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Culture Change Case #2
Healthcare Acquisition Case
Six months after the merger described in Change and Culture Case Study I, the new administration initiated a significant reduction in force. A decision was made to redesign patient care delivery. The administration's first job redesign recommendation was that of a universal worker. The universal worker would deliver many support services. Aware that this model often failed when implemented in other organizations, your administrator charged you with making redesign work this time.
How would you begin the process of job redesign? Do not consider only the universal worker.
The process of cutting staff is a common practice these days in hopes to lower the costs associated with healthcare (Eaton-Spiva, Buitrago, & Trotter, 2010). This is creating a plethora of problems in job satisfaction and hence job redesign demands the utmost attention in order to mitigate some of the common issues. Furthermore, it is…
Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others Don't. New York: Random House.
Eaton-Spiva, L., Buitrago, P., & Trotter, L. (2010). Assessing and Redesigning the Nursing Practice Environment. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 36-42.
Intergrated Healthcare Strategies. (2010). Separation Arrangements in Healthcare. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from IH Strategies: http://www.ihstrategies.com/articles/139.pdf
Li, L. (2005). The effects of trust and shared vision on inward knowledge transfer in subsidiaries' intra- and inter-organizational relationships. International Business Review, 77-95.
Organizational culture change is noted by Kotler et al. .(1996) noted to be a common aspect of every organization. This is due to the fact that change is the only thing that can be said to be constant in any given organization. Organizational change is often met with a lot of resistance. This resistance can undermine the operations and the performance of any given organization. Kudler Fine Foods Virtual Organization recently had a change in the leadership of its accounting department. The first level manager in this department (Senior Accountant) was fired as a result of involvement in corporate fraud as well as nonperformance. He was however liked by the staff in that department since he was an inspirational figure to most of the junior accounting staff. His departure as well as the introduction of a new team leader and procedures (processes) would no doubt be met with a lot…
Barr, P.S., Stimpert, J.L. And Huff, A.S. (1992) "Cognitive Change, Strategic Action,
and Organizational Renewal," Strategic Management Journal, 13 (Special Issue),
Hassink, F et al. (2009).Corporate fraud and the audit expectations gap: A study among business managers. Corporate fraud and the audit expectations gap: A study among business managers. Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation. Vol 18, Issue 2,, 85 -- 100
HOME DEPOT'S BLUEPINT FO CULTUE CHANGE
Start reading Harvard Business eview (HB) article: Charan, . (2006). Home Depot's Blueprint Culture Change. Harvard Business eview, April, Vol 84 Issue 4 p. 60-70. Assignment Expectations (Content) Based HB article Charan (2006),pages paper
Home depot's blueprint for culture change
Steps the team took to make the change
The Home depot team undertook four main steps to ensure that the company changed its mechanisms are metrics, processes, programs, and structures. Metrics involved describing the company values and making it clear what each person would be accountable for Charan, 2006.
This way each employee and manager would understand their role within the company and work as a team. Metrics also provided measurement data in areas that had never been measured before. The data revealed some discrepancies towards the company's held beliefs. Employee performance reviews were not standardized. Using the metric system the team implemented a…
Charan, R. (2006). Home Depot's Blueprint for Culture Change. Harvard Business Review, 84 (Issue 4), P 60-70.
Stanford, N. (2011). Corporate Culture: Getting It Right. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
BP Change Management
The forces that are driving BP to change are relatively weak compared with the forces that are restraining change. The driving forces are a pending legal action, and the fallout from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. The further that the disaster is from the public consciousness -- it occurred in 2010 -- the less impactful it will be in terms of sparking organizational change. Change is typically motivated in organizations by crises that take the key players outside of their comfort zone. Deepwater Horizon can still be used as impetus for change, but it would have been more effective had the company immediately used the incident to spark a cultural overhaul back in 2010. To do it today simply demonstrates a lack of urgency, lack of commitment and a lack of leadership. The people within the organization would have reason to doubt that leadership is truly committed to…
Ladies and Gentleman
Cultures change dramatically over time, and thus how we view different cultural and societal roles have also changed. In a modern context, where women are fighting for greater equality, what is considered gentlemanlike and ladylike has evolved since the time of Baldassare Castiglione's The Courtier. Although some elements remain relatively similar when comparing a modern idea of what a gentleman is, there are a number of clear distinctions that have changed dramatically.
Castiglione's The Courtier presents a very clear and defined sense of what it was like to be a gentleman and lady back in the 1500s, when it was written. Published in 1528, the work outlines both the characteristics of a gentleman, or courtier, and a perfect lady written in the style of fictional conversations. From this description, a character type can be generated, which can then be tested against the more modern connotation of gentleman…
Castiglione, Baldassarre. (1903). The Book of the Courtier. C. Scribner's Sons.
Reed, Austin. (2010). What do women expect of a 'modern gentleman'? Newslite. Web. http://newslite.tv/2010/09/30/what-do-women-expect-of-a-mode.html
Sayre, Henry M. (2011). Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change. Volume 1. Pearson Education, Limited.
Home Depot's move to target professionals with wholesale is unusual given their competencies. Professionals do not need much staff advice -- they simply need selection and price. The core competencies that deliver these are in logistics and purchasing. Therefore, for Home Depot to effectively move into this market they need to focus on improving their performance in those areas. The company needs to cut its back-end costs. The company also needs to shift its brand image as well. This is difficult, because Home Depot cannot sacrifice the DIY market, of which it still holds a significant market share. The separate stores may help, but it would be easier if Home Depot could incorporate the professional market into its existing stores, to take advantage of its current purchasing and logistics efficiencies as well as its existing real estate holdings. The professional market should not be courted at the expense of the…
There are a few instances were a company tried to institute a large-scale organizational change effort and failed. One recent one was with the FedEx purchase of Kinko's. FedEx had decided that Kinko's would complement its business since they had many mutual customers. The shipping company also felt that if it could professionalize the information Kinko's it would improve the company's profitability. That was not to be. Kinko's had a strong organizational culture that was a bad fit with the FedEx culture. Kinko's culture was informal in nature, while FedEx has a formal culture based on a high level of professionalism. After years of failing to integrate Kinko's into the FedEx culture, FedEx ended up taking a massive writedown on the transaction and rebranding the subsidiary as FedEx Office in an attempt to kill off any remaining Kinko's culture within the organization.
The change was radical, not incremental. FedEx…
Morris, B., Neering, P. (2006). The new rules. Fortune International In possession of the author
Goldgeier, D. (2007). A ream of culture clashes at FedEx Kinko's. AdPulp. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from http://www.adpulp.com/a_ream_of_cultu/
Deutsch, C. (2007). Paper jam at FedEx Kinko's. New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/05/business/05kinkos.html?_r=2&oref=slogin& ;
Change Management Scenario
The contemporary business environment is rapidly evolving. Globalization has taken over the organization environment, and with this business is forced to undergo continuous and rapid change driven by increasing stakeholder expectations, new technological advances, and competition that is not only global, but viral (Bendell, 2005). This has resulted in a dramatically different business environment in which the modern business, in order to survive and prosper, is forced to evolve and regularly revise their internal and external business processes. Typically, aggressive and rapid change management systems germinate within the private sector -- only after trial and error, testing, and numerous permutations did they become standard within the public sector organization. This paradigm, however, changed in the late 1990s with a combination of rising client expectations to effectively address major socio-culture, economic, and demographic issues, and change in governmental oversight and minimal requirements pushed management in the public sector…
Home Depot, Inc. (September 29, 2012). The New York Times. Retrieved from:
Aluise, S. (January 19, 2012). Frank Blake Has Brought Home Depot Home. Investorplace.
