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Cultural Differences ith Spain
In June 2001, the United States and Spain signed a declaration celebrating their "traditional relations." The declaration pledged, among others, to strengthen the economic and financial cooperation between Spain and the United States.
Since then, more businesses based in the United States have opened offices in various locations in Spain. Manufacturing giant SC Johnson & Son Inc. And New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company Schering-Plough both have offices in Madrid. SDRC, a software-company based in Ohio, has offices in Madrid (Spain-U.S. Chamber of Commerce).
More and more, the United States is recognizing Spain's growing financial and economic role in Europe and Latin America.
Despite a shared history and increased economic cooperation, the United States and Spain have distinct cultures and customs. An understanding of these cultural boundaries can be invaluable to American companies doing business in Spain. This paper looks at the key cultural differences and their ramifications…
Central Intelligence Agency (January 1, 2002). The World Factbook 2002 - Spain. Retrieved January 23, 2003 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sp.html
Levitt, Joshua (September 2002). "Spain: Getting Through Customs." Director.
Spanish-U.S. Chamber of Commerce (2002). U.S. Companies in Spain. Retrieved January 23, 2003 at http://www.spainuscc.org/eng/publications/index.html
U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (March 2002). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2001: Spain. Retrieved January 23, 2003 at http://www.usis.usemb.se/human/2001/europe/spain.html
(Ng and Tuen 2006 pp.23-25) They demand basic necessities only. (Abdelal & Tedlow 2003 pp.23-25) This creates rooms for Giordano and Baleno in exploiting the low-end market by charging reasonable price at good quality level Mary Kay is a foreign branded cosmetics firm. It has done a research to know more abo^ the Chinese make up habit the Chinese ladies are generally having different make up habit from the western ladies. Mary Kay has to adapt certain shades of make up in China, Most importantly, Chinese views "face" as a kind of "respect and consideration." (Lu 2001 pp.32) This want "face" culture is consistent with the Chairman of a-Fontane's views that the Nouveau iche want to show off and this can represent their status. If the foreign marketers in China do not grant some favors or show respect to the Chinese counterpart, it is hard to build up a long-term…
Albaum, G. Strandskov and Duerr (2008) International marketing and export management. England: Addison-Wesley, pp.15-19
China Statistical Publishing House (Zhongguo Tongji Chunbanshe) (2008) Beijing Statistical yearbook (Beijing Tongji Nianjian). Beijing; Author, pp.102
China Statistical Publishing House (Zhongguo Tongji Chunbanshe) (2006) Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong (Beijing Tongji Nianjian). Beijing: Author, pp.45-48
China Statistical Publishing House (Zhongguo Tongji Chunbanshe) (2008) Statistical Yearbook of Shanghai (Beijing Tongji Nianjian). Beijing: Author, pp.225
However, in some culture, such practice may be taken as a rude process. For instance, being indirect is a form of politeness in Japan. But such will be seen as nothing but a form of dishonesty in the American business scenario.
How to Approach Foreign Markets from the Perspective of Culture
In the event of conducting business relationships, there are a number of strategies that business parties can use to approach the foreign markets from the perspective of culture. Some of them are the following:
Prior learning of the culture of one foreign business party will not do any harm to the other.
Before conducting business with a party from another region, it will be helpful for international companies to learn some cultural background of the other part. It is important to consider that not every people, especially between those that come from totally different cultural background, have similar regard…
The Pitfalls of Cross-Cultural Business, in Risk Management, March 2004, Volume 51, Pages: 38-43, by Jared Wade
Business: A hyper market, The Economist, London, April7, 2001
Retrieved on Sept. 05, 2005, from Online. http://www.culturalsavvy.com/differences.htm
Cultural Differences in Companies
The Globalization of Enterprise Software:
Comparing Oracle and SAP and Their Challenges
One of the most mercurial and fast-changing areas of technology today is enterprise software. Systems that enable large-scale enterprises to better serve their customers while orchestrating complex supply chains continue to rapidly evolve as Internet-based technologies and usability improve (ettig, 2007). The approaches companies take however to those challenges differ drastically due to ethical, legal, social and political differences in their location and formation. Oracle, founded in edwood City, California and SAP, founded in Walldorf, Germany exemplify these stark differences. The intent of this paper is to complete a comparative analysis of these two firms, analyzing the ethical, legal, social and political differences of each including an assessment of how these differences impact their decision-making processes as well. ecommendations and conclusions are included as well. There are also many potential frameworks to use for…
Chang, L. (2003). An examination of cross-cultural negotiation: Using Hofstede framework. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 2(2), 567-570.
Engelstatter, B. (2012). It is not all about performance gains - enterprise software and innovations. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 21(3), 223.
Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. The Executive, 7(1), 81-81.
Hofstede, G.J., Jonker, C.M., & Verwaart, T. (2012). Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents. Group Decision and Negotiation, 21(1), 79-98.
Cultural Differences in Army Officers
Every society is different from the other and arranges itself under some certain value and belief system. This belief system is the basic identity of any society or a group of people and is very central in developing them as human beings. More importantly, it plays a significant role in developing the way these members of a society behave and how they interact with each other. One of these aspects which play a central role in the development of human behavior is Culture.
Culture is the fundamental characteristic that defines the way we behave and the way we interact with each other. The lack of knowledge regarding the other person culture can result in the serious lack of judgment regarding the true meaning of someone's gesture and this misinterpretation can go a long way in harming any society or a relationship between two people. Therefore…
David A. Thomas, R.J. (1996). Making differences matter: A new Paradigm for Managing Diversity. Harvard Business Review, 1-12.
Garcha, A. Diplomatic Culture or Cultural Diplomacy: The role for culture in International negotiation?
Heinecken, P.L. A diverse Society, A Representative Military? The complexity of Managing Diversity in the South African Armed Forces.
Lloyd J. Matthews, T.P. (Ed.). (1999). Population Diversity and the U.S. Army.
Cultural competence refers to individuals' ability to successfully interact with people of different cultures within their workplace. Professional groups have members of different social, economic, and professional backgrounds (Transcultural Nursing, 2012). They have different education and upbringing also. This significantly influences the cultural differences between people in such groups. Therefore, it is important that individuals understand and accept the differences between them and their colleagues. By accepting these differences, conflicts in the health care industry can significantly reduce.
In the health care industry cultural tolerance is very important. This means that professionals in this industry must deal with different categories of patients with different types of cultures. All of these patients must be treated equally alike, regardless of their cultural background. However, this is not always the case. There are situations where professionals in the health care industry make discriminations against members of minority groups.
The health care industry can…
1. Moore, T. (2008). Individual Differences and Workplace Spirituality: The Homogenization of the Corporate Culture. East Tennessee State University. Retrieved March 8, 2013 from http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/08060.pdf .
2. Cultural Competence (2012). Transcultural Nursing. Retrieved March 8, 2013 from http://www.culturediversity.org/cultcomp.htm.
Practical obstacles like taste can be difficult to predict, in terms of how entrenched they may be, unlike simply adopting to bowing rather than shaking hands on a business trip. Dealing with local corruption is also hard to fully explain in an educational seminar for managers going to work abroad, versus advice on how to dress so as not to offend the local population. Subway is perhaps the best example of how to positively adapt to local needs and tastes.
