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Native anthropology" is a set of theories based on non-Western precepts and assumptions in the same sense that modern anthropology is based on and is supported by Western beliefs and values (Jones, 31)
"native anthropologist" differs from an anthropologist who is not native to the society being studied in the following ways. Essentially Anthropologists can be described as either insiders or outsiders.
An "insider" is a person who conducts research on the cultural, racial or ethnic group of which he or she is a member, and an "outsider" conducts research of a native culture from an objective point-of-view. "Insiders" and "outsiders" face different problems.
Anthropology students are generally taught that a person working with his/her own people cannot maintain objectivity and research experiences must be gained from another culture. However, the basic aim of anthropological field research is to describe the total culture of a group of people…
Scheper-Hughes, N. Culture, Scarcity and Maternal Thinking: Maternal Detachment and Infant Survival in a Brazilian Shantytown. Pp.291- 314
Rosaldo, R (1989). Culture and Truth: The Remaking of Social Analysis: Introduction: Grief and Headhunter's Rage. Boston Beacon Press. Pp. 1- 21
Jones, D. Towards a Native Anthropoloy. Pp 30-39
Cultural anthropology otherwise known as the socio-cultural anthropology or social anthropology is basically the study of culture and is mainly founded on ethnography. Ethnography is based on the methodology of collection of primary data and is purely a product of research where inductive method is used as well as a heavy reliance on the participant observers.
It is considered as the holistic and scientific study of humanity and majorly the branch that focuses on the study of human cultures, myths, practices, beliefs, values, economies, cognitive organizations and even technologies in the contemporary environment.
The significance of the participatory research is to help the individual place the rules of moral conduct, the cognitive structures and the social life patterns in their own socio-cultural context hence becoming very relevant and meaningful despite how 'strange' or 'bizarre' it might look to the persons from other cultures. The concept of cultural relativism goes against…
International Society for Quality in Health Care, (2011). Culture and quality: an anthropological perspective. Retrieved September 14, 2011 from http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/5/345.full
Stephen T. Bogg, (2011). Culture Change and the Personality of Ojibwa Children. National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved September 14, 2011 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1958.60.1.02a00060/pdf
University of Alabama, (2009). Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropologies. Retrieved September
14, 2011 from http://anthropology.ua.edu/cultures/cultures.php?culture=Symbolic%20and%20Interpretive%20Anthropologies
Cultural Anthropology focuses on how various customs, traditions and background of the individual will influence their lives. These insights offer specific ideas to provide a better understanding of what is happening and the long-term impacts of specific individuals and groups. The book Love Medicine is taking this approach by looking at the changes that are occurring with Chippewa Indians. They are located on a South Dakota reservation from the early 1930s onward. This offers a better understanding of how specific factors influenced their beliefs, attitudes and actions taken. The combination of these elements illustrate how this impacts the study of Cultural Anthropology and its effects on this segment. (Erdich, 2005)
Summary and Cultural Anthropology
Love Medicine is concentrating on how the way social attitudes will influence how someone will sees themselves and the world around them. For the Chippewa, these beliefs impact the person's behavior and how they…
Bailey, G. (2013). The Essentials of Cultural Anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Erdich, L. (2005). Love Medicine. New York, NY: Harper Trade.
Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Conditions in the Arctic North
The first human occupation of the Americas occurred in erengia during the last glaciation of the region. Later, it was more widely accepted that the primary center of population expansion was in Alaska, subsequently spreading into the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. The physical environment of the populated regions influenced the developing cultures of each group, affected by access to resources, barriers to trade routes, and weather and land conditions. As a result of environmental impact, religion, technological adaptations, economy and food source acquirement varied among the cultural populations, and is still seen in ethnic societies of the Arctic region today, evidence of the cultural sustainability of such adapted groups.
To define "culture," it is the combination of values, practices, and relationships of a population, with a number of factors influencing its development. Considering environment as a key point to cultural development…
Brown, Chris. "Beyond the 'Invented Indian': Acknowledging Original Conservation."
Terralingua. 1997. Partnerships for Linguistic and Biological Diversity. 4 Mar. 2004. http://cougar.ucdavis.edu/nas/terralin/paper006.html
Freimund, Wayne et al. "Principles of Koyukon Worldview." Native American Perspectives on Wilderness Preservation & Management. 1997. Wilderness.net. Chapter 12, 225-235. 4 Mar. 2004. http://www.wilderness.net/wmdep/crookston/Readings/nelson1.pdf
Greider, Brett. "Religion and Region." Religious Studies Web Resources. 20 Jan. 2003.
individual may have about a particular group of people can drastically effect their attitude and behavior towards that particular group of people. When two people from different cultures, with their own biases and cultural thinking, are faced with the prospect of interacting, these preconceptions can emerge in the form of confusion, misunderstanding, and even anger.
One situation that comes to mind occurred while a friend was visiting her boyfriend. His mother happened to be staying with him at his home for an extended period of time. On one particular visit, my friend left her boyfriend's home without saying good bye to the mother.
In American culture, this would not present any particular problem. In American culture it is typical to only announce a departure to a group if the individual is present with that group, or to the host only. However, my friend's boyfriend was Chinese, and in Chinese culture…
Culture of Sinhala Elite and Shiv Sena in Post-Colonial Asia
This paper considers the issue of culture within the context of post colonial Asia. The paper examines the cultural strategies of two cultures; the Sinhala elite and Shiv Sena and how these groups developed and emerged, redefining their own identity.
eligion and politics old ways destroyed by new regimes and ideologies
eligion is a man made concept, as such all things connected to this can be seen as pure superstition and non-existent, yet from an anthropological point-of-view the religions and superstitions of other races is seen as an important and integral aspect of research and calls for an open and understanding mind. Man has since the dawn of time been involved in one form of symbolism, whether it be through cave paintings or making idols of goddesses.
eligion and ritual are always part of the world of Man, it has…
Brow, J (1996) Demons and Development: The Struggle for Community in a Sri Lankan Village (Hegemony and Experience - Critical Studies in Anthropology and History) University of Arizona Press;
Everson, M (1991) The study of ritual as an aspect of human religiosity Mankind Quarterly, Fall/Winter91, Vol. 32 Issue 1-2, p57, 19p
Hansen T, B (2001) Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Bombay. Princeton Univ Pr
Hopkins (2001) [online] accessed at http://www.apocryphile.net/jrm/articles/hindudiff.html
Race is one of the most bedeviling of anthropological characteristics. The concept, with the barest tips of its roots in biological realities and the rest of the plant firmly grafted to cultural and sociological constructs, is one of the first concepts that anthropologists dealt with vigorously in terms of the history of the profession. Ideas about race both helped establish anthropology as a discipline in its own right (distinct from history, political economy, philosophy, comparative religion and ethics) and kept it from being entirely assimilated into the post-colonial mindset. Like the poor for the rest of humanity, the idea of race - for both good and ill - seems always to be with the anthropologist.
