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Applying the Sociological Perspective: An Iraq Soldier's Story
This research conducted surrounding this interviewee focuses on the reasons why a soldier's resiliency levels are so high considering the two massive injuries endured. The interviewee above demonstrates a considerable amount of resiliency after his time in combat in Iraq. He suffered a painful physical injury and a psychological injury quickly identified (assumed first due to the events surrounding the burns then diagnosed). He received treatment for this burns and at the same time received treatment for his PTSD. How can this Marine so likely to find the positives of the experience and laugh about his injuries and recovery? The paper will consider factors including his biopsychosocial development, Erikson's stages of development, his family structure and their outlook on life.
The interviewee grew up in a home with his mother, father, older sister, and younger brother. He is a middle child…
Engel, G. The Biopsychosocial Approach. 2012. Web. 20 March 2012.
Erikson, E. Erikson's Developmental Stages. Springhouse Corporation. 1990. Web. 20 March 2012.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A. & Eaton, K.M. Impact of Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan on Family Functioning: Findings from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Land Combat Study. In Human Dimensions in Military Operations Military Leaders Strategies for Addressing Stress and Psychological Support, Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-HFM-134, Paper 5. 2006. Print.
Leske, J.S. & Jiricka, M.K. Impact of family demands and family strengths and capabilities on family well-being and adaptation after critical injury. American Journal of Critical Care, 1998: 383-392. Print.
Nancy Morris (2002) argues that there is no pure culture, and therefore globalization poses no threat to it. Her position is that one of the alleged downsides of globalization is the impact that it has on indigenous cultures. However, no culture is pure and untouched, as there are always influences of other cultures. Given that, globalization cannot have a negative effect of culture, because "cultural interaction has always been the norm, and cultural identities are more resilient than is often credited" (p.278).
This can be seen in the eading Terminal Market. In the market, there are stalls representing a number of different ethnic groceries and restaurants, from the Middle East, Asia, the South and more. These stalls exist in part because of the forces of migration, where people have moved to America. The cultural resiliency that Morris discusses is thus in evidence -- people from those cultures no…
Morris, N. (2002). The myth of unadulterated culture meets the threat of imported media. Media, Culture and Society. Vol. 24 (2002) 278-289
Fiske, J. (1989). Commodities and Culture, Chapter 2. 23-47.
Cultural evaluation Japan describe identify ways arguments a presentation arguments changed result cultural differences
Rose Cohen. Out of the Shadow: A Russian Jewish Girlhood on the Lower East Side, with an Introduction by Thomas Dublin. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995). Pp. vii-313. Paper: $19.95. ISBN: 978-0-8014-8268-7.
Rose Cohen was born in Russia at the end of the 19th century and immigrated to the United States of America in the early part of the 20th century. The circumstances she encountered while transitioning from one "Old orld" culture to a "New orld" one primarily constitute the source material she uses in Out of the Shadow. There appears to be a great deal of difference between the daily life and cultures encountered by a young Jewish girl/woman in Russia and one in America. These differences more than likely pertain to both cultures as well as to simply daily life and expectations for…
Dublin, Tom. "Rose Cohen Critical Essay." Jewish Women's Archive. No date. Web. http://jwa.org/discover/inthepast/readingseries/cohen/criticalessay.html
Muir, Lisa. "Rose Cohen and Bella Spewack: The Ethnic Child Speaks to Who You Never Were." www.highbeam.com. 2002. Web. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-92042295.html
The ethics of using labor at rates far below what would be necessary in their own nations, with no requirement of paying healthcare, no workers' compensation insurance, no unemployment insurance, or even the threat of unionization sadly ensure this practice will continue. Yet when one considers this aspect of westernization it is clear that globalization in fact does not provide benefits to everyone in the long-run.
Towards a More Egalitarian Model of Globalization
Instead of blindly moving into a specific region or nation of the world and developing either one of several factory types as defined by Ferdows in much of his work on globalization of manufacturing, or attempting to create entirely new distribution channels to sell to residents, companies need instead to take a more egalitarian approach to global expansion. In their article the End of Corporate Imperialism, Prahalad & Lieberthal (et.al.) and in Dr. Prahalads' book the Fortune…
Bryan Caplan, Tyler Cowen. "Do We Underestimate the Benefits of Cultural Competition? " the American Economic Review 94.2 (2004): 402-407. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 28 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com
Friedman, Thomas. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. 1. New York: Anchor Press, 1999.
Friedman, Thomas. The World Is Flat. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. New York, NY. 2005.
Geert Hofstede. "The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. " Journal of International Business Studies (pre-1986)
Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.
My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.
Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).
I believe that all cultures have something that…
Cross Cultural Age of Globalization
The quickening pace of globalization continues to force varying cultures, their expectations, norms, value and practices together at a pace that is much faster than had been the case in the past. This presents a unique series of challenges for managers who must navigate the task of creating an agile enough organization to compete, yet still provide enough structure and stability for objectives to be attained. National political culture is a critically important foundation to guiding the definition of a globalization strategy in that it encompasses citizenship practices (Bird, Fang, 2009). The intent of this analysis is to critically evaluate if the concept of a theoretical framework is sufficient to support globalization strategies aligned to the nuances and specific considerations of a given region. Appraising the legitimacy of management strategies in the context of cross-cultural citizenship practices is central to this analysis (Chevrier, 2009).
Bird, A. & Fang, T. (2009) 'Editorial: cross cultural management in the age of globalization', International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9 (2), pp. 139 -- 142, Sage Premier Database [Online]. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809335713 (Accessed: 21 December 2009).
Chevrier, S. (2009) 'Is national culture still relevant to management in a global context? The case of Switzerland', International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9 (2), pp. 169 -- 181, Sage Journals [Online]. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809335723 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).
Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R.R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
Assimilation recounts the social, political, and cultural integration of the minority into a substantial, dominant society and culture. Assimilation is used in most cases to refer to the ethnic groups and immigrants coming to settle in new territories. These immigrants often acquire new attitudes and traditions through communication and contact with their host society. Either way, they also introduce some of their cultural practices to their host society(Penninx, 2005). The process of assimilation involves a step by step change of varying stages. When the new members of a community become utterly indistinguishable from the natives, it is apparent that complete assimilation has occurred (Spielberger, 2004). In this regard of assimilation, over a period, the new community cast off their original homeland's culture that touches on values, rituals, religion, language, and laws so that there is no distinguishable cultural disparity between them and the members of the native society that…
Allen, J. S. (2012). The omnivorous mind: Our evolving relationship with food. Harvard University Press.
Avila-Saavedra, G. (2011). Ethnic otherness versus cultural assimilation: US Latino comedians and the politics of identity. Mass Communication and Society, 14(3), 271-291.
Carter, P. L. (2005). Keepin' it real: School success beyond Black and White. Oxford University Press.
Choi, D. D., Poertner, M., & Sambanis, N. (2020). Linguistic Assimilation Does Not Reduce Discrimination Against Immigrants: Evidence from Germany. Journal of Experimental Political Science, 1, 12.
Holohan, and Holohan, S. (2012). "Assimilation." Encyclopedia of Global Studies, edited by Anheier, Helmut K. and Mark Juergensmeyer, Sage Publications.
Montanari, M. (2006). Food is culture. Columbia University Press.
Pauls, E. P. (2019, August 21). Assimilation. Encyclopedia Britannica.
Penninx, R. (2005). Integration of migrants: Economic, social, cultural and political dimensions. The new demographic regime: Population challenges and policy responses, 5(2005), 137-152.
