader, the contrast is sharper. The servant leader, for example, leads from a motivations basis of egalitarianism. The leader's fundamental belief is that he or she is no better than followers. The company's collective goals are then reached by means of an egalitarian team effort, where both leader and followers learn from the experience. Servant leaders are therefore much more focused upon the non-traditional form of leadership, which exists in beign servants themselves (Patterson, edmer and Stone, 2003, p. 6). Followers are provided with a large amount of freedom to exercise the abilities they can bring to the promotion of the business goals. This means that a very high…
Bugenhage, M.J. (2006, Dec). Antecedents of Transactional Transformational, and Servant Leadership: A constructive-Development Theory Approach. University of Nebraska. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=aglecdiss
Changing Minds (2011). Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory. Retrieved from: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/bass_transformational.htm
The Ohio State University. (2004, Dec. 22). Transformational and Servant Leadership: Content and Contextual Comparisons. Leadership Center. Retrieved from: http://leadershipcenter.osu.edu/library/publications/leadership-discoveries/2004/december-2004-transformational-and-servant-leadership-content-and-contextual-comparisons
Patterson, K., Redmer, T.A.O., and Stone, a.G. (2003, Oct.) Transformational Leaders to Servant Leaders vs. Level 4 Leaders to Level 5 Leaders -- the Move from Good to Great. Regent University. Retrieved from: http://www.cbfa.org/Patterson.pdf
Add to that "very high unemployment" (as high as 70% unemployment) and one can see the task at hand for USAID. Moreover, on page 2 Dan continues with the litany: Kosovo had an "inadequate banking and financial sector" featuring "poor legal framework conditions for lending, no equity market, [and] an uncertain framework for foreign investment." In Kosovo at the time of the USAID $20 million investment there were "…inadequate and expensive utilities, inadequate and costly transport for exports, a delayed privatization program" and moreover the courts were said to be "ineffective" with generally "uncertain" legal dynamics.
A nation will gain competitive advantage in certain industries where the demand at home gives companies and projects "a clearer or earlier picture of emerging buyer needs" through innovation, Porter explained on page 79. And on page 80 of Porter's 1990 scholarly essay the noted business expert states that if the "…nation's values are…
Dan, Michael B., and Wellons, Richard Lindsey. (2006). Mid-Term Evaluation of the Kosovo
Cluster and Business Support Project. Retrieved Oct. 22, 2010, from http://usaid.gov , 1-52.
Dunning, John H. (1993). Internationalizing Porter's Diamond. Management International
Review. Vol. 33, 7-15.
Finally, property comes only through one's own labor. Therefore, money then becomes a conduit to translate labor into property in the modern sense.
obert Nozick offers several modern praises and critiques of Locke's ancient concepts. Nozick critiques Locke's assumption of natural law based on the limited context of his era. England claimed to have a divine right to acquire property, yet in a free market economy this does not so applicably apply, "Lock believed that makers have property rights with respect to what they make just as God has property rights with respect to human beings because he is their maker," (Tuckness 1). In today's market, there is less faith in the concept of divine law, but rather a system built for functioning for the people. According to Nozick, Lockean property rights "constrain the extent to which we are entitled to act on our intuitions and theories about distributive justice,"…
Locke, John. The Second Treatise on Civil Government. Prometheus Books. 1986.
Tuckness, Alex. "Locke's Political Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005. Retrieved 28 Oct 2009 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke-political/#Pro
Waldron, Jeremy. "Property. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2004. Retrieved 28 Oct 2009 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/property/
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
justification of private property and also compares and contrasts the role that private property plays in the theories of Locke and in his "Second Treatise" and Marx in his "Communist Manifesto." It asks whether individuals have a right to private property, or (which I think is the same thing) whether there are any good right-based arguments for private property. A right-based argument is an argument showing that an individual interest considered in itself; is sufficiently important from a moral point-of-view to justify holding people to be under a duty to promote it. So my question can be rephrased as follows. hat individual interests are served by the existence of private property as opposed to some other sort of property regime (such as communism)? Are any of these interests so important from a moral point-of-view that they justify holding governments to be under a duty to promote, uphold, and protect property-owning?…
1. MARX KARL, The Communist Manifesto ( Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1967).
2. LOCKE JOHN, The Second Treatise of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration, edited by J.W. Gough ( Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1976).
