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Cultural Values and Ethics -- As the global economy becomes more of a reality, and as various developing countries increase the amount of business they do with developed countries, many cultural issues arise. Doing business is not the same worldwide, and as citizens of a global village, we must realize that there are different cultural norms and behaviors that are acceptable in some countries, unacceptable in others, and even expected in some. International companies are being pressurized by different groups of people, mainly from their stakeholders, regarding social and ethical issues. Issues revolving around what the United States government calls "bribery" may indeed be part of doing business, yet cause us to ask: "Is it moral or not, when trading in a foreign country, to participate in immoral actions to survive"?
Morality is typically the standard that a group has about what is right and wrong -- good and evil…
Pharmaceutical Marketing to Medical Students. (2004, August). Retrieved May 2012, from McGill Journal of Medicine: http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/MJM/issues/v08n01/orig_articles/barfett.pdf
Despite its conservative image, IBM is known for its philanthropy as well as its technical innovation. Thus, I became an IBMer.
My mother, as a woman still struggling with her career in the business world almost thirty years ago, at first disapproved. IBM had a reputation as a male-dominated company -- but male did not necessarily mean misogynist, in my mind. For twenty years, it was my home. Although I have since left the company, I was heartened to see, on its recent website message from the current CEO, "e've been spending a great deal of time thinking, debating and determining the fundamentals of this company. It has been important to do so. hen IBMers have been crystal clear and united about our strategies and purpose, it's amazing what we've been able to create and accomplish. hen we've been uncertain, conflicted or hesitant, we've squandered opportunities and even made blunders…
Musante, Louis a. (November 2001, Issue 1) "IBM." Optimize Magazine. Retrieved on October 17, 2004 at http://www.optimizemag.com/article/showArticle.jhtml?articleId=17700582
Palmisano, Samuel J. (2004) "Business Value, and Company Value." IBM Official website. Retrieved on October 17, 2004 at http://www.ibm.com/ibm/values/us/
Reed, Margaret. (August 9, 2004) "IBM business: it's business, not charity.
Federal Computer Week. Retrieved on October 17, 2004 at http://www.fcw.com/print.asp
This whole process is grounded in a commitment to social justice...." (Morales, 2003)
Fortunately, the organization I work for has an open systems approach, which allows its employees to evaluate (1) ways of being (the psychological business process); (2) ways of knowing (the spiritual business process); and (3) ways of behaving (the theoretical and technical business processes). This open system philosophy frees the decision making process from cultural and personal influences, and instead encourages evaluation of issues on their independent merits (Williams, 1996, p. 100-101).
Thus, the organization that I work for has a culture, which has been more successful than most in avoiding the pitfalls of deeply embedded social or cultural identities, which often prove to be obstacles in the way of successful conflict management especially with our overseas units. This is contrary to the findings of several research studies, which have found that social identification and cultural values…
Hong, Ying-yi., Chan, G., Chiu, Chi-yue., Wong, R.Y.M. (2003, December). How are social identities linked to self-conception and intergroup orientation? The moderating effect of implicit theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Washington, Vol. 85:6, p. 1147.
Mattison, M. (2000). Ethical Decision Making: The Person in the Process. Social Work.
Vol. 45:3, p. 201.
Morales, a.H. (2003). Multicultural Competence 101. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Cultural Values, beliefs, and traditions that separate Father Laforgue and Daniel from the Algonquin and how it influences their perception of each other
Clashing cultural values, beliefs, and traditions: Black Robe
The film Black Robe depicts the culture clash that occurs when Jesuit priests enter the Canadian wilderness and attempt to convert the native population to Christianity. Father Laforgue and his translator Daniel head into a land they know little about, into a culture they regard as primitive. Daniel, in contrast to the 'black robed' priest, falls in love with a native woman and embraces what he sees as the more sensual, vital lifestyle of the Native Americans, while Laforgue holds back from what he sees as native savagery and ignorance. However, both men regard the Huron Indians through an essentially estern worldview.
The Indians do not view matters of the body as disgusting, unlike the priest. The Christian ideal…
Black Robe. Directed by Bruce Beresford. 1991.
" This particular cultural value system in fact helped me to assimilate more easily into the two institutions in which I spent most of my working life. The work ethic is defined as follows:
The work ethic is a cultural norm that advocates being personally accountable and responsible for the work that one does and is based on a belief that work has intrinsic value." (Hill, R.. and. Petty, G.C. 1995) This attitude towards work has aided my understanding of the value systems as well as the ethos and meaning of work and decision making in both the military and police. The value of personal accountability in particular was one of the cardinal aspects that was emphasized in both organizations and which formed the basis of all decisions. The fact that one had to take responsibility for the decisions one made ensured that no decision was taken lightly and without…
Bell, W. The Impact of Policies on Organizational Values and Culture. Retrieved December 25, 2004 from United States Air Force Academy. Web site: http://www.usafa.af.mil/jscope/JSCOPE99/Bell99.html
Hill, R.B. and. Petty, G.C. (1995) a New Look at Selected Employability Skills: A Factor Analysis of the Occupational Work Ethic. Retrieved December 24, 2004, from the University of Georgia. Web Site: http://www.coe.uga.edu/~rhill/workethic/jverart.htm
Making Sense of Ethics. Retrieved December 23, 2004, from JOSEPHSON INSTITUTE of ETHICS. Web site: http://www.josephsoninstitute.org/MED/MED-1makingsense.htm
Sundaram, D.S. EXPLORING the RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, CUSTOMER SATISFACTION, and PERFORMANCE. Retrieved December 25, 2004, from Mississippi State University. Web site: http://marketing.byu.edu/htmlpages/ccrs/proceedings99/webster.htm
Cultural Values and Ethics
No personal or professional decision happens in a vacuum. We are continually bombarded by external influences from family members, friends, culture, society, the media, and our mentors. Small decisions that seem simple and meaningless, such as choosing which clothes to wear to a job interview, are often based on personal and cultural values. Values influence decisions ranging on consumer choices to career choices. Therefore, it can be helpful for individuals to examine the cultural, personal, and organizational values that impact their lives.
I have had the unique opportunity to experience more than one cultural value system. Growing up in Puerto ico, I was influenced by traditional ideas of gender roles, politics, and religion. My childhood experiences and the values that I absorbed from my culture and my family influenced my decision to enter the American armed forces before entering college. My value system included a respect…
Barkdoll, Gerald L. "Individual Personality and Organizational Culture." Retrieved October 7, 2005 from http://www.pamij.com/barkdoll.html
Schein, Edgar H. "Organizational Culture and Leadership." Retrieved October 7, 2005 from http://www.tnellen.com/ted/tc/schein.html
Cultural values are particularly important when considering communities such as the Mexicans, the Americans, or the Chinese. Even with this, while Mexicans and Chinese individuals tend to be more attached to their cultures, Americans are more relaxed and open-minded when it comes to culture, this largely being owed to the diverse ethnic environment in the U.S. The Chinese and the Mexicans are very strict with regard to their cultures and they tend to influence individuals belonging to each community to act in accordance with a certain set of ideas.
