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ith the implementation of technology allowing these works to be mass produced mechanically, they are fully engrained within the popular culture of a society as well as the idea of high Culture, (51). Therefore, millions of people believe that these pieces, which they will never be able to obtain in real life, still represent a part of the larger culture which dominants their life.
This strange structure of the cultural hierarchy of estern Culture represents the idea that our society will never stray to far from its roots of class domination based on controlling the society through controlling the means of production. Rather than control the general population through sheer force, estern societies have instead chosen a route of hegemony, in which they control the mind of the individuals within the society. This control ensures the survival of the underlying class divisions and conflicts, while still presenting a united front…
Benjamin, Walter. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." Media and Cultural Studies: Keyworks. Durham, Meenakshi Gigi & Kellner, Douglas (Eds.). Blackwell Publishers. Pp. 48-70. 2000.
Horkheimer, Max & Adorno, Theodor. "The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass
Deception." Media and Cultural Studies: Keyworks.. Durham, Meenakshi Gigi & Kellner, Douglas (Eds.). Blackwell Publishers. Pp. 71-101. 2000.
Marx, Karl & Engels, Friedrich. "The Ruling Class and the Ruling Ideas." Media and Cultural Studies: Keyworks.. Durham, Meenakshi Gigi & Kellner, Douglas (Eds.). Blackwell Publishers. Pp. 39-42. 2000.
Frankfurt School is group of German-American theorists, 1920s-30s -- first neo-Marxiann theorists to examine the effects of mass culture/consumerism on working classes: they consist primarily of Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Leo Lowenthal and Erich Fromm
Devised theory of "culture industry" -- mass communication, media production -- the industrialization and commercialization of culture under capitalist relations of production: Hollywood, basically
The School noted the social and ideological effects of mass media in the U.S.
Mass-media productions exhibited same features as other mass-produced consumer items: commodification, standardization, massification
Popular media/culture resulted in populace control
Dialectic of Enlightenment (1948) (by Horkheimer and Adorno): film, radio, news -- all controlled by advertising and commercial imperatives, and served to make consumers slaves of consumer capitalism
The School generally makes sharp distinctions between high and low culture
Ideology forms the basis of media culture
Adorno stressed the need to examine television's effects on many…
In this briefing new employee human resources, we will be considering cultural management issues in the tourist industry and how they impact upon our business. Our company, Beach Bum Ltd. is a travel consultancy Agency which was recently hired to provide a critical analysis on whether or not sustainable tours can attract American ecological tourists to travel to countries such as Tanzania and Namibia. We are a culturally eclectic group of advisors specialising in all aspects of tourism. Cultural sensitivity is not only our watchword, but our bottomline. Please do not feel overwhelmed by all of this information. Some of you may feel as though you are back in college. est assured, the difference between profit and bankruptcy in our business is the ability to sell in that person's culture. People like to feel important and an acknowledgement of their importance is not just being nice. It is also…
Reference: Managing an International Workforce . San Francisco: Pfeiffer. p65-67.
Hofstede, G, and Hofstede, GJ (2004). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 2nd ed. New York: New York. P16-17.
Kwintessential.co.uk. (2011). Intercultural Training and the Expatriate Assignment. Available: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/cultural-services/articles/expatriate-intercultural-training.html . Last accessed 24 Nov 2011.
Thomas, D (2003). Readings and cases in international management: a cross-cultural perspective . Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. p17-18.
Wang, X and Wall, G. (2002). Cultural Tourism: an Assessment of Marketing Strategies in Dalian, Nanjing and Hainan, China. Available: lin.ca/Uploads/cclr11/CCLR11-163.pdf. Last accessed 24 Nov 2011.
As ai (2012) points out, just a generation ago, women had far fewer options in India. Even when they attended college, their job prospects were low and they were more frequently diverted to family life and domestic servitude. Now, increasing numbers of Indian women are empowering themselves through the IT services industry. As much flack as outsourcing receives in the United States, the truth is that Indian women are largely the beneficiaries, while Americans are being increasingly challenged to discover creative ways of contributing to the economy. Social norms in India for women differ greatly from those in the United States, where it is much easier for a woman to start a business and avoid marriage and childbirth. In India, a woman is steered in the direction of motherhood at an earlier age and could be socially shunned if her path seems more career-focused than family focused. In many…
Lewis, M. (2013). Population bomb? So wrong. Retrieved online: http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/conservation-and-development/population-bomb-so-wrong/
Mukherjee, S. (2013). South India lags behind national fertility rate, slows population boom. The Times of India. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/South-India-lags-behind-national-fertility-rate-slows-population-boom/articleshow/19249154.cms
Rai, S. (2012). How outsourcing is boosting prospects for Indian women. CNET. Retrieved online: http://news.cnet.com/8301-10797_3-57428450-235/how-outsourcing-is-boosting-prospects-for-indian-women/
Yasmin, S. (2013). Outsourcing to India: How call centers improve local economies. Elan. Retrieved online: http://www.elanthemag.com/outsourcing-to-india-how-call-centers-improve-local-economies/
Interviews with company leadership and project team leaders, when they can be identified and have availability for such interviews, will also be conducted along the same lines, though with more purposeful and direct questioning regarding their desires for progress in project management and their view of organizational culture and structure.