Globalization and Middle Eastern Culture
The term globalization has positive connotations in that it implies interaction and sharing through technology and suggests the improvement and development of less developed countries through connections with countries that are more economically wealthy. However, this is not always the way in which the term is interpreted by some countries and cultures. There has been a negative reaction throughout the world in recent years to the concept of globalization which is increasingly viewed as a means of domination and assimilation -- especially with regard to cultural aspects. A more formal definition of globalization is as follows:
Globalization can be conceived as a process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions, expressed in transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction and power (see Held and McGrew, et al., 1999).
In essence globalization is characterized…
Cheruiyot K. Our Languages Are Dying [article online] Available from http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0224language.htm ; Internet: accessed December 1, 2004.
Held D. And McGrew A. Globalization. (article online); available from; Internet: available from http://www.polity.co.uk/global/globocp.htm; Internet: accessed 6 December, 2004
Maisami Mona, Islam and Globalization. [essay online] Available from The foundation Magazine (August 2003) http://www.fountainmagazine.com/articles.php?SIN=5a952d9bae& ; k=33& 1677948306& show=part1; Internet: Accessed 1 December, 2004.
Moussalli Mohammed, Impact of Globalization ( Article online) Available form Daily Star ( August 25, 2003) http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0826islam.htm ; Internet: accessed 5 December, 2004
The artistic authenticity of a particular object is determined, in part, by the objects provenance -- its history that helps us to understand the significance and original cultural context of the object. ithout this context it becomes complicated to identify certain tribal cultural artifacts as artwork or not.
But let's imagine that there exists an institutional framework or bureaucratic organization with the resources to undertake such a monumental task of artistic identification. There would still be additional problems to consider. In Indonesia, for instance, there are numerous political and cultural obstacles facing the emerging push for preservation. Communication in the nation is lackluster. Identifying and controlling all potential tribal art among the indigenous people is a task best left to the imagination. The infrastructure simply does not yet exist to properly compensate indigenous artists and craftsmen, let alone stem the tide of black-market deals and random destruction. Yet this is…
Barbier, Jean-Paul. "The Responsible and the Irresponsible: Observations on the Destruction and Preservation of Indonesian Art."
Duffon, Denis. "Authenticity in Art." In the Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics. Ed. Jerrold Levinson. (NY: Oxford University Press, 2003). 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.denisdutton.com/authenticity.htm .
Hamlin, Jesse. "How de Young Is Handling New Guinea Art Question." San Francisco Chronicle (4 May 2006): E1. 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/05/04/DDGJMIJFVO1.DTL .
Lehmann, Karl and Lehmann, Andrew. "Tribal Art of Papua New Guinea." Lost World Arts. (Maui, Hawaii: 2004). 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.lostworldarts.com/new_page_2.htm .
Knowledge-Oriented Software Engineering Process
In a Multi-Cultural Context
In the peer-reviewed article Knowledge-Oriented Software Engineering Process In A Multi-Cultural Context (Jaakkola, Heimburger, Linna, 2010) the authors contend that the accelerating nature of software development leaves little time for cultural assimilation and integration of teams to an optimal level. The authors have defined the specifics of how software development is changing very rapidly due to mobile platforms, cloud computing and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). Exacerbating the challenges of creating software so rapidly are the cultural challenges as well, especially the multicultural and inter-organizational issues of software engineering (Jaakkola, Heimburger, Linna, 2010). The authors argue that a three layer model is needed to increase the performance of software engineering globally (Jaakkola, Heimburger, Linna, 2010). The authors have taken on a very complex problem that takes into account the multifaceted nature of software development in large organizations while also managing the complexities and nuances of…
Jaakkola, H., Anneli Heimburger, & Linna, P. (2010). Knowledge-oriented software engineering process in a multi-cultural context. Software Quality Journal, 18(2), 299-319.
Stranger Things is a television show on Netflix that recounts the story of a missing boy, a frantic mother, and three friends looking for an answer. The show is a pastiche of popular 80's movies and television shows that featured monsters like E.T. and telekinetic children like Charlie in Firestarter. While the show does not hit on anything original, it does manage to hit a nerve among fans and has swept the nation with its sweet whispers of nostalgia. The show perhaps invites people to reach for their own ideologies in life vicariously through the main characters. Althusser discusses ideologies in his piece, "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses" and Bell Hooks examines desire and resistance in "Eating the Other: Desire and Resistance" that can point towards a better understanding of such a fast-growing cultural phenomenon.
Althusser defines ideologies from a traditional standpoint as 'world outlooks. However, Althusser admits they do…
The target family immigrated to the United States of America (USA) in 2001 from Western part of Kenya in East Africa. Composed of two parents and three children, a ten-year-old girl, eight-year-old boy and a five-year-old girl, the family's move to the U.S.A. was not an easy one. The man of the family, Oyot, before immigrating to the U.S., worked as a primary school teacher in a small township of ongo in Nyanza province of Kenya. Life in Kenya was unbearable for him as his monthly salary was insufficient for his family.
Oyot had always wanted to leave Kenya in search of a better life for his family; there were issues that motivated his immigration to The U.S.A. First, in Africa, families are extended and some members of Oyot's family mocked him continually. They claimed that he was cursed and that he would never amount to anything. Oyot belongs…
Clegg, L.H. (1997, January). EBONICS:A Serious Analysis of African-American Speech
Patterns. MAAT News .
Kenya and the National Assembly . (2008, Oct 16). Kenya National Assembly Official Record
(Hansard). SACCO in Kenya .
Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States
Crossvergence in a Period of Dynamic. Turbulent Cultural Change: Assessing The Kelley, MacNab, And Worthley Study
The nuances and subtle shifts in a culture as a result of globalization is a paradox for many enterprises to manage over time and also for shot nations to anticipate and plan for economic, political and social shifts over time. As globalization continues to accelerate the integration and assimilation of diverse cultures together, the long-standing cultural frameworks including Hofstede's Model of Cultural Dimensions increasingly appears unable to capture cultural nuances effectively, and often, due to its structure, generalize differences between cultures (Kelley, MacNab, Worthley, 2006). One of the most valuable lessons learned from the Kelley, MacNab, and Worthley study is that there are often significant nuances and differences in the five cultural dimensions within a region, which…
Gupta, V. & Wang, J. 2004, "The Transvergence Proposition Under Globalization: Looking Beyond Convergence, Divergence and Crossvergence," Multinational Business Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 37-57.
Kelley, L., MacNab, B. & Worthley, R. (2006) 'Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: a longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors', Journal of International Management, 12 (1), pp. 67 -- 84, Science Direct [Online]. DOI:10.1016/j.intman.2005.04.002 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).
Ralston, D.A. 2008, "The crossvergence perspective: reflections and projections," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 27-40.
Sarala, R.M. & Vaara, E. 2010, "Cultural differences, convergence, and crossvergence as explanations of knowledge transfer in international acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1365-1390.
The impact of social pressures and cultural influences on human development are not fully know. Only pieces of information are available for us to understand as there is much to be learned and gathered from this subject. The purpose of this essay is to examine two distinct articles directly related to socio-cultural influences on the development of the human species. This essay will first review and summarize each article on its own merits before offering new conclusions about the feasibility, practicality and overall usefulness of these two arguments presented.
Bakermans-Kranenburg et al. (2004) article about attachment security and minority children helped to expose some important information about the ways culture has a direct and sometimes profound impact on human development. Through statistical analysis gathered from qualitative means, certain patterns of relationships were identified through this study. The study eventually found that there are significant differences in the way…
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. et al. (2004). Differences in attachment security between African- American and white children; ethnicity or socio-economic status? Infant Behavior & Development,27 (2004) 417-433.
