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In the case of Justine, cultural / religious beliefs could stand in the way of saving Justine's life. But if her grandmother insists that cultural beliefs (cutting the skin to open a place for surgery of the heart will ruin her life when reincarnation happens) prevent the possibility of closing the hole in her heart, and the mother of Justine agrees, healthcare professionals have no choice but to postpone surgery for the hole in the heart muscle. It is not the place of estern medicine to pass judgment on Laotian / Buddhist values and beliefs, no matter that a child's life may hang in the balance.
In the case of the Puerto Rican immigrant, who resists coming to the doctor's office for reasons that are very vague, she clearly has an aversion to modern medical procedures. If she truly has diabetes, hypertension, asthma and depression, she is in…
Gilbert, M. Jean. (2009). A Manager's Guide to Cultural Competence Education for Health Care
Professionals. The California Endowment. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from http://www.calendow.org/uploadedfiles/managers_guide_cultural_competence (1).pdf.
Yee, Barbara W.K. (2008). Health and Health Care of Southeast Asian-American Elders:
Vietnamese, Cambodian, Hmong and Laotian Elders. University of Texas Medical
Therefore, the selection of historiographies used to create school curricula and to inform pedagogy should be carefully selected and from as many perspectives as possible. Cultural identity does not have to be created in opposition to others. Too often, cultural identity is based on boundaries and borders rather than on commonalities.
elying on singular interpretations of potentially biased historians is particularly problematic when issues of power and social control are taken into consideration. American public schools should be especially aware of how knowledge, power, and social control are closely interwoven. Even teachers of young children can become more aware of differential access to social and cultural capital: the means by which the rich become richer. Public schools should promote a cultural identity that is keenly aware of the problems with traditional pedagogy, traditional definitions of "culture," and traditional ways of disseminating culture.
Giroux (1999) notes that educators may need to…
Aloni, N. (1999). Humanistic education. Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education. Retrieved Mar 24, 2007 at http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm
Giroux, H.A. (1999). Cultural studies as public pedagogy. Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education. Retrieved Mar 24, 2007 at http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm
Mazzotti, T.B. (1999). Constructivism. Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education. Retrieved Mar 24, 2007 at http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm
Even with the fact that he feels that he would honor his father by taking on an attitude that would make it possible for him to discover that his engali background plays an essential role in shaping his character, Gogol simply discovers that he is a more complex individual and that it would be impossible for him to only identify with one geographical location.
Anzia Yezierska's story "Children of Loneliness" is relatively similar to the Namesake when considering that it also deals with topics like alienation from one's family and the struggle to find one's personal identity. Rachel Ravinsky, the central character in the story, feels that it would only be natural for her to abandon principles instilled in her by her parents in order to be able to adopt more 'American' ideas. oth Rachel and Gogol have a tendency to regard ideas expressed by their parents as being limiting…
Yezierska, Anzia, "Children of loneliness: stories of immigrant life in America," (Funk & Wagnalls company, 1923)
Dir. Mira Nair, the Namesake. Fox Searchlight Pictures, 2007
S. without fluent English language skills.
I have always felt that my upbringing allowed me the maximum possible benefit of American society without detracting from my ability to appreciate my culture of origin. In that regard, I have always felt very confident in public and in my interpersonal relationships; I have never felt like an immigrant or a foreign national and part of my personal identity definitely includes "American" components that are less often shared by those who were not born in this country. On the other hand, I have also always maintained strong ties to my culture of origin, particularly within my extended family relations and in our respective homes. Especially during Hispanic holidays and other social occasions, the events taking place in my parents' home could easily be envisioned as occurring in another country.
While all of us sometimes converse amongst one another in English, particularly important (or…
Healey JF. (2003). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict
and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Macionis J. (2003). Sociology. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Schaefer RT. (2002). Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper Collins.
This paper addresses the significance of ethnic or cultural identity. It deals with the identity of socially advantaged as well as disadvantaged groups and my relation to them. Additionally, it highlights the significance of the self-identity concept. The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI), put forward by Smith, Sellers, Shelton and colleagues (1998), has been utilized to address all of the above aspects. The paper further explains the model, applying its dimensions to various self-identity aspects. Finally, the paper delves into the way such identity-related aspects intersect with one another.
Identity is multifaceted in nature: it may be relational and circumstantial, as well as concurrently permanent, changing and dynamic. Identity development occurs via a process of socialization. It may or may not be self-established. It is, rather frequently, employed in the labeling and categorization of persons believed to possess oppositional or dual differences. Additionally, identity represents a construct applied in creating social…
Kymlicka is onto a good point in mentioning how Canada's social welfare system is a fairly unique benefit, springing from a uniquely Canadian attitude towards its citizens and the role of the state in the lives of its citizens. Kymlicka helps his constructive definition of Canadians by pointing out that they are almost unique in the OECD by not dismantling their social welfare benefits in the 1990's. Whether one agrees or disagrees with this definition, it is worth explaining why Canada has stood out from other OECD countries in this sense while maintaining high growth. Instead, Kymlicka reverts to the point about the United States, and the differentiation in social welfare systems -- again bolstering the image of Canada as 'not the United States.'
Kymlicka is on much stronger ground when talking about diversity within Canada. This is a more historically- and culturally-based method to explain how Canada is developing…
Gaines, BJ. "Duverger's Law and the Meaning of Canadian Exceptionalism." Comparative Political Studies (1999): 835-861.
Kymlicka, W. "Being Canadian." Kymlicka, W. Government and Opposition. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003. 357-386.
Studlar, DT. "Canadian Exceptionalism: Explaining Differences over Time in Provincial and Federal Voter Turnout." Canadian Journal of Political Science (2001): 299-319.
Defining and Describing Culture
acial/Cultural Identity Development Model
There are five distinct stages found within the racial/cultural identity development model. These stages include conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection and integrative awareness. Not all individuals of a racial/cultural minority experience all of these stages -- some stages can last considerably longer than others and it is possible for people to vacillate between stages. However, the initial stage is conformity to the behavior, norms, and values of a dominant culture on the part of an individual who is a racial or cultural minority. The individual identifies with the dominant culture and wants to fit into it and perceives himself as though he were a part of this dominant culture. It is not uncommon for people to experience shame and negative feelings about both themselves and their minority racial/cultural group in this stage.
