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In 1982 Ingrid D. wrote home to her mother, "I have joined a wonderful group of spiritually minded people and am living in an ashram. If you send me clothing, it should be orange, red, or burgundy." She had become a follower of Bhagwan Shree ajneesh, an teacher from India, who developed new forms of active meditation aimed at overcoming repression, lowering inhibitions, and attaining enlightenment. Although he preached that the family was an out-of-date institution that should be replaced, he did encourage his followers to make peace with their families rather than to alienate themselves. Ingrid lived in the ashram as one of "the Orange People" for 10 years, after which she left and pursued a successful career in law enforcement. Three years from now, she will retire and has already begun work on a second career as a minister in a New Age type church. She has…
Bader, C. (1999). When prophecy passes unnoticed: New perspectives on failed prophecies. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, v38, no1, 119-31, March.
Clark, C. (1994). Clinical assessment of adolescents involved in Satanism. Adolescence, v29, no.114, 461-68, summer.
Curran, D.K. (1989) Why troubled teens might turn to satanism. The American School Board Journal, August, 12-15.
Hunter, E. (1998). Adolescent attraction to cults. Adolescence, v33, no 131, 709-14, fall.
Indeed, it is very difficult to think of two traditions that could be more radically different than those as embodied by the movement of the Nation of Islam in America and the tradition of Vodou as it is practiced in Haiti and as variants of it are practiced in other areas as well. Indeed, the origins could not be more different than they are, for one thing, as Vodou stems out of a long and distinguished tradition of beliefs held by the Yoruba peoples of Africa and that was changed and syncretized during the period of enslavement. The Nation of Islam, on the other hand, was created by a single man, Elijah Muhammad and is a religion that, though it attaches itself to a greater historical tradition, which is that of Islam, is, in fact, quite ate variance with the larger religion, but at least elements of being part…
Clegg, Claude Andrew. An Original Man: The life and times of Elijah Muhammad. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.
McAlister, Elizabeth. Rara!: Vodou, Performance, and Power in Haiti and its Diaspora.
California: U. Cal. Press, 2002.
Pement, Eric. Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam. Retrieved November 24, 2003, at http://answering-islam.org/NoI/noi2.html .
Cults and Establishments
Regina M. Schwartz presents a radical, stimulating view on the meaning of monotheism. Its influence, according to the author, extends far beyond theological import. Monotheism informs cultural consciousness and greatly influences group identities. As such, religious beliefs can promote certain types of psychological, sociological, and political realities. In The Curse of Cain, Schwartz specifically focuses on the nature of Biblical monotheism as it has been expressed in the Jewish tradition. Drawing the foundation of her theory from the allegory of Cain and Abel, the author describes how Jewish monotheism has contributed to a violent, antagonistic worldview. Not intended to be an attack against Judaism itself, this thesis is set forth to explain how myths and religion can shape the consciousness of entire groups of people. Schwartz uses the story of Cain and Abel to symbolize brothers killing brothers, what she calls "original violence." There are four basic…
Schwartz, Regina M. 1997. The Curse of Cain. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
What is a cult?
Is MM a cult?
Why is Southern California most affected by cults? 6-8
Marilyn Manson shot to heights of unprecedented fame when his album 'Antichrist Superstar' became a multi-platinum success in 1996. As the name of the album suggests, the group stands for everything unconventional, shockingly bizarre and appallingly occult. The bandleader, Brian Warner, doesn't mind being given so much attention even if most of it is negative in nature. While Manson is seen as a curse on America's moral fabric, he is madly idolized by millions of teenagers in the country who would probably give an arm and a leg to be in his shoes. His fame appalls many but not Manson himself who believes an anti-hero is an essential figure in the American culture (Baddeley, 2000). However what is even more interesting than his sudden rise to extreme heights of notoriety is…
Davis, Mike. Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster. New York: Vintage, 1999.
Gavin Baddeley, Dissecting Marilyn Manson: Plexus Pub April 10, 2000
Margaret Thaler Singer, Ph.D. with Janja Lalich, Ph.D., Jossey-Bass, Cults in Our Midst: The Hidden Menace in Our Everyday Lives, San Francisco, CA, 1995
Billy Sloan, MARILYN MANSION Inside the lair of the rock star who boasts he is., Sunday Mail, 05-20-2001, pp 16,17
The late twentieth century witnessed a dramatic "rise in the number of obscure cults and the increasingly fevered pitch of their rantings."
Three cults that grew in popularity throughout the 1970s through 1990s, having a particular impact on American culture, include The Unification Church, The Church of Satan, and Heaven's Gate. These three cults had nothing to do with one another and in fact their central belief systems can on some specific points be considered contradictory with one another too. However, their ideologies seem trivial superficialities that obscure the elements they share in common. These three cults demonstrate remarkably similar structures and modes of recruitment. Their historical context shows that both sociological and psychological factors impacting their growth and development were similar, too. Cults like the Unification Church, the Church of Satan, and Heaven's Gate tend to be populated by "people who shared little more than a willingness, or…
Gleick, Elizabeth. "It Was the Marker We Were Waiting For." Time. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/reports/cult/heavensgate/heavensgate1.html
History Channel. Satanism. Television documentary.
LaVey, Anton Szandor. Satan Speaks! Port Townsend: Feral House, 1998.
Wolf, Ole. The Emperor's New Religion. Retrieved online: http://www.scribd.com/doc/8085920/Analysis-of-the-Church-of-Satan-by-Ole-Wolf
CULTS VS. CHRISTIANITY
Christianity is the religion of millions of people in the world. Christians, the followers of Jesus Christ and the ible, face multitude of problems and challenges from other religious cults, (they claim to be based on ible) or non-religious cults.
Religious cults are sometimes called "sects" as they do have some of teachings derived from the core religion, which is Christianity, here. Some of them are: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Jehovah's Witness, United Pentecostal Church (Oneness Pentecostalism and Unitarian Universalistic Association. Similarly, there are non-religious cults such as the followers of Charles Manson, Jim Jones, and Waco etc. (Joyce)
No matter, what the nature of cult be, they are seen as threats to society and Christianity.
They cause divisions in religion, worse still they immobilize the minds and thinking capabilities of their followers, thus taking them away from the truth. These cults…
1) Fr. Brian Joyce, Cults vs. Catholic Christianity, Homily of 07/09/2003, retrieved online on 19/04/2004, http://www.ctkph.org/homilies/homilies2003/homily090703.pdf
2) The New "Spirituality" vs. Christianity, retrieved online on 19/04/2004, http://www.orthodoxphotos.com/readings/future/christianity.shtml
Cults and Sects -Overview, retrieved online on 19/04/2004 http://www.namb.net/root/resources/beliefbulletins/cults/overview.asp
The third framework applied to Google's brand equity is the relations marketing (M) model, which defines the value of brand equity as a function of the global competitiveness across comparable networks and customers' adoption and reliance on the brand. The M model also focuses on the reciprocal nature of branding, which for Google includes free e-mail, office automation, and web acceleration products. This reciprocal nature of Google exemplifies the M model from a networking and relationships standpoint (Fournier 1998). The M Model is also attributed with brand loyalty and the development of cult brands due to its highly reciprocal nature and the fact that many of the most brand-loyal customers define themselves by the brands they buy and support. This model also supports the contributory role of marketing communications in strengthening a brand over time (Morgan & Hunt 1994).
