Cultural Identity Essays Examples

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Identity Development Is a Topic That Has

Words: 2568 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75817954

Identity development is a topic that has been studied for some time. There are two main ways to address it: as young children who are just developing an identity and as adults who are changing or developing an identity they never created or did not like as a child. Each person, as he or she grows, develops a distinct and separate identity from other people (Willemsen & Waterman, 1991). While an individual may change over time, there is a part of that person's identity that generally remains the same as it was when it was first developed. The creation of an identity helps to define a person to others, but it also works to define an individual to himself or herself. Everyone has likely heard people say that they need to "find themselves," and that is part of the development and exploration of identity. The identity of a person can be something very personal and "human," or it can also refer to how a person is seen by others - such as with a professional reputation or notoriety. Both areas are part of a person's identity.

There are several parts to a person's identity. One is the sense of uniqueness…… [Read More]

Grotevant, H.D. (1997). Family processes, identity development, and behavioral outcomes for adopted adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12(1), 139.

Goossens, L. (2008). Dynamics of perceived parenting and identity formation in late adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 31(2), 165-184.
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Identity Losing and Finding a

Words: 2337 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6207478

The book is not attempting to explain the details of a biographical life in the way it is traditionally perceived in either the East or the West, but rather is an emotive rather than an intellectual rendering of identity fragmented by a meeting of multiple cultures. This paces it firmly in the postcolonial tradition, where identity is almost entirely based on a negotiation of traditional ethnic identities with Westernized stereotypes and perceptions of these identities.

At the same time, the construction of the text itself -- its multiple voices and times without any solid reference points, the fragmented sentences, and perhaps most of all the inconsistent yet regular use of the second person which demands a knowledge or understanding of the reader that the reader simply doesn't possess -- all mark the book as a work shaped largely by postmodern tendencies and attitudes (Spahr). In this context, the very concept of identity is a near fallacy, if not an utterly nonsensical notion. There is certainly a great deal of postmodern meaninglessness observable throughout the novel, much of it related to the sense of self that the central figure of the novel seems in constant undirected and unconscious search of --…… [Read More]

Cha, Theresa Hak Kyung. Dictee. Berkeley: The University of California Press, 2001.

Cheng, Annie. "Memory and Anti-Documentary Desire in Theresa Hak Kyung Cha's Dictee." MELUS, Vol. 23, No. 4, (Winter, 1998), pp. 119-133. Accessed via JSTOR: 
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Identity in America Child of

Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76166705

The poet explains that it is very difficult for a multicultural individual to find his or her place in the world, as they are constantly attracted by cultural values present in a variety of civilizations. All of these cultures are present in her mind and she accepts them by becoming a part of a unique community encompassing a wide variety of ideas. Because she does not feel comfortable looking in the past for a cultural identity, she wants to live in the present. This makes it possible for her to identify with a single culture that recognizes her character and that promotes the belief that it is perfectly normal for an individual to live in accordance with customs present in a series of cultures.

Morales considers that culture is more important than race when it comes to the factors that influence a particular individual. A multicultural individual behaves different from mainstream people, as he or she is accustomed to performing diverse activities that have entered his or her community as a result of the numerous numbers of cultures present here. It appears that Morales indirectly praises the American culture for the fact that it enabled people coming from diverse environments…… [Read More]

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Cultural Values and Personal Ethics

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19247887

This whole process is grounded in a commitment to social justice...." (Morales, 2003)

Fortunately, the organization I work for has an open systems approach, which allows its employees to evaluate (1) ways of being (the psychological business process); (2) ways of knowing (the spiritual business process); and (3) ways of behaving (the theoretical and technical business processes). This open system philosophy frees the decision making process from cultural and personal influences, and instead encourages evaluation of issues on their independent merits (Williams, 1996, p. 100-101).

Thus, the organization that I work for has a culture, which has been more successful than most in avoiding the pitfalls of deeply embedded social or cultural identities, which often prove to be obstacles in the way of successful conflict management especially with our overseas units. This is contrary to the findings of several research studies, which have found that social identification and cultural values lead to people holding a fixed view of human character and attributing immutable dispositions to different social groups (Hong, 2003; Salk & Shenkar, 2001).

The ethics view of justice also guides the decisions I make in my personal life. For instance, I make it a point never to patronize…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Hong, Ying-yi., Chan, G., Chiu, Chi-yue., Wong, R.Y.M. (2003, December). How are social identities linked to self-conception and intergroup orientation? The moderating effect of implicit theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Washington, Vol. 85:6, p. 1147.

Mattison, M. (2000). Ethical Decision Making: The Person in the Process. Social Work.
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Cultural Citizenship Refers to the

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39502901

This results in the creation of a sense of insecurity in people, which drives them to the comfort, and security of their cultural identities. Renato Rosaldo in his introductory essay to Latino Cultural Citizenship (Flores and Benmayor, 1997: 37) warns that "too often social thought anchors its research in the vantage point of the dominant social group and thus reproduces the dominant ideology by studying subordinated groups as a 'problem' rather than as people with agency -- with goals, perceptions, and purposes of their own."