Thus it is hardly surprising that Roger Lancaster should become fascinated with the concept of race during his fieldwork in Nicaragua. For the milieu in which he is working provides a fascinating swirl of ideas…
High-Speed Internet and Society
Cultural Anthropology concerns itself with the intricacies of cultural development amongst the human species. One innovation that has impacted the way a society or population develops culturally is the Internet. As the Internet becomes more ubiquitous, prices for Internet subscription drops thereby increasing the number of people who can afford Internet services. Additionally, market pressures amongst cable and Internet companies have brought about trials to improve the quality (i.e. The speed of Internet connectivity) of the Internet. The purpose of this essay is to examine the potential effects inexpensive high-speed Internet service may have on society.
"Fiber for Communities" is a Google initiative that seeks to install fiber optic lines that will bring gigabit-per-second Internet speed to 500,000 people in Kansas City by 2012. Gigibit-per-second Internet speed is blazing fast, consider the realities it brings as described in the AP article, Google Picks Kansas City, "The…
"Google Picks Kansas." Times Free Press. Tennessee, Chattanooga. 31 Mar. 2011.
Web. 7 May 2011.
omen's shoes have also evolved over the years. According to "Italian Fashion: The History of High Heels," only men wore high heels originally; they were a sign of wealth and leisure, as well as an excellent way to keep shoes in stirrups. 14-year-old Catherine de Medici requested a pair of high heeled shoes from Paris; this fashion move made heels popular for women as well.
One of the biggest fashion bombshells is the invention of the stiletto in 1950. This shoe's construction was made possible by the addition of a steel core and were difficult to break. It also lifted the sole up. The 1940's focused on a male centric version of women's dress, since women were working at men's jobs at the time. omen loved stilettos because it was a welcome return to femininity; when the men came back from war in the 1950s, they were expected to…
Cox, Caroline. Stiletto. New York: Harper Design International, 2004. Print.
Downey, Lynn. Levi Strauss & Co. Charleston: Arcadia, 2007. p. 8. Print.
Kuhl, Jackson. "The first blue jeans: blue color is everlastingly appointed by the deity to be a source of delight." Calliope Sept. 2010: 2+. Student Resource Center - Gold. Web. 9 May. 2011.
Ownby, Ted. American Dreams in Mississippi: Consumers, Poverty & Culture, 1830-1998. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1999. Print.
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
communicative processes of humans to those of non-humans, taking as a primary example the member of the primate family the chimpanzee with follow up examples from birds, members off the canine family and cats. Bibliography cites no sources.
Human and non-human communication, a comparison of interspecies speak
Humans and animals are very different creatures, however if we look at the differences in communication we can see that although humans have the ability to form words in their form of communication, animals also have their own unique way of communication, birds chirp and whistle, primates hoot and stamp the ground and wolves or those of the canine family growl, use their ears and tails in their own form of sign language.
Moreover if we compare the system of communication with that of those that are closest to the human race but are not human, this is the primate family, for this…
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…
Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf
Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading
Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
Cultural Briefing Document Zurich Switzerland
The LJ Products Co. is proud to announce that one of our executive staff will be joining our staff in Zurich Switzerland in January of 2012. Mr. Didier Burkhalter will be joining our Zurich staff as chief financial officer. Mr. Burkhalter will report directly to the CEO and other members of the board. To make Mr. Burkhalter feel welcome in his new position it is requested that all staff members read the following briefing prior to his arrival and that they become familiar with the customs of Mr. Burkhalter's country of origin. All staff members should extend Mr. Burkhalter a warm welcome by familiarizing themselves with his customs. The following summarizes many of the customs of Swiss society, using American culture as a reference point.
Hofstede's cultural dimensions is the most widely used system for developing a framework that assesses national cultures and…
COMMUNICAID GROUP LTD. 2009. Doing Busineass in Switzerland: Swiss Social and Business Culture. [online] Available from: http://www.communicaid.com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-business-in/Doing%20Business%20in%20Switzerland.pdf [accessed to December 2011}.
EDIPLOMAT. 2011. Switzerland. [online] Available from: http://www.ediplomat.com/np/cultural_etiquette/ce_ch.htm [accessed to December 2011}.
EXPATICA. 2011. Management Culture in Switzerland. Expatica.com. [online] Available from: http://www.expatica.com/ch/employment/employment_information/Management-culture-in-Switzerland_13331.html [accessed to December 2011}.
HOFSTEDE, G. 2001. Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Cultural epresentation of Social Class
Social class is a reflection of more than the material conditions of the lives that people live. Objective resources such as income are responsible for shaping up some cultural practices as well as behaviors which signal social class. These signals end up creating cultural identities among the people in the upper and those in the lower classes. This makes people get rooted perceptions that are subjective in terms of social classes. The paper will look at how culture which is related to social class impacts identity and pride within individuals within specific social classes.
Social classes have a great influence on people thoughts, feelings and their actions. Social class is a form of cultural identity which is constituted in various processes. First of all the social class that someone belongs to is determined by symbols such as wealth, preferences and social behaviors such as the…
Gabrenya, W.K. (2003).Culture and Social class. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://my.fit.edu/~gabrenya/social/readings/ses.pdf
Menon, D. (2011).Social class as culture. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/social-class-as-culture.html
Cultural Observation of Dress
Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.
Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)
f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.
People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…
Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)
Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.
Miner's article is discussing the appearance
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
Cultural school focuses on the culture of the individual entities that form the organization. Culture, it asserts, drives the organization's judgment and operational strategy resulting in differences such as between a Japanese and American organization.
In contradistinction to the power school that places the loci on the individual as well as the entrepreneurial school that does likewise (this time on the leader), the cultural school insists that individuals are a homogenized whole, their decision, beliefs, judgments, and actions formed by their specific culture. In this way, therefore, to understand an organization necessitates understanding its culture. Organization culture -- the premise of the cultural school -- is, oftentimes, understood as collective cognition since a deeply rooted culture produces closely interwoven interpretations and activities.