Analysis of Models
Clearly the relations marketing model (M) is…
Chaudhuri, a. (2002) How brand reputation affects the advertising-brand equity link. Journal of Advertising Research (Summer), pp. 33-43.
Chaudhuri, a. & Holbrook, M.B. (2001) the chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65 (Spring), pp. 81-93.
A comScore, 2007, comScore Releases Worldwide Rankings of Top Web Properties. London, UK. Published 10 April, 2007. Accessed from the Internet on April 19,2007 from location:
Eschatology, Cult and Ideal Time
My own personal definition of eschatology is the meditation on the four last things—death, judgment, heaven and hell. The purpose of this is to gain perspective about one’s life in the here and now. Some people might think, “Oh, why would you want to meditate on such depressing things?” but they do not understand the purpose or that these things are not really depressing at all. There is nothing depressing about death when you follow it with the three other things—judgment, heaven and hell. To think of death as the final thing is depressing. But Christians of course think of death as just one of the four last things—and the first step to either heaven or to hell. Judgment sit in between death and the final destination and when one thinks about judgment one does not have time to get depressed. One can get…
Defining Cults/Sects. (n.d.). Digital File.
Rodriquez, Fr. (n.d.). Cognitive dissonance theory. Digital File.
Rodriquez, Fr. (n.d.). Defining the sacred and profane. Digital File.
Rodriquez, Fr. (n.d.). What is chronocentricity? Digital File.
The Sect-Church Process. (n.d.). Digital File.
Religion, Neibuhr, And Daly
That hich is Holy
Of all the creatures on the planet, only mankind seeks to establish the ideas of worship, and engages in practices which look in a direction to identify that which is holy. There are no shrines built by schools of fish. Monkeys and Dolphins, which are some of the more intelligent creatures on the planet next to mankind, do not construct temples, or raise up images of which they seek to identify as greater than themselves. Only human beings seek a greater power to give their lives meaning and purpose.
After filling the earth with creatures which walked, swam, flew on feathered wings and slithered on the ground, God says this about mankind. "God said let us create mankind in our own image, male and female we will create them."
So from our very first breath, mankind is different from the rest. e…
Daly, Mary. 1971, After The Death Of God The Father. Women's Liberation and the transformation of Christian consciousness. [online] Originally published in Commonweal, March 12. [cited 13 Oct. 2003] Available from World Wide Web:
oth Rosemary's aby and I Walked with a Zombie are movies that have explicit elements of what we might more commonly think of as "horror" films. On the other hand, however, both rely so heavily on atmospheric tension and are so laden with strange ambiguity and "arty" moments that they seem to transcend the genre. Given the large following behind both movies as well, they are often just as likely to be described as "cult films" as horror movies. Indeed, it is important to realize that what makes cult movies a genre in their own right is not simply a lack of box office performance or else a devoted fan following. Indeed, cult movies share many other characteristics and a most typically marked by an otherworldly strangeness and an overriding sense of oddity. Often, these films are controversial and in certain ways they seem to transcend their genre…
Cult Films." Filmsite.org. Retrieved September 2, 2003, at http://www.Filmsite.org/ .
Sect -- in sociology and anthropology, the term sect refers to a group that forms inside another group and takes on some individual characteristics that are based on, but not completely, like the parent or other group. In religion, for instance, denominations may be considered sects. Other academic definitions of the term tend to look at a socio-cultural definition, in that what is it that the group, the sect, is in tension with and why did it believe it had to separate (e.g. The Episcopalians separating over the ordination of a gay Bishop) (Wilson, 1992, 5-9).
Sects also occur in political, social, and cultural groups and, like religious sects, are splinter groups who leave a party or organization because of disagreement on some level. The early International Communist Parties of 1915-1935, for instance had numerous sects. All these were based on the doctrine of Marx & Engles, but took on…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Heidl, G. (2003). Origen's Influence on the Young Augustine. Gorgias Press LLC.
Lalich, J. And M. Langone. (2009). "Characteristics Associated With Cultic Groups."
ICSA. Cited in:
Even if this were a philosophical correction to the varying degrees of utilitarianism we have seen in the 20th century, the simple fact is that Constitution has never defined the job of the President in the way it has been exemplified in modern times. Even Barry Goldwater, seen as a Hawk and a warmonger, commenting on this type of presidential job description: "This is nothing less than the totalitarian philosophy that the end justifies the means…. If there ever was a philosophy of government totally at war with that of the Founding Fathers, it is this one" (120).
How do we reconcile this reverence and responsibility for the American President with the cynicism, suspicion and apathy many Americans have about politics? Certainly, the consequences of the 1980s and the decade of greed enter into the calculation, as does the President who resigned while insisting "I am not a crook." Healy…
We may love to hear that a single candidate can restore American greatness -- if it was ever lost; that a candidate can turn around the economy by signing a few bills; or that a single president can change the geopolitical face of the globe -- but it simply isn't so. Instead, "a truly heroic president is one who appreciates the virtues of restraint- who is bold enough to act when action is necessary, yet wise enough, humble enough to refuse powers he out not have." Is this possible -- certainly, but until the American citizenry demands it, it cannot ever be.
Healy, G. The Cult of the Presidency. Washington, DC: The Cato Institute, 2008.
Terror states, already plagued by economic failure and social conflict, respond to such a strengthening in legitimation (ees, 2000).
Not all states in crisis will fall to the development of a "cult of the leader." The reason is based in other possible legitimacy outlets. As mentioned, some governments and leaders are able to become legitimate and powerful through simple tradition and legal authority. In those states, a cult leader is not required, since the need to create a false reality does not exist.
In today's technological society, terror state leaders will have a more difficult time setting the stage for "cult of the leader" situations. With the ability to communicate outside one's own region through the internet, individuals are less likely to view leaders through ethnocentric eyes. Further, with news sources from around the world, the population of such states will be able not only to see the facts as…
Lovatt, C.A. (1999). Ceausescu's return. Central Europe Review 1(9): 14-15.
Rees, E.A. (2000). Leader Cults: Varieties, Preconditions and Functions. The Leader Cult in Communist Dictatorship. Hampshire: Palgrave McMillan.
cult TV series (e.g. True Blood) watched, making
Television of Steel
There are several different definitions of, and criteria for, what constitutes a cult television series. Smallville, however, is one of the few television series that fulfills nearly all such requisites for the attaining of cult status. The show was broadcast before a national audience during prime time hours for 10 years, has won a host of awards, and generated a following that has spanned so many different genres, media, and spin-offs, that virtually the only word to describe it would be cult. However, one of the primary factors that readily afforded Smallville to be able to attain a cult like status was in place well before a single scene was shot or before a solitary actor had been cast. The fact that Smallville was based on the character of Superman, originally a DC Comics character and best selling title,…
Sumner, D. (2011). "Smallville bows this week -- with Stargate's world record." GateWorld. Retrieved from http://www.gateworld.net/news/2011/05/smallville-bows-this-week-with-stargates-world-record/
Bennet, C., Gottesfelf, J. (2002). Smallville: See No Evil. New York: Little, Brown Young Readers.