Foods are very diverse, both in Mexico and in the U.S. Even with this, the fact that Native American history has shaped both cultures means that there are numerous common cooking ingredients in both communities. hile both countries focus on corn as an item that can be used alongside of a series of other foods, one can really see a similarity…
Brown, L.M. "Childbirth Traditions Around the World: China." Retrieved September 26, 2013, from http://www.babyzone.com/pregnancy/labor-and-delivery/childbirth-traditions-china_70703
"American Culture: Traditions and Customs of the United States." Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://www.livescience.com/28945-american-culture.html
"Chinese Culture: Customs & Traditions of China." Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://www.livescience.com/28823-chinese-culture.html
"Mexican Culture: Customs & Traditions." Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://www.livescience.com/38647-mexican-culture.html
Ethics and Decision Making
Values and Decision Making
The process of making a moral or ethical decision is governed largely by the values that are applied when making the decision. In any case where a decision is being made, there are a range of values that can potentially impact the decision. These include personal values, organizational values, and cultural values. The value system that is most significant will depend on both the context of the decision and the nature of the decision. This will now be explored by considering how moral and ethical decisions are made and what kinds of personal, organizational, and cultural values impact on decision making.
Before describing how my values impact decision making, it is important to first define the basis on which I make moral decisions. This is based on the three levels of personal moral development: the preconventional level, the conventional level, and the…
Graham, J.W. (1995). Leadership, moral development and citizenship behavior. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5(1), 43-54.
Janis, I.L. (2000). Groupthink. In J. Billsberry (Ed.), The effective manager: Perspectives and illustrations (pp. 166-178). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Jansen, E., & Von Gilnow, M.A. (1985). Ethical ambivalence and organizational reward systems. Academy of Management Review, 10, 814-822.
Woodman, R., & Pasmore, W. (1990). Research and organizational change and development. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
The depiction of the man-turned-insect and his descent into oblivion is less than pleasant, much like the description of the narrow, deserted streets in Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." In the description of the insect and the city in each work respectively, no details are given but the negative ones.
In the case of Eliot's work, Prufrock is unable to find a confidence in himself and even seems resigned that life will just do what it will with him. As the narrator describes his bald spot as noticeable enough for the women to make a remark about it, but constantly asking again and again, "How shall I presume?"
In both "Love Song" and "Metamorphosis," the narrators of the story seem to view themselves as less than worthy and capable. hen Gregor is turned into a bug, his family is disgusted at the thought of him and tries…
Bloom, Harold. "Thematic Analysis of "The Love Song of J. Alfred
Bloom's Major Poets 1999: 17-20. Web. 4 Dec 2010.
Dod, Susan Marie. "We must try to get rid of it": The Grotesque and the Sublime in Kafka's "The
Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions can help to inform our understanding of our own cultures. My background is mostly Spanish, with a little bit of Pascua Yaqui on my mother's side. I would characterize my culture as having a high power distance where we are taught to always respect authority. This happens in school, church and in the family as well. Everybody has a position within the family and within society, and you must stay within that position. The culture is also very collectivist in that way. I was raised to believe that we work as a unit, without worrying too much about individual goals. The exception is that you are expected to work to make yourself better, which I think reflects more of a traditional American value that has come from being here.
An example of how this works is with my ancestors' grandfather. He was from Andalucia…
Managing the Cultural Values and Emotions of Employees
This essay is intended to explain the reasons that determine the use of employees' values management by certain companies and their effects. I consider that this method is not recommended as a strategy for improving the performance standards of employees in such companies. Certain contexts have revealed the fact that managing employees' cultural values and emotions can produce benefits, but this does not recommend the large use of this technique. The Corporate Culture section provides the arguments of several specialists in the field that explain the relationship between corporate culture, employees' values, and their performance. The Benefits of Managing the Cultural Values of Employees section addresses some of the benefits that can be observed in certain situations. The Managing Employees' Values and their Effects section addresses the reduced level of efficiency and other effects that such strategies have on the motivational standards…
5. Parker, M. (2000). Organizational Culture and Identity. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
6. Peters, T. & Waterman, R. (1982). In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
7. Willmott, H. (1993). Strength is Ignorance, Slavery is Freedom: Managing Culture in Modern Organizations. Journal of Management Studies. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
Although both China and America are major superpowers, they are polar opposites in terms of their cultural orientations. In contrast to American bluntness, Chinese speakers tend to communicate indirectly, often using subtle language to convey strong feelings rather than blurting them out. In China, there is a strong value upon tradition, and protocol, and respect for power distance. This contrasts with the value placed upon individualism and creativity in low-context societies. hile in the United States, individualism is seen as a positive thing, in China individualism is often seen as a form of selfishness, and deviating from the norm is not embraced as delightfully nonconformist, as it often is in America.
In China, context means everything: an individual communicates differently, based upon his or her hierarchical relationship to the speaker. Meaning is based upon context and nuance, rather than upon literal, surface meanings, as it tends to…
Samovar, Larry, Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel. Communication between cultures.
Thomas, Evan, and Barry, John. "War's New Science." Newsweek . 18 Feb. 1991.
ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest. Web. 21 Dec. 2009.
In instances such as this, an employee may make decisions that are totally foreign to their normal character.
It is these corporate ethical values that typically have the most impact on the decision-making process. Organizational ethical contexts are comprised of the moral ideologies adopted by the members of the organization, as well as the institutionalized philosophies regarding the principled conduct and the ethics codes that shape corporate strategy and action. When organizational ethical values are positively aligned with personal values, a more positive person-organization fit is acquired. Again, this fit is central in effective and efficient decision-making (Valentine, Godkin & Lucero, 2002).
The development of ethical codes, which are merely a formalized statement of the corporate ethical values, have a positive effect on reducing the number of unethical decisions that are made by employees. Employees that are members of an organization with an imposed code of ethics were found to…
Finegan, J.E. (Jun 2000). The impact of person and organizational values on organizational commitment. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 73(2). Retrieved November 10, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.
Myers, C.R. (1997). The core values. Airpower Journal, 11(1). Retrieved November 10, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.