Content and Process.
Culture is ineradicably part of the individual's makeup. His or her perspective on the world is shaped by this culture, and since organizations are a…
Rieger, F. 1987. 'The influence of national culture on organizational structure…' Dissertation, McGill Univ., Montreal.
Roth, K. & Ricks, D.A. (1994). 'Goal configuration in a global society context.' Strategic Management Journal, 15, 103-140.
Wright, J.P. 1979. On a Clear Day you can see General Motors. Wright Enterprises: MI.
Decreasing one's own ignorance can be done in several ways. One of the best is simply to start learning about and researching another culture (Barry, 2002). When a person assumes something about a particular culture or makes value judgments about that culture (whether or not those judgments are accurate for the majority of people in that culture), he or she is indicating that an entire group of people are the same and that they all do things a certain way because of the culture to which those people belong. It is better in the long run not to stereotype people that way, and to judge each person on his or her own merits. ight now, for example, there is a stigma in the United States against Muslims and/or people who come from the Middle East. Ever since September 11, 2001, that stigma has continued to grow and develop.…
Barry, B. (2002). Culture and equality: An egalitarian critique of multiculturalism. New York, NY: Harvard University Press.
Cavell, S. (2002). Knowing and acknowledging. Must We Mean What We Say? New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…
Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
.." When one uses health foods it shows that person has "certain values and a commitment for a certain world view," Dubisch writes; and that person is experiencing a "mazeway resynthesis," a mental map, a mental image of the world that is entirely individual. Health food use is a "system of symbols" in which foods have life-giving properties. The Pentecostal Church also believes in "healing" and like the health food movement, is skeptical about doctors' ability to heal. "Even when a person receives medical assistance, he can still look to God for diving healing" (United Pentecostal Church International). "He can and often does heal miraculously without any human assistance...many people in our churches can testify to being miraculously healed by God..."
10 Occupational Folklore: When a person in an occupation learns and plays out certain rituals and beliefs, it is important for research to be conducted into those behaviors for…
Cultural Attitudes Towards Animals in India
India has long held the cow to be a sacred animal (hence the famous phrase 'sacred cow'). But the attitude of Hindus towards cows has often been described as perplexing and irrational by esterners, particularly given the high rates of poverty in the nation. It is not uncommon to see cows wandering through the streets while starving people beg, causing observers from other ethnicities and faiths to wonder why Indians do not slaughter the cows for food. Even an Indian anthropologist, M.N. Srinivas, an Indian stated: "Orthodox Hindu opinion regards the killing of cattle with abhorrence, even though the refusal to kill the vast number of useless cattle which exists in India today is detrimental to the nation...the large animal population is more a liability than an asset in view of our land resources" (Harris 1)
According to Orthodox Hindu doctrine: "the cow is…
"Animals in Indian culture." Sri.Venkateswara Zoological Park [24 Apr 2012]
Harris, Marvin. "India's sacred cow." Sociology 101. [24 Apr 2012]
I try not to pry into what I see as the private business of others. Privacy, I believe is something that is strongly valued in America -- in other societies, older societies, what one did was of interest to the community, even if it took place behind closed doors. However, despite or even because of the privacy and freedom given to me, I try to uphold my high moral standards, even when I do not feel that there is someone like a priest or a policeman 'watching' over my shoulder.
However, I do think that given that we live in an age where life is growing even more private, maybe too private, as so many people spend the little leisure time they have surfing the net, pretending to be anonymous individuals in the virtual and disembodied space of the Internet. It is easy to profess one set of morals at…
... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'
The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.
Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
This is not a revelation to those alert, informed, intelligent citizens who pay attention to news broadcasts. Still, the ongoing media bias towards distinct racial groups is intolerable in democratic societies, whether the U.S., Australia, or Britain. An article in the Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology (Voorhees, et al., 2007) states it very well in terms of the media portrayal of minorities in the U.S. Gulf Coast during and after Hurricane Katrina. Storm survivors (there were 1,500 deaths) indicated a "misrepresentation of minorities in media coverage" and this "systematic negative portrayal...contributes to...negative mental models, stereotypes, prejudices and ideologies about others, and hence," worst of all, "...indirectly [leads] to the enactment and reproduction of racism" (Voorhees, p. 418).
Balibar, Etienne. (?) Fictive Ethnicity and Ideal Nation.
Cable News Network - CNN (2009). The Black oman & Family. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2008/black.in.america/index.html.
Goldenberg, Suzanne. (2008). Interview:…
Balibar, Etienne. (?) Fictive Ethnicity and Ideal Nation.
Cable News Network - CNN (2009). The Black Woman & Family. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2008/black.in.america/index.html .
Goldenberg, Suzanne. (2008). Interview: Christiane Amanpour: 'Somehow I don't feel it
In my gut.' The Guardian. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.guardian.com.uk.
According to functionalism, societal values also play an important role in governing a society by offering general guidelines for acceptable behavior through the establishment of roles and norms. For example, such societal institutions as the family, economy, education and government are essential aspects to the social structure, with each institution playing a role, related to the roles of the other institutions. In this sense, individuals will become interconnected through these institutions and therefore form a community.
Functionalism is based on three fundamental concepts. First, functionalism views society as a system. Accordingly, society is defined as a collection of interdependent parts that each exhibit a tendency toward reaching an equilibrium. Second, in order for a society to survive, certain functional requirements must be satisfied. An example of such a function is reproduction. Without reproduction, the population will not survive. Third, all societal phenomena or trends exist for the sole reason that…
Malinowski, Bronislaw. (1990): A Scientific Theory of Culture and Other Essays. Raleigh: University of North Carolina Press.
Malinowski, Bronislaw. (1939): "The Groups and the Individual in Functional Analysis." The American Journal of Sociology. V. 44, p. 938-964.
For example, consider the phenomenon of the evil eye. Among this rural Iranian community, the evil eye represented a kind of gaze that could be cast-sometimes intentionally and sometimes not -- that can cause harm to others. The evil eye is a common concept throughout the Middle East and in many other communities. In the modern world, most consider the evil eye to be little more the ridiculous superstition. However, for the women of Deh Koh, the evil is very real and affects their behavior and reactions to life events.