Ives, N. (2003). "The Media Business: Advertising -- Addenda; Verizon and WB Join for Promotion." The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2003/09/12/business/the-media-business-advertising-addenda-verizon-and-wb-join-for-promotion.html
Brown’s Cult of Saints
The Author’s Argument
The argument that Peter Brown makes in The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity is that the “cult of saints” was essentially promoted by the cultural leaders of the time—the bishops and elites of society who had a hand in shaping the perceptions of others. Through them, the Church expressed the idea that Heaven and Earth could be joined through the intercession of the saints,[footnoteRef:2] whose bodies were vestiges of grace and holiness, conduits through which Heaven could bridge the fault above the earth and reach out for Christians interested in making it to the other side, in holiness. As Brown notes, “the joining of Heaven and Earth was made plain even by the manner in which contemporaries designed and described the shrines of the saints.”[footnoteRef:3] The saints and their resting places represented the jointure—the point where the…
Eleusinian Cult of Demeter and the Magical Initiation ites that are part of each of those groups. The writer explores the groups and explains many of their beliefs and ways while focusing on the differences and similarities of them. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout history there have been mysterious groups, rituals and events that have only served to enhance the historic records of mankind. As the world continues to evolve it is interesting to look back and see where humans have been. One of the most interesting time periods in history involved the Eleusinian Mysteries and their magical initiation rites.
Before one can begin to understand the impact and importance of the initiation rites that were performed and endured by those in the cult of Demeter it is vital that one understand a little bit about the cult itself and its "life."
The Eleusinian Mysteries…
The Eleusinian Mysteries http://users.erols.com/nbeach/eleusis.html
Stephanus Byzantios, "Agra," in Stephanus Byzantinus cum annotationibus L. Holstenii et al. Lipsiae: Libraria Kuehnia, 1825. Vol. 1.
Stoabeus, Joannes, Anthologium, ed. A. Meineke. Lipsiae: Teubner, 1860-64. Vol. 4.
Ventris, Michael and Chadwick, John, Documents in Mycenaean Greek, 2nd. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
American Cultural History And Cult of Matthias
There had been many changes occurs in terms of the progress of the economy, population and intellectual abilities during the 18th century and these could be considered as the possible reasons for the evolution of a fresh thinking in all the various spheres of life, and this pertains to religion as well. This was in complete a need for change and a great desire for bring about changes. To a certain extent, this was considered to bring about the end of earlier concepts of religion of pertaining to the thought that it can be handled only by the privileged classes also ended. This led to the emergence of certain new religious thinkers and practical leaders like that of Mathias as leaders like him could not have become popular religious figures in the previous era. The line of thinking of Matthias was very much…
Amazon Book Review: The Kingdom of Matthias/a Story of Sex and Salvation in 19Th-Century
America: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19Th-Centtury America. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/product-description/0195098358/ref=dp_proddesc_0/102-8894187-2176153?%5Fencoding=UTF8& ; n=283155 Accessed 30 September, 2005
Bush, Perry. The Kingdom of Matthias: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19th-Century America.
Book reviews. Journal of Social History. Spring, 1997. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_n3_v30/ai_19409248
Even before the civil trial where it was determined that he did, in fact, kill two people, there was substantial evidence to any objective observer that Simpson obviously was responsible for the gruesome crime scene at his ex-wife's house. He fled the state the next morning, left traces of his own blood at the murder scene, and even managed to drip his ex-wife's blood into the interior of his vehicle. Meanwhile, as he led California police on a nationally-televised slow-speed highway chase, thousands of supporters came out with signs and banners supporting him. Because he once ran fast holding a ball.
During the time that Simpson was on trial for murder, the public also learned that he had an extensive history of physically abusing his ex-wife for years prior to their divorce and even saw Polaroid pictures of her bloody and swollen face that she had preserved in her safety…
In 1995 a terrorist, cult organization in Japan called Aum Shinrikyo perpetrated a Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway (eader, 2000). It left more than a dozen people dead, and thousands more were affected by the gas but later recovered. Many of those affected by it still have problems today, with issues such as post traumatic stress disorder and fear when using the subway system. They also experience vision problems, and worsening of conditions they already had before the incident (Ogawa, Yamamura, & Ando, et al., 2000). One of the most troubling issues, though, was not that the attack occurred, but the way it was handled by emergency response teams who were called in to contain the problem and care for the people who were injured and sick. The gas was released on a busy subway train full of unsuspecting individuals at a crowded time of day,…
Eldridge, J. (ed). (2006). Jane's Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defense 2006 -- 2007 (19th ed.). Coulsdon, Surrey, UK; Alexandria, Va.: Jane's Information Group.
Ogawa, Y., Yamamura, Y., & Ando, A., et al. (2000). An attack with sarin nerve gas on the Tokyo subway system and its effects on victims. ACS Symposium Series, 745: 333 -- 355.
Reader, I. (2000). Religious Violence in Contemporary Japan: The Case of Aum Shinrikyo, New York: Curzon Press.
Sidell, F.R. (1998). Jane's Chem-Bio Handbook 3rd edition. Alexandria, VA: Jane's Information Group.
as the Manson family a religious cult? In this essay, the author will prove this by examining the Manson Family as a political cult and the leaders use of mind control love bombing, the role of Manson as a group leader and his role within the group, and teachings and/or beliefs of the group. hile the group did not in the opinion of this author exhibit all of the aspects of religious cultism, it is certainly very much in the genre.
Its ties to and emergence from the sixties counterculture blurs this a bit, it is a cult nonetheless. As we will see in the body of this essay, a number of salient facts stand out that define a cult. One is a dominating personality. Secondly, secret and esoteric beliefs and liturgies, usually at the extreme edge of human behaviors. Finally, mind control use and tactics are endemic.…
Bugliosi, V., & Gentry, C. (2001). Helter skelter: the true story of the manson murders.
New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
What is a cult? (2007). Retrieved from http://psychcynic.blogspot.com/2007/11/blog-two-what-is-cult.html .
Destructive cults: the family; charles manson. (2008, April 8). Retrieved from http://www.religioustolerance.org/dc_charl.htm .
Despite its being Christian in nature, the clandestine and sometimes considered deviant practices of the group made it assume a negative image, at least as projected to the public by the mass media and groups with vested interests. The label "cult" was given a negative connotation because of the prejudice that the mass media, special interest groups, and former Branch Davidians has provided the public. There was unequal dissemination of information from the part of the Davidians, having observed the image of exclusivity and non-interaction with non-members of the group. Thus, the negative image of it being an 'evil cult' prevailed, leading to the uncalled-for raid by the AFT that led to the group's abolishment and deaths of its members.
The propaganda model of the mass media offers an alternative explanation to the uncalled-for raid and image attack against the Branch Davidians. It may be the popular notion that the…
However, changes in the religious group emerged after Houteff died in 1955. Under the leadership of David Koresh, the religious group became synonymous with the prejudiced, negative view of cults, stemming from the fact that Koresh's practices as the Branch Davidian leader deviated from the religious, or even at least, normative life of a Christian. He began practicing polygamy, and commanded his members to stock on food, weapons and fuel. The seemingly exclusive and autonomous nature of the Branch Davidians furthered the negative image it eventually became known for, heightened by the fact that the media projected the group as a "cult" with non-Christian, even immoral practices. Thus, towards the end of the religious group's existence, the Branch Davidians were considered as a cult with 'cultish' or deviant practices and beliefs. This transition from religious group to a cult led to the strong belief that groups who deviate from their original organizations lead to practices that are abnormal or deviant in nature.