Valentine, S., Godkin, L., & Lucero, M. (Dec 2002). Ethical context, organizational commitment, and person-organization fit. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(4). Retrieved November 10, 2004, from ProQuest database.
How Personal, Organizational and Cultural Values Affect the Decision-Making Process
Personal, Organizational, and Cultural Values play in Personal and Professional Decision-Making
In today's increasingly high-powered, competitive workplaces, employees at all levels, occasionally (or even frequently) find themselves having to make difficult ethical decisions at work, such as rather or not to do the right thing ethically, or instead to do something else, less ethical but more self-protective. Often, that "something else" flies in the face of one's self-image and personal values. Such decisions, that go against what one believes in are made, often reluctantly, every day: to please a boss; to help a boss please top management; to keep one's job, to avoid being demoted, to "go with the flow," etc. There is no genuinely "good" way for either bosses or employees to handle such workplace dilemmas, except (if one is a boss) to try to avoid creating them for employees or other stakeholders, if one can, and to encourage…
Badaracco, J.L., & Webb, A.P. (Winter1995). Business ethics: A view from the trenches. California management review, 37(2). 9
Layne, J. (2000,). Forging new families: an overview of mergers and acquisitions
In the context of organizational change. Industrial Relations Press, Industrial
Relations Centre, Queens University, Ontario, Canada.
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…
Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.
Geert Hofstede.com (2012). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com
Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.
Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…
Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf
Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading
Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
Cultural diversity refers to the diverse varieties of human cultures that exist in a certain region, society or in the world as a whole. The characteristics of diversity may include ethnicity, traditions, geographic background, language spoken, religious beliefs, race or physical features. This term is also based on the idea that different cultures should respect each other's differences. With the global integration, the need for communication in accordance with other person's cultural awareness has intensified. Many times, any gesture that is considered offensive in one culture is completely accepted in the other culture. Hence, people sometimes develop misunderstandings when communicating with someone from a different culture. Therefore, it is essential that differences are appreciated for an effective communication.
I am a Christian man who is originally from Ukraine. My mother tongue is Ukrainian and I came to United States some 10 years ago. I am very moderate in my religious…
Newsom, D., Turk, J.V., and Kruckeberg, D. (2004). This is PR: The Realities of Public Relations. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Rosener, J.B. (1990) "Ways Women Lead," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No. 6, pp. 119-25
Cultural Distance: How Is it Measured, And How it Impact on Global Marketing Operations
The persistence of cultural distances is relevant for the global multinational marketing operations exposed to multiple cultures in their everyday activities. This indicates that marketing across border introduces complexities because it forces global marketers to tailor their approaches and practices to each cultural context they carry out their business activities. As a result, this paper will discuss concepts applicable to different aspects of cross-border operations. The primary focus of the paper is on multinational business corporations (Baumann, 2007).
This study shows how Hofstede's model is still the most relevant piece of reference for a successive cross-cultural analysis despite it being a widely criticized. The paper compares and contrasts Hofstede's famous concepts with Turner and Schwartz, Trompenaars and Hampden's valued inventory. It will attempt to provide empirical evidence of how cultural diversity influences the global markets by…
Baumann, A. (2007). Influences of culture on the style of business behavior between Western and Arab managers. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Baumu-ller, M. (2007). Managing cultural diversity: An empirical examination of cultural networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations. Bern: Lang.
Cavusgil, T. & Ghauri, P.N. (2009). New challenges to international marketing. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Curry, J.E. (2009). A short course in international marketing: Approaching and penetrating the global marketplace. Petaluma, CA: World Trade Press.
The "Safety First" scenario is even less cut-and-dry for me. If a company wants to increase its profit margin and include a high-end line of clothing, then it has the right to do so. I do not believe that a company can prevent or control crime through its pricing strategies. Shoplifting is not necessarily related to the presence of luxury goods. I feel that crime is a reflection of overarching social, economic, and political problems. As long as the company is acting ethically in other respects, then I don't see the problem with offering the high-end jacket. Offering a low-cost alternative to the high-end jacket in my opinion is not the best solution in this case either, because it undervalues the more expensive article of clothing and could prevent people from buying it. Instead, a win-win situation might be to firmly decide that the Daze line would become high-end and…
There can be several reasons behind this enduring practice. Men and women feel that if parents have chosen someone for them, they would also support them through hard times. We understand that all marriages go through rough patches and some more than others. In these trying times, parents and other family members normally intervene to resolve problems. This is a common practice in India and all countries where arranged marriages are still in practice. However if a person chose to marry someone of their choice, it is very likely that during hard times, others would distance themselves saying; "didn't we already warn you." The fear of being left alone to ride out the tide might actually push some people in favor of arranged marriages.
The second reason is the ease and convenience that comes with having a partner chosen for you. In the western world, getting married doesn't come easy.…
Serena Nanda. Arranging a Marriage in India. From Stumbling Toward Truth: Anthropologists at Work, edited by Philip R. Devita, 2000, pp. 196 -- 204. Published by Waveland Press.
Jodi O'Brien in Robert Kupla edition. "Arranged marriages." Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Volume 1, 2008
Cultural and Ethnic Differences
The Importance of Understanding Cultural, Ethnic, and Gender Differences by Managers and Professionals in a Business Setting.
The proceeding essay explains the role managers can play in managing cultural, ethnic and gender diversity in an organization and why it is important for the managers to understand it in a professional environment.
The Importance of Understanding Cultural, Ethnic, and Gender Differences by Managers and Professionals in a Business Setting.
It is usually evident and practiced in many organizations that although diversity is considered highly important part of organizational culture but in practice the culture is biased (negatively) towards women and minorities. (Australian Multicultural Foundation, 2013)
The working and communication styles (more friendly and less dominating when it comes to conversation styles) used by women are usually not acceptable and less popular throughout the organization. Because of this they are not the top priority when promotions are considered.…
Australian Multicultural Foundation (2013). Managing Cultural Diversity. Australia: Australian Multicultural Foundation and Robert Bean Consulting.
FIRN (2008). Tips for Working in a Culturally Competent Manner. Maryland: FIRN.
Gardenswartz, L. And Rowe, A. (2013). Understandingthe Evolving Role Of Cultural Diversity In the Workplace. California: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/26078_pt2.pdf [Accessed: 5 Sep 2013].
Whether in business or other settings, Chinese people will often demonstrate a notable lack of contentiousness, preferring to say indirectly what an American would not hesitate to say frankly.
If one's professional or social senior in China errs in some way, the junior will seldom correct or criticize him. This is in part because doing so would cause the senior to lose face, which is undesirable. One does not want to be the reason another loses face. Others take a dim view of someone who caused another to lose face in this way.