Specifically, consider the matter of Simin's pregnancy. Once discovered, news of the upcoming birth spread rapidly throughout the community. The other women with whom Simin was close quickly presented her with all manner of charms and practices that they felt would best insure the health (and gender, for that matter) of the child. Simin's own mother "brought a bag with…
Friedl, Erika. Women of Deh Koh: Lives in an Iranian Village. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989.
This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism can be seen at the root of the other cultural problems discussed in this context; it implies both a lack of understanding about the impacts of the unit's culture on the people of a foreign culture, as well as a lack of appreciation and understanding for that culture (Hoskins 2007).
Culture is strange, in that it is both constant and always changing. The only static culture is a dead one; as the various elements and generations of a culture interact, change is bound to happen. When there is no longer any interaction within a culture or between a given culture and other cultures, there is no longer any point to that culture, and indeed that culture could not realistically exist…
DiMarco, L. (2003). Traditions, changes, and challenges: Military operations and the Middle Eastern city. Diane Publsihing.
Harrison, D.; Light, L. & Rothschild-Boros, M. (2008). Cultural anthropology: Our diverse world. New York: Wadsworth.
Hoskins, B. (2007). "Religion and other cultural variable in modern operational environments." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA470675&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
O'Neil, D. (2007). "Characteristics of Culture." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_2.htm
Sociology and Anthropology
Because sociology and anthropology are both social sciences, one might assume that the same research methods would be utilized in the different fields. However, while some of the same approaches can be used in both fields, it is important to realize that the differences in the fields make different approaches possible for each discipline. Sociology specifically examines social life, social change, and the social factors that contribute to individual behavior. Sociologists use surveys, interviews, experiments, observation, and secondary analysis (Sociology.com, 2013). Cultural anthropology examines human culture. Anthropologists employ the following research methods: participant observation, cross-cultural comparison, survey research, interviews, archival research, media analysis, and historical analysis (Donahue-Lynch, 2000). Clearly, the disciplines are related; however, they are not the same. As a result, some approaches that are appropriate for one discipline would not be appropriate for the other discipline. This paper will investigate the different research methods used…
American Anthropological Association. (2014). What is anthropology? Retrieved January 29,
2014 from American Anthropological Association website: http://www.aaanet.org/about/whatisanthropology.cfm
Donahue-Lynch. (2000). Methods of research in cultural anthropology. Retrieved January 29,
2014 from Quinebaug Valley Community College website: http://www.qvctc.comment.edu/brian/methods.html
Culture in Anthropology:
Culture is basically defined as values, attitudes, and behaviors that are shared by a group of individuals. However, this definition of this has been a complex and relatively difficult task for anthropologists since the commencement of discipline in the late 19th Century. Culture originates from interactions and behaviors of people who eventually develop common attitudes, values, and behaviors. In essence, as people live and interact with one another, their learning skills and attitudes are in turn transmitted as knowledge and beliefs that are shared among them, which results in cultural beliefs and practices.
Despite the simple, basic definition of culture, anthropologists have struggled to describe and specify the concept since the discipline was established in the late 19th Century. There are various anthropologists who have attempted to define and specify the culture including Edward Tylor whose definition incorporates various significant features that are currently included in most…
Bonvillain, Nancy. "Chapter 2 -- The Nature of Culture" Cultural Anthropology. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006. 19-42. Print.
Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like
COSS CULTUAL THEOIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM
Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham
Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity. Different films do have different numbers of characters, who act as family members, friends, and business personnel's in order to portray to the different issues to their viewers. With the help of a team comprising of the writer, producer and the directors, the characters are able to follow instructions so as to produce a film with the required themes. Bend it like Beckham, is a comedy-drama film in which the title is derived from a famous England football player David Beckham and his ability to score from…
Bates, D.G., & Plog, F. (1976). Cultural Anthropology, 3rd Ed., New York: McGraw-Hil
Baruth, L.G., & Manning, M.L. (2003). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and M.W. Feldman (1981), Cultural Transmission and Evolution.
Princeton: Princeton University Press
What does racism means if race has no biological basis?
Race may have no biological basis, but anthropology does not study biology alone -- race is also a cultural construction. An African-American man might have the physical DNA of European, Caucasian individuals within his genetic code, but because he is subject to the racial classification and potential discrimination within America, because America holds race to be an extant category, this does not mean that race lacks significance as a subject of cultural study. Race may be a constructed fiction, but racism, or the hatred that the cultural fiction of race has spawned, is real.
It is important to remember the lack of true 'races' in the world, however, when analyzing potential associations between groups. For example, even though they may be considered different 'races' by society, groups of marginalized persons subject to the culturally constructed notion of racism may wish…
Cross Cultural Psychology
Comparing cross-cultural approaches to psychology:
An ecocultural vs. An integrated approach
The need to take into account different cultural perspectives when treating patients has become increasingly recognized within the profession of psychology. Cross-cultural psychology, in contrast to other branches of psychology, allows that the definition of what is psychologically 'normal' is often highly dependent upon one's cultural context. Two similar, but slightly different approaches to cross-cultural psychology include the ecocultural model and the integrative model.
The ecocultural model, posits "that the individual cannot be separated from his or her environmental context. People constantly exchange messages with the environment, thus transforming it and themselves" (Chapter 1 summary, n.d). Someone acculturated in a nation other than the U.S. will show different developmental features than someone acculturated in America. The United States' culture supports a particularly long adolescence, and leaving home and beginning a family is no longer…
Chapter 1 summary. (n.d). Retrieved:
Trommsdorff, G. (2002). An eco-cultural and interpersonal relations approach to development over the life span. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 6 (2).1-15 Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=orpc
The ethics of using labor at rates far below what would be necessary in their own nations, with no requirement of paying healthcare, no workers' compensation insurance, no unemployment insurance, or even the threat of unionization sadly ensure this practice will continue. Yet when one considers this aspect of westernization it is clear that globalization in fact does not provide benefits to everyone in the long-run.
Towards a More Egalitarian Model of Globalization
Instead of blindly moving into a specific region or nation of the world and developing either one of several factory types as defined by Ferdows in much of his work on globalization of manufacturing, or attempting to create entirely new distribution channels to sell to residents, companies need instead to take a more egalitarian approach to global expansion. In their article the End of Corporate Imperialism, Prahalad & Lieberthal (et.al.) and in Dr. Prahalads' book the Fortune…
Bryan Caplan, Tyler Cowen. "Do We Underestimate the Benefits of Cultural Competition? " the American Economic Review 94.2 (2004): 402-407. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 28 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com
Friedman, Thomas. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. 1. New York: Anchor Press, 1999.