Varela, R. et al. (2009). Parenting strategies and socio-cultural influences in childhood anxiety; Mexican, Latin American descent, and European-American families. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 2009, 609-616.
Not celebrating Christmas, and not having time off from school for Persian religious holidays, has always made me take great notice of the fact that I am "different." As I have matured, however, I have come to appreciate this difference, and to realize that everyone truly is "different" in many ways. It took me quite awhile to come to this realization and to fully accept my culturally diverse identity as a Persian-American, but now that I have I realize that the diversity I struggled with in my youth has actually given me a great advantage in modern society. I am already prepared and well equipped not only to "deal with" cultural diversity, but to actively engage and navigate a world where it is commonplace.
Learning to not only tolerate but to utilize cultural diversity in the workplace can be very difficult. Even something considered as standard by many people such…
Carnevale, a. & Stone, S. (1994). "Diversity beyond the golden rule." Training and development, pp. 22-39.
During, J. & Mirabdolbaghi, Z. (1991). The art of Persian music. New York: Mage publishing.
Fordham. (2007). "Persia." Internet ancient history sourcebook. Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook05.html
Woods, S. (2009). "Workplace diversity." Cornell university ILR school. Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/library/research/subjectguides/workplacediversity.html
Radical multiculturalism holds that cultural groups should be the measure for considerations of justice as a group offers the individual the indispensable good of being rooted in a community. The problem is that groups always set-up unequal in-group out-group relations that are detrimental to society.
The problem is that conservatives claim it undermines cohesiveness, but cohesiveness is exactly what all social movements in the last hundred years have attempted to bring about.
In this context this means that the gains of one group are not balanced by losses of another group.
The civil sphere includes structures of feelings, symbols, psychological identifications, and sympathies determine how resources are allocated in society. The public sphere is more of how this publically stated (the two can be different).
Common identity is malleable depending on the times. The move for woman's voting rights and equal rights into the national identity is an…
Coss Cultual Moes and Values: Middle-Easten Ameicans, South Asian-Ameicans and Native Ameicans
No longe a melting pot but moe like a salad bowl, the United States has always been a land of immigants and its divese demogaphic composition today is a eflection of this pocess. In fact, just one goup, Native Ameicans, can be egaded as being the oiginal inhabitants, but anthopologists ague that even these people likely migated fom othe continents tens of thousands of yeas ago, making them immigants in a sense as well. Thee goups in paticula stand out in the Ameican demogaphic mix as being in need of thoughtful attention in coss-cultual counseling situations, namely Middle-Easten Ameicans, South Asian-Ameicans and Native Ameicans. To detemine what counselos need to know in ode to develop effective inteventions fo membes fom these thee goups, this pape povides a eview of the liteatue, followed by a summay of the eseach…
A study of Lumbee undergraduates. Journal of College Counseling, 9(1), 47-55.
South Asia countries. (2014). World Bank. Retrieved from http://web.worldbank.org/ .
ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.
Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…
Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
" (2009) Oguejiofor states that there is no understanding "exept if there is misunderstanding, a negativity that beomes the originative instane of hermeneutis…" (2009)
Oguejiofor writes that Senghor's onept of negritude is entered on the misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the Afrian and his heritage, a situation that has sine imposed enormous burden on all aspets of his life." (Oguejiofor, 2009) Oguejiofor states that negritude has been desribed "…as a philosophy of soial ation" and states additionally that in the view of Senghor "negritude was 'a weapon of defense and attak and inspiration." (2009) Speifially Senghor sates that negritude is the "sum total of the values of the ivilization of the Afrian world, it is not raialism, it is ulture." (Oguejiofor, 2009)
Oguejiofor writes that negritude as a philosophy "has the advantage of 'reognizing the situatedness of our lived historiity as the proper objet of refletion for Afrian philosophi thought. (Salhi…
cited in Quest, 2005)
When Senghor was imprisoned for the already mentioned two years period he composed poetry, read the work of Goethe and delved into Western philosophical works and as well reestablished his link with his fellow Africans and songs and tales were shared from Africa and this resulted in the "fostering [of] an alternative understanding of humanism and society." (Quest, 2005)
The Quest Journal editorial states that it seems nice to think that the prison experiences of Senghor as well as Senghor's knowledge spanning the intellectual traditions of the Western world and his admiration for values, traditions and cultures of Africa together resulted in a "subjectivity that was transcultural and transnational in it sympathies, accomplishments and aspirations." (Quest, 2005) Senghor set the stage for "a post-anthropological humanism, one that truly points to the possibilities for a democratic and cosmopolitan world." (Quest, 2005)
5. Poetry as 'Key' Outlet for Combating Cultural Alienation in for Africans
The work of Nyathi (2005) states that the work of Senghor influenced many and in fact that poetry "became a key outlet for Africans to combat cultural alienation." The work of Baaz and Palmberg (2001) entitled: "Same and Other: Negotiating African Identity in Cultural Production" relates the writings of Leopold Sedar Senghor "on negritude and the ideas of negritude which are "above all associated with the writings of Senghor and Aime Cesaire, were developed by African, Afro-American and Caribbean intellectuals in Paris in the 1930s." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001) Negritude was defined by Senghor as "the sum of the cultural values of the black world." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001)
Cross Cultural Education
The information gathered was mostly from my grandparents and my parents. From the interviews conducted, I found out that my ancestors came to the United States in 1850. The main reason why they came to the United States is due to famine. According to information obtained, at the time, Ireland was facing a severe famine, owing to upsetting crop disasters. Due to lack of food for lengthy periods, my ancestors were left with no other option but to move to the United States. However, there are quite a number of challenges they faced upon arrival. To begin with, they had no expertise and no preceding experience in becoming accustomed to a new nation. In addition, they also faced the challenge of having no cash, minimal clothes and lack of education. Another distinctive challenge that they faced upon arrival to the United States was a great…
Colin, M., O'Dea, M. (2006). The Feckin' Book of Everything Irish. New York, Barnes & Noble.
Derderian-Aghajanian, A., & Wang, C. C. (2012). How culture affects on English language learners'(ELL's) outcomes, with Chinese and Middle Eastern Immigrant Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(5).
Frontline. (n.d). A Class Divided. PBS. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/class-divided/
McDonald, K. E., Keys, C. B., & Balcazar, F. E. (2007). Disability, race/ethnicity and gender: themes of cultural oppression, acts of individual resistance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39(1-2), 145-161.
Culural Competence |
Cultural Competence in the Criminal Justice System
Culture determines people's experiences of their world. It is important in the reception and delivery of services. Cultural competence starts with knowing your cultural practices and beliefs, and recognizing the different practices and values of people from different cultures. This goes beyond speaking a different language, or just acknowledging a different group's cultural icons. Cultural competence involves changing your biases or prejudgments on a different people's cultural traditions or beliefs (Continuing Education Online, 2002-2016).