The next stage is dissonance, which is a crucial stage because it is…
Baden, A.L. (2002). The psychological adjustment of transracial adoptees: an application of the cultural-racial identity model. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless. 11(2), 167-191.
Pruyn, P.W. (2011). Identity development models. Developmental Observer. Retrieved from http://developmentalobserver.blog.com/2011/12/01/identity-development-models/
Hall & amirez (1993) define cultural identity as the "set of behaviors, beliefs, values, and norms defined by the ethnic group(s) to which we belong and develop through the process of growing up" (p. 613). The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) identify the accumulated knowledge, unique skills, and unique values as markers of cultural identity (2009). Generally, cultural identity can be conceived of as the group of which an individual calls herself a part. With this label come specific traditions, languages, food, clothing, grooming habits, music, and other cultural markers.
In contrast to this relatively stable notion of cultural identity, Fierlbeck (1996) argues that culture is ever-changing, "continually fluctuating and metamorphosing" (p. 12). She also states that cultures are constantly 'bumping into' eachother, overlapping and shifting (Fierlbeck, 1996). In short, Fierlbeck (1996) argues against the usefulness of the term "cultural identity," positing that identies are just as…
Buriel, Raymond. (1993). "Acculturation, Respect for Cultural Differences, and Biculturalism
Among Three Generations of Mexican-American and Euro American School Children."
The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 154(4), 531-543.
Fierlbeck, Katherine. (1996). "The Ambivalent Potential of Cultural Identity." Canadian Journal
History establishes that communities develop identities through economic and social necessity. A much more current view of nationalism than in Anderson might read as follows:
The national world order is a distinct from, and in opposition to, other world orders. It claims, and effectively controls, all land surface on Earth. The national world order is an autonomy-minimizing world order. It sets rigid limits on which states are legitimate, and in effect suppresses all non-nation states, and refuses to grant them superiority or soveriengty.
States are historically linked to one single tangible territory. Despite its association with war, a world order of nation states minimizes territorial conflict - at least compared to a world of expansionist universalist states (empires of conquest).
State formation is limited to one type of group: nations or peoples. These groups have distinct characteristics: permanence, transgenerationality, and long-term convergence around a core culture that survives temporary…
Part 1: Presentation
The Defying Empire exhibition showcases the works of tens of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artists from all over Australia (National Gallery of Australia [NGA], 2017). Held to commemorate the 1967 referendum that allowed indigenous people to be included in the national census, the exhibition is aimed at celebrating the cultural identity and historical tribulations of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Indigenous communities in Australia have historically been subjected to racism and discrimination, experiences which have negatively affected their health wellbeing.
Of the several artworks presented during the exhibition, one that stood out is the Black Dog, a work produced by Archie Moore. The image embodies the racism faced by Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders. As Moore explains, the dog’s skin was not dark enough; hence, boot polish was applied to make it blacker. This further enriches the racial connotation intended to be projected by…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). The health and welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/lookup/4704.0Chapter715Oct+2010
Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet. (2015). Summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health. Retrieved from http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/health - facts/summary
Balaratnasingam, S., Anderson, L., Janca, A., & Lee, J. (2015). Towards culturally appropriate assessment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social and emotional wellbeing. Australasian Psychiatry, 23(6), 626-629.
Best, O., & Fredericks, B. (2014). Yatdjuligin: Aboriginal and Torres Islander nursing and midwifery care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, H., McPherson, G., Peterson, R., Newman, V., & Cranmer, B. (2012). Our land, our language: Connecting dispossession and health equity in an indigenous context. CJNR, 44(2), 44-63.
Chalmers, K., Bond, K., Jorm, A., Kelly, C., Kitchener, B., & Williams-Tchen, A. (2014). Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 8(1), 6.
Congress of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nurses and Midwives. (2015). CATSINaM definition of cultural safety. Retrieved from http://catsinam.org.au/policy/cultural- safety
Douglas, V. (2013). Introduction to Aboriginal health and health care in Canada: Bridging health and healing. New York: Springer.
Rather than hope for a new life, it is Ona's tragic suicide that introduces us to Ng's Bone. The novel takes place for the most part in San Francisco's Chinatown, where we observe Leila, Ona's sister, deconstructs detail after detail in an attempt to find the reason for her sister's death. In so doing, Leila finds that she must try and reconcile her Chinese heritage with her American identity, without, in the modern Chinese-American community, going too far in either direction.
Unlike Love Medicine, which is ultimately a linear story that takes many loops into the past between beginning and end, Bone's structure is more circular beginning and ending very close to the same point in time. At the beginning of the novel, as a modern Chinese-American woman, we learn that she is not the deferential stereotype of a Chinese daughter, who lashed out at her father in a store.…
Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine.
Hong Kingston, Maxine. The Woman Warrior.
Ng, Fae. Bone.
" Taking into consideration these three stages, I would position myself in the second stage - that of cultural identity search. I am aware of my cultural background and I always have been, but the fact that I live in the multicultural American society made it hard for me to fully embrace my cultural heritage. I am at a stage in my life when I feel the need to understand my culture in order to better understand who I am. The fact that I am aware of my cultural appurtenance does not mean that I completely embrace my cultural identity. Learning about my cultural heritage is the path towards better understanding who I am and identifying myself with the cultural group that I belong to.
Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan;
Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;
Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.
Chapter 6, Cultural…
Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan ;
Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;
Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.
Chapter 6, Cultural Identity, Cultural Biases, and Intercultural Contact.
This paper discusses all the facets and considerations inherent to a cultural identity essay. Namely, the paper describes the importance of cultural identity, the definition of cultural identity, and examples of cultural identity—both theoretical and literal examples in the world today. This paper seeks to show how one’s cultural identity is so much more than just a melee of one’s race, environment and heritage. Cultural identity is made up of so many factors and influences, both positive and negative, and both direct and covert. This paper sheds light on how one’s cultural identity manifests and how the cultural identity of two people from the same family can be slightly or tremendously different, as a result of a difference of lived experiences and preferences. Finally, this paper investigates some of the more dominant theories of cultural identity.