Cultural citizenship thus allows Latinos to claim their rights as members of one ethnic group while it also lends supports to their beliefs, ideas and traditions. United States may appear to be nationalistic whole to the outside world, but within the country, there are several divisions and multiculturalism is a hot topic. Everyone knows and understands that dominant groups tend to receive nepotistic treatment from most institutions while the subordinate groups are pushed to the back. Initially the concept of cultural citizenship proved highly effective for the people. Latinos were always more Hispanic than American and they knew how to handle discriminatory treatment. But with the passage of time, this concept has lost its original…… [Read More]

Flores, William V. And Rina Benmayor, 1997 Latino Cultural Citizenship: Claiming Identity, Space, and Rights. Boston: Beacon Press.

Inter-University Program for Latino Research, Culture Studies Working Group 1988 "Cultural Capital: Allusions, Gaps, and Glissandos in Recent Theoretical Developments." Sociological Theory 6: 153-168.
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Cultural Perceptions of Time in Africa Time

Words: 6951 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52859355

Cultural Perceptions of Time in Africa

Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in Africa can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of Africa. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in African culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.

Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.

In Mali, as in many other parts of Africa, there are mixed systems of timereckoning: Islamic time overlays Bamana time, and French imported time overlays Islamic time. Whatever temporal structure people apply, they understand that the other systems impinge on their own. (Kone' 1994, 84)

One of the very first true historians recognized the correlation between an African oral tradition and…… [Read More]

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Cultural Intonation Cultural Differences in

Words: 3430 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73347025

2009). Other studies had previously concluded that English infants developed a preference for trochaic words, the dominant stress construct of English words, over iambic stress patterns within the first year of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A comparison of German and Frecnh infants in four distinct experiments confirms and even narrows down the timeframe in which this differentiation of preference occurs, and also shows (through the French language experiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stress patterns does not necessarily result in the development of preference, if the target language itself lacks a dominant stress structure (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate perception.

An earlier study suggests that the timing of stress and intonation preference development is even sooner than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contrasts and melodic variations are recognized within the first four months of life, while language-specific recognition does not begin until after six months, Frederici et al. (2007) shows (also using German and French infants) that stress recognition is definitely language specific by four months of age. Measurements of brain activity were taken that showed a clear spike when stress patterns of…… [Read More]

Arciuli, J. & Slowiaczek, L. (2007). "The where and when of linguistic word-level prosody." Neuropsychologia 45(11), pp. 2638-42.

Bonvillain, N. (2007). Language, culture and communication: the meaning of messages, fifth edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
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Cultural Differences New Mexican History

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73696118

Before Anglos came to dominate the land, Cabeza de Baca portrays a kind of paradise-like environment, where even the sheepherders were like "musicians and poets" and "the troubadours of old," and every person had a story (Cabeza de Baca 11). This has been called a method of "preserving the culture" against the dominant discourse of Anglos: Cabeza de Baca, along with other writers of her generation are portrayed as trying to "get it [their culture] right" in an effort to transcend the overwhelming discourse of the Anglo "other" (Cabeza de Baca xx). Using Hispanic phrases and names, blurring historiography and biography, and the view of the past as a kind of lost "Eden" are all aspects of the authors 'agenda' (Cabeza de Baca xx). Cabeza de Baca deliberately uses English as a way of communicating with the Anglo reader and 'setting the record straight.'

Yet while Cabeza de Baca strives to paint a picture of a lost world, her tone is respectful as much as it is nostalgic. Learning from the storytellers around her was clearly a critical aspect of her development as a writer. Furthermore, although she speaks from a Hispanic vantage point, Cabeza de Baca was noted for…… [Read More]

Cabeza de Baca, Fabiola. We fed them cactus. UNM Press, 1954.
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Cultural and National Identity in the Midst

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26275114

Cultural and National Identity

In the midst of globalization, cultures are coming together unlike ever before. As a result, refugees and immigrants are faced with challenging circumstances that threaten to weaken their national or cultural identity. This essay will explore two examples of how individuals strive to maintain their identity in this new and changing world.

In Cyberspace in Diaspora, we learn about the Eritrean Diaspora and how they are using the internet to maintain their cultural and national identity (Bernal, 2006). Through the internet the Eritreans debate issues concerning the history, culture, democracy, and identity of their country. This community has raised money for war, arranged demonstrations, created nation-building projects, and have influenced to Eritrean government, all while residing in various countries around the world. They also have a web board titled "Dehai: Eritrea OnLine" ( which they use to maintain a sense of community and communicate about political and cultural matters.

Another example can be seen in Spirit Catches and You Fall Down, which tells the story of Foua and Nao Kao (Fadiman, 1998). They are part of a large, close-knit Hmong group living in Merced, California, and are all refugees from Laos. Unlike most refugees, The Hmong…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Beatie, T. (2008, April). Labour of love. The Advocate. Retrieved from

Bernal, V. (2006). Diaspora, cyberspace and political imagination: the Eritrean diaspora online.
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Cultural Priorities

Words: 965 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86992966

Cultural Priorities Affect Marketing

Cultural Priorities - Marketing

Author's note with contact information with more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.