Com. Retrieved from: http://investorplace.com/2012/01/frank-blake-has-brought-home-depot-home/
This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism can be seen at the root of the other cultural problems discussed in this context; it implies both a lack of understanding about the impacts of the unit's culture on the people of a foreign culture, as well as a lack of appreciation and understanding for that culture (Hoskins 2007).
Culture is strange, in that it is both constant and always changing. The only static culture is a dead one; as the various elements and generations of a culture interact, change is bound to happen. When there is no longer any interaction within a culture or between a given culture and other cultures, there is no longer any point to that culture, and indeed that culture could not realistically exist…
DiMarco, L. (2003). Traditions, changes, and challenges: Military operations and the Middle Eastern city. Diane Publsihing.
Harrison, D.; Light, L. & Rothschild-Boros, M. (2008). Cultural anthropology: Our diverse world. New York: Wadsworth.
Hoskins, B. (2007). "Religion and other cultural variable in modern operational environments." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA470675&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
O'Neil, D. (2007). "Characteristics of Culture." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_2.htm
" Change must therefore be accomplished by the institution of a strong leadership of just a single individual (Kotter,1996,p.25) .In this case, the person was Ghosn. Change however requires a special team of leaders as well as managers who have a common goal that is communicated succinctly by the team leader. Ghosn therefore "walked the talk" since his leadership style which was transformational, brought real change to the organization.
It is important to note that for any organization to succeed, a balance must be struck between leadership and the management. This is because there can never be any form of transformation without a true leader. All successful organizational transformations are only achieved via the right mix of leadership and management.
Baggaley, B. 2006. Using strategic performance measurements to accelerate lean performance. Cost Management (January/February): 36-44
Cloud, C (2010). Epilogue: Change leadership and leadership development. New Directions for Community…
Baggaley, B. 2006. Using strategic performance measurements to accelerate lean performance. Cost Management (January/February): 36-44
Cloud, RC (2010). Epilogue: Change leadership and leadership development. New Directions for Community Colleges; Spring2010, Issue 149, p73-79,
Elving, W, JL (2005) "The role of communication in organisational change," Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 10 Iss: 2, pp.129-13
Kotter, J.P. (1995), "Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail," Harvard Business Review, March-April, 59-67
Changing Environment of Human Resources Management
Describe the business case for having HR report to the CEO/President in large organizations.
The Human Resources (HR) function in many firms, particularly in large firms with functional specialties, has traditionally been perceived as an administrative function that plays a support role in recruiting, training, paying, and retaining (or firing) members of the workforce. HR has also been seen as supporting other managers in providing a safe workplace and dealing with labor-relations issues. Over the past decade, as down-sizing has occurred throughout much of the corporate world, business cases have been made to reduce the size of the overall HR function, to outsource elements of the HR function such as pay or training, and to offload HR duties to other managers. This paper posits that a business case exists for retaining a strategic HR function in organizations, and for having the senior HR person…
Barney, Jay and Patrick Wright. On Becoming A Strategic Partner: The Role of Human Resources In Gaining Competitive Advantage. Human Resource Management, Spring, 1998, Vol. 37, No. 1, pages 31-46.
Beatty, Richard, Jeffrey Ewing and Charles Tharp. HR's Role in Corporate Governance: Present and Prospective. Human Resource Management, Fall, 2003, Vol. 42, No. 3,-page 257-269.
Enns, Harvey and Dean McFarlin. When Executives Influence Peers: Does Function Matter? Human Resource Management, Summer, 2003, Vol. 42, No. 2, pages 125-142.
Fischer, Heinz and Klaus Mittorp. How HR Measures Support Risk Management: The Deutsche Bank Example. Human Resource Management, Winter, 2002, Vol. 41, No. 4, pages 477-490.
In addition, stratification contributes to cultural determinism, which again, alludes to when a person's position or class within a stratified society determines their culture, what kind of labor they will have the opportunity to have, what quality of education they may have access to, and other aspects (or limitations) of a particular culture.
When social stratification becomes too extreme and tensions within a culture rise too high, there is a distinct possibility for cultural differentiation. This occurs in societies where the tensions and imbalances are apparent and transparent. In many countries, such as the United States, the media helps to minimize class imbalances. The media is often used as an institution that will communicate and distribute the dominant ideology and specific hegemony. Hegemony is a form of social control and ideology is the greater societal structure of which hegemony is a tool or strategy. Hegemony may is often skewed or…
Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations, 4th Edition. Chapter 3 -- Understanding Race and Culture. Print. Provided.
The offering of financial incentives, in the form of salary increases, premiums and bonuses, is often the most popular means of employee motivation. Non-financial means, such as flexible working schedules or promotion opportunities, also constitute a powerful source of stimulated employees (Bruce, 2002).
The realization of the important role played by the staff members within the Smith & Falmouth Company would lead to several beneficial effects. At an individual level, the employees would feel better valued and they would as such increase their loyalty to the organization, their commitment to supporting the entity achieve its goals and their performances. At the group level, the teams would be more united and better prepared to deal with organizational chores. In terms of the entity, it will be better able to pursue its interests.
The ability to communicate effectively and efficiently is the pillar of any successful organizational outcome. Communication in…
Bruce, a., 2002, How to motivate every employee: 24 proven tactics to spark productivity in the workplace, McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN 0071413332
Hickman, C.R., 2005, Management malpractice: how to cure unhealthy practices that disable your organization, Adams Media, ISBN 1593373503
Noe, R.A., 2004, Fundamentals of human resource management, ISBN 730209683X
THE ROLE OF CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE EVOLUTION OF HUMANITY
Undestanding the evolution of humanity has been one of the most citical quests fo most individuals in the cuent society. The intesection between envionmental influences and cultue ceates an aea of social inteest with a focus on human evolution. Empiical eseach shows that the society plays a significant ole in shaping the evolution of human beings as evidenced by psychological analysis of human evolution. The extaodinay coopeative natue of human beings aises moe questions on the peceived changes of human behavio and inteaction ove time (Hawkes, Paine, & School, 2006). Among the factos that dive human beings to stive to undestand thei evolution, include paleoanthopology esults that povide unique infomation that povides significant evidence to the aspects of human evolution postulated to have occued millions of yeas ago. Results fom fossil studies such as inceasing bain size and…
references: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(01), 1 -- 14.
Croll, E., & Parkin, D. (2002). Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment, and Development. Routledge.
Darlington, P.J. (1978). Altruism: Its characteristics and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 75(1), 385 -- 389.
Eagly, A.H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions vs. social roles. American Psychologist, 54(6), 408 -- 423.
Foley, R. (1995). The adaptive legacy of human evolution: A search for the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 4(6), 194 -- 203
We shall, for the purposes of this paper, accept the proposition that we are moving from a culture that can be categorized as "you get what I give" to one where the customer is always right. In the real world, there are companies that do either, depending on their business model. But for the sake of argument we will assume the position of a company that is seeking to shift from the former to a more customer-centric vision of customer service. There are two elements to such a shift -- operational and cultural. Operations can be laid out in such a way that barriers to customer service that may have existed in the past are now removed, for example. Yet, because service is inherently customer-oriented, based on interactions, it is critical that the organization shifts to a customer-service-based culture. This is a massive cultural shift from an organizational…
Brady, M. & Cronin, J. (2001). Customer orientation: Effects on customer service perceptions and outcome behaviors. Journal of Service Research. Vol. 3 (3) 241-251.
Homburg, C., Muller, M. & Klarmann, M. (2011). When does salespeople's customer orientation lead to customer loyalty? The differential aspects of relational and functional customer orientation. Journal of the Acad. Mark. Sci. Vol. 39 (2011) 795-812.