In contrast, Domino's as a product was to some degree stymied by the nature of being a chain pizza business. On one hand, it was flexible enough to take into consideration some local needs, including daily rhythms of life, a belief in feng shui, and simple weather conditions that affected delivery logistics. But the fact that the Italian conception of pizza was different than that of most Americans, in terms…
Gibson, R. (2006). Foreign flavors: When going abroad, you should think of franchising as a cookie-cutter business; unless, of course, you want to succeed. Wall Street Journal.
September 25, 2006: 8.
Wade, Jared. (2004). "The pitfalls of cross-cultural business." Risk Management, 51: 38-43
Cultural Differences of Adolescent in the United States
The United States, ever since the time when its history began, has been an accumulation of different cultural patterns who took refuge here for independence in expressing the thoughts. esiliency or adaptability is featured as a phenomenon of fruit yielding adaptability in spite of difficult or intimidating surrounding. In this paper we shall analyze the cultural differences among adolescents in the country. In 1996 Gordon discovered that adaptable young men have concrete self-confidence in their realizing capabilities and concrete sentiments of association in the school surrounding as against their non-adaptable associates. Consistently Arellano and Padilla in 1996 discovered that cooperative families and tutors saved students from vulnerable educational surroundings. Again Liebowitz, Catellani, and Cuellar in 1999 discovered the relatively important foreseer of sexual attitude to be the persistence of morals existing betwixt the young men and their family. Outcomes threw light on…
Brook, J.S; et al. (1998) "Drug use among African-Americans: Ethnic identity as a protective factor." Psychological Reports- 83:1427-1446
Brook, J.S; Whiteman, M; Balka, E.B; Win, P.T; and Gursen, M.D. (1998) "Drug use among Puerto Ricans: Ethnic identity as a protective factor." Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences- 20(2): 241-254
Carlin, J.F. (1979) "The Catastrophically Uprooted Child: Southeast Asian Refugee Children." In Basic Handbook for Child Psychiatry- Volume I, edited by J.D. Noshpitz et.al. New York: Basic Books.
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2001) "HIV / AIDS Surveillance Report"- 13(2):144.
According to Bauer (n.d.), individual values are those that reflect to goals that people have in mind -- those which are in behavior, reflects what is important to them. Personality, on the other hand, refers to a wider range of scope -- that which involves feelings, emotions, thoughts, and behavior. In psychology, there is what is known as the Big Five Personality Traits or the OCEAN traits -- this comprises of five dimensions that account for variation in people's personalities. Some tender to be more OPEN, or curious about the world while others tend to be CONSCIENTIOUS, organized and punctual. Others tend to be EXTAVETS, outgoing, talkative, and high in social skills while some are more AGEEABLE as they are sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm. Last dimension is NEUOTICISM which refers to the anxious, moody personality (ibid).
The Challenge: Now, How Will I Manage All These?
Now, having discussed the…
Bauer, Tayla. n.d. Individual Differences: Values and Personality. Available at:
5 June 2010].
Cornell University. 2010. Organizational Behavior. Available at:
Cultural Differences and Negotiation
Chosen Country: Japan
Japanese culture is full of many traditional values. For instance, family is tremendously important to the Japanese and traditional gender roles are commonly upheld (Saito et al., 2004). For example, the father is generally the breadwinner and the mother is often a full-time homemaker who takes care of the children (Heapy, 2012). Japanese society is extremely structured and orbits around a conception of hierarchy and people's roles; it's not uncommon for people to be addressed in terms of the position they hold (Heapy, 2012). The culture values things like duty, loyalty, and obligation; in fact the Japanese view the biggest obligation as the one that one carries towards one's parents (Heapy, 2012).
Even those who are unfamiliar with Japanese culture are aware of the fact that the Japanese bow instead of shaking hands. Bowing in Japanese culture is a sign of respect; showing…
Chan, R., & Hayashi, K. (2010). Gender Roles and Help-Seeking Behaviour. Journal of Social Work, 243-262.
Heapy, T. (2012). Japanese Culture. Chicago: Capstone Global.
Katz, L. (2008). Negotiating International Business - Japan. Retrieved from globalnegotiationresources.com: http://www.globalnegotiationresources.com/cou/Japan.pdf
Saito, S. et al., (2004). Translatability of Family Concepts into the Japanese Culture. Family Process, 239-257.
There can be several reasons behind this enduring practice. Men and women feel that if parents have chosen someone for them, they would also support them through hard times. We understand that all marriages go through rough patches and some more than others. In these trying times, parents and other family members normally intervene to resolve problems. This is a common practice in India and all countries where arranged marriages are still in practice. However if a person chose to marry someone of their choice, it is very likely that during hard times, others would distance themselves saying; "didn't we already warn you." The fear of being left alone to ride out the tide might actually push some people in favor of arranged marriages.
The second reason is the ease and convenience that comes with having a partner chosen for you. In the western world, getting married doesn't come easy.…
Serena Nanda. Arranging a Marriage in India. From Stumbling Toward Truth: Anthropologists at Work, edited by Philip R. Devita, 2000, pp. 196 -- 204. Published by Waveland Press.
Jodi O'Brien in Robert Kupla edition. "Arranged marriages." Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Volume 1, 2008
As the saying goes, 'two heads are better than one' so teams working together can find solutions better than a person working alone. Collective wisdom is important in business and as such, given the diversity in the workforce, professionals are required to be adaptable and willing to evaluate the way they conduct business. According to the Anti-Defamation League diversity has a direct impact on the marketplace, talent, and organizational effectiveness.
Moreover, according to them, when companies value diversity and effectively manage it, they can build better relationships, improve decision-making, stimulate effective team building, expand the ability to change problems into opportunities, provide employees with skills that promote organizational effectiveness, increase employee initiative, camaraderie and morale, and reduce conflict among many other benefits. In today's economy, successful organizations "recognize that managing diversity is an opportunity to increase productivity and create effective business strategies." (Anti-Defamation League, 2003).
Anti-Defamation League. (2003).…
Anti-Defamation League. (2003). The Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/education/edu_awod/anti-Bias_in_workplace.pdf
Kelly, E., Young, A., Clark, L. (1993). Sex Stereotyping in the Workplace: A Manager's Guide -- Women in Business. Business Horizons, March-April. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n2_v36/ai_13815063/?tag=content;col1
Taggart, A. (2007). Beyond Diversity: Becoming a Culturally Competent Organization. Ivey Business Journal, September-October. Retrieved from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/article.asp?intArticle_ID=712
Workman, D. (2008). International Trade Communication: Smart Business Negotiators Adapt to Audience Cultural Styles. Retrieved from http://internationalbusiness.suite101.com/article.cfm/international_trade_communication
In ussia, any display of the swastika would generate a hostile response, just as it does in virtually all other Western cultures and societies simply because of the social context in which it was first introduced in the 20th century.