Cultural competence, therefore, can be described as a group of attitudes and behavior within a culture. These attitudes and behavior are incorporated into the methods of practice of an agency, system or its experts, and helps them work productively under cross-cultural circumstances. To successfully achieve cultural competency, knowledge about groups and individuals must be incorporated and translated into certain practices and rules applied in suitable cultural…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1998). Case Management for Clients With Special Needs. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from National Center for Biotechnology Information: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Continuing Education Online. (2002-2016). Cultural Competency and Diversity. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from Continuing Education Online: http://www.getceusnow.com
Otu, N. (2015). Decoding Nonverbal Communication In Law Enforcement. Salus Journal, Issue 3, No. 2, 1-16. Retrieved from Salus Journal: http://www.salusjournal.com
Patel, S. (2016). Cultural Competency Training: Preparing Law Students for Practice in Our Multicultural World. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from UCLA Law Review: http://www.uclalawreview.org
Psychodynamic Approach Survey
This is approach to leadership is based on personality study and change by the leader and those who are under leadership. According to Psychodynamic Approach Survey, a leader is a person who is supposed to learn from analyzing and realizing the personality and reaction of the people who are being led so that he or she can know how best to handle them. A leader who has borrowed from the Psychodynamic Approach Survey is not worried of how the followers perceive him and understand him. He is not interested in how to change his personality so that he or she can appeal to the people. Nonetheless, such a leader is focused on observing the behaviors and the personalities of the followers, making sure that he captures the way they react, think, interact, and do everything, as a basis for influencing them to act in a…
McIntosh, G. L. & Rima, S. D. (2007). Overcoming the Dark Side of Leadership: The Paradox of Personal Dysfunction. New York. Baker Books
Nohria, N. & Khurana, R. (2013). Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice: An HBS Centennial Colloquium on Advancing Leadership. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press
Northouse, P. G. (2012). Leadership: Theory and Practice. New York: SAGE Publications
shrinking; this concept is an oft-cited one in discussing international relations, the blinding speed of worldwide communication, and global travel and migration. Ideas like moving to another nation or even another continent are significantly more feasible today than they would have been even half a century ago. This closeness of various linguistic, ethnic, and cultural groups has created an urgent need for a better understanding of assimilation among these varied groups.
Cultural assimilation has a broad definition due to the broad nature of "culture;" it can refer to an actual intermixing of races and "the genetic dissolution" of a certain group; it can also refer solely to more immediately changeable concepts such as language, religious belief, familial relations, and other traditions of a certain ethnic or societal group (Moran 2005, p. 169). In today's globalized society, different groups are encountering one another with increasing frequency, significantly altering the importance of…
Davidson, B., 1998. "Immigrants Tend to Embrace, not Avoid, English Language" San Francisco Examiner, accessed online at http://www.onenation.org/0898/082598b.html
Grow, B., 2004. "Hispanic Nation," in Business Week, March 15, 2004.
Karlson, S., 2004. "Black like Beckham? Moving Beyond Definitions of Ethnicity Based on Skin Colour and Ancestry" Ethnicity and Health 9:2, pp. 107-137.
Moran, A. 2005. "White Australia, Settler Nationalism, and Aboriginal Assimilation," Australian Journal of Politics and History 51:2, pp. 168-193.
Cultural Assimilation and Differentiation in the Experience of Alfred Cruz, Filipino immigrant
American society is best known for its unique characteristic of being a "melting pot" of various cultures in the world, be these cultures Eastern or Western in their orientation. Its role as an economic and political superpower throughout history, especially in the 20th century, wherein immigrants during the First and Second World Wars have been "adopted" by the United States and given a chance to live the American life, popularly termed as the "American dream."
Apart from the world wars, the seemingly prosperous image of American society to countries all over the world that are experiencing either socio-political or economic strife is an enticement for people to aspire to live in the U.S., and be able to realize their dreams as individuals. That is why immigrating in the U.S. has become a common occurrence, and at present,…
Schaeffer, R. (1998). Sociology. Chicago: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
Race and Ethnic Relations
Dimensions of Ethnic Assimilation: Reaction Essay
In their article, "Dimensions of Ethnic Assimilation," Williams and Ortega (1990) attempt to empirically examine Gordon's typology of ethnic assimilation. They attempt to test the "validity of his typology" as well as investigate if "assimilation is, indeed, multidimensional" (698). They felt that in previous research and literature, the seven dimensions of assimilation where taken for granted correct (while, most often, only one was utilized in any one study).
In order to verify the veracity of the seven dimensions, they had to measure both ethnicity and assimilation. They measured ethnicity by asking their respondents to identify where (which country or part of the world) their ancestors came from (and asking which they made felt the closest to if more than one region was mentioned). Measuring assimilation along its various dimensions was more complex, but survey questions were the most common method…
Culture of Poverty Theory
The culture of poverty theory as posited by Lewis (1969) asserts the emergency of this particular culture when groups or populations that was economically and socially marginalized and disenfranchised from capitalist society generated behavior patterns to address their low social and economic status. According to Lewis' theory, the behaviors that were exhibited where characterized by helplessness, provincialism, low aspirations, disorganization, and criticism and belittlement of so called middle class White America. Moreover, Lewis ascertains that even if structural remediation was in place, because the coping mechanisms were already in place, the behavior and attitudes would be perpetrated. According to classical assimilation theory, immigrant assimilation was seen as an integral component of successful matriculation into a middle class American way of life as cited in Greenman and Xie (2006) (Warner and Srole, 1945). The adaption of immigrants to the host society was seen as critical to…
Chen et al. (1999). Smoking patterns of Asian-American youth in California and their relationship with acculturation. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24, 321-328.
Greenman, E., & Xie, Y. (2006). Is assimilation theory dead? The effect of assimilation on adolescent well being. Population Studies Center Research Report 06-605. Available At http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr06-605.pdf
Lewis, O. (1969). A death in the Sanchez family. New York, NY: Random House.
Warner, W., & Srole, L. (1945). The social systems of American ethnic groups. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Gender and Culture in Criminal Justice and Capital Punishment: A egional, National and International Comparison
Comparing the rates of crime and punishment in the United States as a whole to various individual regions and states, and to other countries in the world can provide very useful information regarding criminal justice policies in the nation. Through such measurement and comparisons, programs that work -- and those that do not -- can be identified, expanded, adjusted, or eliminated as warranted by the evidence. On a deeper level, understanding such information can tell a society a lot about its attitudes towards crime and various 'types' or demographics of criminals, potentially exposing not only more fundamental societal issues but also cultural values, perspectives, and ethics. Within North American culture violence, racism and religion are often interrelated. Although the U.S. has always claimed to be a Christian nation -- or perhaps a Judeo-Christian one --…
Amnesty International. (2011). Death Sentences and Executions 2010. Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ACT50/001/2011/en/ea1b6b25-a62a-4074-927d-ba51e88df2e9/act500012011en.pdf
CPF. (2011). California Death Penalty Statistics. Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.californiapeopleoffaith.org/statestats.html
Death Penalty Information Center. (2011). Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/women-and-death-penalty
Man in Terror Scare Says Woman is Lying (2002). CNN.com.
It is more likely that there will continue to be many varied and constantly changing definitions of the American family, and this will continue to confuse those learning English as they attempt to make concrete connections between words and concepts from their own language and those of the new -- and constantly developing -- culture and language they have adopted.
hen making cultural comparisons, it is important to refrain from qualitative judgments, and I do not mean to imply any here. The Korean concept of the family and its responsibilities is more concrete than the American cultural and linguistic definitions, but this does not necessarily make it better. The American ideals of freedom and self-determination lie at the root of the American family, and lead to very different cultural and linguistic perspectives. It is the difference in vantage point, and not in any perceived difference in quality, that proves a…
Graff, E.J. "What Makes a Family?" Frame Work. Ed. Gary Columbo, Bonnie Lisle, Sandra Mno. Boston: Bedford, 1997, 26-38.
New York Daily News. "American Role Models." 6 November 2008. Editorial: pg. 32
Tan, Amy. "Four Directions" Frame Work. Ed. Gary Columbo, Bonnie Lisle, Sandra Mno. Boston: Bedford, 1997, 124-127.