Friedman, Thomas. The World Is Flat. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. New York, NY. 2005.
Geert Hofstede. "The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. " Journal of International Business Studies (pre-1986)
Discursive construction refers to the ways identities related to gender, ethnicity, nationality, race, or any other parameter, are constructed through discourse. Discourse implies relationship and communication, and it can also relate to power differentials. For example, Narayan (1995) refers to the "self serving collaboration between elements of colonial rights discourse and care discourse," especially related to the "white man's burden" type scenarios (p. 133). The colonizer had once framed colonization as doing the Other a favor, by "promoting the welfare of the colonized" out of a belief in presumed superiority. Thus, the discourse creates a superior/inferior binary.
Narayan, U. (1995). Colonialism and its Others. Hypatia 10(2).
Subjectivity is embedded in postcolonial discourse and identity formation. In Black Skin White Masks, the author shows how black identities are constructed subjectively as opposed to actively because the colonizer projects values and ethics onto the Other. The poetry of Derek Walcott also…
Abdulhadi, R. (2003). Where is home? Radical History Review 86.
Yosso, T.J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? Race, Ethnicity, and Education 8(1).
She provides a thorough account concerning how Buddhism is one of the religions that came to have a strong influence on people's understanding of their culture. Thailand is a location where Buddhism is an active part of people's lives and this means that religion can actually be considered an important tool for ethnographers wanting to find out more about the country's culture.
2. Victor Turner provides a complex account regarding how rituals are important when considering religion as a whole and about how particular rites are actually He relates to how social life needs social dramas where people are provided with the opportunity to introduce luminal experiences into their lives. The masses generally need to contain individuals who put across anti-social behavior and to actually encourage these people in doing so by promoting eccentric behaviors.
Michael Atwood Mason focuses on having people understand more concerning the role of the body…
Stranger Things is a television show on Netflix that recounts the story of a missing boy, a frantic mother, and three friends looking for an answer. The show is a pastiche of popular 80's movies and television shows that featured monsters like E.T. and telekinetic children like Charlie in Firestarter. While the show does not hit on anything original, it does manage to hit a nerve among fans and has swept the nation with its sweet whispers of nostalgia. The show perhaps invites people to reach for their own ideologies in life vicariously through the main characters. Althusser discusses ideologies in his piece, "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses" and Bell Hooks examines desire and resistance in "Eating the Other: Desire and Resistance" that can point towards a better understanding of such a fast-growing cultural phenomenon.
Althusser defines ideologies from a traditional standpoint as 'world outlooks. However, Althusser admits they do…
To resolve this conflict in the situation where demographic and experiential differences are found qualitative researchers, such as those studying different cultures, might employ guides, interpreters and/or other "native" individuals to introduce and help them assimilate into the culture, in order to observe it or in some cases they use time as their tool, immersing for longer periods of time with limited or no interruption to eliminate any bias that might occur in research results because of his or her presence. Even among researchers this is not seen as a perfect set up but it can help resolve some of the intrusion challenges associated with diversity.
One of the major problems, as qualitative researchers see it in historical research is the fact that the researcher has often been seen and thought of as holding a position of authority over the subjects being studied. This idea of "social capital" is pervasive,…
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field/. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Finkleman, J.M. (2007) Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation: The Dysfunctional Side of Diversity. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59 (4) 254 -- 260
Pugh, S.D. Dietz, J. Brief, a.P. & Wiley, J.W. (2008) Looking Inside and Out: The Impact of Employee and Community Demographic Composition on Organizational Diversity Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (6) 1422 -- 1428.
Merchant, B.M. & Willis, a.I. (Eds.). (2001). Multiple and Intersecting Identities in Qualitative Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
The new division of these apartments that was thought to be a main feature of modern housing was not a solution to the problem of privacy. Most of the families only got a small bedroom with a small living space. Males and females often had to share the same rooms and in fact there was no room for children and guests (Bounrdieu, 1960).
This definitely shows the need for negotiating for modern space and daily life within el-Masaakin.in an analysis by an anthropologists he came to the conclusion that modern housing would not be sufficient for the production of modern articles and dispositions. However there are objective conditions which structure individual's appropriation of modern apartments. He maintained a clear distinction between the less and more privileged sections of the working class. Adopting modern housing is bound by cultural transformation where the segments of those who earn low incomes can not…
Brades, S. (1997).Society for comparative studies in society and history. Sugar, colonialism and death: on the origins of the Mexico's Day of the dead.vol.39.pp270-299
Bounrdieu, P.(1960).Relocation and Daily use of Modern space.
Aborigines are Australia's original inhabitants and until the late 1700's -1800's the aborigine had little contact with Western civilization. Local dialects and the territorial nature of bands provided the different social groups their distinctive identity. The Mardudjara (Mardu) aborigines are part of the Western Desert cultural block in Australia (Tonkinson, 1978). The Mardu culture, societal system, etc. has never been recorded in its pristine state as anthropologic researchers did not study the group until well after alien influences had occurred. Nonetheless, the nomadic lifestyle of the Mardu was dictated by the harsh climate in which they live and they are an extremely interesting group. Nomadic groups like the Mardu often have a perception of gender or a cultural gender schema that fits in functionally with their lifestyle and is based on a division of labor and status that allows the group to maintain an identify, clearly defined roles, and survive…
Bird, R. (1999). Cooperation and conflict: The behavioral ecology of the sexual division of labor. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8 (2), 65-75.
Holmes, L.D., & Holmes, E.R. (1992) Samoan Village (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Tonkinson, R. (1978). The Mardudjara aborigines: Living the dream in Australia's desert. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Cultural Diversity in Rural Settings for Nurses
On a continuum of cultural awareness to cultural relativity, how do you view yourself and your interactions with others?