Leggett, K. (2014). Forrester's top trends for customer service in 2014. Forrester. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from http://blogs.forrester.com/kate_leggett/14-01-13-forresters_top_trends_for_customer_service_in_2014
Linnenluecke, M. & Griffiths, A. (2010). Corporate sustainability and organizational culture. Journal of World Business. Vol. 45 (2010) 357-366.
This essay examines the meaning of culture and provides several possible titles and topics that may be used as starting points for developing a paper on culture. It discusses the definition of culture, how culture is developed, and how cultures change. It shows how cultural identity and cultural differences are formed and how culture diversity is a fact of life. It also explains why in spite of diverse cultures commonly existing in one group there is usually a dominant culture that comes to the fore and is promoted by the leaders of the group. The essay closes with recommendations for other ways in which a paper on culture can be written.
Culture is the heart and soul of a society, group or organization: it is the manifestation of what a particular set of people thinks, feels, believes in, and holds as ideal. It is the communication of what a people…
Change Management Plan
The role of change
"Change is so pervasive in our lives that it almost defeats description and analysis" -- (Mortensen, 2008)
Change at any level, individual or collective (communal/familial, societal, or organizational), is a complex and challenging process that requires time, energy, commitment, and often some level of distinct intention and sacrifice, on both the front and back ends of the process. Change describes both the action(s) and the result(s) of any type of alteration, modification, transformation, or exchange of one behavior/idea for another from smaller-scale individual changes to large-scale organizational (or social systems) changes.
At any level, the process of change needs to be managed to some degree. Generally, individuals can manage their own processes of change and in many individual cases, change may happen more spontaneously. Change that occurs in systems, like organizational change, requires a more strategic (or structured) approach…
Mortensen, Chris, 2008, Change, In Zalta, Edward (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy found at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/change/ >.
Stace, D & Dunphy, D 1994, Beyond the Boundaries, Leading and Re-Creating the Successful Enterprise, McGraw-Hill, Roseville, NSW.
Overcoming esistance to Change
Change management can be most difficult in companies that are entrenched in their company culture. In the case of the company in the study, the company has a high number of employees that have been with the company for a long period of time. These employees present the greatest challenge to overcome in terms of change management. They are more likely to continue to do their jobs as they have done them in the past. For employees that have been with the company the longest, the proposed changes in customer service would mean changes in long-established daily habits and routines. outines are comfortable and changing these routines can be stressful for employees, particularly those who have been there for long time. This study will examine the limits and obstacles that make changes in organizational structure difficult for companies with an entrenched corporate culture.
Beer, M., Eisenstat, R.A., & Spector, B. (1990). "Why Change Programs Don't Produce Change." Harvard Business Review. 68(6). 158- 66.
Cascio. W.F. (1993). " Downsizing: What do we know? What have we learned?" Academy of Management Executive 7(1), 92-104.
Oxman, J. & Smith, B. (2003). "The Limits of Structural Change," Sloan Management Review. 77-82.
Simons, R., Mintzberg. H., & Basu. K. (2002). "Memo to: CEOs:." Fast Company. 59, 117-121.
d.). For example, in the U.S., decisions are frequently delegated, that is, an official assigns responsibility for a particular matter to a subordinate. In many European nations, like Germany, there is a strong value placed on holding decision-making responsibilities oneself. When decisions are made by groups of people, majority rule is a common approach in the U.S. while in Germany consensus is the preferred mode. One should be conscious that peoples' expectations about their own part in shaping a resolution may be influenced by their cultural orientation (Spang & Ozcan, 2009).
The fifth difference is in attitudes toward disclosure. In some cultures, it is not fitting to be forthright about emotions, about the reasons behind a disagreement or a mix-up, or about personal information. When one is involved in a dialogue or when they are working with others or when they are dealing with a conflict, they should be mindful…
Change Proposal Imagine a midlevel manager organization supervises -level managers. Prepare an 800-word report boss propose a needed change department. You permission boss implement change management program.
Change proposal: esults-oriented labor
etention levels of our most well-trained and highly-educated employees were down last quarter. This is a troubling development given that a company can only be as good as its employee's efforts. Also, it is a waste of the money and time invested into employees if they constantly move in and out of a revolving door of employment. In particular, the attrition rate has been highest amongst women managers who struggle to balance the demands of home and family. This could be potentially problematic not simply in terms of losing top female talent, but also because having insufficient numbers of female managers could result in accusations (however unfounded) of discrimination. All employees have been complaining about their long hours and…
Birkinshaw's Four Dimensions of Management. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:
Filey, A. (2008). Top-down and bottom-up project management. WRIKE. Retrieved:
Culture and Politics
Germany: How Culture and Politics Bring About Social Change
German history and culture are complex, and the country has been through a lot of changes, both in the past and more recently. In order to understand the cultural and political issues today, it is important to see where they have originated from and where they appear to be headed. That can also help foster social change and development, which is needed in every country in order to keep that country moving forward. Here, the political system of Germany will be addressed, followed by a cultural problem that is being seen in the present day. Once those two areas have been discussed, it will be shown how the German culture and political system can come together to create solutions to the problem, including the development of new policies and procedures. Germany has a rich history and there is…
A German Underclass? What Underclass? (2006). Spiegel.
Spiegel's article on the German underclass addresses the issue from the standpoint of German politics. In general, the upper classes are looking the other way and avoiding acknowledging that there is a problem with people in the country who do not have money and who need assistance. Until and unless this issue is acknowledged by the government, nothing will get done that will make things better for those people.
Dempsey, J. (2011). German Politics Faces Grass-Roots Threat. The New York Times.
The political parties in Germany are facing some threats from smaller organizations and coalitions that want to see real change. The multi-party system Germany has is valuable, but there are two parties in power and that can stifle other options for people who want to see change. Because of that, grass-roots threats are starting to appear sporadically as they lobby for changes to the political system.
A variety of technical and management issues arise during the implementation and operation of any change process. Change management in technology projects is essential to implement and monitor mechanisms to support and control users, business, and technology (Yarberry, 2007). There are different change project modules used at any stage of a project development. These include the change curve, Lewin's change management model, and Beckhard and Harris change model used in the understanding phase. The project-planning phase uses the impact analysis, Burke-Litwin, McKinsey 7s framework, Leavitt's diamond, organization design, and SIPOC diagrams. The implementation stage uses Kotter's 8-step change model, training needs assessment, while the communication change uses stakeholder analysis, stakeholder management, mission statement, and vision statements. In this analysis, the Leavitt's Diamond, the Kotter's 8-step change model, and Leavitt's model for organizational change is concerned with the interdependence of four main factors, including structure, people, technology, and task.…
Aladwani, A.M. (2001). Change Management Strategies for Successful ERP Implementation. Business Process Management Journal 7, 266.
Bruckman, J.C. (2008) Overcoming Resistance to change: Casual Factors, Interventions, and Critical Values. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, Psychology Press 11, 211-219.
Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page
Davison, R. (2002) Cultural Complications of ERP. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM 45, 109.
Changing role of H management in response to trends in globalization, technology, diversity, e-Business, and ethics
Human resources management of any organization has many functions which it continues to perform. One major function is that is provides the organization with the necessary human resources for it to continue in its day-to-day activities. The business environment in which companies operate is quite dynamic and is exposed to various internal and external factors which make the H role of the organization also to be quite dynamic. Some of the factors that change the H role include globalization, technology, diversity, e-business, and ethics.
Companies undergo a pattern of growth which sees them start out as small companies with little complexity and diversity. A business is required to be constantly aware of the effect of globalization and the importance of innovation and change in these times of globalization. Globalization also requires the organizations…
FERLIGOJ, A., PRASNIKAR, J. & JORDAN, V. 1997. Competitive Advantage and Human Resource Management in SMEs in a Transitional Economy. Small Business Economics, 9, 503-514.