Looking into the case of Branch Davidians, it can be said that due to the increased relevance of the mass media to the lives of the public, the group, despite its religious background, became a cult in the view of Americans. Despite its being Christian in nature, the clandestine and sometimes considered deviant practices of the group made it assume a negative image, at least as projected to the public by the mass media and groups with vested interests. The label "cult" was given a negative connotation because of the prejudice that the mass media, special interest groups, and former Branch Davidians has provided the public. There was unequal dissemination of information from the part of the Davidians, having observed the image of exclusivity and non-interaction with non-members of the group. Thus, the negative image of it being an 'evil cult' prevailed, leading to the uncalled-for raid by the AFT that led to the group's abolishment and deaths of its members.
The propaganda model of the mass media offers an alternative explanation to the uncalled-for raid and image attack against the Branch Davidians. It may be the popular notion that the Branch Davidians were to blame for the attack, harboring actions and behavior that are considered deviant and evil to the public, particularly to Christian groups and Christians. However, looking at the reaction of the mass media, the public and the government regarding the Branch Davidian group and the raid by the AFT, it can be said that the group was just a victim of media sensationalism, wherein the unequal dissemination of information regarding them as a group led to the public's conception that the group is indeed an evil cult. Thus, the "official view" is considered a prejudiced view of the group, and that the AFT should have investigated further on the allegations regarding their stockpiling activities before raiding the group's center at Waco.
Jim Jones and the Jonestown Massacre
Book: Suicide Cult by Marshall Kilduff
In 1978 the suicide-massacre of 900 people in South America shocked the world as Reverend Jim Jones' cult, named the Peoples Temple. In his book "Suicide Cult," Marshall Kilduff steps into Jim Jones' past and reflects on the man who brainwashed hundreds of people into donating their Social Security checks to his church, and eventually committing suicide in the Guyana jungle.
Jim Jones was born to a Ku Klux Klansman and as a young boy was practicing mind-control. He was a student minister in 1952, but left his Methodist church because they refused African-Americans into their congregation. Jones created his own mixed congregation church in Indiana in the 1960s. This was something unheard of for the time, and within his church Jones preached love and understanding. It's hard to believe this social harmony preacher would become the leader…
Simulacrum: hat is neither real nor a copy?
The simulacrum subverts the common notion of what constitutes a copy vs. An authentic artifact (Camille 31). In the common, classical ordering of priorities, the 'real' is what comes first, followed by the copy. The copy affirms the real, and the worth of the real, rather than negates it. A good example of this can be seen in art forgery. The worth of the real is affirmed by the fact that the copy (whether illegally or legally made) is considered inferior to that of the real, and the copy attempts to slavishly imitate the real. The greatest compliment that can be paid to a copy is that it can be mistaken for the real thing. A picture post card of the Mona Lisa is not synonymous with the famous painting itself.
The simulacrum, however, is a false idea, image, or rendition that…
Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Benjamin, Walter. "Works of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." In Film Theory and Criticism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Camille, Michael. "Simulacrum." In Critical terms for art history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Hart, Kevin. Postmodernism: A beginner's guide. Oxford, Bridgewater books, 2005.
Ho Chi Minh was for a long time of the most controversial dictators of the world. In this sense, "for westerners Ho Chi Minh has been a figure of some mystery for many years. His death on September 3, 1969 did not end the fascination he holds for people who have found his life enigmatic and his political position unclear." Therefore, it is fair to say that to this day, there are people who more or less worship him and the system he created as a result of his desire for power and supremacy. The power of Ho Chi Minh was his response to the Western world. As he was incarcerated Ho Chi Minh defied the Western world by defending himself and supporting the idea of him being a nationalist. As stated before, the idea of the adherence to a country has always been a successful one because people will…
Asian Political News. China to mark 30th anniversary of Mao's death, tight grip on legacy. 2006. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0WDQ/is_2006_Sept_11/ai_n16715796
C.E. Dent, "Sociological indoctrination under conditions of dictatorship." 1936.
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.
DeCaro, Peter a. Rhetoric of Revolt: Ho Chi Minh's Discourse for Revolution. Westport, CT.: Praeger. 2003.
The placebo drink smells and tastes like alcohol. Everyone (regardless of condition) believes that they are getting alcohol. He then videotapes each person's communication behavior in a group setting with 10 other people (who are also randomly assigned to the placebo or alcohol condition). Participants sign an informed consent form saying that they are getting alcohol and that they will be participating in a group setting to get to know other people who are also drinking alcohol. They are not told that some of them will think they get alcohol when they are really sober.
There are no ethical issues or problems presented by this case either. Deception was necessary to conduct research in this cases but the type of deception involved in serving placebos instead of alcohol would not present any risk of emotional or other harm to participants. Since the nature of the deception would not cause emotional…
Kingdom of Matthias. There are three references used for this paper.
From the Quakers to the Great Awakening to Nat Turner, we have examined numerous variations of where a belief in the 'inner light' or the 'priesthood of all believers' could lead. It is important to examine the cult of Matthias to understand why he was popular, the factors which could have led to his revelations, the social and religious climates and the needs of his followers. It is also important to explore whether the cult was due to the transhistorical appeal or if it offers deeper lessons about early American religious experiences.
Robert Matthews was "a carpenter from upstate New York who, after a lifetime of finding God everywhere and economic success nowhere, rode his half-starved horse into Manhattan in 1832, proclaiming his own divinity. He presented himself as not a Christian at all, but as Matthias, the…
Brown, Lee Rust. "The Kingdom of Matthias." The New Republic. (1994): 17 October.
Johnson, Michael P. "The Kingdom of Matthias: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19th-Century
America" The Nation. (1994): 14 November.
(The Matthias Delusion. (Accessed 27 November, 2004).
The term 'cargo cult' refers to, …the activities of Polynesian islanders who, having experienced the bounty of the U.S. Air Force's presence during orld ar 2 and the sudden disappearance if their generous guests, maintained and built air strips and replicas of aircraft in the vain hope that the airmen might one day return."
There is a sense that the artist intended to refer in this work to the mundane life of the ordinary person in terms of the illusion of the cargo cult. In this sense the figures on the beach live a life of illusion, waiting for something that is false or which will not arrive. This adds another philosophical and existential dimension to the work which is also possibly a comment on the emptiness of modern life and the meaningless of the suburban and consumer lifestyle.
Many of the works succeed in presenting images in a…
Art Encyclopedia: Eric Fischl. 29 November, 2009.
Bednarik R. The Dampier Cargo Cult. 29 November, 2009.
Eric Fischl: Bio. 29 November, 2009.
New Religious Movements
Of the myriad new religious movements which have arisen over the course of the twentieth century, only a few have resorted to violence and mass suicide as a course of action. Perhaps the most famous of these, the so-called Jonestown Massacre, resulted in the deaths of over nine hundred people, and serves as the basis for John Hall's examination of the particular preconditions and precipitating factors which lead one cult or new religion to violence instead of another. Hall's theory is applicable beyond the case of Jonestown, and in fact may be used to better understand the motivating factor behind the mass murder/suicides committed by the Order of the Solar Temple in the 1990s. In particular, by considering Hall's theory in conjunction with the analysis of the Solar Temple deaths given by Jean-Francois Mayer, it will become clear that each of the six preconditions and three precipitating…
Hall, John R. "The Apocalypse at Jonestown." Cults and New Religious Movements. Malden,
MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. Print.