Wetzstein, Cheryl. "American Family Needs Some Help." Washington Times, 8 March 2009, M15.
It would be agreeable that the growth of multicultural focus is something that has remained a long journey towards our present understanding of the topic. The path towards our contemporary multiculturalism remains a distinct area of psychology that developed some years ago. The historical development shows clearly that there have been different individuals and thinkers who have focused on the ethnic associations and issues related to human interactions (Cauce, 2011).
Throughout the years in history, it would be clearly agreeable that different historical periods have constantly played a unique role in establishing different thoughts, ideas, and concepts that have defined our societies. For instance, there are stances of activism and even racism that have been playing a unique towards the development and establishment our present ideas on human psychology and multiculturalism (Franklin, 2009, p. 420). Different societal establishments and communities have over the years been critical towards establishing the best…
Adams, J.Q. & Welsch, J.R. (2009). Multiculturalism: The Manifest Destiny of the U.S.A.: An
Interview With Ronald Takaki. Multicultural Perspectives, 11(4), 227 -- 231
American Psychological Association (2012). Crossroads: The Psychology of Immigration in
The New Century. American Psychological Association: 1-18
Analysis of Expatriate Management Successes and Failures
There are many factors that need to be considered when assigning a manager into an expatriate role. Of the many factors that most often lead to success, Emotional Intelligence (EI), transformational leadership, cultural awareness and the ability to adjust to a foreign culture and attain productivity and performance quickly (Baliga, Baker, 1985). Ultimately the four major determinants of expatriate performance include technical skills and mastery, contextual and pro-social performance, contextual and managerial performance and expatriate-specific performance in a given nation or region (Claus, Lungu, Bhattacharjee, 2011). These four factors combined to anchor the performance analysis provided in this paper.
Analysis of Success and Failure of U.S. Expatriate Managers
The single greatest reason cited for failure of U.S. expatriate managers is the motivation and vision of why assimilating into a new culture is relevant to their roles, and the emotional intelligence to…
Baliga, G.M., & Baker, J.C. (1985). Multinational corporate policies for expatriate managers: Selection, training, evaluation. S.A.M.Advanced Management Journal, 50(4), 31-31.
Claus, L., Lungu, A.P., & Bhattacharjee, S. (2011). The effects of individual, organizational and societal variables on the job performance of expatriate managers. International Journal of Management, 28(1), 249-271,394.
Hung-Wen, L., & Liu, C. (2006). Determinants of the adjustment of expatriate managers to foreign countries: An empirical study. International Journal of Management, 23(2), 302-311.
Jordan, J., & Cartwright, S. (1998). Selecting expatriate managers: Key traits and competencies. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 19(2), 89-96.
Fiat / Chrysler -- Leadership - Teambuilding
The Chrysler merger with Fiat was met with skepticism and doubts when it was first proposed. Chrysler had just recently emerged from near bankruptcy -- saved by a U.S. government bailout -- and Fiat is a strong internationally respected corporation building cars, earth-moving machines, and more. The merging of Chrysler and Fiat was seen as having a greater opportunity for success than did the merger between Chrysler and Daimler-Benz, but still there were doubters in the industry. However, as of May, 2012, the blending together of the two companies (Fiat and Chrysler) has produced a profitable situation. This paper examines the cultures -- and leadership -- shown within the two companies, a strong combination that has allowed success to be achieved. The paper also critiques the leadership styles in the dynamics of this merger, and delves into the concept of teambuilding when two…
Associated Press. (2012). Fiat Gets Another 5% State In Chrysler Thanks to Dodge Dart.
HuffPost Detroit. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Buss, Dale. (2012). "Gordian Knott" Sliced Through Chrysler Woes with Suppliers. Forbes.
Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.forbes.com .
Eating Disorders and Gender
There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…
Bates, Daniel. "Globalization of Fat Stigma: Western Ideas of Beauty and Body Size Catching
on in Developing Nations." Daily Mail. 2011. Print.
Battiste, Nikki & Lauren Effron."EDNOS: Deadliest Eating Disorder Is Quietly the Most
Common." ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. .
Research questions asked in this present study include the following stated questions:
(1) What role does Internet technology (Web 2.0) play in the international student's development and maintenance of a sense of belonging in a new home country?
(2) What role does length of residence play in the international student's development and maintenance of a 'sense of belonging' in a new home country?
(3) Are there any differences in the adaptation of the international student to the new home country when the individual is a high volume or a low volume user of the Internet?
This research study has as its aim to discover how it is that international students develop a sense of belonging to a new country, culture, and ultimately a new home. This is little studied in theory that focuses on how it is that individuals maintain a connection to their home country. This…
Adelman, M., Parks, M., & Albrecht, T. (1987). Beyond close relationships: Support in weak ties. In T.L. Albrecht & M.B. Adelman (Eds.), Communicating Social Support (pp.126-147). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Alorunnisola, Anthony A. (2000) African Media, Information Providers and Emigrants as Collaborative Nodes in Virtual Social Networks. African Sociological Review, 4 (2) 2000, pp.46-72. Online available at: http://www.codesria.org/Links/Publications/asr4_2full/olorunnisola.pdf
Bakardjieva, M. (2003). Virtual togetherness: An everyday-life perspective. Media, Culture & Society, 25 (3), 291-313.
Baym, N.K. (2001). Interpersonal life online. In S. Livingston & L. Lievrouw (Eds.), The Handbook of New Media (pp. 62-76). London: Sage Ltd.
Meng and Meurs (2009) examine the effects of intermarriage, language, and economic advantage. They find that immigrants who have some skill in the dominant language of the country to which they immigrate tend to intermarry and earn more income (Meng and Meurs). Marrying outside of one's culture may influence language acquisition due to social and economic needs to advance within the adopted culture.
Moua and Lamborn (2010) note that ethnic socialization practices by parents of immigrant adolescents strengthen the ethnic heritage connection between adolescent, parent, and ethnic community. These include native language use, marriage ties, taking part in cultural events, sharing history, and preparing traditional foods (Moua and Lamborn). As noted previously, immigrant parents tend to congregate in ethnic communities, where they are essentially immersed in the ethnic culture. The native language is often the most utilized if not the exclusive language in the home. However, children are acculturated into…
Akresh, I. "Contexts of English Language Use among Immigrants to the United States." International Migration Review (2007): 930-955.
Bacallao, M and P. Smokowski. "The Costs of Getting Ahead: Mexican Family System Changes After Immigration." Family Relations (2006): 52-66.
Blatchley, L and M. Lau. "Culturally Competent Assessment of English Language Learners for Special Education Services." Communique: Newspaper of National Association of School Psychologists May 2010: 1-8.
Bleakley, H and A. Chin. "Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants." American Economic Journal of Applied Economics (2010):
What does it mean to be “American” in a country as diverse as the United States?
It has been decades since the Immigration Act of 1924 (Johnson-Reed Act) was passed. The law provided for a quota system that led to the slowing down of the rate at which new migrants moved into the United States. Immigration had brought more than 23.5 million people into the United States. Some people argue that the John Reed Act disadvantages some regions of the world while giving preference to others, though not explicitly. One of the regions disadvantaged by the John Reed Act, critics argue, is Southern and Eastern Europe. Critics also argue that the Johnson-Reed Act was one of the reasons Asian migration into the United States slowed down following World War II (Kraut, 2014, p. 707).