MARREWIJK, M.V. & TIMMERS, J. 2003. Human Capital Management: New Possibilities in People Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 44, 171-184.
MIRVIS, P.H. 1997. Human Resource Management: Leaders, Laggards, and Followers. The Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005), 11, 43-56.
TURNER, R.H. 1990. Role Change. Annual Review of Sociology, 16, 87-110.
Existence value of resistance
Organization change involves introducing new conversations and shifting existing conversations and patterns of discourse. However, new conversations have a hard time competing with existing conversation and so the challenge for change agents is getting new conversation heard. This is where resistance can be of value. esistance helps to keep the conversations in existence. Although talking negatively or complaining and criticizing have been viewed as resistance, it can be beneficial because it keeps the topic alive, giving other the opportunity to participate in the conversation.
Engagement value of resistance
esistance is one possible form of engagement with change acceptance and ambivalence being others and might, in some cases, reflect a higher level of commitment than acceptance, because some resistance is thoughtful. Change recipients who are highly committed to the success of the organization but who disagree with proposed change because it threatens something of value to them…
Issham Ismail, 5th. (2010). Proceeding of the 5th International Conference on ELearning: Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, 12-13 July 2010. Academic Conferences Limited.
Yuxia Qian, Ohio University. (2007). A communication model of employee cynicism toward organizational change. ProQuest.
Paul Parkin. (2009). Managing Change in Healthcare: Using Action Research. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ford, J.D., Ford L.W. & DaAmelio (2008). Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Academy of Management Review, 33, 362-377.
Because of the degree of entrenchment, cultural change is often a slow process but it can also make the change process easier if the culture and the desired change are aligned. At Wal-Mart, the culture is strong, and supports the company's change initiatives. This makes it easy for Wal-Mart to implement new strategies that improve its business.
Another throughput that facilitates or resists change is financial capital. Rarely does money spur change, but the lack of it can make change difficult and a surplus of it can make change easy. Wal-Mart is a well-financed company. This has made many of their change initiatives, from the introduction of Supercenters and Sam's Club to overseas expansion much easier. These types of change initiatives can be difficult, since it involves introducing new ways of doing business and new national cultures to the organization. But for Wal-Mart, their financial clout has allowed them to…
In this briefing new employee human resources, we will be considering cultural management issues in the tourist industry and how they impact upon our business. Our company, Beach Bum Ltd. is a travel consultancy Agency which was recently hired to provide a critical analysis on whether or not sustainable tours can attract American ecological tourists to travel to countries such as Tanzania and Namibia. We are a culturally eclectic group of advisors specialising in all aspects of tourism. Cultural sensitivity is not only our watchword, but our bottomline. Please do not feel overwhelmed by all of this information. Some of you may feel as though you are back in college. est assured, the difference between profit and bankruptcy in our business is the ability to sell in that person's culture. People like to feel important and an acknowledgement of their importance is not just being nice. It is also…
Reference: Managing an International Workforce . San Francisco: Pfeiffer. p65-67.
Hofstede, G, and Hofstede, GJ (2004). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 2nd ed. New York: New York. P16-17.
Kwintessential.co.uk. (2011). Intercultural Training and the Expatriate Assignment. Available:
Culture of Germany
Germany has a very unique culture that is shaped both by medieval realities, Cold War politics, and modern day success. Before becoming a country, Germany was made up of dozens of small fiefdoms or princeling states, territories that were German speaking but controlled by local municipal cities. Germany as a country did not exist formally until 1871 when the Prussian Kingdom defeated France, and became united with Bavaria and the West German states to form the German Empire. Otto Von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm II were the leading forces behind the unification of Germany, and with the unification of Germany came great success and a rebalancing of power in Europe. The success of Germany at the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century led to power struggles that split Europe into two, causing the start of World War I in 1914. (German…
Not meeting them is not only a sin according to the tenets of the religion, but it also causes damage to the spouse with whom a partnership was made and the children that are a result of that partnership.
More precisely, failing to live up to familial obligations is a sin because it causes damage to the spouse and children. Jewish daily life, as Mrs. Baron explains, is built around a constant devotion to God. Cooking, eating, sleeping, waking, bathing, and almost every other common task of everyday life is associated with some ritualistic elements and/or prayer to remind each person that every bit of good done is in service to God. Making sure your family is cared for in the best manner possible is part of this, and this explains the different roles that exist in her family. She acknowledges that the roles have changed somewhat since her grandparents…
Software quality management, compliance, and collaboration across the entire organization also need to be integrated at the process and role level with the LMA supply chain. As the LMA supply chain is very unique in that it specifically deals with prototypes often that are under covered under security guidelines and clearances, there needs to be continual focus on change management and task ownership in this area as well. For LMA supply chains is their major source of pricing competitive advantage as the company ahs been responsible for several innovations in this process area (Cheung, Myers, 2008). In conclusion as CEO of LMA the challenge of attaining and strengthening global competitiveness begins with being a transformational leader followed by concentrating on transforming compliance into a competitive advantage, and also striving to create a high level of task ownership, mastery and collaboration within and between the company's teams and outside partners including…
Appelbaum, S., J. Berke, J. Taylor, and J. Vazquez. "The Role of Leadership During Large Scale Organizational Transitions: Lessons from Six Empirical Studies." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 13, no. 1
(March 1, 2008): 16-24.
Spencer Arnesen, and Jeff Thompson. "ERP merger mania." Strategic Finance 85, no. 4 (October 1, 2003): 30-36.
Mark Brenner. "It's all about people: change management's greatest lever." Business Strategy Series 9, no. 3 (May 1, 2008): 132-137.
They will need translation services and interpreters, but they cannot rely on these things forever. In addition, the people who will work in the new offices and the people who will work with the people in the new offices must clearly and properly speak the language. Learning a new language can take time, but it is advisable for anyone who is going to be dealing with business in a foreign country (Kwintessential, 2010).
Cultural issues and language barriers are the two most significant problems that are faced by companies that are looking to expand into something more global in nature (Centre, 2011; Geert-Hostede, 2011). If those barriers can be worked through, the company will have a much higher chance of succeeding where other companies may have failed. Even though cultural issues may seem confusing, or a person may not understand why another culture does something differently, being open-minded about communication…
Centre for Intercultural Learning. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.international.gc.ca/cfsi-icse/cil-cai/index-eng.asp
Geert-Hostede. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.geert-hostede.com
Kwintessential. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk
Performance. (2011). NewCap Radio. Retrieved from: http://www.ncc.ca
Cultues in Conflict & Change
William Faulkne leaves us in suspense at the end of a tubulent sequence of events titled "Ban Buning." Who killed whom? We could speculate fom othe books pehaps but those wods ae outside this stoy. Given that stict constaint, we don't eally know. Saty watches De Spain and his hose vanish in the distance and heas thee shots, which he assumes kill his fathe at least, and pehaps olde bothe. This is the widest possible assumption but a fulle analysis would have to exploe othe possibilities. The esult fo Saty is the same: He uns away fom fathe, bothe and the women's cultue egadless who pulled which tigge(s) at the De Spain ban. Abne Snopes will appea hee as 'AS,' De Spain as 'DS' and 'Saty' as 'CSS' fo bevity, but also abstaction, because Faulkne ('WF') sets up abstactions, though symbolic equations that pemeate the…
references and habits; she is only one but the men single her out for different reasons, which were ultimately provoked in fact by an unusual weather event. If the workers ever fry and devour "an egg from some woman," it will not be she who caters to their taste for human flesh.