When constructive criticism is invoked by a senior, or even by an equal, the response from a Chinese person will probably not be very candid. An articulate Chinese person will attempt to use polite conversation to lead the person requesting the criticism to arrive at the same opinion as is felt by the person of whom the…
Barker, Thomas S., Cobb, Steven L. (2000). Survey of Ethics and Cultural Dimensions of MNCs. Competitiveness Review, 10(2), 123-129.
Chen, Charles P. (2004). Transforming Career in Cross-Cultural Transition: The Experience of Non-Western Culture. Counsellor Trainees. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(2), 137-144.
Gries, Peter Hays. (1999). A 'China Threat'? World Affairs. 162(2), 63-75.
Hall, Edward, T., Hall, Mildren Reed. (1987). Nonverbal Communication for Educators. Theory Into Practice. 26(1), 364-367.
Cross-Cultural Differences and Communication
Cultural identity is a significant force that shapes the interaction between people from different cultures. The contemporary globalization has made intercultural interactions inevitable in the contemporary society. People draw conclusions about other people's culture depending on a wide range of observations about the individual's way of live, values and behavior. For instance, understanding what people from specific cultural values helps in drawing about that culture in that specific aspect of value or behavior (Byram, 2015). For example, I have drawn the conclusion that martial art is a significant cultural practice in the Chinese culture. This conclusion is informed by the several Chinese films that I have watched that have largely been characterized by Martial Arts. This predominance of martial arts in these films informed the conclusion I have drawn from the Chinese culture.
UNIT 4 DISCUSSION
I am visiting a new country within a different culture…
value drivers as it pertains to Customer
Service. Not all eight-value drivers pertain to or are affected by the customer service force and therefore, the paper will only discuss where the value drivers are applicable to customer
Service. The value drivers are as follows:
External Cultural Values
Organizational Cultural Values
Individual Employee Values
Third - party Value
The paper will also discuss the recent labor issues Wal-Mart was facing and the paper will apply and explain where applicable any or all of the eight value drivers.
The external cultural values and their consideration is really important for the authorities of the Wal-Mart to consider because these issues are directly related to the customer services, if the organization wants to maintain a healthy relationship with the customers then they have to consider these cultural values. The external cultural values helps the organizational authorities to…
As retrieved from Chapter 11 Organizational Culture http://www.google.com./search?q=cache:ACZSaW4ptU8J:www.sc.doe.gov/sc-5/benchmark/Ch%252011%2520Organizational%2520Culture%252006.08.02.pdf+Organizational+Cultural+Values& ; hl=en On May 21,2004
As retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2004/01/08/news/companies/walmart/?cnn=yes
On May 21,2004
As retrieved from Changing Customer Values by Steven Howard
The ethics of using labor at rates far below what would be necessary in their own nations, with no requirement of paying healthcare, no workers' compensation insurance, no unemployment insurance, or even the threat of unionization sadly ensure this practice will continue. Yet when one considers this aspect of westernization it is clear that globalization in fact does not provide benefits to everyone in the long-run.
Towards a More Egalitarian Model of Globalization
Instead of blindly moving into a specific region or nation of the world and developing either one of several factory types as defined by Ferdows in much of his work on globalization of manufacturing, or attempting to create entirely new distribution channels to sell to residents, companies need instead to take a more egalitarian approach to global expansion. In their article the End of Corporate Imperialism, Prahalad & Lieberthal (et.al.) and in Dr. Prahalads' book the Fortune…
Bryan Caplan, Tyler Cowen. "Do We Underestimate the Benefits of Cultural Competition? " the American Economic Review 94.2 (2004): 402-407. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 28 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com
Friedman, Thomas. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. 1. New York: Anchor Press, 1999.
Friedman, Thomas. The World Is Flat. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. New York, NY. 2005.
Geert Hofstede. "The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. " Journal of International Business Studies (pre-1986)
cultural differences in today's world. Then explain two ways you might address those challenges in your professional life. Support your responses using current literature.
Challenges of diversity: Positives and negatives
Affirmative action embodies many of the paradoxes of the diversity of American society. On one hand, America has long proclaimed itself a land of freedom and equality. However, for many years, African-Americans and other minority groups were discriminated against, resulting in economic, educational, as well as political disenfranchisement. Affirmative action, or taking race into consideration to promote a more diverse environment in schools and in the workplace, is one way to create a fairer and more pluralistic society. It reflects the fact that persons who are privileged in America have historically come from specific races, classes, and ethnicities. However, many people believe that affirmative action's use of racial preference is, in effect, a form of discrimination itself. The courts have…
Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H.R. (2010). Social psychology. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
The Harvard Clinical and Translation Science Center (2009). Cultural Competence in Research. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from http://www.mfdp.med.harvard.edu/catalyst/publications/Cultural_Competence_Annotated_Bibliograp
Write Response to colleague's
Cultural Priorities Affect Marketing
Cultural Priorities - Marketing
Author's note with contact information with more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
How Cultural Priorities Affect Marketing
A key to any marketing strategy for any product or service is to know the target demographic very well. What is the use of marketing a product or service to a group of people about which one knows nothing? There is none; it is a waste of time, effort, and resources. Understanding a demographic requires more than incorporating knowledge gathered from statistics; understanding a demographic requires that those marketing to that group have a solid understanding of that group's culture. Culture is a key factor in understanding attitudes, behaviors, tastes, and modes of expression. Applied knowledge of cultures and cultural priorities should only benefit those marketing to that group. The more a marketing team considers the cultural priorities of the group to which it markets,…
Hollis, N. (2009) "Culture Clash: Globalization Does Not Imply Homogenization." Millard Brown: POV, 1 -- 4.
Schwartz, S.H. (1999) "A Theory of Cultural Values and Some Implications for Work." Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48(1), 23 -- 47.
cultural advances made Islamic world tenth fifteenth centuries? eference Book: A History World Societies, Eighth Edition, Vol1 by: McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks
The apogee of the Islamic world when considering cultural and scientific innovations took place between the tenth and fifteenth centuries A.D. Islamic art flourished during this period, as Muslims started to experience significant progress in creating artwork using ceramics, glass, and metals. Similarly, the intellectual segment experienced great developments as individuals started to write more and more manuscripts and as calligraphy progressed. In spite of the fact that philosophy was a field that Muslims were generally reluctant to address because it was believed to be accountable for inducing unorthodox thinking in individuals, many Muslims did not hesitate to express philosophical thought and were actually very successful in doing so.