One’s cultural identity is closely connected to one’s social…
Cultural epresentation of Social Class
Social class is a reflection of more than the material conditions of the lives that people live. Objective resources such as income are responsible for shaping up some cultural practices as well as behaviors which signal social class. These signals end up creating cultural identities among the people in the upper and those in the lower classes. This makes people get rooted perceptions that are subjective in terms of social classes. The paper will look at how culture which is related to social class impacts identity and pride within individuals within specific social classes.
Social classes have a great influence on people thoughts, feelings and their actions. Social class is a form of cultural identity which is constituted in various processes. First of all the social class that someone belongs to is determined by symbols such as wealth, preferences and social behaviors such as the…
Gabrenya, W.K. (2003).Culture and Social class. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://my.fit.edu/~gabrenya/social/readings/ses.pdf
Menon, D. (2011).Social class as culture. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/social-class-as-culture.html
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…
Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.
Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm
Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.
Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…
Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)
Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.
(Adjaye 1994, 57)
2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.
An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…
references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.
Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.
Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.
Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.
Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.
Before Anglos came to dominate the land, Cabeza de Baca portrays a kind of paradise-like environment, where even the sheepherders were like "musicians and poets" and "the troubadours of old," and every person had a story (Cabeza de Baca 11). This has been called a method of "preserving the culture" against the dominant discourse of Anglos: Cabeza de Baca, along with other writers of her generation are portrayed as trying to "get it [their culture] right" in an effort to transcend the overwhelming discourse of the Anglo "other" (Cabeza de Baca xx). Using Hispanic phrases and names, blurring historiography and biography, and the view of the past as a kind of lost "Eden" are all aspects of the authors 'agenda' (Cabeza de Baca xx). Cabeza de Baca deliberately uses English as a way of communicating with the Anglo reader and 'setting the record straight.'
Yet while Cabeza de Baca strives…
Cabeza de Baca, Fabiola. We fed them cactus. UNM Press, 1954.
Cultural Priorities Affect Marketing
Cultural Priorities - Marketing
Author's note with contact information with more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
How Cultural Priorities Affect Marketing
A key to any marketing strategy for any product or service is to know the target demographic very well. What is the use of marketing a product or service to a group of people about which one knows nothing? There is none; it is a waste of time, effort, and resources. Understanding a demographic requires more than incorporating knowledge gathered from statistics; understanding a demographic requires that those marketing to that group have a solid understanding of that group's culture. Culture is a key factor in understanding attitudes, behaviors, tastes, and modes of expression. Applied knowledge of cultures and cultural priorities should only benefit those marketing to that group. The more a marketing team considers the cultural priorities of the group to which it markets,…
Hollis, N. (2009) "Culture Clash: Globalization Does Not Imply Homogenization." Millard Brown: POV, 1 -- 4.
Schwartz, S.H. (1999) "A Theory of Cultural Values and Some Implications for Work." Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48(1), 23 -- 47.
Cross-Cultural Differences and Communication
Cultural identity is a significant force that shapes the interaction between people from different cultures. The contemporary globalization has made intercultural interactions inevitable in the contemporary society. People draw conclusions about other people's culture depending on a wide range of observations about the individual's way of live, values and behavior. For instance, understanding what people from specific cultural values helps in drawing about that culture in that specific aspect of value or behavior (Byram, 2015). For example, I have drawn the conclusion that martial art is a significant cultural practice in the Chinese culture. This conclusion is informed by the several Chinese films that I have watched that have largely been characterized by Martial Arts. This predominance of martial arts in these films informed the conclusion I have drawn from the Chinese culture.
UNIT 4 DISCUSSION
I am visiting a new country within a different culture…
cultural advances made Islamic world tenth fifteenth centuries? eference Book: A History World Societies, Eighth Edition, Vol1 by: McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks
The apogee of the Islamic world when considering cultural and scientific innovations took place between the tenth and fifteenth centuries A.D. Islamic art flourished during this period, as Muslims started to experience significant progress in creating artwork using ceramics, glass, and metals. Similarly, the intellectual segment experienced great developments as individuals started to write more and more manuscripts and as calligraphy progressed. In spite of the fact that philosophy was a field that Muslims were generally reluctant to address because it was believed to be accountable for inducing unorthodox thinking in individuals, many Muslims did not hesitate to express philosophical thought and were actually very successful in doing so.
A great deal of Muslims focused on philosophical thought expressed during Antiquity and adapted it…
Marcinkowski, C., 2009, The Islamic World and the West: Managing Religious and Cultural Identities in the Age of Globalisation, LIT Verlag Munster
McKay, J.P., 2009, A history of world societies, 8th edition, Bedford / St. Martin's
Discursive construction refers to the ways identities related to gender, ethnicity, nationality, race, or any other parameter, are constructed through discourse. Discourse implies relationship and communication, and it can also relate to power differentials. For example, Narayan (1995) refers to the "self serving collaboration between elements of colonial rights discourse and care discourse," especially related to the "white man's burden" type scenarios (p. 133). The colonizer had once framed colonization as doing the Other a favor, by "promoting the welfare of the colonized" out of a belief in presumed superiority. Thus, the discourse creates a superior/inferior binary.
Narayan, U. (1995). Colonialism and its Others. Hypatia 10(2).
Subjectivity is embedded in postcolonial discourse and identity formation. In Black Skin White Masks, the author shows how black identities are constructed subjectively as opposed to actively because the colonizer projects values and ethics onto the Other. The poetry of Derek Walcott also…
Abdulhadi, R. (2003). Where is home? Radical History Review 86.
Yosso, T.J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? Race, Ethnicity, and Education 8(1).
Cultural Diversity in the United States
The United States is one of the most multi-culturally diverse nations in the world. It has often been described as a melting point in which diverse cultures converge. The country is filled with people drawn from different cultures such as Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Europeans. This study focuses on the concept and importance of cultural diversity in the U.S. I believe that cultural diversity is desirable in the United States because it fosters harmonious interaction of people: it should be encouraged because it makes American Citizen's appreciate and respect each other's culture.