As a nurse practitioner, it is easy to see the patient simply as a patient, as a sick person needing treatment, rather than a well person who perceives his or her body as only temporarily ill, but sees his or her person as permanently a part of a family and culture outside of the hospital. As Small and Dennis (2003) counsel, the increase in immigration has resulted in greater diversity of both patients and practitioners within the United States, rather than in traditional urban locations. Thus Small and Dennis remind the nurse that it is not simply enough to treat the patient, but the patient must also understand his or her illness in culturally comprehensible terms. A nurse must be able to communicate to…
Dennis, Betty Pierce & Ernestine B. Small. (Jan-Feb, 2003) "Incorporating cultural diversity in nursing care: an action plan" The ABNF Journal.
"New Position Statement Originated by: Council on Cultural Diversity in Nursing Practice, Congress of Nursing." (1996) Adopted by: ANA Board of Directors.
The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.
The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:
Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?
My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…
Branine, M. (2011). Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practices. Sage.
Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence?. Business Horizons,51(5), 391-399.
De Bono, S., & Van Der Heijden, B. (2011). Managing cultural diversity. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Duncan, T. (2005). Current issues in the global hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(4), 359-366.
Cultural Diversity in the United States
The United States is one of the most multi-culturally diverse nations in the world. It has often been described as a melting point in which diverse cultures converge. The country is filled with people drawn from different cultures such as Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Europeans. This study focuses on the concept and importance of cultural diversity in the U.S. I believe that cultural diversity is desirable in the United States because it fosters harmonious interaction of people: it should be encouraged because it makes American Citizen's appreciate and respect each other's culture.
Culture refers to an integrated system of learned conduct or behavior patterns that are distinct with members of a given society. As such, culture refers to a people's way of thinking or living. It incorporates people's traditions, religions, mode of dressing, language, values, and beliefs. Language allows people to establish a sense…
Pojman, L. (1999). Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, 3rd edition. Belmont, CA:
Two Cultural Groups
Contrasting Cultural Psychology between the East Asian and the Western Part of the World
The different fear level for the super-ordinates and ordinates in Westerns and East Asians
Globalization is considered to be the phenomenon that owns a positive tendency to tame the behaviors of the individuals dwelling in all parts of the world in an accord of productivity and peace. It is for this reason that the inclination of the global economy is tilting towards the studies of cross cultures and its implications is a result of progressive development of the world towards a multicultural and cosmopolitan state of behavior- in individuals as well as in the nations. But yet the fast fact paced technological advancements and the tamed behavior does not guarantee the homogeneity of psychology (Shweder, 1999). Psychology as a matter of fact is a complex framework of individuals' perceptions, cognitions, apprehensions…
L Berry, J.W. (2002). Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hui, C.H. (2000). Measurement in Cross-Cultural Psychology. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 19-32.
Jung, K.D. (1994). Is Culture Destiny? The Myth of Asia's Anti-Democratic Values, 4-8.
Lehman, D. (1995). Cultural variation in unrealistic optimism: Does the West feel more vulnerable than the East? . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 595-607.
Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States
Crossvergence in a Period of Dynamic. Turbulent Cultural Change: Assessing The Kelley, MacNab, And Worthley Study
The nuances and subtle shifts in a culture as a result of globalization is a paradox for many enterprises to manage over time and also for shot nations to anticipate and plan for economic, political and social shifts over time. As globalization continues to accelerate the integration and assimilation of diverse cultures together, the long-standing cultural frameworks including Hofstede's Model of Cultural Dimensions increasingly appears unable to capture cultural nuances effectively, and often, due to its structure, generalize differences between cultures (Kelley, MacNab, Worthley, 2006). One of the most valuable lessons learned from the Kelley, MacNab, and Worthley study is that there are often significant nuances and differences in the five cultural dimensions within a region, which…
Gupta, V. & Wang, J. 2004, "The Transvergence Proposition Under Globalization: Looking Beyond Convergence, Divergence and Crossvergence," Multinational Business Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 37-57.
Kelley, L., MacNab, B. & Worthley, R. (2006) 'Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: a longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors', Journal of International Management, 12 (1), pp. 67 -- 84, Science Direct [Online]. DOI:10.1016/j.intman.2005.04.002 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).
Ralston, D.A. 2008, "The crossvergence perspective: reflections and projections," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 27-40.
Sarala, R.M. & Vaara, E. 2010, "Cultural differences, convergence, and crossvergence as explanations of knowledge transfer in international acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1365-1390.
Cross Cultural Business
Conducting Cross-Cultural Business
Three Cross-Cultural Differences:
Certainly, among the most critical differences that must be accounted for before one begins practicing business in Asia is that regarding the way that people interact. In many ways, estern and Eastern culture stem from very different perceptions of the self and, consequently, how individuals should be expected to conduct themselves in interaction with one another. Indeed, Anbari (2008) et al. highlight this issue, indicating that "two main cultural differences have been identified. Hofstede distinguishes between individualism and collectivism. Trompenaars breaks down this distinction into two dimensions: universalism vs. particularism and individualism vs. communitarianism." (p. 2)
As we most certainly know from experience, the United States is a culture, both professionally and socially, where individuality is stressed. By contrast, in a general sense and throughout its business culture, Asia tends more toward collectivism or communitarianism. This influences how individuals express themselves…
Anbari, F.T.; Khilkhanova, E.V.; Romanova, M.V. & Umpleby, S.A. (2008). Cross Cultural Differences and Their Implications for Managing International Projects. GWU.edu.
Kolesnikov-Jessop, S. (2012). Respecting Cultural Differences. New York Times.
Not celebrating Christmas, and not having time off from school for Persian religious holidays, has always made me take great notice of the fact that I am "different." As I have matured, however, I have come to appreciate this difference, and to realize that everyone truly is "different" in many ways. It took me quite awhile to come to this realization and to fully accept my culturally diverse identity as a Persian-American, but now that I have I realize that the diversity I struggled with in my youth has actually given me a great advantage in modern society. I am already prepared and well equipped not only to "deal with" cultural diversity, but to actively engage and navigate a world where it is commonplace.
Learning to not only tolerate but to utilize cultural diversity in the workplace can be very difficult. Even something considered as standard by many people such…
Carnevale, a. & Stone, S. (1994). "Diversity beyond the golden rule." Training and development, pp. 22-39.
During, J. & Mirabdolbaghi, Z. (1991). The art of Persian music. New York: Mage publishing.