A great deal of Muslims focused on philosophical thought expressed during Antiquity and adapted it…
Marcinkowski, C., 2009, The Islamic World and the West: Managing Religious and Cultural Identities in the Age of Globalisation, LIT Verlag Munster
McKay, J.P., 2009, A history of world societies, 8th edition, Bedford / St. Martin's
U.S. healthcare system built dominant European-American cultural values, beliefs, practices. These differ dominant values, beliefs, practices cultural groups Mexicans. Compare contrast values/beliefs/practices cultural group.
The first important difference is one between formalism and lack of formalism. European-American cultural values are less formal, but Mexicans will need to be addressed with Mr. / Mrs. At the first meeting. It will also be important to continue this type of address throughout the consultation. Compared to the European-American approach, the male is believed to be the head of the family and, in a traditional Mexican family, he will be the one who provides for the family, as well as the one making the final decisions. This could imply that he is the one who needs to be explained in more detail the procedures, the treatment etc.
It is also important to note the religiousness of the Mexican community, usually much more profound that…
1. http://www.aarphealthcare.com/insurance/managed-care-plans.html. Last retrieved on April 18, 2014
2. Cartwright, A., Shingles, R.R. Cultural considerations when working with Mexicans. On the Internet at http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/cultural-considerations-when-working-with-mexicans . Last retrieved on April 18, 2014
3. Betancourt, J. (2002). CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN HEALTH CARE:
EMERGING FRAMEWORKS AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES. New York.
Spanglish is a combination of Spanish and English, with each of these two languages having more or less of an influence on the final product depending on the circumstances. The speech of Spanghlish users involves them bringing together the two languages and creating a dialect that is not native to the country they inhabit. Spanglish is widely used in Hispanic communities in North America, as they prefer it as an intermediary dialect assisting them to connect with the English-speaking community.
Living in two cultures can have a strong impact on a person, as he or she gradually comes to switch back and forth between cultural values promoted in each of these respective environments. This is perfectly demonstrated by individuals speaking Spanglish, taking into account that they need to concentrate on adopting attitudes that enable them to improve their relationship to both English and Spanish-speaking communities.
Although Spanish plays an integral…
Betz, Regina M., "Chicana "Belonging" in Sandra Cisneros' The House on Mango Street," Retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://rmmla.innoved.org/ereview/SI2012/Betz.pdf
Canas, Alberto, "Spanglish: The Third Way," Retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://www.hokuriku-u.ac.jp/jimu/kiyo/kiyo25/209.pdf
Cisneros, Sandra, "The House on Mango Street," (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004)
Johnston, Bethany, "Code Switching as Spanglish," (GRIN Verlag, 14 Jan 2011)
Australia, indigenous people recognize themselves as belonging to Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander or by descent, and also identified as the same by the society. A resistance has been observed in them to access hospitals for healthcare. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to plan, implement and maintain appropriate policies for their treatment. Also, cross-cultural awareness training should be given to paediatric hospital staff. (Munns & Shields, 2013, p. 22)
How would you support ianna and her family in this situation?
The poor health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is well documented, and has been the subject of official policy and program attention for many years. The mainstream health system has responded to increased funding and clear portfolio responsibility, with increasing attention to the burden of illness that Aboriginal people experience and the need for effective health care (Dwyer et al., 2014). I would thus make arrangement for proper…
Ansuya. (2012). Transcultural Nursing: Cultural Competence in Nurses. International Journal of Nursing Education, Volume 4(1), pp. 5-7.
Durey, A, Wynaden, D, Thompson, SC, Davidson, PM, Bessarab, D & Katzenellenbogen, JM. (2012). Owning Solutions: A Collaborative Model to Improve Quality in Hospital Care for Aboriginal Australians. Nursing Inquiry, Volume 19(2), pp. 144-152.
Dwyer, J, Willis, E & Kelly, J. (2014). Hospitals Caring for Rural Aboriginal Patients: Holding Response and Denial. Australian Health Review, Volume 38(5), pp. 546-551.
Kelly, J & Willis, E. (2014). Travelling to the City for Hospital Care: Access Factors in Country Aboriginal Patient Journeys. Australian Journal of Rural Health, Volume 22(3), pp. 109-113.
Business in Czech epublic
Doing business in a foreign country is never easy. It is not so much about the tax regulations, import/export duties or getting a license. The main challenges accrue from the differences in cultural values and social or religious beliefs. For Steve, it may prove easier to at least communicate with the people and establish a bond with them. It is also important to know that Czech epublic is very keen on attracting foreign investment and a strong U.S. presence is desired. For this reason, Steve doesn't need to worry about whether he will be welcome in that country or not. As for cultural differences, it must be borne in mind that both Czech epublic and the U.S. have some similarities and some differences but these differences can act as a major hurdle if not properly understood. Business is often taken seriously in the Czech epublic and…
1. Greet-Hofstede- Cultural Dimensions for Czech Republkic: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_czech_republic.shtml [Accessed 14th September 2005]
2. Greet-Hofstede-Cultural Dimensions for the U.S.: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_united_states.shtml [Accessed 14th September 2005]
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…
Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.
Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"
Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."
Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Cultural Diversity in the United States
The United States is one of the most multi-culturally diverse nations in the world. It has often been described as a melting point in which diverse cultures converge. The country is filled with people drawn from different cultures such as Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Europeans. This study focuses on the concept and importance of cultural diversity in the U.S. I believe that cultural diversity is desirable in the United States because it fosters harmonious interaction of people: it should be encouraged because it makes American Citizen's appreciate and respect each other's culture.
Culture refers to an integrated system of learned conduct or behavior patterns that are distinct with members of a given society. As such, culture refers to a people's way of thinking or living. It incorporates people's traditions, religions, mode of dressing, language, values, and beliefs. Language allows people to establish a sense…
Pojman, L. (1999). Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, 3rd edition. Belmont, CA:
Cultural Briefing Document Zurich Switzerland
The LJ Products Co. is proud to announce that one of our executive staff will be joining our staff in Zurich Switzerland in January of 2012. Mr. Didier Burkhalter will be joining our Zurich staff as chief financial officer. Mr. Burkhalter will report directly to the CEO and other members of the board. To make Mr. Burkhalter feel welcome in his new position it is requested that all staff members read the following briefing prior to his arrival and that they become familiar with the customs of Mr. Burkhalter's country of origin. All staff members should extend Mr. Burkhalter a warm welcome by familiarizing themselves with his customs. The following summarizes many of the customs of Swiss society, using American culture as a reference point.
Hofstede's cultural dimensions is the most widely used system for developing a framework that assesses national cultures and…
COMMUNICAID GROUP LTD. 2009. Doing Busineass in Switzerland: Swiss Social and Business Culture. [online] Available from: http://www.communicaid.com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-business-in/Doing%20Business%20in%20Switzerland.pdf [accessed to December 2011}.