As we will see in the case studies, leadership is a decisive factor in the process of diagnosing and in the implementation of changes in the operation of a corporate organisation. IT, HR and corporate work ethics may be excellent. However, without secure and decisive leadership, the best organisational makeovers can fail miserably.
In this part of the essay, this author will illustrate three models and techniques in the change management professional literature for diagnosing organisations. ith regard to this, we will compare and contrast three different diagnostic models/techniques, including the main strengths and weaknesses of each. In this discussion, we will also examine the relationship between each diagnostic model/technique and the organisational development and political approaches to organisational change.
In the first we will consider, a great person and a great organisational management team leads change and the charge, focusing in on areas that needs to be changed.…
Aloini, D., Dulmin, R., & Mininno, M. (2007). Risk management in erp project introduction: Review of the literature. Information & Management, 44, 547 -- 567.
Flamholtz, E.G. (2011). The leadership molecule hypothesis: Implications for entrepreneurial organizations. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 1-24.
Ford, M.W., & Evans, J.R. (2006). The role of follow-up in achieving results from self-assessment processes. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 23, 589-606.
Friedman, B.A. (2007). Globalization implications for human resource management roles. Employment Responsibility Rights Journal, 19, 157 -- 171.
Spending any time at all at one of the nation's first, oldest and largest state theaters, a founding member of the League of esident Theaters, brings to mind only one phrase above all others: "Off with their heads." The theatrical organization is run as if by the mad Queen in Alice in Wonderland. No real management is performed. Instead, edicts are issued by the CEO and founder and carried out without regard to the bottom line or any standards of acceptable organizational behavior. In short, there is the rule of fear, and nothing more.
When the theatre runs into problems, the solution is not to find remedies for those problems, but to replace personnel -- itself a highly expensive proposition -- and seek more government and corporate grants to cover the costs of operating the theater. The board of directors has been asked by more than…
Culture and Marketing Strategy
About the print ad from http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2013/johnnie-walker-from-the-future/
The print ad is about a certain brand of alcoholic drink that is endorsed by a professional athlete. The athlete takes a sip from a glass of whisky and begins walking. This in a way appears to suggest that consumers of this particular brand of whisky can cover long distances after taking this whiskey. Information pertaining to alcoholic content and how the brand is matured are not clearly visible on the ad. The only visible thing is the image of the person who has endorsed the brand making some strides.
Assumptions made by the authors of the ad
The authors of the ad try to make the ad to be more appealing to the motives and desires of the consumers. They give form to people's deep-lying desires. They assume that they will best arrest the consumer's attention by tugging consumer's…
Altstiel, T & Grow, J. (2006). Advertising Strategy: Creative Tactics From the Outside/In. CA:
Petracca, M. & Sorapure, M. (1998). Common Culture: Reading and Writing about American
Popular Culture. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
The elder is expected to have learned from the previous elder, developed more knowledge and expertise, and is now passing this on to the workers that are employed. This ostensibly a function of the cultural fabric within the framework of Mexican societal mores that establishes the knowledge transfer relationship.
Therefore, business operations in Mexico, as a Mexican workforce is to be hired, are a direct reflection of these cultural mores within the rigid chain-of-command. Similar to a banking operation, the role of the employee is subject to protocol and oversight by the manager. The manager is not an embodiment of the 'chain-of-command'. In fact, Mexican office environments appear to be autonomous and horizontal rather than vertical in control.
The use of hierarchy would be to establish the rapport necessary to engage the Mexican market. Therefore, client engagements will be hierarchical with the manager-employee relationship expressing the chain-of-command as the functional…
Geert-Hofstede (2011).Mexico & Germany. http://www.geert-hofstede.com
Kwintessential (2011). Mexico & Germany. www.kwintessential.co.uk
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. (2011) Mexico & Germany. www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca/
The rise of globalization has been a contentious issue both economically and politically. Aspects such as tax incentives for overseas operations, repatriation of dollars earned in foreign markets, and potential currency wars used to devalue exchange rates, are all problems plaguing a globalized society. Add the possible threat of cyber terrorism, and global companies have a cacophony of threats that are as difficult to enumerate as they are to understand. However, through these threats, society has generally benefited for the technological advances and financial globalization of enterprise. For one, capitalism continues to spread all around the world. This provides incentive for society to innovate, and improve the overall quality of life for everyone involved. Financial globalization provides the needed capital to overseas ventures that are deemed worthy of investment. Through transparency initiatives, emerging markets are now better able to secure vital funding needed to innovate. Language adoption has facilitated…
Culture, Continuity and Change
The Mayan people
In 800 A.D there existed the Maya Empire that comprised of many powerful city-states that spread south to Mexico and North to Honduras. The Maya culture was at its peak with massive temples lined up However a hundred yeas later the cities were in remains, unrestricted and just left alone for the jungle to reign. It still remains a great mystery of how the Mayan civilization disappeared. This in fact remains as one of the greatest mysteries in history.one among the mighty civilizations in ancient America just fell within a short period of time. No one is certain about what happened to the Maya people. However there are many theories which include varied alternatives that try to give an explanation of this abrupt and mysterious disappearance. Some of these theories will be discussed below.
The famine theory
Preclassica Maya (1000B.C -300 AD) carried…
Minster, C.(2010). What Happened to the Ancient Maya? Retrieved January 26, 2014 from http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/Maya/p/What-Happened-To-The-Ancient-Maya.htm
Del Sol, L.(2010).Mayan Mystery solved in Baja. Retrieved January 26, 2014 from http://www.bajainsider.com/baja-life/general-information/mayanmysterysolved.html#.UuVoA8tMGmU
Yes, the merger may have been a good idea in the beginning and would have allowed both companies to form a considerable economy of scale, but only if they could work out their differences and be able to make the changes necessary. According to Lewin's model they never even got past the first age, therefore they were never able to make the changes in the first place. A merger requires that both companies "unfreeze" of their business model and other elements of their company. Unless they can get past the first age, they will not be able to get to the second and third stage of the change model. This one the key lessons that is learned by the failed merger of Daimler-Chrysler.
In 2007, the failed restructuring attempt led to the decision by Daimler AG to sell Chrysler to Cerberus Capital Management (Szczesny, 2007). One of the key reasons…
Daimler. (2006). DaimlerChrysler Creates New Management Model. January 24, 20006. Retrieved February 22, 2011 from http://www.daimler.com/dccom/0-5-7171-1-583502-1-0-0-0-0-0-9296-7164-0-0-0-0-0-0-0.html
Kadapa, S. (2008). Change Management Analysis of Daimler-Chrysler Merger. Retrieved February 22, 20110 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1306208/change_management_analysis_of_daimler.html?cat=27
[email protected] Wharton (2000). Has DaimlerChrysler Hit the Breakdown Lane or Just Stopped to Fill Up? Retrieved February 22, 2011 from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=290
Mindtools (n.d.) Lewin's Change Management model. Retrieved February 22, 2011 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_94.htm
As ai (2012) points out, just a generation ago, women had far fewer options in India. Even when they attended college, their job prospects were low and they were more frequently diverted to family life and domestic servitude. Now, increasing numbers of Indian women are empowering themselves through the IT services industry. As much flack as outsourcing receives in the United States, the truth is that Indian women are largely the beneficiaries, while Americans are being increasingly challenged to discover creative ways of contributing to the economy. Social norms in India for women differ greatly from those in the United States, where it is much easier for a woman to start a business and avoid marriage and childbirth. In India, a woman is steered in the direction of motherhood at an earlier age and could be socially shunned if her path seems more career-focused than family focused. In many…
Lewis, M. (2013). Population bomb? So wrong. Retrieved online: http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/conservation-and-development/population-bomb-so-wrong/
Mukherjee, S. (2013). South India lags behind national fertility rate, slows population boom. The Times of India. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/South-India-lags-behind-national-fertility-rate-slows-population-boom/articleshow/19249154.cms
Rai, S. (2012). How outsourcing is boosting prospects for Indian women. CNET. Retrieved online: http://news.cnet.com/8301-10797_3-57428450-235/how-outsourcing-is-boosting-prospects-for-indian-women/
Yasmin, S. (2013). Outsourcing to India: How call centers improve local economies. Elan. Retrieved online: http://www.elanthemag.com/outsourcing-to-india-how-call-centers-improve-local-economies/
Change management is one of the most important components in the successful operations of a company or business organization. The modern business environment is characterized by numerous changes that are attributable to various factors including technological developments and globalization. In this regard, business organizations or companies increasingly face the need to adopt changes in their operations in order to align their businesses with the industry they operate it. However, the process of instituting organizational change in complex and can hurt a company’s operations if not conducted appropriately. As a result, there are various change management models that have been developed to help the management in instituting and managing organizational change. These models help in management of planned and unplanned change in the organization in order to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness in the industry or market it operates in. Some of these change management models include Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step Change…
This change initiative is referred to as Talent Acquisition (Softscape, 2005).