How Cultural Priorities Affect Marketing

A key to any marketing strategy for any product or service is to know the target demographic very well. What is the use of marketing a product or service to a group of people about which one knows nothing? There is none; it is a waste of time, effort, and resources. Understanding a demographic requires more than incorporating knowledge gathered from statistics; understanding a demographic requires that those marketing to that group have a solid understanding of that group's culture. Culture is a key factor in understanding attitudes, behaviors, tastes, and modes of expression. Applied knowledge of cultures and cultural priorities should only benefit those marketing to that group. The more a marketing team considers the cultural priorities of the group to which it markets, the higher likelihood the product or service will be accepted and consumed in great proportion by that group. The group will perceive that the product or service was made for them, that it serves a need specific to them, and they will happily consume it, bringing about customer satisfaction and…… [Read More]

Hollis, N. (2009) "Culture Clash: Globalization Does Not Imply Homogenization." Millard Brown: POV, 1 -- 4.

Schwartz, S.H. (1999) "A Theory of Cultural Values and Some Implications for Work." Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48(1), 23 -- 47.
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Cultural Advances Made Islamic World Tenth Fifteenth

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46379724

cultural advances made Islamic world tenth fifteenth centuries? Reference Book: A History World Societies, Eighth Edition, Vol1 by: McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks

The apogee of the Islamic world when considering cultural and scientific innovations took place between the tenth and fifteenth centuries A.D. Islamic art flourished during this period, as Muslims started to experience significant progress in creating artwork using ceramics, glass, and metals. Similarly, the intellectual segment experienced great developments as individuals started to write more and more manuscripts and as calligraphy progressed. In spite of the fact that philosophy was a field that Muslims were generally reluctant to address because it was believed to be accountable for inducing unorthodox thinking in individuals, many Muslims did not hesitate to express philosophical thought and were actually very successful in doing so.

A great deal of Muslims focused on philosophical thought expressed during Antiquity and adapted it to more modern Islamic thinking with the purpose of improving conditions in their societies. Their enterprise made it possible for the Muslim community to be consolidated and for Muslims to generally gain a better understanding of how society works. This era is remembered for having produced some of the most…… [Read More]

Marcinkowski, C., 2009, The Islamic World and the West: Managing Religious and Cultural Identities in the Age of Globalisation, LIT Verlag Munster

McKay, J.P., 2009, A history of world societies, 8th edition, Bedford / St. Martin's
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Cultural Capital Colonialism Oppression Race and Others

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18913681

Discursive construction refers to the ways identities related to gender, ethnicity, nationality, race, or any other parameter, are constructed through discourse. Discourse implies relationship and communication, and it can also relate to power differentials. For example, Narayan (1995) refers to the "self serving collaboration between elements of colonial rights discourse and care discourse," especially related to the "white man's burden" type scenarios (p. 133). The colonizer had once framed colonization as doing the Other a favor, by "promoting the welfare of the colonized" out of a belief in presumed superiority. Thus, the discourse creates a superior/inferior binary.

Narayan, U. (1995). Colonialism and its Others. Hypatia 10(2).


Subjectivity is embedded in postcolonial discourse and identity formation. In Black Skin White Masks, the author shows how black identities are constructed subjectively as opposed to actively because the colonizer projects values and ethics onto the Other. The poetry of Derek Walcott also evokes the nature of subjectivity and black identity. Injustice, such as that experienced under colonial rule, creates systems of oppression that become internalized. The individual believes the negative ideas presented by the colonizer and becomes subjugated. The shaping of identities matters because of the multigenerational impact colonization has upon a…… [Read More]

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Value of Cultural Diversity

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13220583

Cultural Diversity in the United States

The United States is one of the most multi-culturally diverse nations in the world. It has often been described as a melting point in which diverse cultures converge. The country is filled with people drawn from different cultures such as Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Europeans. This study focuses on the concept and importance of cultural diversity in the U.S. I believe that cultural diversity is desirable in the United States because it fosters harmonious interaction of people: it should be encouraged because it makes American Citizen's appreciate and respect each other's culture.

Culture refers to an integrated system of learned conduct or behavior patterns that are distinct with members of a given society. As such, culture refers to a people's way of thinking or living. It incorporates people's traditions, religions, mode of dressing, language, values, and beliefs. Language allows people to establish a sense of unity and cultural identity as it allows people to communicate. Religion and arts, on the other hand, also allow a given group of people to express themselves through music, dance, and film. Different people practice different cultures. For instance, the Latino culture greatly differs from the Chinese culture, which…… [Read More]

Pojman, L. (1999). Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, 3rd edition. Belmont, CA:

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Cultural Diversity Interviewed a Co-Worker

Words: 1099 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49107987

Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.

My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.

Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).

I believe that all cultures have something that makes them unique from other cultures. African-Americans believe in the sanctity of the family, with helping and keeping the unity of the family as one. The family is very important, but so is the extended family and the community.

Black history is becoming more prevalent in schools today and is…… [Read More]

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Cultural Hybridity Identity and South

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64629981

Gogol seeks to escape his name and his past by re-naming himself, but when he does he gives himself another Russian rather than an Indian name -- Nikhil (and his sister is named Sonya) and the more he rejects his Indian heritage, the more it haunts him.