Culture refers to an integrated system of learned conduct or behavior patterns that are distinct with members of a given society. As such, culture refers to a people's way of thinking or living. It incorporates people's traditions, religions, mode of dressing, language, values, and beliefs. Language allows people to establish a sense…
Pojman, L. (1999). Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, 3rd edition. Belmont, CA:
Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.
My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.
Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).
I believe that all cultures have something that…
Cultural Blending That Occurred hen the British Colonized India
Throughout the course of history, the British were known as the world's conquerors. This is because they established a series of colonies around the globe that supported the nation and its self-interest. During their occupation of India, there was focus on blending different cultures to create a unique society. (Bingham)
This transformed India from being a backward region to one that was able to improve its standard of living and make steps towards joining the modern world. The result is that a new social identify was developed. To fully understand the way that this occurred requires examining cultural blending, how it shaped their identity, if it was permanent, what caused it to change and if it was beneficial. These different factors will illustrate the way this occurred and the impact it had on India's development. (Bingham)
The British first arrived…
Bingham, Jane. Indian Art and Culture. Hoboken: Wiley, 2005. Print.
Kasbekar, Asha. Pop Culture in India. Oxford: ABC CLIO, 2006. Print.
Gogol seeks to escape his name and his past by re-naming himself, but when he does he gives himself another Russian rather than an Indian name -- Nikhil (and his sister is named Sonya) and the more he rejects his Indian heritage, the more it haunts him.
Like the Namesake, Amitav Ghosh's novel, the Hungry Tide is mainly populated by members of the Bengali community. However, Ghosh's novel is set back in India. The most obvious cross-cultural figure within the novel is that of Kanai Dutt, a professional translator who goes to visit his aunt on her small island in the Bay of Bengal to receive a package left to him by his late uncle. The last time Kanai spent any time on the island was when he was sent there as punishment for his arrogance as a young boy, and he remains just as self-satisfied as when he left.…
Ghosh, Amitav. The Hungry Tide. Houghton Mifflin, 2005.
Lahiri, Jhumpa. The Namesake. Houghton Mifflin, 2003.
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…
Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.
Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"
Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."
Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
The Balinese seem to be coping with the tourist invasion as well as they have coped with others, that is they are taking what they want, but they are not allowing themselves to be any the less Balinese. This appears to have been the story throughout Bali's history, outside cultures came, perhaps as conquerors, perhaps only as visitors and traders, but Balinese society and culture have remained distinctive, accepting outward forms, but molding them to its own different purposes." (Pickard, 1996)
These insights are showing how the changes in tourism are having an effect on Bali by developing the industry. However, for most local residents, they are maintaining their basic cultural traditions. This is despite the fact that there are added pressures to continually adopt these practices (in spite of the transformations). (Pickard, 1996)
However, many local officials feel that an influx of tourism is having an adverse impact on…
Bali Weather and Climate. (2011). Indonesia Point. Retrieved from: http://www.indonesiapoint.com/tourist-attractions/bali/bali-weather.html
Botetar, R. (2012). The Beauty of Bali is under Pressure. ABC News. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-01-05/over-development-of-bali-feature/3760496
Fiegenbaum, E. (2012). The Impact of Tourism in Bali. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_7195825_impact-tourism-bali.html
Hitchcock, M. (2009). Tourism in Southeast Asia. Copenhagen: NAIS.
While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.
Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…
Diller, D. (1999). Opening the dialogue: Using culture as a tool in teaching young African
American children. Reading Teacher, 52(8), 820-828. [Available electronically through ERIC/EBSCOhost]
Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching:
using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31 (2), 132-141.
But Rushdie's relationship with English as a writer, even as a critic of the former British Empire, is far more complex. In Salman Rushdie's text "English is an Indian literary language," Rushdie states that the output of literature in English by Indian writers is more interesting and vital than those produced in India's native languages. Through creativity and dialogue with the oppressor, a great literature has been generated. India's original languages were vast in number but parochial. Ironically, English has proved to be a unifying force for Indians, even if one of the unifying ideologies for Indian writers in English is their attempt to create a new, national literature that is distinct from the British.
This phenomenon is not new, of course. Great Irish writers also used the English language that was imposed upon them to create great works of literature. Even if the ideology that resulted in the imposition…
Macaulay, Thomas Babington. "The Civilizing Mission" from "Minute on Indian Education"
Rushdie, Salman. "English is an Indian literary language."
It is though cultural understanding that strangers become familiar and open to us. Law enforcement benefits from cultural understanding and steps that are taken to bridge the chasm between police and the communities they serve will ultimately benefit all parties.
Community policing is one method used to span the gap, the concept has generated widespread debate as to its effectiveness. In spite of the debate there are identifiable benefits to community policing. The first benefit of community policing is an increase in public safety (Thacher, 2001, p.765). Community policing brings together divergent elements in such a manner that it fosters the production of a safer environment. The increased safety is not only because police are physically present but also because law enforcement priorities are more in sync with the concerns of the communities they are asked to serve (Meares, 2002, p. 1595).
Another benefit of community policing is a change…
Gibson, J.L. And Gouws, A. (2000). Social identities and political intolerance:
Linkages within the South African mass public. American Journal of Political
Science, 44(2), 278-292.
Meares, T.L. (2002). Praying for community policing. California Law Review, 90 (5),
nhl.com/sm-reebok-washington-capitals-alexander-ovechkin-language-barrier-player-name-and -- pi-3070445.html
Here, we can see an innovative way of overcoming the inherent language barrier, or at least rendering it secondary to fan intrigue.
hina is another market context where challenges are specific and dominant due both to the dramatic distinction between the hinese language and Romantic or Latin-based tongues and due to hina's isolated and distinctly defined cultural nature. In both of these, we consider that there is a real and difficult obstruction for organizations seeking to establish a meaningful identity.