Fordham. (2007). "Persia." Internet ancient history sourcebook. Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook05.html
Woods, S. (2009). "Workplace diversity." Cornell university ILR school. Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/library/research/subjectguides/workplacediversity.html
Particularism vs. Cultural Ecology
Franz oaz defined the concept in anthropology, which is known by the name of "Historical Particularism." oas was a champion of this theory, which, although it did not by any means totally ignore the greater theoretical framework that surrounded an event, focused directly on the event itself and attempted account for this event by tying it in some way to a theory that could explain the creation of the cultural variables in the event by tying it in with environmental and historical factors. oas gives his own account of this development:
The new historical view also comes into conflict with the generalizing method of science. It imposed upon the older view of nature in which the discovery of general laws was considered the ultimate aim of investigation. According to this view, laws may be exemplified by individual events, which, however, lose their specific interest once the…
Boaz, Franz. A Franz Boaz Reader. George W. Stocking Jr., ed. Chicago: U. Chicago
Cultural Ecology." Apr. 30, 2003. http://archaeology.about.com/library/glossary/bldef_culturalecology.htm
Marquette, Catherine. "Some Notes on the Development of Cultural Ecology.' Apr. 30, 2003. http://www.indiana.edu/~wanthro/eco.htm
Cross-Cultural Tourist esearch
From the onset, it would be prudent to offer a concise definition of two of the terms that will be variously used in this text, i.e. cross-cultural interactions and culture. Culture, according to Hofstede (as cited in Bowe and Martin, 2007, p. 80), is "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another." It, hence, has got to do with that cumulative deposit of roles, societal hierarchies, as well as values and beliefs adopted by a group of people over a long period of time. In that regard, therefore, cross-cultural interactions are in line with the ability of an individual or group of persons to not only form but also foster and enhance relationships with those who may not be members of their own culture. On this front, successful cross-cultural interactions are essentially based on…
Bowe, H. & Martin, K. (2007). Communication across Cultures: Mutual Understanding in a Global World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hong, J.K. & Lee, Y. (2014). The Influence of National Culture on Customers' Cross-Buying Intentions in Asian Banking Services: Evidence from Korea and Taiwan. New York, NY: Routledge.
Mueller, B. (2008). Communicating with the Multicultural Consumer: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
Reisinger, Y. & Turner, L. (2012). Cross-Cultural Behavior in Tourism. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.
This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…
Edwards, Renee & Mark a Hamilton. "You Need to Understand My Gender Role: An Empirical
Test of Tannen's Model of Gender and Communication." Sex Roles. 50.7/8 (2004):
491-504. Research Library. ProQuest. 30 Oct. 2008 http://www.proquest.com/
Oetzel, John G. & Stella Ting-Toomey. "Face concerns in interpersonal conflict."
Social, Cultural, And Economic Dimensions of Information Use
Library institutions play a vital role in addressing social and political issues through the provision of relevant information. It is the responsibility of front-line employees, reference service librarians, and the paraprofessionals to make decisions and set the tone that will inspire a dynamic relationship within a community. In order to find the best ways of creating and maintaining a strong community involvement, library floor-employees consider the economic, social, and cultural factors for information use (Gallagher & Leckie, 2010).
Librarians are responsible in ensuring that their institution meets the demands of its users in multiple ways. In terms of the community, libraries are more than access to media and books or even the internet. In some cases, it acts as the focal point for community opportunity and involvement. In small cities, libraries are among the few public buildings where community members…
Gallagher, A., & Leckie, S. (2010). Economic, social, and cultural rights: A legal resource guide. Philadelphia, Pa: Univ. Of Pennsylvania Press.
Trauth, E.M. (2011). The culture of an information economy: Influences and impacts in the Republic of Ireland. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Globalization and Middle Eastern Culture
The term globalization has positive connotations in that it implies interaction and sharing through technology and suggests the improvement and development of less developed countries through connections with countries that are more economically wealthy. However, this is not always the way in which the term is interpreted by some countries and cultures. There has been a negative reaction throughout the world in recent years to the concept of globalization which is increasingly viewed as a means of domination and assimilation -- especially with regard to cultural aspects. A more formal definition of globalization is as follows:
Globalization can be conceived as a process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions, expressed in transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction and power (see Held and McGrew, et al., 1999).
In essence globalization is characterized…
Cheruiyot K. Our Languages Are Dying [article online] Available from http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0224language.htm ; Internet: accessed December 1, 2004.
Held D. And McGrew A. Globalization. (article online); available from; Internet: available from http://www.polity.co.uk/global/globocp.htm; Internet: accessed 6 December, 2004
Maisami Mona, Islam and Globalization. [essay online] Available from The foundation Magazine (August 2003) http://www.fountainmagazine.com/articles.php?SIN=5a952d9bae& ; k=33& 1677948306& show=part1; Internet: Accessed 1 December, 2004.
Moussalli Mohammed, Impact of Globalization ( Article online) Available form Daily Star ( August 25, 2003) http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0826islam.htm ; Internet: accessed 5 December, 2004
He looks at the methodological and practical problems that can impact assessment research in correctional settings, including the distinctive culture in correctional institutes. Megargee's reason for doing the research is today's huge population of incarcerated persons and the fact that psychological research that has been conducted on people outside of the incarceration setting may not be applicable to people who are incarcerated. He recognizes that there is a need for research in this area to determine whether tools developed elsewhere are applicable. He points out the irony of this lack of applicable research because clinical psychology was developed in the criminal justice setting. He does not really conduct any individual research, therefore the methodology is most akin to a literature review in which he assesses the information available about correctional institutions and draws conclusions from that information to determine why there is a lack of research on assessment in correctional…
Author Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Chapter 3: Looking into the clinician's mirror: cultural self-assessment. In Editor's Last Name, First Initial (Ed). Book Title. Place of Publication, Publisher.
Megargee, E. (1995). Assessment research in correctional settings: Methodological issues and practical problems. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 359-366.
A loud burp in one setting can be a high compliment, but in others it will be considered enormously offensive. Confronting law enforcement figures over perceived transgressions of their authority is a highly prized tradition in the West, but these confrontations are actively avoided in the East. Likewise, standing for women entering a room is de rigueur in Western cultures, but such practices would be viewed as incongruent with the cultures of many Eastern countries. Then there is the matter of which hand to use and when, because these issues are significant in the East where the right hand is used for contact with others and the left hand reserved for other purposes, but such considerations never enter the minds of people in the West because this practice is not followed.