The Swastika in Buddhist and Hindu Social Culture:
Prior to the 20th century, the swastika was used in various ancient and medieval societies in a manner that had no relation to its subsequent revival and adoption by the Nazis many centuries later (Macionis, 2003). In some respects, it was adopted many different times as a fairly common symbol in so many different societies mainly because of its geometric simplicity and its symmetry. In many Far Eastern societies, particularly among Buddhists and Hindus, the swastika is a symbol that has decorated temples and other culturally significant structures for thousands of years.
In fact, in Thailand, where both Buddhism and Hinduism are…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, R. (2007). Psychology and Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Myers, D.G., Spencer, S.J. (2004). Social Psychology. Toronto, Canada: McGraw-Hill.
In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.
Effect of Cultural Diversity on…
Before Anglos came to dominate the land, Cabeza de Baca portrays a kind of paradise-like environment, where even the sheepherders were like "musicians and poets" and "the troubadours of old," and every person had a story (Cabeza de Baca 11). This has been called a method of "preserving the culture" against the dominant discourse of Anglos: Cabeza de Baca, along with other writers of her generation are portrayed as trying to "get it [their culture] right" in an effort to transcend the overwhelming discourse of the Anglo "other" (Cabeza de Baca xx). Using Hispanic phrases and names, blurring historiography and biography, and the view of the past as a kind of lost "Eden" are all aspects of the authors 'agenda' (Cabeza de Baca xx). Cabeza de Baca deliberately uses English as a way of communicating with the Anglo reader and 'setting the record straight.'
Yet while Cabeza de Baca strives…
Cabeza de Baca, Fabiola. We fed them cactus. UNM Press, 1954.
2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.
An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…
references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.
Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.
Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.
Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.
Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.
cultural differences in today's world. Then explain two ways you might address those challenges in your professional life. Support your responses using current literature.
Challenges of diversity: Positives and negatives
Affirmative action embodies many of the paradoxes of the diversity of American society. On one hand, America has long proclaimed itself a land of freedom and equality. However, for many years, African-Americans and other minority groups were discriminated against, resulting in economic, educational, as well as political disenfranchisement. Affirmative action, or taking race into consideration to promote a more diverse environment in schools and in the workplace, is one way to create a fairer and more pluralistic society. It reflects the fact that persons who are privileged in America have historically come from specific races, classes, and ethnicities. However, many people believe that affirmative action's use of racial preference is, in effect, a form of discrimination itself. The courts have…
Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H.R. (2010). Social psychology. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
The Harvard Clinical and Translation Science Center (2009). Cultural Competence in Research. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from http://www.mfdp.med.harvard.edu/catalyst/publications/Cultural_Competence_Annotated_Bibliograp
Write Response to colleague's
IQ Test Scores
Cultural Differences in IQ Test Scores
Most studies carried out in the United States to measure intelligence (IQ) indicate a significant gap in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites. The gap is more pronounced in certain areas of intelligence such as general intelligence and on tests requiring problem solving and more complex mental operations than on tests of rote learning and immediate memory. The gap has narrowed since the 1970s but still persists stubbornly. Debate has raged among the psychologists and social scientists about the reasons for the gap. The "hereditists" believe that the difference in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites is largely due to genetic reasons. The "environmentalists" are equally certain that the gap is due to environmental reasons and has nothing to do with genetics. This paper looks at both the heredity explanation as well as the environmental explanations of…
Dorfman, Donald D. (1995). "Soft Science with a Neoconservative Agenda." A Review of the Bell Curves. 40: 5. Contemporary Psychology, APA's journal of book reviews. Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.apa.org/journals/bell.html
Haughton, Noela A. (2002). "Biased Content, Context, and Values: An Examination of the SAT." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.sq.4mg.com/IQincome.htm
Jencks, Christopher and Phillips, Meredith. (1998). "The Black- White Test Score Ga: An Introduction." (pp. 2-22) The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips - eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Keita, L. (1999). "Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean." The Western Journal of Black Studies. 23: 1, p. 65.
These, then, eventually die leaving the transfer of oxygen in your blood being absolutely limited and far below the point at which the flow of oxygen needs to be in a human body. The flow of blood and transfer of oxygen eventually slows down tremendously and can cause terrible pain as well as make the immune system to be vulnerable to a variety of different diseases. There are many medical procedures that can allow the individual to find a relief (Lozoff et al., 2003).
In our case study, we will mainly highlight how the mother's approach was tentative and skeptical and how the four points that have been mentioned initially (communication, social organization, spatial dynamics and locus of control) are impacted through her approach. The first important thing to note about the attitude of the mother is that she does seem very forthcoming to find out as much as she…
Black R. (2003) Micronutrient deficiency -- an underlying cause of morbidity and mortality. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 81:79.
Dr Izumi, S., (2008) Japanese Patients' Descriptions of 'The Good Nurse', accessed on February 28, 2009.
Kino*****a, J., & Palevsky, N. (1992) Gateway to Japan (Rev. ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha International.
Lozoff B, De Andraca I, Castillo M, Smith JB, Walter T, Pino P. (2003) Behavioral and developmental effects of preventing iron-deficiency anemia in healthy full-term infants. Pediatrics.112:846-854.
The field of counseling is very complex and multi-dimensional. This report includes a general description of counseling, how cultural insensitivity can occur within the construct of counseling, the impacts of cultural of said insensitivity in counseling as well as the broader workplaces of Australia and the broader world, the types and forms of cultural insensitivity that a counselor can endure and encounter while working and two ways in which cultural insensitivity can be addressed and responded to in a counseling setting. While some people project their insensitivities on others and counselors can be both good and bad in terms of cultural sensitivity, it is always best for counselors and indeed everyone else to be sensitive to the religious, cultural and societal differences that exist between us.
To be sure, there are going to be situations in the lives and careers of therapists and counselors where a counselor…
Atkin, K. (2003). Ethnicity and the politics of the new genetics: principles and engagement. Ethnicity & Health, 8(2), 91-109.
Brinson, J.A. (2004). Recognizing Our Cultural Biases as Counsellor Supervisors: A
Reflective Learning Approach. Guidance & Counseling, 19(2), 81-91.
Lopez, S.A. (2011). Culture as an Influencing Factor in Adolescent Grief and Bereavement. Prevention Researcher, 18(3), 10-13.
This is the point that we can offer specific insights that will help corporations to establish training programs and procedures for addressing these issues. Once this happens, is when we can provide strategies that will reduce conflict and improve productivity.
What the Proposed Design will accomplish?
The proposed design will be able to determine what specific attributes must be used by corporations to deal with the various cultural differences inside their operations around the world. This will help executives in creating policies and procedures that will allow managers / employees to improve communication. While at the same time, it will help them to address a host of cultural differences that could be relevant to a specific country or region.
For example, if a firm decided to establish operations in Russia managers will have to understand that there are certain practices that must be embraced. This is because Russians are more…
Comparative Analysis. (2012). E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/how_2095476_write-comparative-analysis.html
Hall, E. (1990). Understanding Cultural Differences. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Johnson, B. (2004). Mixed Methods Research. Educational Researcher, 33, (7), 14 -- 26.
Ryan, R. (1999). The American Dream in Russia. Personal Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, (12), 1509 -- 1524.
U.S. healthcare system built dominant European-American cultural values, beliefs, practices. These differ dominant values, beliefs, practices cultural groups Mexicans. Compare contrast values/beliefs/practices cultural group.