In consideration of the example of Foster's beer, for one, we are given a narrative detailing a long and difficult process by which the Australian beer distributor was eventually able to penetrate the market. For Foster's, one of the biggest problems was its prior strategic dependence on its name and Australian identity, which are easily and charmingly conveyed in advertisement in America. In a non-English speaking market,…
China is another market context where challenges are specific and dominant due both to the dramatic distinction between the Chinese language and Romantic or Latin-based tongues and due to China's isolated and distinctly defined cultural nature. In both of these, we consider that there is a real and difficult obstruction for organizations seeking to establish a meaningful identity.
In consideration of the example of Foster's beer, for one, we are given a narrative detailing a long and difficult process by which the Australian beer distributor was eventually able to penetrate the market. For Foster's, one of the biggest problems was its prior strategic dependence on its name and Australian identity, which are easily and charmingly conveyed in advertisement in America. In a non-English speaking market, this is a harder association to draw. Such is to say that "The brand name is an essential part of marketing and it not only helps to identify a product but also creates value through consumers' association with the brand (Kohli, Harich, & Leuthesser, 2004). Cultural differences are therefore of major concern when managing brands in China." (Chung, 2) This is especially true coming from the Australian market, where the association between the brand name and a high standard of quality would negatively translate to mean high cost in the Chinese market, where income is decidedly more modest.
Another instance comes to us from China of cultural barriers creating a distinct challenge for internet search engine giant, Google. Google's ideology places it in a spot of unparalleled challenge, even further observable as it attempts
Cultural in the United States
Compare and contrast what Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present as the flaws in our culture's pursuit of material self-interest.
Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present the society in postmodern consumer where the masculine identity is lost: the gray-collar male personnel and the satisfaction socially created by the society focused in materialism. Technology is the baseline for Berman's argument. The argument goes well-known to Neil Postman, and McLuhan Marshal it is not normal, not only does it change the way we connect with the rest of the world, but it also gets our brains wired (Berman 21). A normal brain of a person who has been print raised differs with a big margin from that of a person who, most of his time is corrupted by the internet.
However, the significance of the internet is making a reduction to our understanding…
Berman, Morris. Why America Failed: The Roots of Imperial Decline. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. Print.
Frank, Capra. It's a Wonderful Life: A Play in Two Acts. Woodstock, Ill: Dramatic Pub, 2008.
Finchers, David. "fight Club." Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2007. Internet resource.
This feeling of anger and resentment is effectively illustrated through the conflict between Abner and the Negro, De Spain's helper.
In this conflict, Abner is seen resisting the Negro's attempt to stop him from trespassing De Spain's home. Evidently, the Negro's status in life is much better than Abner, who has to toil very hard in order for him and his family to survive everyday. This fact infuriates Abner, and his resentment against the Negro's condition in life is reflected in his hateful statement about his poverty and De Spain's seemingly unfair status as a wealthy man: "Pretty and white, ain't it?...That's sweat. Nigger sweat. Maybe it ain't white enough yet to suit him. Maybe he wants to mix some white sweat in it" (175). This statement is Abner's own way of protesting against his condition in life, a bitterness that reflects not only class conflict between the wealthy and…
Fox, R. (1998). A companion to American thought. MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Horton, M. (2000). "Balzacian evolution and the origin of the Snopeses." Southern Literary Journal, Vol. 33, Issue 1.
Kartiganer, D. (1997). Faulkner in cultural context. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.
Krevling, M. (1998). Inventing Southern literature. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
Film and Culture
The Grimm brothers began collecting folktales around 1807 and began a legacy that has been ingrained in popular culture. Although the tales that they collected were representative of the culture at the time, the brothers worked to canonize some of the archetypes that were present in their day. Instead of seeing them as just random works of literature, the brothers were able to identify various themes which served as the main focuses on their fairy and folk tale. These themes seemed to be generally available in the stories that the two individuals documented just as they are also present today. These archetypical characters which formed can make one wonder whether it is the culture that shapes the story or whether it is the stories that shape the culture.
Very few Grimm's Fairy Tales deviate from the stereotypes of the hero, villain, and damsel in distress…
The practices significantly support the development of the immigrant children. The research indicates of the children experiencing interactions that are complex. This is with the respective peers when engaging in creative activities inclusive of gross motor and language arts (Donald et al., 2007). The creative activities reflect on open-ended aspects with the resultant stratification in shaping the initial academic progress of the immigrant children possibility. The application of the developmentally suitable practices in the primary setting of the immigrant children society positively influences the outcomes of the children (Donald et al., 2007).
The challenge faced in defining the developmentally fit strategies emphasizes on the child-centered approaches. The approaches relate to the developmental theory with the society directed instructions originating from the behaviorist perspective of the immigrant children. As a result of the theoretical course from which the child-centered practices derives, they reflects on the synonymous view with the appropriate practices.…
Bornstein, Marc H. And Cote, Linda R. (2004). Mothers' Parenting Cognitions in Cultures of Origin, Acculturating Cultures, and Cultures of Destination. Child Development,
January/February 2004, Volume 75, Number 1, Pages 221 -- 235. Retrieved from http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/01650254.html
Capps, R., Kenny, G., & Fix, M. (2003). Health insurance coverage of children in mixedstatus immigrant families (Snapshots of America's Children, No. 12).
Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
A woman can be neither a political leader nor a judge; she must only appear in public modestly dressed, and her natural and sacred task is to keep the household smoothly functioning and to raise and instruct her children to be good Muslims. Men, for their part, must shoulder the burden of providing for the family in material ways. Liberation for a woman does not mean being like a male, or taking up male tasks, but rather being herself and fulfilling the destiny Allah created for her. (Waines, 1995, P. 255)
Feminine education is therefore one of the most extreme of all issues with regard to the influence of the Islamic culture on education, and as has been stated earlier there is significant diversity in the educational role inclusion of women. (Weil, 2004, p. 142) for many one of the biggest reasons for immigration is the offer of greater educational…
Bin Talal, E.H. (2004). Musa Ibn Maymun and the Arab-Islamic Education. European Judaism, 37(2), 5.
Buetow, H.A. (1991). Religion in Personal Development: An Analysis and a Prescription. New York: Peter Lang.
Collins, D. (2006). Culture, Religion and Curriculum Lessons from the 'Three Books' Controversy in Surrey BC. The Canadian Geographer, 50(3), 342.