Like the Namesake, Amitav Ghosh's novel, the Hungry Tide is mainly populated by members of the Bengali community. However, Ghosh's novel is set back in India. The most obvious cross-cultural figure within the novel is that of Kanai Dutt, a professional translator who goes to visit his aunt on her small island in the Bay of Bengal to receive a package left to him by his late uncle. The last time Kanai spent any time on the island was when he was sent there as punishment for his arrogance as a young boy, and he remains just as self-satisfied as when he left. Kanai is a businessman and his skill with languages might seem indicate his comfort level with many cultures as well as his ease with translation. However, seems oddly immune to the influences of others, just as he ignored the teachings of his aunt and uncle when he lived with them.…… [Read More]

Ghosh, Amitav. The Hungry Tide. Houghton Mifflin, 2005.

Lahiri, Jhumpa. The Namesake. Houghton Mifflin, 2003.
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Identity and Belonging the Amish

Words: 1630 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94819275

We all have a need to be loved and to feel we belong somewhere. I think that this need is basic in all humans. I was unconsciously trying to force John to live in my world and I know realize I shouldn't have done that. I was being selfish and I am thankful that he was mature enough to have the commons sense for both of us to know a relationship between us could never work. I now know that just because someone stirs up a desire in me that it doesn't necessarily mean that I am supposed to be with that person. Change is good, but only for the right reasons. Sometimes it is best to stick with what you know. I am comfortable being an Amish. Yes, there are things about this lifestyle that I would like to change but overall, I am happy and my son is happy being here. As a mother, I cannot consider my feelings only. I have to also think about Samuel and his well-being.

Looking back on everything I have to say that I am glad John did not act upon his feelings for me. I respect him for this because he…… [Read More]

Bibliography: (Accessed on June 29, 2010).

Witness. Dir. Peter Weir. 1999. Paramount Pictures. DVD.
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Identity Social Identity Is a Means to

Words: 1406 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97704359


Social identity is a means to an end, the end being the maintenance of a community with flexible but strong boundaries. Ultimate objectives of social identity therefore include mutual protection against perceived threats, and strategic sharing of resources. This is why social identity often transcends geographic boundaries; in a globalized world, geo-political boundaries are actually less significant than social identity. The concept of social identity therefore becomes strongly connected with the sociological needs of in-group/out-group status and consciousness. Historically social identity was forged via top-down methods, within hierarchical societies. Usually the process of social identity formation occurred via political elites or rulers who "established their identity by differentiating themselves downwards," (Geller and Beruilly 47). Eventually, social identity becomes a self-perpetuating phenomenon with "ruled micro-communities" differentiating themselves "laterally from their neighbors," (Gellner and Breuilly 47).

In other words, an in-group/out-group consciousness seems essential to community construction and is embedded in the process. Social identity is therefore the means by which communities are created and maintained. Community is the end goal; that is, the pooling of shared resources to be used for sustenance purposes like infrastructure or common needs for food and governance. Or, the pooling of shared resources may be…… [Read More]

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. New York and London: Verso, 2006.

Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Blackwell, 2006.
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Identity Conflict Based on Social

Words: 3196 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70724004

In other words, the question that needs to be answered is, how did psycho-social identity differences create such deep rifts in a society that was in fact closely related by intermarriage and years of living closely together. This leads to the conclusion that there are other social and political factors that need to be taken into account in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the events, as well as how they impacted on the meaning of identity. .

Social Dominance and other theories

As noted above, the discussion and analysis of the causative features of this conflict and the concomitant effect of this analysis on possible resolution scenarios is largely dependent of the ability of the particular theoretical model to take into account the many variables of this conflict. In order to achieve a more holistic view of the conflict one has to take into account the fact that the hostility in Rwanda, as in many other regions of the African continent had their origins in "…modern struggles for power and wealth" ( Pottier). As Pottier states in Re-Imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century, "The world, however, easily overlooked this modern origin, since…… [Read More]

Bigagaza J. et al. Land Scarcity, Distribution and Conflict in Rwanda. Retrieved from

Bird C. ( 2004) Status, Identity, and Respect. Political Theory, 32 ( 2).
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Cultural Differences of Adolescent in the United States

Words: 4157 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66223470

Cultural Differences of Adolescent in the United States

The United States, ever since the time when its history began, has been an accumulation of different cultural patterns who took refuge here for independence in expressing the thoughts. Resiliency or adaptability is featured as a phenomenon of fruit yielding adaptability in spite of difficult or intimidating surrounding. In this paper we shall analyze the cultural differences among adolescents in the country. In 1996 Gordon discovered that adaptable young men have concrete self-confidence in their realizing capabilities and concrete sentiments of association in the school surrounding as against their non-adaptable associates. Consistently Arellano and Padilla in 1996 discovered that cooperative families and tutors saved students from vulnerable educational surroundings. Again Liebowitz, Catellani, and Cuellar in 1999 discovered the relatively important foreseer of sexual attitude to be the persistence of morals existing betwixt the young men and their family. Outcomes threw light on the fact that interpersonal adaptability attributes are coexistent with norms, family cooperation existed the more impacting foreseers of result variants as against separate resilience attributes like direction sense of the future, self -prestige etc. (Vera, 2001, p.3)

In a particular analysis, Dr. Judith Brook at the Mount Sinai School of…… [Read More]

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Cultural Understanding the Cultural Diversity

Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45557653

It is though cultural understanding that strangers become familiar and open to us. Law enforcement benefits from cultural understanding and steps that are taken to bridge the chasm between police and the communities they serve will ultimately benefit all parties.