Mayer, Jean-Francoise. "Our Terrestial Journey is Coming to an End': The Last Voyage of the Solar Temple." Cults and New Religious Movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell
Publishing, 2003. Print.
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
omen, Men and Environment
hile we might like to believe that we are each the masters of our own fate, in fact the environment plays an important role in shaping who we become. Guthrie makes this point in The Big Sky, for Boone, Summers and Teal Eye are all more the product of their environment than they are the creators of the world around them. Guthrie suggests that this being-shaped-by rather than shaping-of the environment is especially strong in the est, but he also at least suggests that the environment is a potent force in shaping the lives of people everywhere.
It has become fashionable in recent years to scoff at the myth of the est and to replace this myth with history. This is in large measure what Guthrie has set out to do. He is intent on telling a real story about a real place, and in particular…
Guthrie, A.B. The Big Sky. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. http://www.literature.org/authors/bronte-charlotte/jane-eyre
Schlissel, Lillian. Women's Diaries of the Westward Journey. New York: Schocken, 1992.
As we know from the evolution of modern history, the Soviet Union and the countries of the Eastern block generally backed up the Arab countries, mainly because their actions were directed towards the Untied States and Israel, natural enemies for the Soviets.
However, strangely enough, international politics meant that the United States often found themselves backing Iraq, at least during the 80s and the war with Iran. This happened because of U.S.'s relations with Iran, after Khomeini had gained power here, in 1979. So, somewhat in an absurd manner, we find both superpowers, the U.S. And the Soviet Union, tacitly backing Iraq, at least in part of its actions.
This is not the case after the Persian Gulf War, in 1990. The impact from now on is mostly economically driven. Indeed, under international pressure and economic embargo, the Iraqi government and Saddam Hussein's regime is forced to abide by many…
1. Wikipedia. On the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_terrorism#Cuba
Wikipedia. On the Internet at
Otter -- Crockett -- cook
s William Otter's a History of My Own Time a rags-to-riches success story? To what extent does it conform to the themes associated with the Cult of the Self-Made Man and to what extent does it deviate?
William Otter's autobiographical work A History of My Own Time (1835) is truly what one would call a "rags-to-riches" tale, yet it can also be viewed as being quite the opposite. Otter started out in several professions -- a shoemaker with John Paxton in New York City, the venetian blind-making business with William Howard, a carpenter with Gausman, and finally, the bricklaying and plastering business with Kenweth King. Following these flings as an apprentice, Otter then decided to attend school with a "liberal attention to classic lore," but Otter's involvement with heavy drinking at the taverns and his association with many of New York's toughest street gangs severely…
In 1842, P.T. Barnum purchased what has come to be called the "Feejee Mermaid" (i.e., from the island nation of Fiji) from a Boston museum proprietor. This "mermaid" was a conglomeration of various fish parts and other faked pieces assembled to look like a real mermaid; of course, its authenticity was not promoted by Barnum who merely wished to display the "mermaid" as a curiosity of "artful deception." Considering Crockett's love for the outdoors and for nature, he most probably would have bought a ticket to see the mermaid at Barnum's museum and thus would have enjoyed the exhibit, mostly due to his innate curiosity as pointed out in his narrative and his love for nature, but since Crockett was not a stupid nor gullible man, he most assuredly would not have been fooled by Barnum's "mermaid" and would have viewed it yet another gimmick to fool the common man or woman and thus profit from their gullability. As a demagogue, Crockett would also have not liked the idea of the mermaid as a "promise" to the viewer in regard to its authenticity, for Crockett surely would have considered any attempt to make money from gullible customers as outright theft.
Question # 4: How would William Otter respond to Barnum's "What Is It?" exhibit? How would he describe it? Would he enjoy the exhibit? Would he demand his money back? Answer should draw on both James Cook's account of the exhibit and evidence from A History of My Own Times.
In his book The Arts of deception, James W. Cook describes an exhibit in Barnum's museum called "What Is It?," promoted in the museum's literature as "Nondescript," meaning something that cannot easily be identified or recognized, much like Barnum's "Feejee mermaid." This exhibit featured a black man with a shaved head, dressed in furs or tights while grunting and consuming what appeared to be a meal of "African" origin; obviously, Barnum was attempting to parody the traditional racist view of the black man as an "African" primitive far beyond the bounds of ordinary New York civilization. For William Otter, this exhibit, due to his New York City roots, would have been seen as quite hilarious yet somehow reminiscent of the streets of New York with its roving bands of thieves and rowdies, some of whom were most assuredly African-American. As to enjoying the exhibit, Otter would most probably have thoroughly liked it, for it may have reminded him of his own early roots working as a "slave" in various low-paying and often unglamorous professions in New York City. Also, Otter may have understood the true meaning of this exhibit -- a symbolic reflection of life on the streets of the city with many people living as animals while the rich and powerful enjoyed their luxuries and wealth. Of course, Otter would not have asked for his money back; in fact, he may have returned to Barnum's museum to see this exhibit several times.
In the 35 years following its development, femoxetine, commonly known by its trade name "Paxil," has been the focus of a growing body of research based on its proven harmful effects, most especially an increased incidence of suicide. The fact that the drug's manufacturer concealed evidence of these harmful effects has added further fuel to the investigatory fires and new findings continue to confirm the harmful effects of Paxil today. To gain some current insights into Paxil's use and how it has affected consumers in recent years, this paper provides the history of the drug, representative evidence from the scientific community that confirms its several dangers, as well as the results of two face-to-face interviews with former Paxil users to identify specific points of convergence with the scientific research as well as differences. A summary of the research and important findings are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis…
Breggin, P.T. (2006). "How Glaxosmithkline Suppressed Data on Paxil-induced Akathisia:
Implications for Suicidality and Violence." Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry,
8(2), pp. 91-93.
Choate, L.H. & Ginter, G.G. (2011). "Prenatal Depression: Best Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment." Journal of Counseling and Development, 89(3), pp. 373-376.
Witchcraft in the 16th & 17 Centuries: Response to Literature
At first glance, a logical 21st Century explanation for the "witch craze" (also known as a witch-hunt) during the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe was based largely upon human ignorance. That is to say, the belief that a sub-culture of the general population performed witchcraft (and other magic-related phenomena), and ate the flesh of children, helped the unenlightened explain the unexplainable, and helped the ignorant deal with the darkness. Witchcraft seemingly established a reason that a person had that bad luck and it explained illnesses, and probably it helped explain natural calamities such as tornadoes, seismic catastrophes and sudden killer bolts of lightning or sheets of rain turned into disastrous flooding. Or it could even explain a stillborn child and a puppy with a broken leg. Somebody put a spell on that poor dog. Mysterious events that had no…
Behringer, Wolfgang (1997) Witchcraft Persecutions in Bavaria: Popular magic, religious zealotry and reason of state in early modern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Breslaw, G., Elaine (2000) Witches of the Atlantic World: A Historical Reader & Primary Sourcebook. New York, New York University Press.
Cohn, Norman (1975) Europe's Inner Demons: An Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch-Hunt. New York, Basic Books.