Elnour, a., & Bashir-Ali, K. (2003). Teaching Muslim Girls in American Schools. Social Education, 67(1), 62.
com, 2003). Fitting into the system of France is very important, and creating a good French citizen is one of the goals of the educational system. Students in France, for example, cannot wear religious clothing or other affiliations with national, non-French institutions of identity.
As in France and Japan, in the United Kingdom, education is free and compulsory until age sixteen, as an educated workforce is highly valued. There is also a great deal of respect and deference given to the role of the teacher. "Teachers in primary schools (4- to 11-year-olds) are always addressed by their surname by parents and pupils alike, always Mr., Mrs. Or Miss Smith
In secondary schools (11-16 years), teachers are always addressed as Miss or Sir" ("Introduction to School Life," oodlands Junior School, 2007). Students in the United Kingdom must wear a uniform, which enforces a certain sense of national and school cohesion, although…
French state education - an introduction." FrenchEntree.com. 2003. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.frenchentree.com/fe-education/DisplayArticle.asp?ID=70
Introduction to School Life." Woodlands Junior School. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/education/index.html
Primary and Secondary Education." Country Studies: Japan. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.country-studies.com/japan/primary-and-secondary-education.html
Samovar, Larry a., Porter, Richard, E. And McDaniel, Edward R.
Aspects of identity that might have been denied or denigrated because of colonial mentalities can resurface and be admired. Discourse on gender and social class has also deepened and enabled identity constructions to flourish outside the confines of proscribed gender roles. Culture changes, and so too does identity. The values placed on identity aspects like religion have shifted too, making religion a less salient part of people's identity. On the other hand, sexual orientation and gender identity have both become more important. Gender roles have changed to such a great degree as to transform the definition and meaning of family, love, or sex.
Therefore, a number of issues affect the way we understand and create identities. Academia reflects broader changes in social values and norms. In some cases, academia inspires those social and political transformations. Regardless of the directions of the relationship between academia and social values, the two interact…
Some jammers still retain low-tech methods to spread their message utilizing nothing more than a magic marker.
The most important thing about cultural jamming is that it is a response demanded by the people. People are tired of being told what to wear, how to look, what to buy and they don't want to be classified into categories by corporations. Corporations have more influence on an individual's day-to-day than other major institution. They are the new creators of norms and values. Corporations tell what is beauty, what is fashionable or "cool," everything is being dictated to the people. The public on the other hand are lagging behind economically while big banks and corporations gain record breaking profits year after year. Jamming is the people's emotional response to corporate domination. It is an effort to be heard in a society that is increasingly finding it difficult to focus.
Jamming is not…
Over the years, regional identity has played a major part in helping specific regions to embrace their culture and traditions. In many cases, these views are often expressed in different forms of literature and songs. However, as globalization has become more dominant, these beliefs have come into conflict with other regional influences. This is because many of these traditions are being replaced by new ideas that are attempting to impose their values and ideas upon everyone inside a specific area. To fully understand what is taking place, there will be a focus on the songs Allentown and here I Come From in conjunction with insights from Fetterley. This will be accomplished by determining if these songs are resisting the mainstream, examining if they cite local identity in order to advance cultural imperialism (according to Fetterley) and the differences between them. Together, these elements will provide insights that will…
"Allentown." You Tube, 1982. Web. 28 Oct. 2012
"Where I Come From." You Tube, 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2012
Fetterley, Judith. Writing Out of Place. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2003. Print.
acial Identity: Blessing or Curse?
Today, in the United States, cultural and ethnic and racial sensitivity are all approached from the perspective of inclusiveness and equality. In that sort of social climate, the notion of racial identity has more positive connotations than negative ones, as everyone is encouraged to celebrate his or her heritage and to respect and value those of others. In that respect, racial identity is a positive thing that allows all of us to maintain a psychological familial connection to our ancestors and to our heritage in a positive way that adds value to our lives. However, racial identity is only beneficial when it is something of our own choosing and when we live in a society that values all people equally in that respect. It is quite another thing entirely when our racial identity is something that is foisted upon us, as members of a racial…
Hurston, Zora. (1928). "How It Feels To Be Colored Me." Retrieved Online:
Rodriquez, Richard "Aria: A Memoir of A Bilingual Childhood." Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay. Eds. Robert DiYanni & Pat C. Hoy II. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, 2007. 501-508. Print.
Over the course of time, this will lead to a dramatic rise in the number of cases that are being reported, based upon the kinds of foods that are being consumed by this demographic. (Dilip, 2001, pp. 81 -- 87) As a result, different cultural factors are having an impact on this problem. While at the same time, many individuals will feel pressure to consume this cuisine. Part of the reason for this, is because it is expected that they eat this to embrace their culture. If they do not, they risk the possibility of being seen as some kind outcast. (Cousins, 1992, pp. 549 -- 555)
To change what is happening, we need to leverage the relationship / expectations towards: shifting the way these foods are prepared and the frequency that they are consumed. As, we want to encourage people to begin cooking in vegetable / olive oil and…
Cousins, J. (1992). Family vs. Individual Orientated Intervention. Public Health Reports. 107 (5), 549 -555.
Dilip, K. (2001). Community Wide Coronary Artery Disease. The American Journal of Medicine. 110 (2), 81 -- 87.
Professional Communication: Cultural Sensitivity Among Native Americans
In nursing school, we are normally taught that we should respect the dignity and rights of all clients. As the "world becomes reduced" and societies and individuals become more mobile, we are progressively able to network with people that are from other cultures. Cultural respect and competence for others becomes particularly significant for us as nurses and patient supporters. Applying the principles and theories of communication is important for sufficient patient care. A lot of various communication methods are executed and have diverse focuses. Small groups use mechanisms such as objectives, standards, cohesiveness, behaviors, and therapeutic issues. Duty, process and midrange groups are separate categories. Orientation, tension, cohesion, working and dissolution are stages groups go through. Successful personal and professional communication profits the patients and other health professionals; however, the lack of applicable communication can lead to poor patient results and a hostile…
Barker, A.M. (2009). Advanced practice nursing -- Essential knowledge for the profession. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Doane, G. (2004). Exploring the heart of nursing Ethical Pratices. Nursing Ethics, 11(3), 241-251.