The first important difference is one between formalism and lack of formalism. European-American cultural values are less formal, but Mexicans will need to be addressed with Mr. / Mrs. At the first meeting. It will also be important to continue this type of address throughout the consultation. Compared to the European-American approach, the male is believed to be the head of the family and, in a traditional Mexican family, he will be the one who provides for the family, as well as the one making the final decisions. This could imply that he is the one who needs to be explained in more detail the procedures, the treatment etc.
It is also important to note the religiousness of the Mexican community, usually much more profound that…
1. http://www.aarphealthcare.com/insurance/managed-care-plans.html. Last retrieved on April 18, 2014
2. Cartwright, A., Shingles, R.R. Cultural considerations when working with Mexicans. On the Internet at http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/cultural-considerations-when-working-with-mexicans . Last retrieved on April 18, 2014
3. Betancourt, J. (2002). CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN HEALTH CARE:
EMERGING FRAMEWORKS AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES. New York.
Cross Cultural Leadership
Cultural Differences in Leadership
Cultural differences determine certain leadership traits and portions of our personality. It is easy to discredit the importance of cross-cultural differences and their influences on various leadership styles. Different cultures are known for certain traits. For instance, the Australian culture is known for it egalitarianism. Chinese culture is known as an authority oriented culture (Sharpe, 2007). These differences in culture result in the development of different leadership styles and traits. The following will explore the issue of cultural differences and will support the thesis that leaders from authoritarian countries have a greater power distance from their employees than do those in egalitarian cultures.
Sharpe (2007) found that the Australian culture and the Chinese culture dictated certain traits in regards to desirable leadership traits. Both the Australian and Chinese participants felt that these leadership traits were more important on the lower levels than on…
DeGrosky, M. (2011). Lost in Translation. Wildfire. Retrieved March 4,.2011 from http://wildfiremag.com/command/cultural-context-leadership-200907/
Deng, L. & Gibson, P. (2008). A Qualitative Evaluation on the Role of Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Leadership Effectiveness. The International Journal of Leadership Studies. 3 (2): 181-197.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Lewis, R. (2006). Cultural Differences in a Shrinking World: Leadership Implications. Personnel Decisions. January 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.hreonline.com/pdfs/PDIPaper.pdf
herefore, the standpoint of social embeddedness is a tool that offers to provide a clear picture if one wants to comprehend the contribution of the relational factors in the success of outsourced IS projects (Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009).
If one is to increase his/her comprehension and develop an insight about how to monitor and control outsourced IS projects, Johns' (2006 as cited in Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009) suggestions come in useful. He recommended that the theory be contextualized by assessing the effect of characteristics of social framework in the setting of outsourced IS projects. It should be assessed how the adopted cultural features of the project affect its success and performance.
Later, the social embeddedness standpoint needs to be contextualized to the setting of the outsourcing of IS projects and a cultural variation framework should be applied to assess mutual principles and standards for those projects that are…
Trent, R.J. And R.M. Monczka (2003). "International purchasing and global sourcing -- what are the differences?" Journal of Supply Chain Management 39(4): 26-37. Taken from: Mittal, R. (2010). CULTURAL CONGRUENCE in CROSS-BORDER ALLIANCES: A MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of Business RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3.
Uzzi, B. 1997. "Social Structure and Competition in Interfirm Networks: The Paradox of Embeddedness," Administrative Science Quarterly (42), pp. 35-67. Taken from: Rai, a., Maruping, L.M. And Venkatesh, V. (2009). OFFSHORE INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROJECT SUCCESS: THE ROLE of SOCIAL EMBEDDEDNESS and CULTURALCHARACTERISTICS. MIS Quarterly Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 617-641.
Werner, S. (2002). "Recent Developments in International Management Research: A Review of 20 Top Management Journals." Journal of Management 28(3): 277-305. Taken from: Mittal, R. (2010). CULTURAL CONGRUENCE in CROSS-BORDER ALLIANCES: A MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of Business RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3.
Global Perspectives on Leadership
Working with individuals from Latin America requires significant consideration of various factors that influence the relationship and the realization of a shared organizational objective. Firstly, taking into consideration the cross-cultural communication that will dominate the interaction with individuals from this culture is imperative. The fact that cultural differences exist translate to the communication breakdown that should be managed by the leader of an organization. Developing a culture-sensitive environment will help eliminate such barriers. The leader should also consider the context and content of understanding business setup when working with individuals with Latin America culture. Textual analysis shows that Latin business culture focuses on the broad aspects of the organizational relationship, social approaches, and broad circumstances influencing the business (Moran, 2011, p. 215).
However, the culture of other states such as the U.S. places a strong emphasis on the communication content. The content of focus includes facts,…
Moran, Robert T. Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success (8th Edition).: Routledge, . (2011). Print
Attribution and Cultural Differences
Attribution of failure and cultural differences in business
'Personal responsibility' is a common buzzword in American political and business life. Americans are often more forgiving of politicians and CEOs who accept responsibility for the mistakes they have made. Individual responsibility is seen as a positive value, but this is not true of all cultures. In more collectivist cultures, the stress is upon collective and 'team' responsibility when things go wrong. "In some cultures (those in the West), it is the individual that has agency, as the group is merely the context within which individuals act. In some cultures (those in the East), it is the group that has agency. In Asian cultures, individual agency is constrained by family roles and social rules so that there is less individual 'innovation and improvisation'" (Friedman et al. 2007: 857). As a result, in the media and in society,…
Dickie, Mure. (2011). Stigma of failure holds back Japanese start-ups. The Financial Times.
Friedman, Ray, Liu, Wu, Chen Chao C., Chi, Shu-Cheng Steve. (2007). Causal attribution for interfirm contract violation: A comparative study of Chinese and American commercial arbitrators. Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (3) 856 -- 864
As our nation becomes increasingly more diverse we will be presented with the challenge of understanding our cultural differences. The purpose of this paper is to develop and design a learning project that compares cultural differences of two ethnic/cultural groups. For the purposes of this project we will compare the differences between Asian and Western cultures. The project will be based on the cultural impact of performance in workforce, production, sales, customer services, etc.
efore we can create a learning project we must first understand the cultural backgrounds of both groups.
The economic boom seen in various Asian countries during the 90's called into question the work ethic and cultural values that made these nations successful. One of the most definitive explanations for the work values that are prevalent in Asia, especially China, has been attributed to the concept of Confucianism. Confucianism is the…
Marcus, George E. "Meanings of the Market: The Free Market in Western Culture." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 4.4 (1998): 804.
Marglin, Stephen A. "Development as poison: rethinking the Western model of modernity." Harvard International Review 25.1 (2003): 70+.
Therefore, Americans seeking to do business with Saudi nationals would be well advised to research their prospective Saudi counterparts thoroughly but to make preparations to travel to Saudi Arabia first before actually initiating contact with Saudi business people. Doing so and calling after arriving in Saudi Arabia instead of initiating contact from abroad demonstrates awareness of and respect for Saudi business customs right off the bat and in a way that should be noticed by Saudis, especially those who might be familiar with the fact that the norm in the U.S. is simply to call first or email to arrange the first meeting.