EDIPLOMAT. 2011. Switzerland. [online] Available from: http://www.ediplomat.com/np/cultural_etiquette/ce_ch.htm [accessed to December 2011}.
EXPATICA. 2011. Management Culture in Switzerland. Expatica.com. [online] Available from: http://www.expatica.com/ch/employment/employment_information/Management-culture-in-Switzerland_13331.html [accessed to December 2011}.
HOFSTEDE, G. 2001. Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The Balinese seem to be coping with the tourist invasion as well as they have coped with others, that is they are taking what they want, but they are not allowing themselves to be any the less Balinese. This appears to have been the story throughout Bali's history, outside cultures came, perhaps as conquerors, perhaps only as visitors and traders, but Balinese society and culture have remained distinctive, accepting outward forms, but molding them to its own different purposes." (Pickard, 1996)
These insights are showing how the changes in tourism are having an effect on Bali by developing the industry. However, for most local residents, they are maintaining their basic cultural traditions. This is despite the fact that there are added pressures to continually adopt these practices (in spite of the transformations). (Pickard, 1996)
However, many local officials feel that an influx of tourism is having an adverse impact on…
Bali Weather and Climate. (2011). Indonesia Point. Retrieved from: http://www.indonesiapoint.com/tourist-attractions/bali/bali-weather.html
Botetar, R. (2012). The Beauty of Bali is under Pressure. ABC News. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-01-05/over-development-of-bali-feature/3760496
Fiegenbaum, E. (2012). The Impact of Tourism in Bali. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_7195825_impact-tourism-bali.html
Hitchcock, M. (2009). Tourism in Southeast Asia. Copenhagen: NAIS.
Values Portrayed eality TV
The modern day media has recently found out that profits can be higher if reality TV shows are produced. Based on these reasons, there is a long list of reality TV shows that are being produced. Not all of these shows are successful, but the one that are successful have achieved great deal of profits, cultural prominence and popularity. The question that arises here is that if these shows should be produced or should they be aired for the audience.
Many definitions have been given for reality TV but one of the most important definitions is a show that showcases situations that have actually happened. Apparently, there is no scripting in these shows as in the case of dramas and serials. A small group of people are showcased in these shows who are not trained actors but these are chosen as they face unusual situations.
Deery, J. (2004). Reality TV as Advertainment. Popular Communication: The International Journal of Media and Culture 2, pp. 1-20.
Murray, S., and Ouellette, L. (2009). Reality TV: Remaking Television Culture. Edition 2. NYU Press.
Olivera, M.B. (1994). Portrayals of crime, race, and aggression in "reality-based" police shows: A content analysis. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 38, pp. 179-192.
Papacharissi, Z., & Mendelson, L.A. (2007). An Exploratory Study of Reality Appeal: Uses and Gratifications of Reality TV Shows. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 51, pp. 355-370.
" Taking into consideration these three stages, I would position myself in the second stage - that of cultural identity search. I am aware of my cultural background and I always have been, but the fact that I live in the multicultural American society made it hard for me to fully embrace my cultural heritage. I am at a stage in my life when I feel the need to understand my culture in order to better understand who I am. The fact that I am aware of my cultural appurtenance does not mean that I completely embrace my cultural identity. Learning about my cultural heritage is the path towards better understanding who I am and identifying myself with the cultural group that I belong to.
Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan;
Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;
Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.
Chapter 6, Cultural…
Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan ;
Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;
Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.
Chapter 6, Cultural Identity, Cultural Biases, and Intercultural Contact.
Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula." (Wiener, 124) it's also important to note that influence of antique classicism typical for Italian architecture of the 14-16th centuries is not observed in the north. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.
eformation and Counter eformation
The spread of Protestantism over Europe, which is considered to be one of the most historically significant achievements of enaissance and…
Hileman, Tony Living on the Creative Edge of Our Culture available at www.americanhumanist.org/about/messageED1.php
Wiener, Philip P. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas available at http://etext.virginia.edu/DicHist/dict.html
Kohl, Benjamin G., and Witt, Ronald G., eds., the Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society (1978)
While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.
Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…
Diller, D. (1999). Opening the dialogue: Using culture as a tool in teaching young African
American children. Reading Teacher, 52(8), 820-828. [Available electronically through ERIC/EBSCOhost]
Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching:
using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31 (2), 132-141.
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…
Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.
Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm
Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.
Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
At the same time, it considerably increased the number of books that would reach the masses, allowing them to see outside the teachings of the Church or of the religious preachers. Moreover, the printing machine offered the possibility for those opposing the rule of the Catholic Church to spread their beliefs and convictions. Thus, Gutenberg's invention was the main tool for what would later be called the Reformation, the religious movement which is often associated with the Renaissance and which influenced the artistic movement in the same manner as the Renaissance affected the emergence of the reformist churches.
The hallmarks of the previous era were rather obvious and contrasted to the ones the Renaissance promoted. They manifested themselves at all the levels of the society. Thus, during the middle Ages, the Church represented the highest institution of the state which had as its subjects all political and land owners (Berstein…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses, 1998
Culture-Epoch Theory: The fact of Ceaseless Change. N.d. 20 May 2008 http://iws.ccccd.edu/mbailey/culture_epoch_theory.htm
Hispanic Society. Paintings from the Middle Ages. 2006. 20 May 2008 http://www.hispanicsociety.org/hispanic/paintings_medieval.htm
Cultural Observation of Dress
Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.
Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)
f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.
People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…
Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)
Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.
Miner's article is discussing the appearance
Values and Beliefs:
Transformation and Change
Perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of the human psyche is how one's personal values and beliefs can transform and change. Whereas, one previously might have imagined that one's value systems and beliefs were "set in stone," events, circumstances, relationships, and changing community membership can either slowly or suddenly work to change one's central beliefs quite unexpectedly. Although many individuals can experience a real sense of personal internal resistance or struggle to changing beliefs and values (perhaps akin to the stereotypical "midlife crisis"), some respond to value change quite readily and without emotional crisis. However, regardless of how one responds, belief and value change is a normal and typically inevitable for those who function in a wide variety of relationships, communities, and situations.
Relationships and Communities:
Their Central Function
Cultural anthropologists have long known the important role that community, and the relationships within…
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
It is though cultural understanding that strangers become familiar and open to us. Law enforcement benefits from cultural understanding and steps that are taken to bridge the chasm between police and the communities they serve will ultimately benefit all parties.