Makaroff, K.S. (210). Do We speak of Ethics. Nursing Ethics and, 17(5), 566-576.
Ryan, M. (2000). Learning to Care for Clients In Their World not Mine. Journal of Nursing Education, 3(9), 25-79.
identity institutionalized in mainstream culture?
Belonging to a group differentiated by character and trait best defines the identity of an individual. Identity can also be distinguished in a qualitative and quantitative approach by means of identifying the disposition and similarity of a person. The state of being as "I'm" denotes the individuality of a man in a common state within a group since the individual is all but one. Such that, a man can be qualitatively identical to another man by means of his trait but can never be identical to another man in terms of individuality or the state of being one. Wikipedia further explains this by citing:
"Examples of this might be two wine glasses made in the same wine glass factory on the same production line ... (at least, for a relaxed standard of exact similarity)
For example, Clark Kent is numerically (quantitatively) identical with Superman in…
Identity-Norms-Individual, Wikipedia (2005),
Extracted, Aug. 15, 2005 Website
Personal Identity (2003), Stanford Education (2003-2005)
A widely quoted and interesting functioning definition has been provided by Geert Hofstede who suggests that culture should be considered as software of a person's mind. He is reported to have said that each individual possesses certain patterns and forms of contemplation, emotions and possible acting that they have probably acquired during their life (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
Most of these patterns have been obtained through their early childhood experiences as those are the time when an individual is most likely to acquire learning and build on it. Just the way a computer regards its "thought processes" and functioning as its software, the patterns or formations of thinking, experiencing and carrying out psychological processes in an individual can be referred to as the software program of the mind (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
However, this does not imply, most definitely that individuals are supposed to function or behave as a computer…
Valentine, V. (1995). Opening up the Black Box: Switching the Paradigm of Qualitative Research. ESOMAR Seminar, Paris, 6-8th December, 25-47. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Waterman, a.S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591 -- 621. Taken from SETH, J.H., et al. (2010). The Relationships of Personal and Cultural Identity to Adaptive and Maladaptive Psychosocial Functioning in Emerging Adults. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(1), 1 -- 33
Williams, R. (1976), Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Fontana, London. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
According to Phinney and Alipuria (1987), ethnic self-identity is the sense of self that an individual feels; being a member of an ethnic group, along with the behavior and attitudes with that feeling (p. 36). The authors point out that the development of ethnic identity is an evolution from the point of an ethnic identity that is not examined through an exploration period, so as to resonate with a specified and attained ethnic identity (p. 38).
Ethnic identity refers to a feeling, attitude and identification of one with the behavior and character of people of a specified culture and cultural ethos. They often have a common origin, values, beliefs, practices, customs and other commonalities. Therefore, as opposed to the race concept in which the physical traits are the main controlling factor, ethnicity relates to the common values, beliefs and concepts help by a group of people (Yeh & Huang,…
Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.
One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…
Adam, B. 2000. "Love and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex
With Men." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4).
Barry, P. (2002). Lesbian and gay criticism. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Culture and Society,
A number of studies have been done in recent years to explore the unique effects of a bicultural identity, how a bicultural identity is formed, and what forms a bicultural identity will take. Research integrates assimilation theories as well as social constructionism. The reasons for the emerging literature include improving psychological health and well-being, improving social and cultural health, and also reducing or eliminating racism and negative stereotyping. Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) point out "83% of Muslim individuals reported an increase in implicit racism and discrimination following September 11th," making the Muslim-American cultural, ethnic, and religious cohort one of the most important populations in America to understand through sociological data (Elashi, Mills & Grant, 2009, p. 379). Discrimination may be related to the dominant or white culture's fear of non-integration of existing or new immigrants and perceived threats to an imaginary cohesiveness of the dominant culture -- something that…
Complexities and Potential in Cross-Cultural Counseling
In 1897 the French sociologist Emile Durkheim wrote about the influence of culture on suicide rates among different groups. He found that while suicide seems to be the most private and most individualistic choice that a person can make (what could be more private than the dialogue that an individual has with eternity, after all) cultural values still hold sway. His research has been criticized over the decades, but its central point remains valid. Culture seeps into every level of both our conscious and unconscious behaviors, and therefore must be attended to in every aspect of the therapeutic process. However, while at least most therapists as well as most of those individuals studying to become therapists are certainly aware of this fact, this awareness does not necessarily translate into sufficient care taken to minimize the harm that cross-cultural misunderstandings or blindnesses that…
Bimrose, J. (1996). Multiculturalism, in Bayne, R., Horton, I. & Bimrose, J. (Eds.) New directions in counseling. London: Routledge.
Fouad, N. et al. (2012). Qualitative study of the dislocated working class. Journal of career development 39, 287-310.
LaFromboise, T., Trimble, J., & Mohatt, G. (1990). Counseling intervention and American Indian tradition: An integrative approach.The counseling psychologist 18(4), 628-654.
Jones, A.C. (1985). Psychological functioning in black Americans: A conceptual guide for use in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy 22 (2), 363-369.
Hall vs. Goffman
Goffman (1959) defines identity in a metaphoric manner as a type of theatrical performance that is shaped by the motives of the actor and the audience. Thus, person's identity is dependent on the social and relational aspects of the situation. There is degree as to how much someone actually believes that the performance one is giving represents reality. At one extreme, a person/performer believes whatever they are doing represents reality and at the other extreme the performer has no belief at all that their actions stand for anything sincere or real. Goffman's analogy is an attempt to relay the notion that identity is social in nature and a social construction.
A central concept in Goffman's analogy is the concept of front, the standardized expressive equipment that people use to define situations in a fixed way. There are several components of a front: The setting represents the environmental…
Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday
Hall, S. (1996). New ethnicities. In D. Morley & K.-H.Chen (eds.) Critical dialogues in cultural studies (pp. 441-449). London: Routledge.