Coudert, Allison P. (1989) The Myth of the Improved Status of Protestant Women: The Case of the Witchcraze. In: Brink, Jean, R., & Coudert, Allison P. ed. The Politics of gender in Early Modern Europe. Kirksville, MO, Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers.
The research showed that Hinduism is a religion that has been practiced in South Asia for more than 4,000 years, and despite having experienced some fundamental changes during these millennia, the religion has been adopted by people from all over the world. hile the majority of Hindus are still in India where four out of five people are Hindus, the research also showed that the billions of people who subscribe to Hinduism do not assign this term to their faiths, and may not even have ever heard the term "Hindu" in their lives. The worldview held by these billions of faithful is therefore naturally varied, but largely relates to a perpetual universe in which unrequited desire is the source of human misery, and the cycle of life will continue until these desires are understood and extinguished. Finally, the research also showed that Hinduism is characterized by the shared concepts…
Basham, a.L. "Hinduism." In the Concise Encyclopedia of Living Faiths, R.C. Zaehner (Ed.). Boston: Beacon Press, 1989.
Beck, Richard. (2006). "Defensive vs. Existential Religion: Is Religious Defensiveness Predictive of Worldview Defense?" Journal of Psychology and Theology 34(2): 142.
Carmody. Denise Lardner and John Tully Carmody. Mysticism: Holiness East and West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Findly, Ellison Banks. (2002). "Hinduism and Ecology: The Intersection of Earth, Sky, and Water." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 122(4): 925.
Paxil tying drug readings: (Using readings support analysis)… the articles: "The
In order to properly analyze the drug known as Paxil, one must give prudent consideration to a number of factors. The first of these, of course, is the fact that by the very definition of this narcotic, it is a mind altering substance that is able to readily induce changes in one's brain or psychological state that often time have effects upon the physical body as well. Additionally, it should be noted that the very nature of this particular narcotic is quite different from other narcotics, in particular those which are used for recreational purposes -- namely mind altering substances such as alcohol and marijuana. It is quite possible for users to view occasions to engage in either of these substances as opportunities for fun and pleasure, particularly marijuana. However, although there may be medicinal purposes of…
Becker, Howard S. "Becoming a Marihuana User." The American Journal of Sociology. 59, no.3 (1953): 235-242.
DeGrandpre, Richard. The Cult of Pharmacology: How America Became the World's Most Troubled Drug Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.
Hacking, Ian. "Making Up People." The London Review of Books. 28, no. 16 (2006)
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
Is Scientology a Religion?
One common objection raised against so-called New Age religions like Scientology is that they are not truly faith-based systems, but function more as businesses or cults. Scientologists and atheists and agnostics alike, however, have objected to this distinction, arguing that there is little difference between conventional Christianity and newer faiths. In fact, scholar and podcaster Reza Aslan has argued that the only difference between Scientology and other religions is its age, given that it was founded in the 1950s by science fiction author L. Ron Hubbard (Gilgoff and Escobedo).
It is true that when Christianity was just beginning, it was a persecuted and marginalized religion. It originally sprang up as a distinct sect of Judaism, but gradually spread to the gentile community, thanks to the preaching of Paul (“Early Christians”). While Judaism was a religion very much located in the belief structures of the ancient Israelites,…
“Early Christians.” The Roman Empire. PBS. Web. 29 October 2020.
Gilgoff, Dan and Escobedo, Tricia. “Scientology: What Exactly Is It?” CNN. 22 March 2017.
Web. 29 October 2020. https://www.cnn.com/2017/03/22/us/believer-what-is-scientology/index.html
Nededog, Jethro. “How Scientists Costs Members Up to Millions of Dollars.” Business Insider.
12 Mar 2016. Web. 29 October 2020. https://www.businessinsider.com/scientology-costs-leah-remini-recap-episode-3-2016-12
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…
Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).
Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
Fischl displays himself comically strutting, his stomach strangely stuck out, as if to say that his own portraits are just as bizarre; that he nor his paintings are to be taken seriously. The artist presents himself as a clown, preparing for those who say something against his art, preparing himself from the negative. His mask hides him from any critiques. "I think that we, and again I'm saying the generation as we, had a profound degree of self-consciousness. The self-consciousness came from a feeling that everything was a cliche, that everything had such a strong predecessor to it -- that basically you were in pantomime" (Tillim).
In Chicago, when he was going to school, Fischl was also exposed to the non-mainstream art of the Hairy Who. "The underbelly, carnie world of Ed Paschke and the hilarious sexual vulgarity of Jim Nutt were revelatory experiences for me" (Eric Fischl Web site).…
Db-ArtMag.com Rooms for the Misbegotten: A Conversation between Erick Fischl and Cheryl Kaplan.5 December 2009 http://www.db-artmag.de/2006/4/e/1/444.php
Fischl, Eric. Web site. 5 December, 2009 http://www.ericfischl.com/bio/biography1.html
Homes, A.M. Eric Fischl. Bomb (1994-95). No. L., pp. 24-29
Tillim, Sidney. Eric Fischl at Mary Boone, Art in America. (1987), pp. 214-215.
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
From its tribal stages in Jerusalem to the conversion of Augustus,
from the Crusades and Inquisition to the splintering Americanization of the
U.S. antebellum era, Christianity would be the province of both the
conquered and the conqueror over history, with either of these conditions
serving the cause to stimulate Christian faith. This would help us to
attach Christian history, importantly, to the moments at which human
movements, political systems or social parameters would invoke the
magnification of its influence. This is meaningful to us as a
demonstration of the crucial role played by the historical context in
framing the relationship between man and faith.
Barrett, David B. (2001). orld Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University
Hooker, Richard. (1996). Buddhism. orld Civilizations. Online at
Rahula, Ven. Dr. . (2002). A View on Buddhism. Buddhism. Online at
Sotkin, Joan. (1978) Vedanta Vedanta Society of Southern California: hat
is Vedanta? Online at…
Barrett, David B. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University
Hooker, Richard. (1996). Buddhism. World Civilizations. Online at
Rahula, Ven. Dr. W. (2002). A View on Buddhism. Buddhism. Online at
That is, international financial organizations, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and which controlled by core states, decide that, in order to grant financial aid to undeveloped countries, these states should comply with some rules that are, in the end, in the detriment of their own economy. For example, Africa pays more to the IMF and World Bank, than it collects in credit from them, and this leads to low living standards, poor education and health systems and undeveloped infrastructure.
Besides financial institutions, transnational corporations have a saying in the economic development of a country. Although one might be tempted to say that a corporation, by creating a branch in an undeveloped country gives that economy a boom, it is actually all about personal gain.
Working in a corporation might be considered the best thing that could happen to a person, on a professional scale. You…
Chomsky, Noam. "DRCNet Interview: Noam Chomsky." Drug War Chronicle Aug.2002. Drug Reform Coordination Network. Washington DC. 2.08.2002. http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle-old/223/noamchomsky.shtml .