Despite these fundamental differences in religion, language, worldviews and cultural practices, it is possible to navigate these differences if…
Ethics in Anthropology
The use of anthropologists in the war in Iraq is both compelling and troubling. The thought that social scientists could partner with marines to produce results in war extends my understanding of the role of social scientists well beyond the initial limited confines. Social scientists have played dominant roles in business, academia and other sociopolitical arenas. The inclusion on the battle redefines the role and provide new avenue for controversy. The troubling area is the ethics of using social scientists in a war zone. I believe that the role of social scientists will be more beneficial than harmful.
From the reading and the video it was clear that the American Anthropological Association is decidedly against anthropologists providing critical information to assist in military decision making. This position is based on the view that anthropologist in their interaction with other peoples and cultures should do no harm. Consequently,…
Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk
Definition of isk
The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.
This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…
Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s
Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.
Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.
Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.
In the age of globalization, cultural precincts are anticipated as having turned out as absorbent, imprecise, and undefined. The home culture comes in contact with the foreign culture as a result of globalization while it impacts culture of the home country leaving it to be not the native but the unstable, displaced, amalgamated, diverse, and adulterated (OCAA). Globalization is the instant of collective relocation, "multiculturalism, and cosmopolitanism" (Szeman, 2003) Once the culture of a nation was perceived by means of newspapers and work of fictions, but the present day has given the ever-present of novel structures of mass culture that has transfigured in to novel intercontinental systems of the thoughts. egarding culture, discussions about globalization are in consequence over and over again centered on border regions, and on the multifaceted dialogues that occur as these borders are investigated, anticipated again, and reemphasized in a world of rising, if not…
The Globalization Challenge: Australia's Role in a Rapidly Changing World," Oxfam Community Aid Abroad (OCAA).
Balibar, etienne, and Pierre Macherey (1981) On Literature as an Ideological Form: Some Marxist Propositions." In Untying the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader, edited by Robert Young. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Bordo, Michael D. (2002) "Globalization in historical perspective: Our era is not as unique as we might think, and current trends are not irreversible," Business Economics, Jan, 2002, http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1094/1_37/83793969/print.jhtml
Christie, Stuart (2002) Clear and present danger, The Guardian, November 9, 2002, Reviews on the Fences and Windows: Dispatches from the Front Lines of the Globalization Debate by Naomi Klein
Globalization and its effects on non-Western cultural practices
Globalization is typically defined as the phenomena of increasing world interconnectedness. It is an undeniable feature of the modern world. The world is gets smaller as technology advances and economies become interlinked. Today's economic crisis is a prime example of globalization. One nation undergoing a financial crisis can easily become an international economic meltdown. Nederveen (2009) comments how modernization has advanced at the cost of eliminating cultural and biological diversity. This is causing alienation of groups who oppose modernity and change, causing disenchantment among many groups around the world. These groups oppose the Mcdonadlization, or the "increasing cultural standardization and uniformization" (Nederveen, 2009). Cultures around the world have to either adapt to modernization or see their traditions ebb away, as seen in China and Africa.
One nation, China, reaps many of the benefits globalization has to offer, seeing its economy turn…
Briar-Lawson, K., & Roth, W. (2011). Globalization, social justice, and the helping professions. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Adebayo, Akanmu G., and Olutayo C. Adesina. (2009) Globalization and Transnational Migrations: Africa and Africans in the Contemporary Global System. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
Englebert, P. (2009). Africa: Unity, sovereignty, and sorrow. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Henry, C.M., & Springborg, R. (2010). Globalization and the politics of development in the Middle East. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Geertz and Common Sense
Geertz: Analysis Common Sense
I have come to agree with Geertz in his conclusion that common sense is shaped by the society and culture we live in. Geertz describes common sense as "a relatively organized body of considered thought" (p. 75). Throughout Local Knowledge, he refers to common sense as being based in history and personal experiences. He offers that myth and accepted generalizations in a society for the foundation of what we call common sense. I particularly agree with Geertz in his assessment of the way intersexuality confuses the biological science scene and communities because common sense generally places sexuality into two categories: "maleness and femaleness." There is no room for an in-between.
Common sense, as Geertz defines it, is more than the "matter-of-fact apprehension of reality" (pp. 75-76). Common sense can be viewed as a cultural system because it is a loosely organized body…
Geertz, Clifford. "Common Sense as a Cultural System." Local Knowledge (2003): 73-93.
The Usefulness of Anthropology in a Globalized Society
In his seminal text, The Naked Ape, Desmond Morris examines the biological basis for modern human behaviors in urban settings, and makes the point that some of the more baffling ways that people act today can be traced to evolutionary responses to the exigencies of the prehistoric environment. Since its publication in 1967, this anthropological analysis has been followed by a growing body of scholarship concerning evolution and ecological principles and their implications for modern society (Dunaif-Harris, 1987). Today, the concept of gender is undergoing increased scrutiny and notions such as pansexuality have emerged in response. The fundamental debate concerning nature versus nurture, though, still remains unresolved with respect to extent to which the environment influences modern gender roles, most especially those included in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual and queer (LGBTQ) communities. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature…
Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu
Gender and Sex in Anthropology
A Case Study in Comparative Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu
Defining Sex and Gender
The definition of sex is generally treated as a category by both biologists and cultural anthropologists, a category with mainly two choices: male or female (orthman 597-598). From a biologist's perspective sex is the exchange of genetic material and the requisite biological functions required for successful procreation activities. For example, sperm and ovum are supplied by males and females, respectively, and women are the only ones capable of gestation and lactation. Primates, including humans, are generally required to make significant investments in child-rearing activities, so parental investment, in addition to mating investment, is thought to be required of both sexes (McIntyre and Edwards 84). The form that parental investment takes can in turn be heavily influenced by social norms, and accordingly sex helps to…
Cunningham, Clark E. "Indonesia." Countries and their Cultures, Volume 2. Eds. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember. New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 1034-1056. Print.
Du, Shanshan. "Husband and Wife do it together": Sex/gender allocation of labor among the Qhawqhat lahu of Lancang, Southwest China." American Anthropologist 102.3 (200) [HIDDEN] Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
McIntyre, Matthew H. And Edwards, Carolyn P. "The Early Development of Gender Differences." Annual Review in Anthropology 38 (2009): 83-97. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
Parker, Lynette. "Engendering School Children in Bali." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3.3 (1997): 497-516. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.