Saudis seeking to do business with American firms should understand that in the U.S., it might be inappropriate to travel to the location of a business first and then make initial contact expecting that the meeting will necessarily be planned during their stay. That is because in…
Harris, P., Moran, R. (2007). Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership
Strategies for the 21st Century
Hughes, R., Chesters, G. (2003). Living and Working in Gulf States & Saudi Arabia.
Survival Books: London
International Organizational Behavior-Cultural Differences in Job Satisfaction and Motivation
As the forces of globalization continue to reshape the international marketplace, understanding cross-cultural differences in job satisfaction and motivation has assumed new importance and relevance. To this end, this paper provides a comparison of the United States with two of its major trading partners, China and Canada, drawing on Geert Hofstede's five cultural dimensions. A comparison of the U.S. with these two countries using Hofstede's five cultural dimensions is followed by an analysis concerning how various job factors contribute to satisfaction in different cultures. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the implications of cross-cultural factors for international organizational behaviorists in promoting job satisfaction and motivation are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
While it is reasonable to suggest that the overwhelming majority of people in the world work to earn a living, making pay and benefits…
Kim, Y-J & Na, J-H (2007, July). Effects of celebrity athlete endorsement on attitude towards the product: The role of credibility, attractiveness and the concept of congruence. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 8(4), 310-314.
Sablosky, T. L. (2009, May). Did you get the message? In this era of far-flung branch locations, new methods of internal communication-such as teleconferences, videoconferences and intranets-are growing in popularity. ABA Bank Marketing, 37(4), 26-29.
A loud burp in one setting can be a high compliment, but in others it will be considered enormously offensive. Confronting law enforcement figures over perceived transgressions of their authority is a highly prized tradition in the West, but these confrontations are actively avoided in the East. Likewise, standing for women entering a room is de rigueur in Western cultures, but such practices would be viewed as incongruent with the cultures of many Eastern countries. Then there is the matter of which hand to use and when, because these issues are significant in the East where the right hand is used for contact with others and the left hand reserved for other purposes, but such considerations never enter the minds of people in the West because this practice is not followed.
Despite these fundamental differences in religion, language, worldviews and cultural practices, it is possible to navigate these differences if…
U.S. Cuba Culture
Cultural Differences between the U.S. And Cuba
The role of culture in society has become increasingly important as the United States continues to spread its influence around the globe. Developing a sense of cultural awareness represents a type of knowledge that can be useful in mitigating sources of conflict. In the military cultural factors have been a critical, yet mostly unexamined, aspect of missions conducted in Africa and the Middle East since the end of the first Gulf ar in 1991 and cultural factors played an important, but usually unacknowledged, role in shaping the scope of the United States' humanitarian intervention in Somalia during the 1990s[footnoteRef:1]. However, there has been a growing awareness that cultural awareness is a critical success factor that needs to be further developed because it can serves as a critical success factor in dealing with other nations. [1: (underle)]
Cuba and the U.S.…
Murray, M. Katrina aid from Cuba? No thanks, says U.S. 14 September 2005. Web. 13 April 2013.
Wunderle, W. Through the Lens of Cultural Awareness: A Primer for U.S. Armed Forces Deploying to Arab and Middle Eastern Countries. Fort Leavenworth: Combat Studies Institute Press, n.d. Print.
Cultural Competency in Nursing
The basic knowledge in nursing or medical studies needs substantial facilitation in order to be effective and appropriate towards addressing the needs and preferences of the patients. Watson notes the need to integrate humanistic aspect into the career or nursing profession. He also believes on the need for the establishment of the caring relationship between the patients and nurses thus demonstration of unconditional acceptance of the patients in any condition. Nurses should integrate holistic and positive treatment with the aim of promoting health through knowledge and interventions thus elimination of interruptions during treatments or 'caring moments'. Modern patients have diverse problems and issues because of the cultural differences, races, and ethnicity thus the need to enhance the operations of the nurses. There is need to ensure that the nurses obtain cultural competencies with the aim of enhancing their ability to address diverse issues and problems faced…
Anderson, N.L.R., Calvillo, E.R., & Fongwa, M.N. (2007). Community-based approaches to strengthen cultural competency in nursing education and practice. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(1), 49S-59S.
Beach, M.C. (2005). Cultural competency: A systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Cultural Competency, 43(4), 356-373.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care. The Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 181-185.
Rosswurm and Larrabee, (1999). A Model for Change to Evidence-Based
Cultural diversity refers to the diverse varieties of human cultures that exist in a certain region, society or in the world as a whole. The characteristics of diversity may include ethnicity, traditions, geographic background, language spoken, religious beliefs, race or physical features. This term is also based on the idea that different cultures should respect each other's differences. With the global integration, the need for communication in accordance with other person's cultural awareness has intensified. Many times, any gesture that is considered offensive in one culture is completely accepted in the other culture. Hence, people sometimes develop misunderstandings when communicating with someone from a different culture. Therefore, it is essential that differences are appreciated for an effective communication.
I am a Christian man who is originally from Ukraine. My mother tongue is Ukrainian and I came to United States some 10 years ago. I am very moderate in my religious…
Newsom, D., Turk, J.V., and Kruckeberg, D. (2004). This is PR: The Realities of Public Relations. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Rosener, J.B. (1990) "Ways Women Lead," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No. 6, pp. 119-25
Cultural Observation of Dress
Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.
Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)
f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.
People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…
Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)
Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.
Miner's article is discussing the appearance
Cultural Distance: How Is it Measured, And How it Impact on Global Marketing Operations
The persistence of cultural distances is relevant for the global multinational marketing operations exposed to multiple cultures in their everyday activities. This indicates that marketing across border introduces complexities because it forces global marketers to tailor their approaches and practices to each cultural context they carry out their business activities. As a result, this paper will discuss concepts applicable to different aspects of cross-border operations. The primary focus of the paper is on multinational business corporations (Baumann, 2007).
This study shows how Hofstede's model is still the most relevant piece of reference for a successive cross-cultural analysis despite it being a widely criticized. The paper compares and contrasts Hofstede's famous concepts with Turner and Schwartz, Trompenaars and Hampden's valued inventory. It will attempt to provide empirical evidence of how cultural diversity influences the global markets by…
Baumann, A. (2007). Influences of culture on the style of business behavior between Western and Arab managers. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Baumu-ller, M. (2007). Managing cultural diversity: An empirical examination of cultural networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations. Bern: Lang.
Cavusgil, T. & Ghauri, P.N. (2009). New challenges to international marketing. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Curry, J.E. (2009). A short course in international marketing: Approaching and penetrating the global marketplace. Petaluma, CA: World Trade Press.
While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.
Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…
Diller, D. (1999). Opening the dialogue: Using culture as a tool in teaching young African
American children. Reading Teacher, 52(8), 820-828. [Available electronically through ERIC/EBSCOhost]
Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching:
using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31 (2), 132-141.