Community policing is one method used to span the gap, the concept has generated widespread debate as to its effectiveness. In spite of the debate there are identifiable benefits to community policing. The first benefit of community policing is an increase in public safety (Thacher, 2001, p.765). Community policing brings together divergent elements in such a manner that it fosters the production of a safer environment. The increased safety is not only because police are physically present but also because law enforcement priorities are more in sync with the concerns of the communities they are asked to serve (Meares, 2002, p. 1595).
Another benefit of community policing is a change…
Gibson, J.L. And Gouws, A. (2000). Social identities and political intolerance:
Linkages within the South African mass public. American Journal of Political
Science, 44(2), 278-292.
Meares, T.L. (2002). Praying for community policing. California Law Review, 90 (5),
scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?
Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…
Booklist. "Reference Books Bulletin: The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." (2003): 1702.
In the first edition of Hirsch's book, the author was criticized as being "elitist," but the Subsequent editions add "tools for assessing cultural literacy" that makes sense and Now it does "keep up with changes in American culture."
Chylinski, Manya S. "Hirsch, E.D. Jr., & others. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Library Journal, 127.18 (2002): 78-80. Chylinski writes that the book has been given "an exciting update" - "sorely needed"...for those "who like to have a great reference work..."
Giddings, Louise R. "Beyond E.D. Hirsch and Cultural Literacy: Thinking Skills for Cultural
Cultural Challenges of Doing Business Overseas:
Steve Kafka, franchisor for Chicago Style Pizza
Steve Kafka, a proprietor of Chicago Style Pizza, a U.S.-based franchise, is attempting to capitalize upon his Czech heritage, and knowledge of Czech culture and language to expand into Prague and take advantage of a largely untapped pizza market in the region. However, it is critical that Steve does not forget that, despite his familiarity with Czech culture, he was born in the United States and must orient himself to the unique cultural worldview of the Czech nation
Major differences and incompatibilities between cultures and risk mitigation
Perhaps the most significant difference between the U.S. And Czech business culture is a historical one, namely the legacy of communist rule in the Czech epublic. "All commentators on Czech business culture focus on the difficulty of developing deep levels of trust within any business relationship" (Doing business in Czech…
Czech Republic. (2010). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved December 10, 2010 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_czech_republic.shtml
Czech Republic. (2010). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 10, 2010 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3237.htm
Doing business in Czech Republic. (2010). World Business Culture. Retrieved December 10,
2010 at http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Czech-Business-Style.html
Since weddings are meant to bring families together the unity of the community as a whole is catered for and this can be advantageous. This culture will also ensure that the customs and traditions are retained and covered from erosion by other cultures, this is because the arrangements will ensure that only individuals with similar backgrounds are brought together and no new cultures are incorporated. To someone who does not admire the African culture this may not sound positive but I am sure to the owners of the culture this is a very big boost to them.
Now looking at the Australian cultural wedding very little seems strange but is totally different to the African ceremony. I feel that the Australian cultural wedding is more 'liberal' in nature as compared to the African wedding. This is because the weddings are based on love and agreement between two individuals. This gives…
Africaguide.com (2011). Africa people & culture, accessed on November 25, 2011 from http://www.africaguide.com/culture/weddings.htm
Euroevents & Travel (2004). Wedding Traditions and Customs around the World Bridal
Customs in different Countries accessed on November 25, 2011 from http://www.worldweddingtraditions.com/
Gardner, H. (1985). The mind's new science. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.
My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.
Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).
I believe that all cultures have something that…
Cultural Comparisons and Management Functions
This paper examines cultural comparisons and discusses how an American manager carries out management functions in the process of supervising German employees. With respect to individualism vs. collectivism, both Germany and the U.S. score high in individualism, that is, the degree to which individuals further their own interests. However, according to Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions, Germany's score of 67 ranks far enough below the U.S. score of 91 that the manager should expect differences in their approaches to working together in teams for instance. German employees would have only a moderate amount of group cohesion, with only a moderate amount of interpersonal connection and sharing of responsibility.
For the American manager, the two country's respective scores indicate that the manager should expect his or her German employees to be less individualistic than their manager. The manager should place a relatively high value on people's…
Values and Ethics and Asylum Seekers
Ethical awareness is a necessary part of the professional practice of social workers and their ability to act ethically is an essential aspect of the quality of service offered to clients (Ethics pp). According to the International Federation of Social orkers, professional social workers are dedicated to service for the welfare of human beings, and to the use of scientific knowledge concerning human behavior (International pp). orkers are also expected to use resources for the enhancement of the quality of life and to achieve social justice (International pp).
According to the Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social orkers:
The social worker should act to prevent practices that are inhumane or discriminatory against any person or group of persons.
F.3. The social worker should not practice, condone, facilitate or collaborate with any form of discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex,…
Bocker, Anita. (1999). Country of asylum by choice or by chance: asylum-seekers in Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. January 01. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
The Ethics of Social Work Principles and Standards. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from:
International Federation of Social Workers. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from:
With the technology available in today's economy, it is probable that education could go back to the days when students received more individualized instruction. There is no refuting that technology will continue to alter education (Cornell, 2007).
Socialization is the development of a sense of being self connected to a larger social world by way of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of one's culture. During socialization people learn to carry out certain roles as citizens, friends, lovers and workers. In the course of internalization our culture becomes second nature. People learn to behave in socially suitable and adequate ways. Some social institutions have precise roles in socializing the young and others have less deliberate but still powerful roles in the process. The mass media is a very influential socializing force. Media affects how people learn about the world and interact with each another. People often base most…
A Guide to Critical Viewing for Parents and Children. (n.d.). Retrieved July 30, 2010, from Family Values Television Network Web site: http://fvtvn.com/articles/taking-charge-of -your-tv/
Bolen, Jackie. (2006). TV's Effect on the Family. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from Web site:
Cornell, K. (2007). How Technology has Influenced Education. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from Writing Web site: http://www.writing.com/main/view_item/item_id/1322931-How -
nhl.com/sm-reebok-washington-capitals-alexander-ovechkin-language-barrier-player-name-and -- pi-3070445.html
Here, we can see an innovative way of overcoming the inherent language barrier, or at least rendering it secondary to fan intrigue.
hina is another market context where challenges are specific and dominant due both to the dramatic distinction between the hinese language and Romantic or Latin-based tongues and due to hina's isolated and distinctly defined cultural nature. In both of these, we consider that there is a real and difficult obstruction for organizations seeking to establish a meaningful identity.