Then, the organization should establish some clear measurements of the work performance and implement stricter regulations for internal control. They must however pay attention not to be autocratic relative to the employees, but offer them sufficient space and freedom to think clearly and creatively. Also, still related to human resource changes, the company's overcoming the crisis is highly dependent on the skills and capabilities of the staff. In this order of ideas, the management should offer the employees training programs and should send them to international conferences of the it industry. This would not only increase employees' satisfaction on the job (and consequently their efforts and performances), it would also ensure DTC with better qualified and informed personnel. In other words, the company should be based on the learning and development principle (Softscape, 2005).
All in all, the DTC…
McNamara C., 1997-2007, Organizational Change and Development, Free Management Library, http://www.managementhelp.org/org_chng/org_chng.htm , last accessed on February 25, 2008
2005, Aligning Goals, Strategy and Performance, Softscape, Retrieved at http://www.slcc.edu/hr/docs/Softscape-whitepaper_aligning-goals.pdfon February 25, 2008
2002, Comprehensive Alliance Aiming at Business Integration Between Meiji Life and Yasuda Mutual Life, Meiji Life Insurance Company and the Yusuda Mutual Life Insurance Company, Retrieved at http://www.meijiyasuda.co.jp/profile/release/integration/pdf/20020124e.pdfon February 25, 2008
2008, Activating Internal Change, Versant Solution, http://www.versantsolutions.com/index.asp?pageid=15,last accessed on February 25, 2008
Safeway will drastically expand its market by taking over Sobeys. It will grow to expand the entire Canadian geography as well as almost double the number of stores it owns. In addition to this Safeway will have one less competitor in the marketplace, and be larger which will make it easier to stand against the other competition in the marketplace. The decision for a company to acquire another company is a massive and critical decision. The company acquiring must be ready to undertake the challenges involved, as well as the target company needs to be a proper fit with the other company. All of these changes mean many years of possible turbulence for the company and its employees, but if done carefully and mindfully the company will come out of the situation with a large financial and market gain.
This assignment had great value and the learner was able to…
Safeway. Safeway 2010 Annual Report Fact Book. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from Safeway Investors Web Site: http://safeway.ca
Sobeys. Sobeys Annual Report. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from Sobeys Corporate Web Site: http://www.sobeyscorporate.com
United States. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Web Site: http://www.sec.gov
Yahoo. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from Yahoo! Finance Web Site: http://finance.yahoo.com
There are also an increasing number of opportunities for people from diverse backgrounds to work together towards a common company goal. This brings with it a unique set of opportunities and challenges (Kosch, 2007).
Kosch (2007, p.1) for example mentions the benefits of an international camping program in the United States, where students from across the globe came to American campsites to work as advisers, cooks, housekeepers, and others. The main benefit was the diversity of cultures that enabled a mutual learning process with the result of mutual respect. The main challenge was however the fact that these workers were far from their known and trusted support systems, and cultural integration could prove difficult at first. However, in an increasing amount of workplaces, cultural diversity has become the norm rather than the exception. In such environments, H managers should therefore ensure that the various cultures integrate effectively to help the…
Grantham, P.H. And Hook, M. The Changing Role of Human Resources: Discussing the new model of the HR organization. Columbia Consulting Group. Retrieved from http://www.singergrp.com/presentations/changing_role.pdf
Kosch, S. (2007, Sept/Oct). Global Understanding: The Benefits and Challenges of International Staffing. Camping Magazine.
Management Matters. (2007, Feb). Employee Recruitment Part 1 -- Recruiting Strategies. Wood&Wood Products. Retrieved from www.iswonline.com
Schein, E.H. (2008) The Changing Role of the Human Resource Manager. Poslovna Sola. Retrieved from www.iedc.si/publications/masterclasses/masterclass_eng.pdf
Describe at least three internal and external drivers of change for the organization in this simulation.
Internally, organizational changes are driven by three external pressures, as defined by Lewin's along the three-stage model of unfreezing, changing and refreezing employee behaviors. Motivating people during each of these change stages reinforces the acquired behaviors. Unfreezing involves the motivational factor of persuading people to replace the old behaviors and attitude with the preferred behaviors and attitudes by demonstrating the need for change by infusing employees with the knowledge and the confidence that the new behaviors and attitudes are needed to cope with external pressures. (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). hen, refreezing means the new behavior and attitude become integrated into the normal standard operating procedures of the organization. hen, the external pressures of positive reinforcement, modeling and coaching should be used to encourage the desired behaviors continuance. 'Change and constancy are relative…
To implement the above change strategy in response to pressures, the CEO had to weight he current personnel needs, the changing needs of the external environment, the internal demands of the corporate hierarchical structures, and the emotional and economic demands of the employees.
What kinds of resistance might the leader expect to see? Identify and explain at least five of these. What strategies might you employ to manage each of these areas of resistance?
According to Kreitner and Kinicki, "Resistance to change is an emotional/behavioral response to the real or imagined threats to an established work routine." (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). Of the authors' ten reasons employees resist change, five reasons that were of particular impact in the scenario were: surprises and fear of the unknown, as when innovative or radically different changes are introduced without warnings, and the natural emotion/tendency for employees is to become fearful. To prevent the spread of invalid rumors, managers must develop communication plans to minimize employees' emotions of fear of the unknown. Secondly, a climate of mistrust can arise when change comes under pretense and deception and employees come to distrust their managers. In an effort to prevent such an undesirable climate of secrecy managers must honestly discussing coming changes. Thirdly, intimidating changes can cause employee to doubt their capabilities. To
Change Plan for SBA Implementation
Change Proposal - Healthcare
The benefits of the SBA are apparent to the nursing staff in the Labor, Deliver, ecovery, and Postpartum Unit of St. Johns Hospital Birth Center. All nursing staff receives training in SBA and it has been implemented -- successfully -- for a few months at a time. However, nursing staff soon return to the historical ways of communicating about patient care, which has predominantly been by giving a verbal report.
Benefits of SBA. SBA stands for Situation-Background-Assessment-ecommendation and it is a framework for communication about patients' conditions that is used by members of a healthcare team. The following discussion is from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (2011) website. The benefits to using SBA by hospital staff are: (a) It is an easy-to-use, easy-to-remember mechanism; (b) it is a concrete way to frame conversations that fosters effective and…
Ambrose, D. (1987). Managing Complex Change. Pittsburgh, PA: The Enterprise Group Ltd. Retrieved
Ducker, P.F. (1993). The New Realities. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books?id=WmAsWS9-fFsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=drucker+the+new+realities&hl=en&src=bmrr&ei=ASoRTvqyIZDUtQPs4pWADg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6wEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Golden, B. (2006). Transforming healthcare organizations, Healthcare Quarterly, 10(Spring), 10-19. Retrieved http://www.longwoods.com/content/18490 .
Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books/about/Leading_Change.html?id=ib9Xzb5eFGQC
Life in the United States in 1868 was though different from what it was a century later because racial discrimination was not as severely crippling as it was immediately after the abolition of slavery, still economic growth of blacks accelerated after the introduction of affirmative action and not exactly after the passage of Civil ights Act of 1964. During this period, numerous political, economic and social changes were witnessed but civil rights for blacks a perpetually contentious issue. The status of women, however, improved significantly during this 100-year period, as they became a major part of American workforce and also gained suffrage rights.
Black men and women in 1868 continued to suffer at the hands of a weak proslavery government of Andrew Johnson and tensions between Democrats and epublicans was making life miserable for the blacks. Civil rights were though granted by the Congress, they were not approved…
Roberta Hughes Wright, The Birth of the Montgomery Bus Boycott (Southfield: Charro Press, 1991) 52-53.
Lori Johnson, Forgotten heroes:
Joseph T. Wilson "The Black Phalanx - A History of the Negro Soldiers of the United States," American Publishing Company, 1890
Change Management in IT
Overcoming IT Project Failure
Any enterprises' ability to remain agile and quick to respond to external opportunities and threats is in large part predicated on the innate skill sets of the project and programme managers guiding projects in progress. The synchronized efforts of project and programme managers working in conjunction with cross-functional department leads and senior management form the foundation that assures an enterprise can change rapidly in response to opportunities and threats. Not only is this ability to manage change at a corporate, cross-functional level important, it is an essential attribute of any effectively managed organization (Partington, Pellegrinelli, Young, 2005). In the case of exceptionally costly and time-consuming project failures, the capacity of project and programme managers, in addition to entire enterprises to recover from setbacks and develop a corporate-wide resilience is essential if change is going to be made an innate strength of the…
Lycett, M., Rassau, A. & Danson, J. 2004, "Programme management: a critical review," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 289-299.
Partington, D., Pellegrinelli, S. & Young, M. 2005, "Attributes and levels of programme management competence: an interpretive study," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 87-95.
Pellegrinelli, S., Partington, D., Hemingway, C., Mohdzain, Z. & MahmoodShah 2007, "The importance of context in programme management: An empirical review of programme practices," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 41.
Yet Arab-Americans are not necessarily hostile to the idea of greater community intervention, provided it is done to enhance community life, and not done to profile all Arab-American residents as terrorists. In fact, in the city of Chicago, there have been calls for greater police intervention in Arab-American communities by parents and local leaders, to reduce the threat of violent crime. Nizar Hasan, president of the Arab-American Police Association, believes Arab-American youth are increasingly falling into negative criminal behaviors. "It's getting worse…Some of these kids first try [drugs], get hooked, want more and look for ways to make money to support their habit, which means criminal activity" (Bohn & Schott 2009). However because Chicago, like many cities, does not track crime rates amongst Arab-Americans they are not labeled as 'minorities' -- "according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, persons from the Middle East and North Africa, like those…
Bohn, Lauren E. & Paul Schott. (2009, November 17). Blight of street crime creeping into Arab-
American community. Merrill reports. Northwestern University. Retrieved October 19,
2010 at http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=147319
Elliott, Andrea. (2006, June 13). After 9/11 Arab-Americans fear police, study finds. New York
In this system, in which we must increasingly compete for students and research dollars and create new sources of funding, international university rankings are the utmost importance." (Probert, 2006) it is emphasized in this report that these changes are of great significance toward ensuring "greater strategic capacity within the Faculty." Probert (2006) relates two key changes which have been proposed and states them as follows:
1) the reduction in number of existing departments to ensure increased accountability and improved governance structures, and;
2) the creation of a Faculty Executive based on the Heads of School and key Associate Deans. (Probert, 2006)
There are two benefits from these changes noted and stated specifically is: "Growing Esteem requires us to work collaboratively as a Faculty in new ways (for example, in the management of the A, the improvement of the graduate student experience, development of Graduate Schools, multi-disciplinary teaching and research, as…
2007 BA Curriculum Review: Terms of Reference (2007) Faculty of Arts Renewal Strategy. The University of Melbourne. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/campus/curriculum-review/index.html
Considine, Mark (2007) Curriculum in the University of Melbourne Bachelor of Arts: Report of the Review Panel. 26 Sept 2007. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/campus/curriculum-review/D 'AgostinoReport.pdf
Draft for Consultation (2007) the University of Melbourne - Implementing the Melbourne Student Services Model. Proposed Staff Transition Processes. 7 Sept. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/staff/mssm/MSSM_staff_transition_process_consultation_DRAFT20070907.pdf
Melbourne Student Services Model (Student Services Hub) Implementation Project Reference Group (2007) the University of Melbourne. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/staff/mssm/reference-group.html
But later, Aquinas joined the two approaches of philosophy and theology to present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as the nemesis of Faith...Aquinas [claimed] that both were paths to a single truth: 'God exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy and reason in general were no longer seen as hostile to faith.
The Late Middle Ages was characterized by interest in anatomy, as is reflected in the more individuated representations of the human form in art as opposed to the anonymously authored and undefined figures in Gothic churches. Once again, the individual was valued in culture and in life. This was partly the result of economic improvements in agriculture such as crop rotation, the liberation of the peasantry from serfdom and their ties to the land, and the creation of urban centers of trade. "Many members of the nobility across Europe sought greater refinement of life. "Feudal lords…
Kreis, Steven. (2000). "Lecture 2: The Medieval World View." Lectures in Modern European Intellectual History." Last revised 16 Oct 2006. Retrieved 17 Jul 2007 http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture2a.html
Seaman, Gerald. (1996). "Literature and the Middle Time." Essays on Medieval Europe.
Retrieved 17 Jul 2007. http://eawc.evansville.edu/essays/seaman.htm
Waggoner, Ben. (18 Jan 1997). "Medieval and Renaissance Concepts of Evolution and Paleontology." UCMP: Berkeley. Retrieved 17 Jul 2007 http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/medieval.html
Changing the Status of Women
Status of Women
In order to properly address gender inequality in a country requires knowledge of the sources and the depth of discrimination. Legitimate indicators that capture various aspects of gender inequality are indispensable for informing and directing policy. Existing indicators tend to focus on gender disparities related to access to education, health care, political representation, earnings or income and so forth. The aggregate indices that have received the most attention are the United Nations Development Program's (UNDP) Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). The UNDP's Human Development eports regularly cover both for individual countries. The GDI is an unweighted average of three indices that measure gender differences in terms of life expectancy at birth, gross enrolment and literacy rates and earned income. The GEM is an unweighted average of three other variables reflecting the importance of women in society. They…
"Innovative approaches to promoting women's economic empowerment." (2008, September 25). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://content.undp.org/go/cms-service/stream/asset/?asset_id=2524504
Jutting, J., & Morrison, C. (2005). Changing social institutions to improve the status of women in developing countries. OECD Development Centre. Policy Brief No.27. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://www.oecd.org/dev/poverty/35155725.pdf
We parked in the Dolphin lot. The memories started to flood back. It had been years since I visited Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom. Only this time, I was not with my family. I wasn't with my parents, or even my brother. I was with two of my friends. We thought it would be a fun thing to do, go to Disney, trip the day away, see what it would feel like going as adults on our own. Not that it was cheap: the price tag really stung -- something I never had to think about when I was a starry-eyed little kid. As a teenager we stopped going to Disney World as a family. Probably because of the divorce, there was never enough time to take the family together on a fun vacation. It seemed like all we did was argue and do homework. This felt liberating, driving…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). U.S. Obesity trends. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html
White, E.B. Once more to the lake.