Community policing is one method used to span the gap, the concept has generated widespread debate as to its effectiveness. In spite of the debate there are identifiable benefits to community policing. The first benefit of community policing is an increase in public safety (Thacher, 2001, p.765). Community policing brings together divergent elements in such a manner that it fosters the production of a safer environment. The increased safety is not only because police are physically present but also because law enforcement priorities are more in sync with the concerns of the communities they are asked to serve (Meares, 2002, p. 1595).

Another benefit of community policing is a change of perception of police behaviour. In areas where there is strong community policing there is a reduction of the perception of harassment by the police (Sherman, 1986, p. 346, Thacher, 2001, p. 769). Community groups join forces with law enforcement to eradicate the undesirable elements from within the communities. In…… [Read More]

Gibson, J.L. And Gouws, A. (2000). Social identities and political intolerance:

Linkages within the South African mass public. American Journal of Political
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Cultural Competence the World in

Words: 2125 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39766037

There are also some generalizations that do not include all, but some, Puerto Rican culture: conversations are usually very interactive and full of interruptions. Interruptions mean interest in the subject discussed; silence denotes disinterest rather than paying close attention. If someone is talking to someone else and a third person joins in, the people talking are expected to stop what they are saying and acknowledge the newcomer. Also, it is rude for a man to dance too close to a woman who is not his wife or girlfriend, even if others seem to be doing it. It is considered vulgar and ostentatious to open gifts in public. Gifts are never opened in front of a group of people to avoid people comparing the merits of different gifts.

One of the main areas of differences between cultures is in nonverbal communication. If people are not aware of these differences, there can be misunderstandings. Certain aspects of non-verbal communication are universal. Research into facial expression in particular seems to suggest a strong agreement across cultural boundaries (Shaver, et al.). However, the extent to which feelings and emotions are expressed through facial expression is culture bound. In other words, although people from different…… [Read More]

Brislin, R., Cushner, K., Cherrie, C. & Young, M. Intercultural interactions: A practical guide. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1986.

Galanti, Geri-Ann. The Challenge of Serving and Working with Diverse Populations in American Hospitals. (2001) Diversity Factor, 9.3: 21-26
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Identity the Symbolic Interactionist Goffman 1959 Views

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61469344


The symbolic interactionist Goffman (1959) views identity in much the same way as behavioral psychologists viewed personality: personal identity is dependent on: (1) the audience (environment), and (2) the basic motives of the "performer." Goffman uses a metaphor for how one presents himself in everyday life as a sort of an actor who can be "sincere" in that they believe in the impressions their performances elicit, or "cynical" in that they're not concerned with these impressions. So Goffman uses terms like the "setting," the "front," the "manner," etc. To describe how one's identity is more or less molded by one's surroundings and one's intent (to a lesser extent as this itself is molded by the surroundings). Thus, intentions can sometimes result in a difference between presentation and setting, self-presentations may not always appear fixed, and we learn to be actors at a young age.

For Marcuse (1964) autonomy of the self is restricted by the "apparatus" of Western economic philosophies. In effect the capitalism of Western societies alienates people, forces workers to become functional objects so that they see themselves as actual extensions of the goods and services that they produce or purchase. Capitalism actually limits intellectual and personal…… [Read More]

Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday

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Cultural Awareness Cesar Is a Patient Who

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44364611

Cultural Awareness


Cesar is a patient who presents with psychotic symptoms associated with acute trauma. A Mexican citizen, he has a criminal history in Mexico, but after being released from prison six years earlier he immigrated illegally to the United States. He has resided and worked illegally, and was recently arrested by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) for a traffic violation. Upon interviewing him the CPH detained him and requested that the local gang intervention task force interview him because he has tattoos related to the well-known street gang the Latin Kings. Cesar was not charged with any crime, and his detention report notes that he was held at a routine traffic stop because the officers felt he "appeared suspicious." After a careful revision of his car and personal items they found no legal violations other than that his identification was not legal for the United States. Cesar was not violent and remained lucid and cooperative throughout the investigation and interviews. He was then told he would be deported from the United States because the CHP had indentified him as an illegal immigrant. At this point Cesar grew highly agitated and violent, and had to be transferred to the…… [Read More]

McClain, P.D. (2009) Group Membership, Group Identity, and Group Consciousness: Measures of Racial Identity in American Politics? Annual Review of Political Science Vol. 12: 471-485

Sullivan, M., Rehm, R. (2005). Mental Health of Undocumented Mexican Immigrants: A Review of the Literature. Advances in Nursing Science. 28: 3, 240-251
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Cultural Differences in Army Officers Every Society

Words: 2738 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23605749

Cultural Differences in Army Officers

Every society is different from the other and arranges itself under some certain value and belief system. This belief system is the basic identity of any society or a group of people and is very central in developing them as human beings. More importantly, it plays a significant role in developing the way these members of a society behave and how they interact with each other. One of these aspects which play a central role in the development of human behavior is Culture.

Culture is the fundamental characteristic that defines the way we behave and the way we interact with each other. The lack of knowledge regarding the other person culture can result in the serious lack of judgment regarding the true meaning of someone's gesture and this misinterpretation can go a long way in harming any society or a relationship between two people. Therefore the study and knowledge becomes more necessary as the realization of how dominantly culture dictates our behavior becomes apparent.