The United States enjoys the position of being a land filled with lots of opportunities for…
The United States has not moved from the "melting pot" to the "salad bowl." Those who suggest that this is the case are entirely unaware of the nation's history, which shows that every new generation of immigrants brings its own language, culture and traditions. It is only over the passage of time that their children and grandchildren adopt the norms, language and common culture of the nation. Evidence from the past shows that this has always been the case. It is only because people see the contemporary period as somehow unique because they are experiencing it, and past starts to blur once we move past a generation or two that anyone would think of the past and present differently. This paper will show that the melting pot paradigm existed in past generations, and that the patterns of settlement and cultural assimilation are basically the same today as they…
About.com (2014). German newspapers in the U.S. And Canada. About.com. Retrieved July 13, 2014 from http://german.about.com/library/weekly/aa071299.htm
Bisin, A. & Verdier, T. (2000). Beyond the melting pot: Cultural transmission, marriage, and the evolution of ethnic and religious traits. The Quarterly Journal of Economics.. Vol. 115 (3) 955-988.
D'Innocenzo, M. & Sirefman, J. (1992). Immigration and ethnicity: American society -- melting pot or salad bowl. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Kallen, H. (1915). Democracy vs. The melting pot. The Nation. Retrieved July 13, 2014 from https://webstorage.worcester.edu/sites/thangen/web/Shared%20Documents/Kallen.DemVsMelting.pdf
If you don't do them well, you can't compete, but doing them better than anyone else provides limited benefit. Companies should carefully examine these tasks for outsourcing opportunities, keeping in mind that they may require the outsourced resources to have specialized or more developed skills.
Activities that are necessary, but a commodity level of service is sufficient - Commodity tasks are necessary for keeping a company functioning, but they do not require specialized skills. Performing these tasks at a level higher than the industry norm provides the company no value.
According to industry estimates that for most companies, only 20% of their activities provide strategic advantage, 50% of their activities are critical, and 30% are at the commodity level. However, most companies outsource few critical tasks, though outsourcing critical tasks represents a large opportunity. Several Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) that have outsourced development have found that about 20% of their…
Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down is a book by Anne Fadiman about cross-cultural communications, or lack thereof, in the American health care system. The book is about a child named Lia Lee. Lia Lee was the first in her family to be born in the United States. Her parents are Hmong, which is a hill tribe that was settled mainly in Laos and which helped the American government during the War in Vietnam. The Hmong were displaced and persecuted, and thus afforded refugee status. This book is about how the immigrants spoke no English, had different values toward health care, and were therefore excluded from receiving the quality of care needed. As a result, their daughter was taken away from them and eventually Lia Lee became a vegetable and recently died.
When Lia Lee was an infant, she had her first epileptic seizure. However, doctors misdiagnosed the disease…
Fadiman, A. (2012). The Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
The poems of Raymond Schiendlin deal with the viewpoints of life from the Jewish people. He claims that the poems written by Jewish people during the medieval times as secular, but this view ignores the very difficult position that Jewish people of the period were put in. In the early centuries AD, Jewish people were kicked out of several countries, including England. In most of the countries where they were allowed to live such as Italy, they were not considered citizens of that nation. Christian nation in particular took issue with Judaism and did everything in their power to punish Jewish people for supposed crimes and to expel them from their nations (Short 64). Schiendlin's position is based upon the assimilation of Jews into various cultures, such as the Muslims and this is certainly true. However, no amount of cultural assimilation could allow the Jewish people to completely remove…
Schiendlin, Raymond P. A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. New York, NY: Oxford.
Schiendlin, Raymond P. Wine, Women, and Death: Medieval Hebrew Poems on the Good Life.
New York, NY: Oxford.
Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.
As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.
Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:
Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…
Besharov, Douglas J. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect. Washington, D.C. University of Maryland's Welfare Reform Academy, 2000.
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974. 23 November 2006. http://laws.adoption.com/statutes/child-abuse-prevention-and-treatment-act - capta-of-1974.html.
Dershowitz, Alan. M. Contrary to Popular Opinion. New York: Pharos Books, 1992.
Murray, Bridget. Cultural insensitivity leads to unfair penalties. Monitor 30.9, October
These years would come to define the modern American woman as a counterpoint to her sheltered Victorian counterpart.
4. Looking at the number of immigrants by region of the world from 1925 to 1981 and 1982 to 2005, as noted in the 2005 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, and at the number of asylees and refugees arrived and granted asylum, and deported aliens. From which regions and countries in the world do most recent new Americans come from, and in what proportion? Quantify the changes? hat political and social reasons could be the reason for such changes? hat impact might these changes in immigrant origins have on American society and culture?
The first waves of immigration to sweep through the United States during the 20th century would be European in origin. At a time when much of Europe would be fractured by conflict, poverty and political strife, the United States would…
Diner, H.R. (1983). Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Gjerde, J. (1988). Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, Houghton Miflin Company.
Hooker, C. (2004). Ford's Sociology Department and the Americanization Campaign and the Manufacture of Popular Culture Among Assembly Line Workers c.1910 -- 1917. The Journal of American Culture, 20(1), 47-53.
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Back Bay Books.
436-437). In other words, official commitment to multiculturalism is just a smoke screen for many Canadian officials who believe that the Euro-Canadian way of doing things is the norm.
The limits of multiculturalism in practice are also visible in the treatment of Canadian citizens and immigrants who have dark skin color. According to Kelly (1998), African Canadians are routinely "racialized" and "othered" (that is, they are put outside of the dominant group). The manner in which African Canadians are unable to become fully-fledged Canadians even if they are born in Canada was succinctly explained by Marlene Nourbese Philip, an African Canadian essayist: "Being born elsewhere, having been fashioned in a different culture, some of us may always feel 'othered,' but then there are those -- our children, nephews, nieces, grandchildren -- born here, who are as Canadian as snow and ice, and yet, merely because of their darker skins, are…
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010a) Chapter 10, Multiculturalism in Canada: "Living together with differences." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p283-308).
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010b) Chapter 11, "Institutional Inclusiveness: Putting Multiculturalism to work." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p309-343; 362-374).
Kelly, J. (1998) Under the Gaze: Learning to be Black in White Society. Fernwood publishing, Blackpoint Nova Scotia.
Millar. J. (1996a) Chapter 13, "Our greatest need today is proper education": Winding down the system. In Shingwauk's vision: A history of Native residential schools (p377-405; 526-535) Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
ABC/23 Version X
Week 3 Review Worksheet
Week 3 Review Worksheet
Highlight the correct answer.
Angelica wants to win the beauty contest because she wants the trophy and the recognition. She is extrinsically motivated.
intrinsically avoidance extrinsically situationally
Maslow believed that all human beings strive to become self-actualized great people self-actualized goal oriented achievement oriented
James-Lange theory postulates that bodily reactions occur before the emotions and Cannon-Bard theory postulates that both the bodily reactions and emotions occur at the same time.
Cannon -- Bard theory; James -- Lange theory
James -- Lange theory; Two factor theory
James -- Lange theory; Cannon -- Bard theory
Emotional intelligence; Dual Pathway Model of Fear
Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage emotions effectively in a variety of situations.
. Mental toughness
. Erik Erickson believed that the process in which we handle specific…
1. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory -- the process of development takes place in the course of social interaction. Cultural assimilation occurs in a person through interactions with others.
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Copyright © 2015 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
It cannot be denied that NCLB largely tests students on standardized measures that value verbal fluency above all else (interestingly, competency in a foreign language is not required in NCLB) bilingual students are shown in a poor light, and guidance towards specific prescriptive techniques to suit the individual student's cultural needs, level of fluency, and family situation is not provided by NCLB. NCLB encourages teaching students how to pass a test rather than fosters the type of skills they need to truly 'own' their learning at worst, or at best, by excludes students from school performance results, which may result in a lack of funding for ESL programs, as opposed to programs that really 'count' towards the magic numbers required to meet district standards.