Korten, David C. "When Corporations Rule the World." USA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers; 2 edition, 2001
Kozol, Jonathan. "The Shame of the Nation. The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America." New York: Crown Publishers, 2005
Wallerstein, Immanuel. "The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century." New York: Academic Press, 1976
e. Paterno - would not have had the centralized power that he possessed. Instead of him being the lone arbiter of the team's interests and performance, he would have been controlled by the necessary third objective party that Paknis insisted should have been there to investigate each and every aspect of the team's functioning. Paterno would have been simply an actor within a larger democratic system of individuals objectively interested in the team's good and in their ethical performance. These would have included an objective and large area of stakeholders such as citizens, groups, elected representatives, and other appropriate institutions. In this way, Paterno would have been held in check and his mythical presence controlled by objectively elected representatives and citizens who would have taken great care to ensure that public interest, rather than personal interest, prevails. It is the leader's responsibility to enhance the team's reputation not to destroy…
Huf Post.Sports (11/16/11) Penn state scandal: Matt Paknis, former graduate assistance, says Joe Paterno knows everything.
Paknis, M. (11/8/11) Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely, Building Teams & Leaders
Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…
Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A
Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.
Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.
Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).
And an owner could set his slave free as a reward for that slave's noble service, transforming this piece of property into a human being with a touch of the hands and a few words.
Plautus depicts the absurdity of this legal reality with a humorous edge, but his humor has a great deal of societal bite. Plautus' most famous play, which provides the plot of "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum," is entitled "Pseudolous." The main character and incidentally the main character in Stephen Sondhiem's musical. Pseudolous means false or "trickster" and Pseudolous is indeed a mendacious individual. However, Pseudolous is also part of a mendacious Roman society, a society which denies him rewards equal with his intelligence and his cunning and rewards the falsely pious can't of the young man's father he is attempting to help.
Plautus deals with this issue even more explicitly…
Mercy Otis Warren "wrestled valiantly throughout her life with the problem of finding time for writing and reflection," Kerber explains on page 256. Warren had four children and a "large, elegant household," and while recognizing that the claims on her time - verses her own desire to write - presented no simple answer for her. That said, Kerber claims that Warren took the issues of republican motherhood "more seriously" than "virtually any other woman of her generation."
What are some of those republican motherhood issues that Warren took so seriously? For one thing, Warren envied unmarried women who, she said, were "...free from those constant interruptions that necessarily occupy the mind of the wife, the mother, and the mistress" (Kerber 256). That said, it was apparent that not only did Warren spend a bit of time being envious of those who didn't have as much domestic work to do as…
ive Guys was founded in 1986 by Jerry and Janie Murrell and their sons, all five of whom are part of the business. In 1986-2001 ive Guys opens five locations around the DC metro-area and perfected their business of making burgers. Now, over 20 years after ive Guys first opened, there are over 1,000 locations nationwide and over 1500 units in development. ive guys continue to receive media attention and have grown a cult-like following around the world (www.fiveguys.com). In this assignment, the following questions will be answered as to how ive Guys continues to be a success and why customers continue to flock to their restaurant:
Determine how ive Guys' philosophy sets it apart from other fast-food chains.
Analyze the original values for the start-up company and how it remains strong today.
Enumerate three (3) factors that contributed to ive Guys' success in such a short time and what…
Five Guys Holdings, LLC. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. www. fiveguys.com.
Galuten, Noah (May 28, 2010). "CSPI Releases Its Annual List of Rosenwald, Michael S. (April 3, 2006). "Five Guys, Taking a Bigger Bite." The Washington Post.
"Virginia Beach Best Food & Dining." August 27, 2007. Hampton Roads.com. Landmark Media/Enterprises LLC.
Secret; The Power
honda Byrne's The Secret: The Power (2010) is truly an incredibly bad book, simplistic, repetitive and divorced from real history, politics or economics, yet it has sold 19 million copies. A cynic might say that the real secret to wealth is writing a bestselling book that millions will buy. Her 2006 book The Secret sold more over 19 million copies and was translated into 46 languages, and she was also a guest on the Oprah Winfrey Show and many others on the daytime TV chat circuit. Like all self-help writers, she has a talent for publishing the same advice repeatedly in new books that claim to offer even greater insights than past philosophers and religious teachers and in 2007 Byrne wrote The Secret Gratitude Book, followed a year later by The Secret: Daily Teachings. Her latest offering is about 250 pages long and quickly appeared on the…
Byrne, R. (2010). The Secret: The Power. NY: Simon & Schuster.
Apple Computers Influence on Popular Culture
Apple Computer, Inc. is recognized worldwide for creating powerful solutions that are based on user-friendly personal computers, servers, peripherals, software, personal digital assistants and Internet content (Apply Pp). Headquartered in Cupertino, California, Apple is an innovator in the information industry and a leader in multimedia technologies (Apple Pp). It develops, manufactures, licenses and markets solutions, products, technologies and services for business, education, consumer entertainment, scientific and engineering and government customers in roughly one hundred and fifty countries (Apple Pp). Apple has had a profound influence on popular culture. Macintosh users are not just users, they are devotees, who use the computer to express their beliefs on the relationship between technology and society, for they believe the Mac is not simply an object by which to think, it is a spiritual path to a future where technology and humans co-exist in harmony (Lam Pp).
Piller, Charles. "Macintosh Mystique." Macworld. February 1, 1994; Pp.
Apple Advertising Takes Top Honors in Major Industry Awards." PR Newswire.
July 31, 1996; Pp.
Lam, Pui-Yan. "May the Force of the Operating System be with You: Macintosh
Women's History Questions
After reading the introductory texts, how has your understanding of women's history changed? What did you think women's history was before your enrolled in the course and compare that to how these historians define women's history? Do you agree or disagree with them?
Do women benefit from the American Revolution?
In developing your answer, recognize there is no single "woman" that encompasses all women in America. As a result, you must be sure to fully defend why your examples demonstrate the benefits or detriments of the Revolution for women.
The results of the American Revolution created a situation in which the treatment of individuals as property was challenged. The treatment of individuals as property carried real ramifications for women. One salient example is the freedom to use your power is a slave owner to coerce women into sexual relationships against their will. Many minority women that were…
The final point is that others have to do whatever they are doing as all cults try to expand their numbers at the earliest opportunity. (the Cult Influence Tactics)
Another method of influence that comes on us is through frames and they are used for both good of the people or evil. The frames are manipulative to put individuals in a situation where they would find it very difficult to get out of. The frames are formed in a manner where they can not be determined easily as ordinary persons are too busy to realize that they are facing an issue which has been framed. The method of avoiding this is to remember that one has to make all decisions for oneself with full responsibility. One of the areas when this is used in convincing people to purchase some not needed items. To avoid this people have to ask themselves…
Ethics in Advertising." PONTIFICAL COUNCIL for SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS. Retrieved at http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/pccs/documents/rc_pc_pccs_doc_22021997_ethics-in-ad_en.html . Accessed on 23 May, 2005
Frame Defense." Retrieved at http://www.workingpsychology.com/frdefens.html . Accessed on 23 May, 2005
The Cult Influence Tactics." Retrieved at http://www.workingpsychology.com/cultdef.html . Accessed on 23 May, 2005
people join fraternities and sororities, and do others not?