Regional Identity and Its Literal Purpose
Regionalism is a common sense of identity. It is an expression of an identity that shapes activities in a particular geographical region. In early 1980's regions resurgence of regional self-consciousness was part of the general democratization process. Members of different regions, minorities and majorities, reclaimed what they considered as history leading to regional development. The process of increasing social and political awareness has led to rise of cultural and political dimensions of regionalism (Roth 59). A group of identity is politicized when it affects human judgments on political issues, or affects human decisions on how we act politically like voting for someone. This can define regionalism as the politicization of regional identity. This implies that regional populations have certain common interests that they can advance as a group. They advance these interests to preserve cultural identity, which is threatened by cultural standardization and to…
Diaz, J., San Francisco, C. "Regional Business News." Inside a House Devided, 2012.
Fitjar, R.D. The Rise Of Regionalism: Causes of Regional Mobilization In Western Europe. Atlanta: Taylor and Francis, 2009.
Roth, K., Ulf, B. Region, Regional Identity Regonalism In South Eastern Europe. Chicago: LIT Verlang, 2010.
This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.
The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…
Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf
Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676
Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.
Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…
Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.
Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
CULTURAL Characteristic FOUR: Hospitality. An essential part of the Uzbek cultural heritage is hospitality. The country is located at the crossroads where trade routes pass through opening up the door to Central Asia. Many villages had oasis facilities and so caravans passing through would stop and use the hospitality of people in small villages where there was water, shade and rest. The "Silk Road" runs right through Uzbekistan. The hospitality that was shown to these caravans was in the form of safety from the dangers of the road, a place to sleep, food and water for the camels, hot tea, food, and graciousness, according to Central Asian Cultures.
The route through Uzbekistan is called the Silk Road because on many of the "complex overland routes gained their name from the most famous of luxury items" to pass through -- and that was silk (www.centralasiacultures.com/silkroad). It was not just silk…
Adams, Laura L. (1999). Invention, Institutionalization and Renewal in Uzbekistan's National
Culture. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 2(3), 355-373.
Central Asia Cultures. (2010). Uzbekistan -- Uzbek Culture, Customs and Traditions. Retrieved June 4, 2010, from http://www.centralasiacultures.com/uzbekistan .
Djumaev, Alexander. (2005). Musical Heritage and National Identity in Uzbekistan.
Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence
EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL
Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…
Choi, H.M. (2006). ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS' MENTAL DISTRESS, SOCIAL STRESS, AND RESOURCES. Adolescence, 41(126), 263-83.
Donini-Lenhoff, F. (2006). HEALTH: Cultural competence in the health professions; insuring a juniform standard of care. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 65(45), 45.
Furler, J. & . (2012). Mental health: Cultural competence. Australian Family Physician, 39(5), 206-8.
Sawrikar, P. & . (2013). The relationship between mental health, cultural identity and cultural values in non-english speaking background (NESB) australian adolescents. Behaviour Change, 21(3), 97-113.
It is for this reason that one could reasonably argue that Precious' entire life, and particularly the trials and tribulations she must endure, including her violent family life, her poverty, and her illiteracy, all ultimately stem from her racial and ethnic background, because the pervasive, institutional racial inequalities that still exist in America served to structure her entire life. Even before she began she was already disadvantaged by being born a black woman in the United States, because the United States maintains a system of social, economic, and political inequality that disproportionately impoverishes the black population. Thus, in broad strokes, one can say that all of the major events in Precious' life are a result of her ethnic background and the meaning American society places on that category of difference.
Perhaps more than any of the novels discussed here, Push manages to make the idea of difference as a form…
Chattalas, Michael, and Holly Harper. "Navigating a Hybrid Cultural Identity: Hispanic
Teenagers' Fashion Consumption Influences." The Journal of Consumer Marketing 24.6
Chodorow, Nancy. Feminism and psychoanalytic theory. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University
Diaz's Examination Of Culture: Clashes And Identities
Diaz's Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao is a combination of cultural experiences and influences that are as rich and imaginative as the stories the book contains. Within the main character, Oscar, lies the power to both transcend definition of culture and become victim or prey of a specific culture's stereotypes and norms. Oscar is an obese, alienated person within his own culture, but he is drawn out of his personal problems and violent existence within the Dominican dictatorship through his love of escapist literature and stories. Oscar even refers to himself as a "victim of fuku americanus," or the "Curse of the New World." (Diaz, 2007). This is an integral idea within the novel and helps to shape the cultural struggles that are contained within it.
Throughout this entire voyage through Oscar's life, author Diaz explores the mixture of cultures, languages, and ideas…
Celayo, Armando & Shook, David. "In Darkness We Meet: A Conversation with Junot Diaz."
Molossus, May 11, 2008. Accessed online May 9, 2011 at: http://www.molossus.co/fiction/in-darkness-we-meet-a-conversation-with-junot-diaz-test/.
Diaz, Juniot. The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. Riverhead: New York, NY. 2007.
Tehelka TV. "In Conversation with Juniot Diaz." Santo Domingo: Dominican Republic, March
Post Colonial India and South Asian Identity
"Pakistan is often perceived as merely one of those far-away places that serve as breeding grounds for extremism and violence," yet this is not a clear image of the truth (Perner 23). Pakistan is in the midst of an internal conflict, with those who want to embrace globalism and those fighting to get rid of it for a misguided view of life before international influence. In many ways, Hamid's novel Moth Smoke is much different than other post-colonial literature in the idea that the west is not entirely responsible for the divides in cultural identity in regional politics. Rather, the west simply brought with it new tools to help distinguish those with access to the elite social circles and those without. Still, Hamid does show some positive benefits from a globalized identity in the image of a much stronger female role within an…
Hamid, Mohsin. Moth Smoke. Penguin. 2012.
Jay, Paul. "The Post-Post Colonial Condition: Globalization and Historical Allegory in Mohsin Hamid's Moth Smoke."
Perner, Claudia. "Tracing the Fundamentalist in Mohsin Hamid's Moth Smoke and the Reluctant Fundamentalist." Ariel: A Review of International English Literature, 42(3-4), 23-31.
Yaqin, Amina. "Mohsin Hamid in Conversation." Wasafiri. 2008.