The anthology questions the fundamental assumption that cultural assimilation is a necessary marker of progress in the American school system. The one potential advantage, albeit a…
Darling's struggle with her displacement in the United States towards the end of the novel. How does she deal with her conflicted sense of identity? hy do the following words spoken by Chipo cause her so much distress? "If it's your country, you have to love it to live in it and not leave it. You have to fight for it no matter what, to make it right... You left it, Darling, my dear, you left the house burning and you have the guts to tell me, in that stupid accent that you were not even born with, that doesn't even suit you, that this is your country?" (288). Is she American, Zimbabwean? Both?
From early in the novel, it is crystal clear that Darling is spiritually independent and clearly not tied to any national identity. She asserts her determination to move to America and live with Aunt Fostalina, as…
Bulawayo, NoViolet. We Need New Names. New York: Llittle, Brown, 2013.
The business cultue of the United Kingdom is chaacteized by the value of fee economy and pivate popety (Rendtoff, 2009). At anothe level, it is maked by a desie to manage wok and life issues. The employees in Bitish oganizations have long been maked out fo thei elatively leisuely pace of wok and thei pioity fo elationship issues ove wok elated issues. Compaed with thei Ameican countepats, employees in UK companies demonstate a less aggessive wok ethic and seek to maintain a low pofile. Display of wealth and pesonality taits is geneally discouaged in Bitish society because a highe emphasis is placed on undestatement and social modesty. Business manages typically demonstate a patenalistic elationship which is also appeciated by thei subodinates. Bypassing one's supeio is disappoved in Bitish oganizational cultue (Giffin & Moohead, 2011). At the same time, employees in UK companies enjoy geate autonomy than employees in India o…
references with Regard to Compensation Criteria in the State-Owned Sector in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (9), p.1986-2010.
Yu, T. (2011) Bureaucratic Hierarchy vs. Feudal hierarchy: A Study on the Organizational Culture of China's SOEs. International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (2), p.139-146.
Zhang, H. (2003) Advances of Psychological Science in China. International Journal of Psychology, 38 (5), p.328.
Zhang, Z. & Jia, M. (2010). Using Social Exchange Theory to Predict the Effects of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China. Human Resource Management, 49 (4), p.743-765.
The U.S., Army Logistics Network has defined specific pricing and costing levels by rank, and strives to push accountability and responsibility as far down the chain of command as possible. As nearly every officer who acts as a buyer within the purchasing and procurement teams has been trained on the fundamentals of accrual-based costing, cost-based accounting, supplier management and supply chain planning, each is given a set of metrics to measure their performance individually and as a team against. As a result, decision making is pushed to the lowest levels of virtual teams with accountability being assigned to the officer responsible for a given supplier. Decision making that involves the entire group is much more collaborative in nature, relying on Internet-based technologies for sharing documents, presentations, and other materials to assist in the development of alternatives. The U.S. Army Logistics Network is heavily reliant on collaborative forms of technology based…
Jay Bal, & John Gundry. (1999). Virtual teaming in the automotive supply chain. Team Performance Management, 5(6), 174.
Jay Bal, & PK Teo. (2001). Implementing virtual teamworking: Part 3 -- a methodology for introducing virtual teamworking. Logistics Information Management, 14(4), 276-292.
F Barahona, P Chowdhary, M Ettl, P Huang, & et al. (2007). Inventory allocation and transportation scheduling for logistics of network-centric military operations. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 51(3/4), 391-407.
Henri Barki, & Alain Pinsonneault. (2005). A Model of Organizational Integration, Implementation Effort, and Performance. Organization Science, 16(2), 165-179.
Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).
In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).When Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).These events also assisted in the creation…
Ballantine, Joseph. Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1952.
Chih-ming, Ka. Japanese Colonialism in Taiwan: Land Tenure, Development, and Dependency, 1845-1945. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1995.
Government Information Office in Taiwan. "History of Taiwan." Taiwan.com. 2005.
Taiwan.com. 10 June 2005 http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html.
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…
Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.
Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
As these two issues will tell you what specific factors could affect the performance of the student. This information is useful, because it can be corroborated with the other sources, to highlight what specific factors could be contributing to higher Hispanic dropout rates.
Clearly, the literature review uncovered a number of different factors that are contributing to higher dropout rates in Hispanics the most notable include: social / cultural differences, government policies that are to broad, bullying and the self-image of the individual. In general, the findings from the research are answering the basic questions. However, there are existing flaws that are occurring along with obvious gaps in the research to include: not isolating enough specific factors that could be affecting Hispanics and the possible impact of augmenting curriculum to cultural needs. This is important, because it shows the study we will be conducting can build off the information presented…
Bae, S. (2007). Mexican-American Students Perceptions. Urban Rev, 40, 210 -- 225.
Brown, T. (2009). Empirical Research Study. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 22 (2), 221 -- 242.
Houston, I. (2007). Predictors of Categorical At Risk Dropouts. Journal of Counseling and Development, 85, 196 -- 202.
Patterson, J. (2007). Cultural Contradictions. The High School Journal, 1 -- 16.
Windshield Survey of Diabetes in the Asian-Indian Community in Plainsboro, New Jersey: Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation
As the home to the second-largest population of Asian-Indians in the United States today (the first is another nearby small community, Edison, New Jersey) (Sahney, 2010). Out of a population of around 23,500, 16.97% of the residents of Plainsboro (or about 4,000) describe themselves as having Indian ancestry (Sahney, 2010). Although Plainsboro enjoys a high standard of living, a desirable community environment and state-of-the-art medical facilities, it is reasonable to suggest that some of the Asian-Indian population in this community remain marginalized due to an inability to afford these state-of-the-art health care services and the potential for cross-cultural differences in views about health care may further exacerbate this lack of access.
A growing body of evidence also indicates that Asian-Indians are among the highest-risk populations for developing diabetes, making this community an especially important…
About Plainsboro. (2015). Township of Plainsboro. Retrieved from http://www.plains boronj.com/content/about-plainsboro.
Anderson, E. N. (2014). Everyone eats: Understanding food and culture. New York: New York University Press.
Brooks, J. (2004, July 26). NLC membership offers many benefits to cities, towns. Nation's Cities Weekly, 27(30), 8.
Chandras, K. V. & Eddy, J. P. (1999, Winter). Counseling Asian-Americans: Implications for training. Education, 120(2), 239.
A major challenge that the majority of English language learners will face is difficulties understanding new concepts with the various forms of verbal communication. Part of the reason for this, is because many people will often have to deal with issues associated with: the differences between English and their native language. At the same time, they will have to address challenges such as: cultural assimilation and adjusting to changes inside their new schools. This is problematic, because if some kind of lesson plan is not created to address these challenges many students will often become frustrated with the educational environment. Once this occurs, it means that they can begin to: lose interest in the subject matter and they will have more difficulties in adjusting to the various challenges that they are facing.
As a result, a number of different theories were developed over the years that were designed to…
Lesson Plan, 2011.
My Notes, 2011.
Carter, R, 2001, The Cambridge Guide to Teaching, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Fathman, A, 2006, Science for English Language Learners, NTSA Press, Richmond.
Only then will the moe effective use of knowledge occu and its value is de-politicized, making it moe potent in geneating pofits (Chatand, 1985).