Wier, B. (2007). Denmark: The happiest place on earth. ABC. 8 Jan 2007. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=4086092&page=1#.T5k7xO19nww
Kotter's sequence: establishing a sense urgency creating a guiding coalition.
Change management: Best Buy's successful adoption of change
Change management: Best Buy's successful adoption of change
It is said that change is constant and the one constant in economic life is change. But despite the 'predictability' of change, the phenomenon of change resistance is another 'constant' in organizations. John Kotter in his book Leading Change offers an eight-step prescription to fight against change resistance, to create a positive environment that fosters change. The efficacy of Kotter's eight steps can be seen in Best Buy and its shift a results-only system of valuing employee's contributions, which stands in stark contrast to its previous attempts to institute change.
Establish a sense of urgency
At Best Buy, before adopting a results-only work environment, the organization was a "ferociously face-time place" (Smashing the Clock, 2006, Business Week). Burnout and attrition of high-quality…
Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Smashing the Clock. (2006) Business Week. Retrieved January 10, 2011 at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_50/b4013001.htm
Change Is Never Easy
One of the hardest things for any company to accomplish is graceful change. This is true for at least several reasons. The first is that change is psychologically difficult: Letting go of the known for the unknown, even when the unknown is likely to be a good deal better, can seem fraught with numerous perils. The other major reason that change can be so difficult for companies and other large organizations is that group enterprises require a relatively high level of stability and predictability to thrive. Even an organization that is composed of highly skilled, intelligent, and flexible people cannot change as quickly as can a single individual. This is simply too much inertia in the system and too many specific relational dynamics that have to be shifted for change to occur as quickly as can be the case with an individual.
That said, it remains…
However, this research does not stop at the idea that inertia exists as a powerful force in organizations; rather, after acknowledging the power of inertia, the authors moved past this idea (which does not account for the real and successful changes that can and do occur in a number of organizations) to incorporate "theories of organizational learning and innovation not found in the original formulation of structural inertia. The result is a broader model of inertia and momentum in organizations."
In other words, any sophisticated analysis of change must be able to account for the ways in which organizations resist change in the name of stability but also how they are able to overcome this inertia and actually effect change. One of the most important aspects of this piece of research -- and a strength that was in fact exhibited by CMIG -- is that organizations tend to resist change not out of weakness but because stability (which can here be seen as the counterpart to change) is valued by so many different stakeholders:
Hannan and Freeman's (1984) structural inertia theory offers a model of the process of organizational change that includes both internal and external constraints on organizational change. The first part of their argument addressed the probability of organizational change. They argued that organizations exist because they are able to perform with reliability and, if questioned, to account rationally for their actions. Reliability and accountability are high when organizational goals are institutionalized and patterns of organizational activity are routinized, but institutionalization and routinization also generate strong pressures against organizational change. Thus, the very characteristics that give an organization stability also generate resistance to change and reduce the probability of change. The second part of their argument dealt with the effect of organizational change on survival. They argued that because both internal and external stakeholders prefer organizations that exhibit reliable performance and because change disrupts both internal routines and external linkages, organizational change is hazardous. (Amburgey, Kelly, & Barnett, 1993).
According to Liao (2006), "The companies have entered into significant, long-term agreements that give Lenovo customers preferred access to IBM's world-class customer service organization and global financing offerings. This will enable Lenovo to take advantage of IBM's powerful worldwide distribution and sales network. Lenovo's customers are able to count on the entire IBM team - including sales, services and financing - for access to IBM's legendary end-to-end it solutions" (p. 3). In addition, pursuant to IBM's five-year contractual commitment, it will also provide Lenovo with warranty services and provide Lenovo customers with leasing and financing arrangements. According to Liao, "Through this long-term relationship, customers will receive the best products with the lowest total-cost-of-ownership" (2006 p. 3). Among the company's initiatives in this final phase of the change management process were additional efforts to further support their new dual business model. To this end, Lenovo upgraded its technology to work with…
About Lenovo. 2007. Lenovo: United States. [Online]. Available: http://www.lenovo.com/lenovo/us/en/ .
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They wanted to know the best places to go after work, and expected him to help them in that regard.
Hanes finally told his Japanese trainers "he preferred not to mix business with pleasure." ithin a couple days, the group requested another instructor. The critical issue here, one can quickly discern, is that Hanes did not do his homework on the Japanese business culture; if he had, he would know the Japanese are intensely committed to their work, on duty and off duty.
The "Miscue No. 2" involves Ray Lopez, top salesperson for his company who was fluent in Spanish; he was sent to Buenos Aires to make a marketing pitch to a distribution firm there. He arrived and was picked up at the airport and surprised to learn that the meeting had been postponed for two days "...so that Ray could rest after the long trip" and also have…
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6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).
Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity
There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.
On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…
A religious portrait of African-Americans (2009) Retrieved from http://pewforum.org/A-Religious-Portrait-of-African-Americans.aspx
Department of health and senior services New Jersey. (2011).
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In this instance, the stronger culture can easily consumer the lesser culture. Employees tend to be more receptive due primarily to the lack of culture and also by the prestige and power of the acquiring firm. Assimilation often occurs will smaller, less established companies being acquired by much larger competitors. As the company is just beginning to emerge, many culture qualities have not become entrenched. Assimilation however, is very rare in the context of mergers.
What is a more common strategy is that of deculturation. This is due primarily to the fact that employees usually resist organizational change, particularly when they are asked to throw away personal and cultural values. Under these conditions, some acquiring companies apply a deculturation strategy by imposing their culture and business practices on the acquired organization. The acquiring firm strips away artifacts and reward systems that support the old culture. People who cannot adopt the…
Interviews with company leadership and project team leaders, when they can be identified and have availability for such interviews, will also be conducted along the same lines, though with more purposeful and direct questioning regarding their desires for progress in project management and their view of organizational culture and structure.
The research proposed herein will build on current understandings of project management, enhancing the current body of literature by taking a comprehensive view of leadership styles, organizational culture, and organizational structure as they relate to project management. The broad scope and qualitative nature of the proposed research will ensure that it reliability and validly describes the very human situations that the research will encounter, leading to effective recommendations for organizational behavior and for future research.
Cheng, M.; Su, C. & You, H. (2003). "Optimal Project Organizational Structure for Construction Management." Journal of construction engineering and management 129(1), pp.…
Cheng, M.; Su, C. & You, H. (2003). "Optimal Project Organizational Structure for Construction Management." Journal of construction engineering and management 129(1), pp. 70-9.
Cheng, P.; Partington, D. & Qiang, M. (2009). "Cross-Cultural Understanding of Construction Project Managers' Conceptions of Their Work." Journal of construction engineering and management (135(6), pp. 477-87.
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The change leader should feel confident about the change if decision criteria are driven by impartial and objective considerations and his position is based on organizational, mission, vision and strategies. Then leader should try to convince all employees on objective and factual grounds while also taking care of their emotional issues. If leaders do not behave well and control their own emotions then employee morale gets affected. "Most executives do a good job of communicating a strong sense of urgency to effect change and move people out of their comfort zones. This often launches a flurry of activities in the right direction to start with. However, sustaining the quality and level of activities is a different ball game. For the abstraction that is called business, it requires more than organizational structure, incentives and job descriptions to have a multitude of people work in a concerted manner towards a common objective…
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