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
Particularly in the conflict between Gerstner and the IBM head in Europe, conflicts arise because of the different culture that Americans and Europeans have. There are several assumptions that can be considered to deduce why conflicts arise between Gerstner and IBM head in Europe. First, the action of directly sending emails to European employees may be offending to the head of IBM Europe. It may be a culture to Europeans to show respect to the organization heads by communicating with them first before any other employees. Second, it can also be assumed that the action committed by Gerstner may just really be a normal procedure to the culture he was brought in. That is, that his business culture is to be straight and direct to the point and that he did not really intend any harm to the IBM head in Europe. Thirdly, based on several researches on the European…
The Pitfalls of Cross-Cultural Business, in Risk Management, March 2004, Volume 51, Pages: 38-43, by Jared Wade
Business: A hyper market, The Economist, London, April7, 2001
Shah, Satish. Who Says Elephants Can't Dance. http://www.chally.com/enews/issue10/elephants.html
First, they can avoid cultural stereotyping simply by becoming aware of the issue in principle. Generally, the mere awareness of the issue and of its importance is likely to reduce any practitioner's tendency to succumb to cultural stereotyping. econd, nurses and other healthcare professionals can avoid cultural stereotyping by committing themselves to learning about different cultures and corresponding cultural sensibilities and expectations that are functions of cultural differences. In principle, professional practitioners who make that commitment tend to learn the most about different cultures and make the most conscientious effort to apply that knowledge in their everyday nursing responsibilities and practice.
Mixer, .J. "Use of the culture care theory and ethnonursing method to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care." Contemporary Nurse, Vol. 28 (April 2008).
Taylor, C., Lillis, C., and LeMone, P. (2005). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and cience of Nursing Care. Philadelphia, PA:…
Mixer, S.J. "Use of the culture care theory and ethnonursing method to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care." Contemporary Nurse, Vol. 28 (April 2008).
Taylor, C., Lillis, C., and LeMone, P. (2005). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.
nhl.com/sm-reebok-washington-capitals-alexander-ovechkin-language-barrier-player-name-and -- pi-3070445.html
Here, we can see an innovative way of overcoming the inherent language barrier, or at least rendering it secondary to fan intrigue.
hina is another market context where challenges are specific and dominant due both to the dramatic distinction between the hinese language and Romantic or Latin-based tongues and due to hina's isolated and distinctly defined cultural nature. In both of these, we consider that there is a real and difficult obstruction for organizations seeking to establish a meaningful identity.
In consideration of the example of Foster's beer, for one, we are given a narrative detailing a long and difficult process by which the Australian beer distributor was eventually able to penetrate the market. For Foster's, one of the biggest problems was its prior strategic dependence on its name and Australian identity, which are easily and charmingly conveyed in advertisement in America. In a non-English speaking market,…
China is another market context where challenges are specific and dominant due both to the dramatic distinction between the Chinese language and Romantic or Latin-based tongues and due to China's isolated and distinctly defined cultural nature. In both of these, we consider that there is a real and difficult obstruction for organizations seeking to establish a meaningful identity.
In consideration of the example of Foster's beer, for one, we are given a narrative detailing a long and difficult process by which the Australian beer distributor was eventually able to penetrate the market. For Foster's, one of the biggest problems was its prior strategic dependence on its name and Australian identity, which are easily and charmingly conveyed in advertisement in America. In a non-English speaking market, this is a harder association to draw. Such is to say that "The brand name is an essential part of marketing and it not only helps to identify a product but also creates value through consumers' association with the brand (Kohli, Harich, & Leuthesser, 2004). Cultural differences are therefore of major concern when managing brands in China." (Chung, 2) This is especially true coming from the Australian market, where the association between the brand name and a high standard of quality would negatively translate to mean high cost in the Chinese market, where income is decidedly more modest.
Another instance comes to us from China of cultural barriers creating a distinct challenge for internet search engine giant, Google. Google's ideology places it in a spot of unparalleled challenge, even further observable as it attempts
Cultural differences extend to language. In some instances, this merely necessitates "code-switching" -- the use of different words and speaking patters in different cultural settings (e.g. The difference between conversation at a business meeting and a baseball game, although with intercultural issues the impact of code-switching becomes far more profound). On a less esoteric level, however, there is the simple issue of language barriers in providing equal multicultural care. Evidence shows that simply increasing he availability of multilingual care -- especially in populations with a large number of non-English speakers -- greatly increases the quality of healthcare and overall health of immigrant populations (Ngo-Metzger et al., 2003).
This suggests one of the main ways that the healthcare industry can combat these barriers -- simply educating more providers in cultural differences, and actively recruiting new students and practitioners from among different cultures and across linguistic lines will greatly improve the availability…
Ngo-Metzger, Q., Massagli, M., Clarridge, B., Manocchia, M., Dvais, R., Iezzoni, L. & Phillips, R. (2003). "Linguistic and cultural barriers to care." Journal of general internal medicine, 18 (1), pp. 44-52.
Uba, L. (1992). "Cultural barriers to health care for southeast Asian refugees." Public health reports, 107 (5), pp. 544-8.
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
Cultural evaluation Japan describe identify ways arguments a presentation arguments changed result cultural differences
Rose Cohen. Out of the Shadow: A Russian Jewish Girlhood on the Lower East Side, with an Introduction by Thomas Dublin. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995). Pp. vii-313. Paper: $19.95. ISBN: 978-0-8014-8268-7.
Rose Cohen was born in Russia at the end of the 19th century and immigrated to the United States of America in the early part of the 20th century. The circumstances she encountered while transitioning from one "Old orld" culture to a "New orld" one primarily constitute the source material she uses in Out of the Shadow. There appears to be a great deal of difference between the daily life and cultures encountered by a young Jewish girl/woman in Russia and one in America. These differences more than likely pertain to both cultures as well as to simply daily life and expectations for…
Dublin, Tom. "Rose Cohen Critical Essay." Jewish Women's Archive. No date. Web. http://jwa.org/discover/inthepast/readingseries/cohen/criticalessay.html
Muir, Lisa. "Rose Cohen and Bella Spewack: The Ethnic Child Speaks to Who You Never Were." www.highbeam.com. 2002. Web. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-92042295.html
Cultural school focuses on the culture of the individual entities that form the organization. Culture, it asserts, drives the organization's judgment and operational strategy resulting in differences such as between a Japanese and American organization.
In contradistinction to the power school that places the loci on the individual as well as the entrepreneurial school that does likewise (this time on the leader), the cultural school insists that individuals are a homogenized whole, their decision, beliefs, judgments, and actions formed by their specific culture. In this way, therefore, to understand an organization necessitates understanding its culture. Organization culture -- the premise of the cultural school -- is, oftentimes, understood as collective cognition since a deeply rooted culture produces closely interwoven interpretations and activities.
Content and Process.
Culture is ineradicably part of the individual's makeup. His or her perspective on the world is shaped by this culture, and since organizations are a…
Rieger, F. 1987. 'The influence of national culture on organizational structure…' Dissertation, McGill Univ., Montreal.
Roth, K. & Ricks, D.A. (1994). 'Goal configuration in a global society context.' Strategic Management Journal, 15, 103-140.
Wright, J.P. 1979. On a Clear Day you can see General Motors. Wright Enterprises: MI.