It is an important tool in making us who we are and thus is an important element of who we are. Culture today is seen as an element that helps us…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
David A. Thomas, R.J. (1996). Making differences matter: A new Paradigm for Managing Diversity. Harvard Business Review, 1-12.

Garcha, A. Diplomatic Culture or Cultural Diplomacy: The role for culture in International negotiation?
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Cultural Barriers Cultural and Language

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88514399 -- pi-3070445.html

Here, we can see an innovative way of overcoming the inherent language barrier, or at least rendering it secondary to fan intrigue.

China is another market context where challenges are specific and dominant due both to the dramatic distinction between the Chinese language and Romantic or Latin-based tongues and due to China's isolated and distinctly defined cultural nature. In both of these, we consider that there is a real and difficult obstruction for organizations seeking to establish a meaningful identity.

In consideration of the example of Foster's beer, for one, we are given a narrative detailing a long and difficult process by which the Australian beer distributor was eventually able to penetrate the market. For Foster's, one of the biggest problems was its prior strategic dependence on its name and Australian identity, which are easily and charmingly conveyed in advertisement in America. In a non-English speaking market, this is a harder association to draw. Such is to say that "The brand name is an essential part of marketing and it not only helps to identify a product but also creates value through consumers' association with the brand (Kohli, Harich, & Leuthesser, 2004). Cultural differences are therefore of…… [Read More]

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Cultural Analysis Activity 1 - Discuss the

Words: 1461 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82582682

Cultural Analysis

Activity 1 - Discuss the two societal cultures that you will use to develop your GLOBE Paper. Why these two? I will discuss the Germanic and Latin European Cultures. Each of these divergent cultural paradigms has had a strong effect upon globalism in the 21st century based on hundreds of years of influence in Europe and the New World as far back as the 1600s, and perhaps before. Both cultures are rich in literature and historical development, and both language groups have had a seminal influence on culture. My husband is in the Army and we now live in Europe, I need to make myself aware of these cultural attributes so that I can be aware of the leadership styles and cultures.

Activity 2 -- The Germanic culture really arose out of the merge between the Ancient Romans and the Germanic peoples during the 3-5th centuries AD. This was primarily based on European cultural ideal that arose from Greece and spread through the Mediterranean, and then were heavily influenced by the rise and development of the Christian Church. In general, Germanic countries focused in middle and northern Europe, the Scandinavian climates, and formed a more orderly, stoic, and…… [Read More]

Mandle, J. (2008, April). How Political is the Personal? Retrieved from 

Riucci, N. (2002). Managing Diversity in Public Sector Workforces. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Stumpf, E. (2011). The Globe Research Project. Norderstedt, Germany: GRIN Verlag.
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Cultural in the United States

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14020377

Cultural in the United States

Compare and contrast what Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present as the flaws in our culture's pursuit of material self-interest.

Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present the society in postmodern consumer where the masculine identity is lost: the gray-collar male personnel and the satisfaction socially created by the society focused in materialism. Technology is the baseline for Berman's argument. The argument goes well-known to Neil Postman, and McLuhan Marshal it is not normal, not only does it change the way we connect with the rest of the world, but it also gets our brains wired (Berman 21). A normal brain of a person who has been print raised differs with a big margin from that of a person who, most of his time is corrupted by the internet.

However, the significance of the internet is making a reduction to our understanding ability to problems that are complex and interchange with connections of space to people who are connected to the net. By this act, the society is left less happy if not more. Berman argues that human interactions have been replaced by television, which has reduced the activities of the brain…… [Read More]

Berman, Morris. Why America Failed: The Roots of Imperial Decline. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. Print.

Frank, Capra. It's a Wonderful Life: A Play in Two Acts. Woodstock, Ill: Dramatic Pub, 2008.
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Cultural Modernism and the Snopes

Words: 2155 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26706763

This feeling of anger and resentment is effectively illustrated through the conflict between Abner and the Negro, De Spain's helper.

In this conflict, Abner is seen resisting the Negro's attempt to stop him from trespassing De Spain's home. Evidently, the Negro's status in life is much better than Abner, who has to toil very hard in order for him and his family to survive everyday. This fact infuriates Abner, and his resentment against the Negro's condition in life is reflected in his hateful statement about his poverty and De Spain's seemingly unfair status as a wealthy man: "Pretty and white, ain't it?...That's sweat. Nigger sweat. Maybe it ain't white enough yet to suit him. Maybe he wants to mix some white sweat in it" (175). This statement is Abner's own way of protesting against his condition in life, a bitterness that reflects not only class conflict between the wealthy and poor classes, but between white and black Americans as well (Singal, 1997:247). His eventual burning of the De Spain shows this social conflict, a consequence that happens when the privileged white American race is put in the lower rung of the socio-economic ladder.

Social mobility is a product of cultural…… [Read More]

Fox, R. (1998). A companion to American thought. MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Horton, M. (2000). "Balzacian evolution and the origin of the Snopeses." Southern Literary Journal, Vol. 33, Issue 1.
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Cultural Impact on Politics Political

Words: 5093 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96410547

4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.

The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group dynamics. While the West has tended to become less rigid in its patriarchy, parts of the developing world have tended to maintain the traditional gender divisions and to keep women isolated and out of the public arena. In part, this has occurred because of the working of some of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.

Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
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Cultural Values Are Particularly Important When Considering

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Cultural values are particularly important when considering communities such as the Mexicans, the Americans, or the Chinese. Even with this, while Mexicans and Chinese individuals tend to be more attached to their cultures, Americans are more relaxed and open-minded when it comes to culture, this largely being owed to the diverse ethnic environment in the U.S. The Chinese and the Mexicans are very strict with regard to their cultures and they tend to influence individuals belonging to each community to act in accordance with a certain set of ideas.

Foods are very diverse, both in Mexico and in the U.S. Even with this, the fact that Native American history has shaped both cultures means that there are numerous common cooking ingredients in both communities. While both countries focus on corn as an item that can be used alongside of a series of other foods, one can really see a similarity between Mexican and American cuisine by focusing on foods popular in Texas or in the Southwest of the U.S., as the local communities in these areas have been significantly influenced by Mexican cultural values.

The fact that the U.S., Mexico, and China, are all important players in the international community…… [Read More]

Brown, L.M. "Childbirth Traditions Around the World: China." Retrieved September 26, 2013, from

"American Culture: Traditions and Customs of the United States." Retrieved September 23, 2013, from 
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Cultural Review Film and Culture the Grimm

Words: 769 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40850020

Cultural Review

Film and Culture

The Grimm brothers began collecting folktales around 1807 and began a legacy that has been ingrained in popular culture. Although the tales that they collected were representative of the culture at the time, the brothers worked to canonize some of the archetypes that were present in their day. Instead of seeing them as just random works of literature, the brothers were able to identify various themes which served as the main focuses on their fairy and folk tale. These themes seemed to be generally available in the stories that the two individuals documented just as they are also present today. These archetypical characters which formed can make one wonder whether it is the culture that shapes the story or whether it is the stories that shape the culture.

Very few Grimm's Fairy Tales deviate from the stereotypes of the hero, villain, and damsel in distress that were present in the folklore of their time. The hero goes through a fairly narrow and somewhat predefined journey in which they must face their own mortality yet find the courage to excel in the face of danger. While the villain on the other hand, once human, slowly descends…… [Read More]

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Cultural Differences and Negotiation Chosen Country Japan

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Cultural Differences and Negotiation

Chosen Country: Japan

Japanese culture is full of many traditional values. For instance, family is tremendously important to the Japanese and traditional gender roles are commonly upheld (Saito et al., 2004). For example, the father is generally the breadwinner and the mother is often a full-time homemaker who takes care of the children (Heapy, 2012). Japanese society is extremely structured and orbits around a conception of hierarchy and people's roles; it's not uncommon for people to be addressed in terms of the position they hold (Heapy, 2012). The culture values things like duty, loyalty, and obligation; in fact the Japanese view the biggest obligation as the one that one carries towards one's parents (Heapy, 2012).

Even those who are unfamiliar with Japanese culture are aware of the fact that the Japanese bow instead of shaking hands. Bowing in Japanese culture is a sign of respect; showing respect to other people is an important aspect of the culture and bowing is one way to convey this (Heapy, 2012). However, what a lot of people don't know is that bowing can covey not only respect, but a range of messages from congratulations to an apology.

Currently the assumptions…… [Read More]

Chan, R., & Hayashi, K. (2010). Gender Roles and Help-Seeking Behaviour. Journal of Social Work, 243-262.

Heapy, T. (2012). Japanese Culture. Chicago: Capstone Global.
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Identity Summary of Social Theory

Words: 380 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37137856

The complexity of the issue is underscored by the attempts to not discuss the issue on the larger political stage. This is supported by the presentation of race issues as being historical in nature. The inherent suggestion is that at present these issues no longer exist. As long as identity construction is anchored in the political and cultural dynamic then historical antecedents will remain relevant to the discussion and debate.


While the concept of freedom is intimately linked to the understanding of being one's self, technological developments have whittled away at this inherent notion of personal freedom. The development of new and more subtle forms of control has in a covert manner removed the sense of personhood and replaced it with the construction of the whole. Traditional understanding of freedom in terms of political, economic and intellectual have limited applicability in the modern arrangement. The individual is constantly being shaped by external powers which are highly coercive and hence dangerous. Consequently, alienation becomes a progressive reality for the majority of the society. Ultimately, ideology and reality become subsumed into each other.… [Read More]

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Cultural Studies Introduction Metro-Sexual Can

Words: 1901 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79763518

The famous Calvin Klein ad featuring Marky Mark took everyone by storm as it showed that men could be sexual and have feminine qualities to them. A current day example of metrosexual icons is David Beckham. Beckham has both commercial and psychological appeal. He has earned millions of dollars for sponsoring fashion accessories. His style has influenced millions of males around the world and encouraged them to aspire to the same level of corporate sponsored exhibitionism. According to Turner, people are bombarded with stereotypical images of attractive people in the media every day. This factor exposes them to body types which make sensitive beings more conscious about their bodies and compare themselves to unrealistic media images of thinness and muscularity. (Turner et al., 1997). (Lorenzen, Grieve, and Thomas).