In consideration of the example of Foster's beer, for one, we are given a narrative detailing a long and difficult process by which the Australian beer distributor was eventually able to penetrate the market. For Foster's, one of the biggest problems was its prior strategic dependence on its name and Australian identity, which are easily and charmingly conveyed in advertisement in America. In a non-English speaking market,…
China is another market context where challenges are specific and dominant due both to the dramatic distinction between the Chinese language and Romantic or Latin-based tongues and due to China's isolated and distinctly defined cultural nature. In both of these, we consider that there is a real and difficult obstruction for organizations seeking to establish a meaningful identity.
In consideration of the example of Foster's beer, for one, we are given a narrative detailing a long and difficult process by which the Australian beer distributor was eventually able to penetrate the market. For Foster's, one of the biggest problems was its prior strategic dependence on its name and Australian identity, which are easily and charmingly conveyed in advertisement in America. In a non-English speaking market, this is a harder association to draw. Such is to say that "The brand name is an essential part of marketing and it not only helps to identify a product but also creates value through consumers' association with the brand (Kohli, Harich, & Leuthesser, 2004). Cultural differences are therefore of major concern when managing brands in China." (Chung, 2) This is especially true coming from the Australian market, where the association between the brand name and a high standard of quality would negatively translate to mean high cost in the Chinese market, where income is decidedly more modest.
Another instance comes to us from China of cultural barriers creating a distinct challenge for internet search engine giant, Google. Google's ideology places it in a spot of unparalleled challenge, even further observable as it attempts
As the saying goes, 'two heads are better than one' so teams working together can find solutions better than a person working alone. Collective wisdom is important in business and as such, given the diversity in the workforce, professionals are required to be adaptable and willing to evaluate the way they conduct business. According to the Anti-Defamation League diversity has a direct impact on the marketplace, talent, and organizational effectiveness.
Moreover, according to them, when companies value diversity and effectively manage it, they can build better relationships, improve decision-making, stimulate effective team building, expand the ability to change problems into opportunities, provide employees with skills that promote organizational effectiveness, increase employee initiative, camaraderie and morale, and reduce conflict among many other benefits. In today's economy, successful organizations "recognize that managing diversity is an opportunity to increase productivity and create effective business strategies." (Anti-Defamation League, 2003).
Anti-Defamation League. (2003).…
Anti-Defamation League. (2003). The Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/education/edu_awod/anti-Bias_in_workplace.pdf
Kelly, E., Young, A., Clark, L. (1993). Sex Stereotyping in the Workplace: A Manager's Guide -- Women in Business. Business Horizons, March-April. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n2_v36/ai_13815063/?tag=content;col1
Taggart, A. (2007). Beyond Diversity: Becoming a Culturally Competent Organization. Ivey Business Journal, September-October. Retrieved from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/article.asp?intArticle_ID=712
Workman, D. (2008). International Trade Communication: Smart Business Negotiators Adapt to Audience Cultural Styles. Retrieved from http://internationalbusiness.suite101.com/article.cfm/international_trade_communication
Consumers can shop the Internet while at work or at 12am in their pajamas. This constant accessibility increases the chance that consumers will engage in impulse buying. However, it also allows consumers to compare prices on different sites. This means that businesses must price their products more competitively, and offer a wider array of products so they will not see loyal customers shift to competitor sites with better (and more attractively displayed) selection. Businesses can also sell their product on websites such as Amazon.com that act as portals for a variety of enterprises.
Even smaller businesses have seen their lives transformed by the web. Once upon a time, certain small, local businesses sold only to the community. Now, an artisanal chocolate maker in Switzerland or a maple syrup producer in Vermont can use a website to sell their product to individuals all over the world, provided they have an attractive…
Judging others excessively does create societal pollution and creates more conflict, discontent, and pain than is necessary. The fact is that judging others in their age, sex, race or nationality is like seeing only with the portion of a single eye; the remainder of what is truly in front of us is not seen; bigotry and racism blinds us from connecting with and enriching others. In that enriching of others, we enrich ourselves. So in the throwing off of stereotypes, however difficult that may be, we actually strengthen ourselves. In the service of others and in striving to understand them, we in effect broaden our own perceptive and become stronger for it. So in spite of bigotry, racism and the cruelty those aspects of human behavior deliver, if a person can rise above them through actually befriending the people they judge, they become stronger, more adept at re-ordering their own…
Therefore, our company's mission is to ensure that our customers receive the highest quality products, with similar services, while ensuring that our employees are satisfied and motivated on personal and financial levels. Our company is also determined to significantly engage in the life of the community of which we are part of.
Corporate Social esponsibility
In today's competitive market environment it does not suffice to provide high quality products and services. A company that intends to develop a sustainable position on the market must ensure that CS actions are being taken.
As a consequence, our company intends to make a difference in the eating style of people. Therefore, the company organizes seminars on this subject. People are invited to attend to these seminars held by authorities in the field that explain people the importance of a healthy eating style and the benefits of organic foods.
Also, the company is interested…
1. Smith, J. (2003). The Shareholders vs. Stakeholders Debate. MIT Sloan Management Review. Business Ethics and Public Policy, Leadership and Organizational Studies. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/articles/2003/summer/44411/the-shareholders-vs.-stakeholders-debate/ .
2. Phillips, R. (2004). Some key questions about stakeholder theory. IVEY Business Journal. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/view_article.asp?intArticle_ID=471 .
3. Deal and Kennedy's Cultural Model (2010). MindTools. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_86.htm .
4. Cooke, R.A. & Szumal, J.L. (2000). Using the Organizational Culture Inventory to Understand the Operating Cultures of organizations. Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=AUt1i9ZEa48C&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=robert+a+cooke+organizational+culture&source=bl&ots=ZRyk-MTlUj&sig=R9niqrhTVi1q-VNdWnvL-fB9lAg&hl=ro&ei=FcXVS93VJ8-ZOIy8vJ4O&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=robert%20a%20cooke%20organizational%20culture&f=false .
The use of various artifacts as symbols is also important in showing the transference and transformation of values in many texts. In Whale ider, a whale's tooth that has been cast into the ocean serves as a symbol of leadership, and the protagonist's retrieval eventually cements her ascendance to the role of a tribal leader. Her positive arc moving away from traditional values is shown in her appropriation of certain physical symbols of this traditional value system. In this way, the protagonist both literally and symbolically adopts and yet transforms the traditional values of her tribe in order to achieve her own identity.
Artifacts are out to a much different use in Franz Kafka's the Metamorphosis. Of course, the arc that the protagonist of this story travels is also markedly different from that of the protagonist in Whale ider; Gregor Samsa is quite happy his traditional role of a grown…
Caro, N. (2003). Whale rider. Buena Vista.
Kafka, F. (1915). The metamorphosis. New York: Penguin.
Lahiri, J. (2003). The namesake. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.
Effect of Cultural Diversity on…