Decreasing one's own ignorance can be done in several ways. One of the best is simply to start learning about and researching another culture (Barry, 2002). When a person assumes something about a particular culture or makes value judgments about that culture (whether or not those judgments are accurate for the majority of people in that culture), he or she is indicating that an entire group of people are the same and that they all do things a certain way because of the culture to which those people belong. It is better in the long run not to stereotype people that way, and to judge each person on his or her own merits. ight now, for example, there is a stigma in the United States against Muslims and/or people who come from the Middle East. Ever since September 11, 2001, that stigma has continued to grow and develop.…
Barry, B. (2002). Culture and equality: An egalitarian critique of multiculturalism. New York, NY: Harvard University Press.
Cavell, S. (2002). Knowing and acknowledging. Must We Mean What We Say? New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Because these issues have become more pronounced in recent years, it is not surprising that efforts have been made to define these differences in an effort to measure them. In this regard, Hofstede (1980) identified five basic dimensions of culture as follows:
1. Power distance (focusing on the extent to which the less powerful expect and accept that power is distributed unequally);
2. Individualism-collectivism (focusing on the degree to which the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships -- highly individualist cultures believe individual is the most important unit, whereas highly collectivistic cultures believe group is the most important unit);
3. Uncertainly avoidance (focusing on the degree to which the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, uncertainty and ambiguity within the society)
4. Masculinity-femininity (focusing on the extent to which a society emphasizes achievement or nurturing -- masculinity emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles, whereas…
Bardovi-Harlig, K. & Hartford, B.S. (2005). Interlanguage pragmatics: Exploring institutional talk. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mann, GA. (2006). A motive to serve: Public service motivation in human resource
management and the role of PSM in the nonprofit sector. Public Personnel Management
Cross-Cultural Differences and Communication
Cultural identity is a significant force that shapes the interaction between people from different cultures. The contemporary globalization has made intercultural interactions inevitable in the contemporary society. People draw conclusions about other people's culture depending on a wide range of observations about the individual's way of live, values and behavior. For instance, understanding what people from specific cultural values helps in drawing about that culture in that specific aspect of value or behavior (Byram, 2015). For example, I have drawn the conclusion that martial art is a significant cultural practice in the Chinese culture. This conclusion is informed by the several Chinese films that I have watched that have largely been characterized by Martial Arts. This predominance of martial arts in these films informed the conclusion I have drawn from the Chinese culture.
UNIT 4 DISCUSSION
I am visiting a new country within a different culture…
Although I believe that I have critically met the objectives for a master's degree in working in many ways (particularly academically), I can honestly state that the area in which I progressed the most was in dealing with cultural diversity. Prior to entering this program, I had extremely limited experience dealing with cultural diversity, especially in the workplace. Despite working as a nurse for the past 16 years, the most diversity I had ever experienced in my patient population was the occasional Spanish speaking client -- which would require me to utilize the language line for interpreting my directions and interacting with the patient. However, thanks to my involvement in this particular academic program, I am now much more acclimated with cultural diversity and believe that I have significantly improved my prowess in this aspect of my work as a professional nurse.
My experience with cultural diversity changed…
Cultural competence: What does this really mean to health care professionals?
Cultural Competency is a significant issue that faces health care providers today. It is important for organizations to have and utilize polices, trained and skilled employees and resources to foresee, distinguish and respond to a variety of expectations in language, cultural and religion of members and health care providers. Health literacy takes place when there is shared understanding between healthcare providers or anyone communicating health information and patients. Joint understanding is not just good medicine; it is also a right and responsibility (Health Literacy and Cultural Competency Provider Tool Kit, 2008).
Addressing disparities in health care and health results is more and more becoming a main concern on national and state levels. The Department of Health is dedicated to generating health justness and devoted to endorsing cultural competency among health care providers, to enhance affirmative results for all…
Cultural Competence. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.culturediversity.org/cultcomp.htm
Cultural Competency in Health Services and Care. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.doh.wa.gov/hsqa/professions/Publications/documents/CulturalComp.pdf
Health Literacy and Cultural Competency Provider Tool Kit. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.bcbst.com/providers/08-538CulturalCompProvToolKit.pdf
Racial Diversity in Rural Nursing
Describe the problems associated with Racial Difference in rural health care nursing and what successful strategies can be made where racial and cultural differences are apparent factors. What rational to supported their behaviors? What could be done differently today?
Why? And with these difference how can one incorporate strategy for providing culturally competent care?
In rural communities that once lacked a long-standing tradition of racial diversity, but that have now become increasingly diverse, it can be difficult to broach issues of health and wellness if the nurse feels that there are strong tensions within the larger environment between his or her own ethnic group and the ethnic group of his or her patient. But regardless of the cultural divide that exists between patient and nurse, the hospital must improve upon rather than simply reflect society.
True, quite often, a nurse may experience difficulty discussing a…
Business in Czech epublic
Doing business in a foreign country is never easy. It is not so much about the tax regulations, import/export duties or getting a license. The main challenges accrue from the differences in cultural values and social or religious beliefs. For Steve, it may prove easier to at least communicate with the people and establish a bond with them. It is also important to know that Czech epublic is very keen on attracting foreign investment and a strong U.S. presence is desired. For this reason, Steve doesn't need to worry about whether he will be welcome in that country or not. As for cultural differences, it must be borne in mind that both Czech epublic and the U.S. have some similarities and some differences but these differences can act as a major hurdle if not properly understood. Business is often taken seriously in the Czech epublic and…
1. Greet-Hofstede- Cultural Dimensions for Czech Republkic: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_czech_republic.shtml [Accessed 14th September 2005]
2. Greet-Hofstede-Cultural Dimensions for the U.S.: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_united_states.shtml [Accessed 14th September 2005]
Martin Eaton and Myron Dembo (1997) examine the impact of culturally-based motivational beliefs on academic achievement. Focusing on the Asian-American population, the authors present their findings in their article "Differences in the Motivational Beliefs of Asian-American and non-Asian Students." orking with the premise, based on prior research, that Asian-American students outperform their non-Asian counterparts on a variety of measures, the authors set out to determine what role motivational beliefs had on the differences in performance of Asian vs. non-Asian students. The researchers surveyed 154 Asian-American and 372 non-Asian students for the purposes of this preliminary research and based on their findings concluded two main points. First, Asian-American students are more strongly motivated by a fear of academic failure rather than by reward for success. The fear of failure that is strongly ingrained in Asian-American students is a result of parental pressure and socialization, which in turn are dependent…
Eaton, Martin and Dembo, Myron (1997). "Differences in the Motivational Beliefs of Asian-American and non-Asian Students." Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol 89, No. 3, 433-440.
Education in the East and West
The difference between education in the East and the West is primarily a difference in culture. Today, cultural differences are less pronounced than they were a century ago. Globalized society has seen cultures meld and melt into one another, so that in many senses the East resembles the West in more ways than one (Igarashi). However, deeply rooted cultural cues still represent a fundamental reason for existing educational differences between the East and the West. This paper will describe these differences and show why they exist.
Medieval Guilds were important to production standards in the time of the Renaissance. For example, "in places where guilds were strong, they exercised strict oversight over training" (Hansen). In fact, the education and apprenticeship of the Renaissance was a highly skilled exercise that began at the youngest age and often required more than a decade of training.