Identity and Identity Construction
Identity is socially constructed, a process that begins at an early age. Child rearing practices at home and school and community socialization begin the process of identity construction (Rogoff, 2003). As the individual constructs his or her own identity, exogenous forces also shape that individual's identity such as reactions to the way a person's appearance. For visible minorities, belonging to closely-knit communities in small groups can greatly enhance the process of identity construction, particularly for minority youth (Bratt, 2015). This remains true throughout the young person's life, including the person's transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Adolescence remains the critical point of identity construction, holding "a special role in virtually all cultures as a time of transition between childhood and adulthood," (Cauce, Cruz, Corona, & Conger n.d., p. 14). Therefore, it makes sense to focus on adolescence and young adulthood when investigating biculturality among Muslim American…
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.
Subjects and Sampling Technique:
The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive…
Conesa, C.; Rios, a.; Ramirez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos, F. & Parrilla, P. (2009). Attitude of Primary Care Nurses Toward Living Kidney Donation. Transplantation Proceedings, 37(9), 3626-3630.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, a.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Neyhart, C. & Colaneri, J. (2004). Living Anonymous kidney donation: A solution to the organ donor shortage? Nephrology Nursing Journal. Online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ICF/is_3_31/ai_n17207253/
Watson, J. (2007). Theory of Human Caring: Theory Evolution. University of Colorado at Denver. Online at http://www.nursing.ucdenver.edu/faculty/jw_evolution.htm
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
market communication plan for Divine Chocolate that produces chocolates for a noble cause of supporting the cocoa farmers of Ghana and promoting Fair Trade. The paper consists of an analysis of its business environment as well as a set of recommended strategies which it can use to beat the competition and effectively communicate its marketing messages to the most potential target customers.
Divine Chocolate is one of the leading Fair Trade chocolate manufacturers in the United Kingdom and United States. In addition to producing the best quality chocolates, Divine Chocolate also aims to promote fair trade in the Global community. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the current business and marketing strategies of Divine Chocolate and proposes a market communication plan which can help it better understand its target market, effectively run its advertising and promotional campaigns, and beat the competitor brands which are supported by numerous unknown credential…
Batra, R., Myers, J.G., & Aaker, D.A. 2009, Advertising Management, 5th Edition. New Delhi: Pearson.
Batsell, J. 2004, Bumper crop of coffee labels, Available at [Accessed March 7th, 2013]
Brassington, F. & Pettitt, S. 2006, Principles of Marketing, 4th Edition. Harlow: Prentice-Hall.
Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. 2010, Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall
It is through interviews and analysis; we will see how these individuals feel about the new cultures and regulations around them. Living in a new place, these individuals can very easily let go of the limitations they were under before. Therefore, their answers will give a sound idea of what sort of struggle they are experiencing with the new culture and how to retain their self and identity.
This study was only carried out on eight students and that is the major limitation of this research project. As stated before, half of the sample size is directly from Saudi Arabia and the other half has lived in countries such as well. Despite these differences, there are other factors such as economic class, religious sect, education and family structure that make each of these individuals different one from another. Due to these differences, the generalization created from this sample set…
Balbo, Marcello. "Social and spatial inclusion of international migrants: local responses to a global process." (2009): Print.
Giddens, Anthony. Modernity and self-identity. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991. Print.
Goffman, Erving. The presentation of self in everyday life. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 1973. Print.
Islam101.com. "The Utility of Islamic Imagery in the West." 1960. Web. 17 May 2013. .