You may be a fresher in college or a student who has got transfer. Certainly you have taken up the college to attain a degree. Also you may be in search of some work to perform with all the leisure time you possess when you just are not doing anything in the class. There are umpteen groups of particular interest situated in the campus. You can enroll in one of these to enhance your extracurricular activities or render something for a valuable cause. It is recurrently convenient to make a decision about which group of particular interest you want to enroll in. But we see that the chosen lot of college students challenges the viability of joining a brotherhood group or sisterhood campaign. Each and every person has their own cause to enroll in or turn down these sororities or fraternities.…
Advantages of Being Greek" Retrieved at http://studentlife.tamu.edu/greek/Information/advantages.htm . Accessed on 12/02/2003
Parent's Guide to Greek Life" University Union and Student Centre: Clemson University. Retrieved at http://union.clemson.edu/sa/greek_life/parents_guide.asp. Accessed on 12/02/2003
Boan, Cliff. "In Praise of Greek Organizations." The Retriever - Opinion October 30, 2001
Retrieved from www.trw.umbc.edu/. Accessed on 12/02/2003
CRNE Event and Response
Over the last several years, the safety of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive related weapons (CRNE) has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because downfall of the Soviet Union has meant that acquiring these materials from failed states have increased exponentially. As, the stockpiles in many of these areas have questionable security procedures that are allowing terrorist and other rogue organizations to have access to these materials. (Prosser, 2011)
At the same time, the total amount of countries that are possessing these materials have increased dramatically. As different nations, are using these weapons to protect against possible military attacks or internal insurrection. In a number of cases, the majority of states that possess CRNE's are more than likely considered to: have questionable human rights records or they may not have signed different international provisions limiting the proliferation of…
Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Weapons at a Glance. (2011). Arms Control. Retrieved from: http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/cbwprolif
Alfred, R. (2009). March 20, 1995. Wired. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2009/03/dayintech_0320
Carus, S. (1997). The Threat of Bioterrorism. Strategic Forum, 127.
Hoffman, B. (2001). Changes and Continuity. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 24 (5), 417 -- 428.
The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.
The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:
Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?
My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…
Branine, M. (2011). Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practices. Sage.
Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence?. Business Horizons,51(5), 391-399.
De Bono, S., & Van Der Heijden, B. (2011). Managing cultural diversity. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Duncan, T. (2005). Current issues in the global hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(4), 359-366.
In conclusion, Saint Leo the Great has been called the first true oman Catholic Pope. His reign lasted twenty-one years, and they were some of the most influential years in Church history. Leo earned the title "Saint," and was named a Doctor of the Church as well. Saint Leo was one of the greatest Pope's to lead the Catholic Church, and he created doctrine and ideas that are still used today. He was a great theologian and writer, and had far-reaching ideas that helped define doctrine and unify the Catholic Church. He helped save ome from invaders and literally acted as the leader of ome when the Church split into an eastern and western movement. Saint Leo's feast day was celebrated on November 10, and is now celebrated on April 11 of the oman calendar.
Daniel-ops, H. (1959). The Church in the Dark Ages (Butler, a., Trans.). London J.M.…
Daniel-Rops, H. (1959). The Church in the Dark Ages (Butler, a., Trans.). London J.M. Dent & Sons.
Dunn, G.D. (2001). Divine impassibility and Christology in the Christmas homilies of Leo the Great. Theological Studies, 62(1), 71.
Jalland, T. (1941). The life and times of St. Leo the Great. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
McGinn, B., Meyendorff, J., & Ledercq, J. (Eds.). (1985). Christian spirituality: Origins to the Twelfth Century. New York: Crossroad.
Historians of Judaism actually date the strong Jewish emphasis on monotheism somewhat later than expected within Jewish history. The archaeological discovery of idols and artifacts indicating cultic participation from the time of Israel's presence in Canaan has seemed to indicate a relative laxity in actual practice before the Babylonian captivity, while textual criticism seems agreed that most of the Torah's foregrounded statements of strong monotheism date from textual recensions during the Babylonian captivity, and thus substantially post-date both the J-writer and the E-writer of the Old Testament (Moberly 217). But the strong emphasis on monotheism which comprises the first commandment given by Yahweh to Moses is a defining feature of Judaism in prevailing polytheistic cultures where the Jews can define their religion in opposition, so to speak. I would like to examine three separate ways in which Jewish monotheism defined itself against a kind of prevailing cultural polytheism.…
Ferrill, Arther. Caligula, Emperor of Rome. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Translated with an introduction by James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton and Co, 1962. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. Translated by Katherine Jones. London: Hogarth Press, 1939. Print.
Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: Norton, 1998. Print.
And maybe mass suicides are the old way's means of presenting their final argument. "Whether this is truly the case or not, suicides both individual and collective are only going to increase as frenetic technological changes tear apart tradition and destabilize cultures throughout the world."
Mass suicides are a form of protesting against the changing systems of beliefs; a means of escaping the unsatisfactory world around or pathways to heaven, conducted by weak and sometimes ill minds, led by a diabolic genius who has the capability of playing with others' minds. They exploit religious beliefs in order to make a less or more well founded statement.
And religious exploitation towards the advantage of an individual or group of individuals is not a procedure we are strange from. We should however bear in mind that we are beginning to demolish universal values. And after all, what will happen to…
Joost Abraham Maurits Meerloo, Suicide and Mass Suicide, 1962
Mass Suicides in Recent Years, CNN News, March, 1997, http://www.cnn.com/U.S./9703/27/suicide.list/index.html, last accessed on November 15, 2007
Mass Suicides Raise the Question: Why?, CNN News, March 1997, http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9703/27/nfm/suicide.psychology/index.html , last accessed on November 15, 2007
Mass Suicide, Holology Department of Research, http://www.holology.com/suicide.html, last accessed on November 15, 2007
The culture plays a vital role in the society. In this paper we have researched the different aspects of the society and the effect of culture on the society. The primary mode of subsistence is that of culture values and belief. Culture is usually taken for granted by many societies. However, it affects the way people act and belief in a particular society. Culture sets the norms and it is the primary mode of subsistence in a society. The behavior of the society is also according to the culture. The in depth analysis has been conducted on Enga society. This society is unique in its culture and beliefs. The tradition that is followed by the Enga has some pros and cons. The aspects studied in details of Enga are the kinship, values and belief, and gender relations. (Glazer, 2000)
The Enga primary mode of subsistence is that of agrarian…
Benedict Y. Imbun, (2002), Enga Social Life and Identity in a Papua New Guinea Mining Town. Oceania. 66.(1). 51+, Publication Year: 1995.
Jacka, J. (2002) Cults and Christianity among the Enga and Ipili. Journal Title: Oceania. Volume: 72. Issue: 3. Page Number: 196+.
Wallace, I. (1992). The Global Economic System. London, Routledge.
Glazer, N. (2000). Culture and Achievement. Public Interest, 49.
They were rewarded excessively for high performance and punished excessively for poor performance. The management style fostered a tremendously competitive environment among employees through a "rank or yank" policy in which all employees were evaluated every six months and categorized into three performance ranges of whom everybody in the lowest ranking was subject to termination unless performance improved satisfactorily in the subsequent evaluation period
As in the case of cults, the Enron initiation phase was followed immediately by the indoctrination and conversion phase during which employees were simultaneously rewarded with excessive luxuries and also subjected to the intense pressure to surrender their psychological independence, conform to corporate values, and also to a highly competitive work environment. More specifically, the organizational culture at Enron continually promoted the notion that all of its employees were the best and most talented in the world. Yet, they were also subjected to a punitive culture…
Phillips, K. (2008). "Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis
of American Capitalism" New York: Viking.
Zimbardo, P. (2007). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House.