Li, Jin. Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West. UK: Cambridge, 2012.
Li's book is very helpful in understanding the differences between Eastern and Western education: it highlights cultural influences in the West, from the Greeks, and in the East, from Confucius and Buddha, etc. It looks at how religion and science have both played a part in where East and West are educationally speaking.
The author of this brief response has been asked to offer some words about team building. Specifically, there will be some discussion about what happens with violated expectations on a cross-cultural team due to the existence of different cultural rules and norms. While a "violation" may be a big deal to some people in some cultures and less of an issue in other cultures, these violated expectations must be dealt with so as to retain and preserve the continuity and performance of the team. Along the way, the author of this report will offer some detailed examples of what can lead to these violated expectations where not everyone involved feels that a rule was broken. While expectations and norms may vary from culture to culture, there needs to be a single and unified protocol that everyone in the team should follow irrespective of the contrary norms that may…
IOA. (2016). The International Ombudsman Association - IOA Publications. Ombudsassociation.org. Retrieved 12 February 2016, from https://www.ombudsassociation.org/Resources/IOA-Publications/The-Independent-Voice/November-2012/The-Impact-of-Direct-and-Indirect-Communication.aspx
Lewis, R. (2016). How Different Cultures Understand Time. Business Insider. Retrieved 12 February 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/how-different-cultures-understand-time-2014-5
The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.
The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:
Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?
My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…
Branine, M. (2011). Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practices. Sage.
Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence?. Business Horizons,51(5), 391-399.
De Bono, S., & Van Der Heijden, B. (2011). Managing cultural diversity. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Duncan, T. (2005). Current issues in the global hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(4), 359-366.
I believe the market is simply too small for continued growth to occur.
In regards to Surrey British Columbia, I also believe it to be a viable option for FedEx, but not to the extent of Miami. For one, Surrey has a population of 394,976 people which makes it the provinces second most populous city (5). The economy is fast growing and has a significant upside potential. Because of this fact, I believe Surrey to be a better option than St. Johns. Industries that are growing quickly are Clean Energy, Finance, eal estate, High Technology, Advanced Manufacturing, Health, and Education (6). I believe the sectors of interest for FedEx are manufacturing, real estate and technology as they can either provide business possibilities or opportunities for joint ventures. Unlike the other two locations however, FedEx may want to defer entry into this market until the technologies actually come to fruition. This…
1) "Population by Age and Sex." Web. 02 Aug. 2011. .
2) "Detailed Highest Level of Schooling by Sex and Age Group." Economics and Statistics Branch (Newfoundland & Labrador Statistics Agency), 2001. Web. 02 Aug. 2011. .
3) "Canada Census." Web. 03 Aug. 2011. .
4) "Newfoundland." Web. 03 Aug. 2011. .
Cultural Diversity in the United States
The United States is one of the most multi-culturally diverse nations in the world. It has often been described as a melting point in which diverse cultures converge. The country is filled with people drawn from different cultures such as Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Europeans. This study focuses on the concept and importance of cultural diversity in the U.S. I believe that cultural diversity is desirable in the United States because it fosters harmonious interaction of people: it should be encouraged because it makes American Citizen's appreciate and respect each other's culture.
Culture refers to an integrated system of learned conduct or behavior patterns that are distinct with members of a given society. As such, culture refers to a people's way of thinking or living. It incorporates people's traditions, religions, mode of dressing, language, values, and beliefs. Language allows people to establish a sense…
Pojman, L. (1999). Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, 3rd edition. Belmont, CA:
Cultural bias implies an emphasized distinction or preferential status that indicates a predilection for one culture, over another. It is often discriminative, and is characterized by an absence of integration in a group, in terms of social principles, codes of conduct, and beliefs. Cultural partisanship introduces the accepted behaviors of one group as superior, and more valued, than those of another lesser-respected cultural group. In my surroundings, most of the residents, and hence, patients are white, making us (Afro-Americans and Asians) minorities, feel different if not isolated. Such deferential factors are responsible for establishing where specific individuals live, and what opportunities are available to them, in the healthcare and educational context (Sue et al., 2009)
The presence of cultural bias within the context of healthcare-related recommendations and decision-making gives rise to significant challenges. Well-documented inequalities in health status of different racial and ethnic communities, in addition to nationally-publicized…
Resources and Services Administration (http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/)
American Psychiatric Association's Steering Committee to Reduce Disparities in Access to Psychiatric Care (2004) (Natl. Assoc. Social Workers 2007).
These and many more substantive readings from research are listed by the author for assimilating culture-centric education. (Sue, Zane, Nagayama Hall, & Berger, 2009)
As a Counselor, I will need to be aware that being culturally aware implies delivering services in a manner consistent with the recipient's culture, through regards to linguistic variation and cultural discussion. I would seek to be more sensitive to unaccultured ethnic minority clients. In addition, I would use discretion in cases where patients of a particular community or ethnicity are prone to certain clinical problems (for which I would study the ethnic group and its history in more depth) and if certain ethnic groups respond poorly to EBT (Evidence-based Treatment). (Sue et al., 2009)
Cultural Diversity: What Is It?
Cultural diversity is that quality or characteristic of any society, community, group or family that consists of a variety of cultural and/or ethnic backgrounds. Thus, for example, a nation like America could be said to be culturally diverse because it is represented by various cultures and ethnicities throughout the land. At the same time, being culturally diverse is also about showing respect and appreciation for and towards the various cultural and ethnic groups within the community. Diversity is something that is recognized rather than something is suppressed or ignored. True cultural diversity is not just the physical make-up of the group of community but also the state of mind of the members of that group regarding how they think about and view diversity. Yet, as DiMaggio and Bryson (2000) show, cultural diversity remains a controversial subject for some.
One of the main challenges of cultural…
Day, R. (2007). Facing the Challenge of Cultural Diversity. Retrieved Nov. 2010 from http://farnhamcastle.blogspot.com/2007/09/facing-challenge-of-cultural-diversity.html
DiMaggio, P., and Bryson, B. (2000). Public attitudes towards cultural authority and cultural diversity in higher education and the arts. Retrieved December 2012 from http://www.princeton.edu/~artspol/workpap/WP11%20-%20DiMaggio%2BBryson.pdf
Turner-Vorbeck, Tammy A. (2005). Expanding multicultural education to include family diversity. Multicultural Education,13(2), 6-10. Retrieved August 2013 from ProQuest.
Heritage Assessment Tool
Heritage Assessment Tool: Cultural values and health beliefs
Cultural sensitivity is an integral part of effective nursing. Although the definitions of concepts such as 'health' and 'wellness' might seem on their surface to be self-evident, these notions are, in fact, highly mutable and particular to the individual and his or her culture. Cultural insensitivity can result in patients becoming alienated from the medical system and this results in poorer, ineffectual care. One of the reasons instruments such as the Heritage Assessment Tool can be so useful is that it can be a clear and efficient way to establish the culturally-contextual health beliefs of a patient whose experiences and values that are different those of the physician, nurse, or other healthcare provider treating the patient.
The first family I interviewed was a Chinese-American household. Although the family was relatively assimilated and the children were second-generation residents…