It is a paadox that the moe challenging, disuptive and uncetain a given industy is the moe oganizations factionalize thei stuctues, ceating splinte goups and politically volatile stuctues that only acceleate a company's demise. The paadox is that in the toughest and uncetain of times in the telecommunications industy, Veizon Telecommunications needs to think moe about how they too can be a disuptive foce in the maket. Instead, the management team is focused on a highly balkanized, vey politically-diven agenda of holding onto powe by ceating smalle silos o depatments that can easily manage the data that is peceived as the most valuable asset thee is in the oganization. The paadox comes full cicle when a company is sold in pieces and the sold unit o…
Chartrand, R.L. (1985). The politics of information. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 36(6), 376-376.
Frederic Jallat, & Ancarani, F. (2008). Yield management, dynamic pricing and CRM in telecommunications. The Journal of Services Marketing, 22(6), 465-478.
Liljander, V., Polsa, P., & Forsberg, K. (2007). Do mobile CRM services appeal to loyalty program customers? International Journal of E-Business Research, 3(2), 24-30,33-40.
Piercy, N.F. (1989). Information control and the power and politics of marketing. Journal of Business Research, 18(3), 229-229.
Substances such as sugar and honey were not used in the aboriginal diets, and the use of abusive substances such as alcohol or other min-altering psychoactive agents with the exception of tobacco and the 'black drink' were not common or problematic (French, 2000).
Prior to the introduction of alcohol the natives were seen as fit, athletic and lean people, whereas the people of today are often seen as obese and sickly (French, 2000). Today the dietary practices and substance abuse habits of natives run rampant. Among Native Americans alcohol abuse is considered the norm rather than the exception to the rule (French, 2000). Many tribes are no longer recognized, and many natives live in a state of displacement as they are forced to live on inadequate spaces that don't come close to representing the vast land they used to occupy.
ecently tribes have become less concerned with their blood degree…
French, a. (2000). Addictions and Native Americans. Westport: Praeger
Parker, L. (1990). "The missing component in substance abuse prevention efforts: A Native American example." Contemporary Drug Problems, 17(2), 251-270
Thomason, T.C. (2000). "Issues in the treatment of Native Americans with alcohol problems." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 28(4): 43
Outsourcing Its Impact
The effects of outsourcing in today's economy
Effects on People
Being an expatriate
Breaking the language barrier
Outsourcing and people dynamics: Impact on company
Effects on Economy
Impact on technology
Global management and outsourcing
The effects of outsourcing in today's economy
Outsourcing has become an increasingly popular business strategy for transnational organizations. Many of the U.S. corporations started outsourcing their manufacturing operations since late 1980s. This was due to the potential advantages, both from an economic as well as regulatory perspective that business operations in foreign lands provided to these businesses. Initially, the U.S. firms running in financial troubles chose to set their cost intensive operations abroad such as manufacturing and call centers in low cost countries. Gradually, when the cost benefits were realized, other companies from various industrial sectors also strengthened this trend of outsourcing. Pharmaceutical industry was the first to witness…
Bartel, Ann, Saul Lach, and Nachum Sicherman. Outsourcing and technological change. No. w11158. National Bureau of Economic Research, (2005): 1-41.
Caligiuri, Paula, and Victoria Di Santo. "Global competence: what is it, and can it be developed through global assignments?" Human Resource Planning 24.3 (2001): 27-35.
Drezner, Daniel W. "Outsourcing Bogeyman, The." Foreign Aff. 83 (2004): 22.
Dunleavy, Patrick, and Christopher Hood. "From old public administration to new public management." Public money & management 14.3 (1994): 9-16.
Regional Identity and Its Literal Purpose
Regionalism is a common sense of identity. It is an expression of an identity that shapes activities in a particular geographical region. In early 1980's regions resurgence of regional self-consciousness was part of the general democratization process. Members of different regions, minorities and majorities, reclaimed what they considered as history leading to regional development. The process of increasing social and political awareness has led to rise of cultural and political dimensions of regionalism (Roth 59). A group of identity is politicized when it affects human judgments on political issues, or affects human decisions on how we act politically like voting for someone. This can define regionalism as the politicization of regional identity. This implies that regional populations have certain common interests that they can advance as a group. They advance these interests to preserve cultural identity, which is threatened by cultural standardization and to…
Diaz, J., San Francisco, C. "Regional Business News." Inside a House Devided, 2012.
Fitjar, R.D. The Rise Of Regionalism: Causes of Regional Mobilization In Western Europe. Atlanta: Taylor and Francis, 2009.
Roth, K., Ulf, B. Region, Regional Identity Regonalism In South Eastern Europe. Chicago: LIT Verlang, 2010.
Institutional Distances in International Marketing Channels: Governance Strategies That Engender Legitimacy and Efficiency, the researchers posit that firms doing business in foreign institutional environments face significant pressure to gain social acceptance (which they term as "legitimacy") and to compete in meaningful ways that only result from being well-informed about the host market (which they term "efficiency"). They explain that obtaining legitimacy may incur additional costs of adaptation and market assessment that tends to undercut firm efficiency. Firms must invest to understand the local market and position themselves to work cooperatively with local partners. The managerial dilemma becomes how to gain legitimacy while safeguarding efficiency (Yang et. al, 2012).
The past solution, as the article highlights, was to conform to gain social acceptance for survival -- even if was detrimental to the firm and compromised self-interests. The authors suggest that the more effective method is to minimize institutional distance through regulatory,…
Lin, H. (2012). Strategic Alliances for Environmental Improvements. Business & Society, 51(2), 335-348. doi:10.1177/0007650312437918.
Yang, Z., Su, C., & Fam, K. (2012). Dealing with Institutional Distances in International Marketing Channels: Governance Strategies That Engender Legitimacy and Efficiency. Journal of Marketing, 76(3), 41-55. doi:10.1509/jm.10.0033.
" (Atkinson, 1)
This is an important divergence of approaches, not simply because it dispenses with the ordinary telling of this story but also because it recasts the way we might understand the death of the Shawnee tribes. here the caricature of the heroic and generally lionized Tecumseh is concerned, there is a tendency to vest too much stock in the role played by a single charismatic leader in defining the suffering and ambition of the Shawnee people. Edmunds' work is an accomplishment particularly for undoing the myth that a single people can be defined thusly. By shifting his focus to Tecumseh's counterpoint, a religiously inclined brother who prioritized conflict over unity, and especially by framing the conclusion of this story according to the placement of the Shawnee on a reservation, Edmunds succeeds in demonstrating the scale of this atrocity in a way that histories centering on a single man…
Atkinson, D.D. (2007). Review: The Shawnee Prophet by R. David Edmunds. Blogtide Rising.
Edmunds, R.D. (1985). The Shawnee Prophet. University of Nebraska Press.
Post-Colonialism in Literature (Presentation Paragraph)
In the novel Nervous Conditions by Tsitsi Dangarembga, a young girl named Tambu wants to attend school. After her brothers' death she is allowed to take his place at the mission school. At the end of the school term she is able to pass an exam which will allow her to further her education even more. This is the basic plot of the novel, but it shows only a fraction of what the story is about. Tambu's story is symbolic of many colonial nations. She is taught by the western world to desire their education and also many other values of the western world including their culture, in clothing, films, and books. By the end of the story she has completely been immersed in the western culture while denying this is so. In many post-colonial societies, the native people try to reestablish their unique identities…
Dangarembga, Tsitsi. Nervous Conditions: And Related Readings. Evanston, IL: McDougal
Littell, 2009. Print.
McMahon. "Notes on Tsitsi Dangarembga: Nervous Conditions: Post-Colonial Literature II,"