The movement for Metrosexuality began in the late nineties when a trend emerged to portray men as sexual commodified bodies. This new change in advertising prompted the straight male to worry about his image as much as a female would do. A male started using skin care products, getting manicures and facials, using different health care products etc. The reason why David Beckham is the hottest metrosexual around is that he keeps…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Lorenzen, Lisa a., Frederick G. Grieve, and Adrian Thomas. "Exposure to Muscular Male Models Decreases Men's Body Satisfaction." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (2004): 743+.

Khanna, Parag. "The Metrosexual Superpower: The Stylish European Union Struts Past the Bumbling United States on the Catwalk of Global Diplomacy." Foreign Policy July-Aug. (2004): 66+
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Identity Development Among Ethnic Minority

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40446836

Especially in major centers, the majority of at-risk adolescents are Latino and African-American youth (Yanvey, 1992). Yancey (1992) examined identity development among ethnic minority adolescents in the foster care system. This researcher explained how the occurrence of societal problems, such as unintentional pregnancy, childbearing, substance abuse, underachievement, discontinuation of education at an early point, homelessness, and dependency on social service and mental health resources was disproportionately pronounced among ethnic minorities. In regards to ethnic minority youth in the foster care system, Yancey (1992; p.819) "postulated that their social maladaptation is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial socialization." This statement expresses the profound influence that society's attitudes can have on the identity development of ethnic adolescents, and indicates a direction in which interventions could improve the racial socialization practices among parents.

The effect that parents have on the identity development of Latino and African-American adolescents was investigated by Hughes (2003). Two dimensions of racial socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias, were examined. Results indicated no significant differences between the ethnic groups with regard to frequency of cultural socialization, but African-American parent were…… [Read More]

Rotheram-Borus, M. (1989). Ethnic differences in adolescents' identity status and associated behavior problems. Journal of Adolescence, 12(4), 361-74.

Torres, V. (2004). Influences on ethnic identity development of Latino college students in the first two years of college. Journal of College Student Development, 45(3), 333-47.

Yancey, A. (1992). Identity formation and social maladaptation in foster adolescents. Adolescence, 27(108), 819-31.
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Identity Formation as Multidimensional Concept

Words: 2625 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8259079

The practices significantly support the development of the immigrant children. The research indicates of the children experiencing interactions that are complex. This is with the respective peers when engaging in creative activities inclusive of gross motor and language arts (Donald et al., 2007). The creative activities reflect on open-ended aspects with the resultant stratification in shaping the initial academic progress of the immigrant children possibility. The application of the developmentally suitable practices in the primary setting of the immigrant children society positively influences the outcomes of the children (Donald et al., 2007).

The challenge faced in defining the developmentally fit strategies emphasizes on the child-centered approaches. The approaches relate to the developmental theory with the society directed instructions originating from the behaviorist perspective of the immigrant children. As a result of the theoretical course from which the child-centered practices derives, they reflects on the synonymous view with the appropriate practices. The children developmental appropriate strategies in teaching fall on the continuum from the non-directive to the direct aspects (Donald et al., 2007). In consideration of the parenting cognitions to the development of the immigrant children, the self-perceptions of the mothers on effectiveness have significance in relation to care to give…… [Read More]

Bornstein, Marc H. And Cote, Linda R. (2004). Mothers' Parenting Cognitions in Cultures of Origin, Acculturating Cultures, and Cultures of Destination. Child Development,

January/February 2004, Volume 75, Number 1, Pages 221 -- 235. Retrieved from 
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Cultural Studies Comparative and Historical Analysis Are

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Cultural Studies

Comparative and historical analysis are concepts that describe analyzing events in their historical context, by comparing them with other events that have occurred in the past. Events that occur today do not occur in a vacuum, but rather they always have context. The first chapter mentions the confusion in Britain when it was revealed that a suicide bomb attack on that country was carried out by Anglo-Jamaicans. The context made little sense, as this social group was not known for anything close to terrorism. The attackers, however, had converted to radical Islam, unusual perhaps for that group, but nevertheless this conversion shifted the context of those attacks entirely. Historically, and comparatively, the attacks made a lot more sense as radical Muslims use the suicide bomb style of attack and tend to be more prone towards terrorist attacks in general.

Envy, desire and belonging are powerful emotions, and these are frequently used in advertising. This works in two parts. The first part is that the advertiser creates these emotions, and the second part is that the advertiser promotes their product as the solution to the problem. Lifestyle advertising is one way that this is accomplished, where a product is…… [Read More]

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Cultural Psychology Holfstede's Cultural Dimensions

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Based on the competitive nature of the business environment, strict formalities had to be kept up in order not to go beyond the boundaries of good business ethics and practices.

The final dimension was created after the first initial four and later adopted by Holfstede into his dimensional structure of cultural organizations. This dimension is associated with the group being more associated with long or short-term orientation. Companies with more long-term associations have employees and group members who have been a part of the particular organization for an extended period of time. Typically, these types of organizations present a collected look to the future on behalf of all of the members. This is based on the idea that the members expect to still be a part of the group in any particular point in the future. Therefore, long-term strategies can become fruitful, with several group members working hard for a delayed gratification. However, this was not the case in BB. BB was an organization that more associated with short-term orientation. Thus, BB embodied typical short-term traits that were more associated with the present day and its opportunities and challenges, rather than long-term future developments. With such a large turnover rate,…… [Read More]

Holfstede, Geert, (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Sage Publications.