The research proposed herein will build on current understandings of project management, enhancing the current body of literature by taking a comprehensive view of leadership styles, organizational culture, and organizational structure as they relate to project management. The broad scope and qualitative nature of the proposed research will ensure that it reliability and validly describes the very human situations that the research will encounter, leading to effective recommendations for organizational behavior and for future research.
Cheng, M.; Su, C. & You, H. (2003). "Optimal Project Organizational Structure for Construction Management." Journal of construction engineering and management 129(1), pp.…
Cheng, M.; Su, C. & You, H. (2003). "Optimal Project Organizational Structure for Construction Management." Journal of construction engineering and management 129(1), pp. 70-9.
Cheng, P.; Partington, D. & Qiang, M. (2009). "Cross-Cultural Understanding of Construction Project Managers' Conceptions of Their Work." Journal of construction engineering and management (135(6), pp. 477-87.
Gillard, S. (2009). "Soft Skills and Technical Expertise of Effective Project Managers." Issues in informing science & information technology education 6, pp. 723-9.
Hudson, V. (2007). "The human touch." Industrial Engineer 29(9), pp. 40-4.
In this instance, the stronger culture can easily consumer the lesser culture. Employees tend to be more receptive due primarily to the lack of culture and also by the prestige and power of the acquiring firm. Assimilation often occurs will smaller, less established companies being acquired by much larger competitors. As the company is just beginning to emerge, many culture qualities have not become entrenched. Assimilation however, is very rare in the context of mergers.
What is a more common strategy is that of deculturation. This is due primarily to the fact that employees usually resist organizational change, particularly when they are asked to throw away personal and cultural values. Under these conditions, some acquiring companies apply a deculturation strategy by imposing their culture and business practices on the acquired organization. The acquiring firm strips away artifacts and reward systems that support the old culture. People who cannot adopt the…
The major concern is the effect of violence, due once again, to studies that show a connection between watching violence and participating in it. For example, Bushman and Anderson (2002) conducted as study in which they determined that playing violent video games can "engender hostile expectations, leading one to expect that others will respond aggressively" (p. 1679).
The Grand Theft Auto series of video games has undoubtedly been a major instigator in the backlash against the gaming industry. Not surprisingly, most parents are not too thrilled about the idea of their children taking on the persona of a character who commits crimes to earn rewards, and runs over prostitutes so he doesn't have to pay them. There was also a major parental backlash against the PS2 game Bully before it was released, because parents assumed that it would glorify bullying. The frenzy turned out to be unfounded as the game…
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679 -- 1686.
Gunter, B., Harrison, J. & Wykes, M. (2003) Violence on television: Distribution, form, context, and themes, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Rekulak, J. & Spangler, B. (2006) Let's Paint the '90s, Quirk Books
6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).
Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity
There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.
On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…
A religious portrait of African-Americans (2009) Retrieved from http://pewforum.org/A-Religious-Portrait-of-African-Americans.aspx
Department of health and senior services New Jersey. (2011).
Dowd, K. (1996). Dietary patterns and physical activity among New Jersey adults. Center for health Statistics 1(3):1-4.
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).
One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…
Dahlberg, J. (2008). Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research .
Galician, M. (2004). Sex, Love and Romance in the Media: Analysis and criticism of the unrealistic portrayal of women in mass media. Lawrence Elbaum Associates.
Gammel, I. (1999). Confessional politics: Women's self representations in life writing and popular media. Southern Illinios University Press.
Hall, a.C. (1998). Delights, Desires and Dilemmas: Essays on Women and the Media. Praeger Publications.
CULTURAL Characteristic FOUR: Hospitality. An essential part of the Uzbek cultural heritage is hospitality. The country is located at the crossroads where trade routes pass through opening up the door to Central Asia. Many villages had oasis facilities and so caravans passing through would stop and use the hospitality of people in small villages where there was water, shade and rest. The "Silk Road" runs right through Uzbekistan. The hospitality that was shown to these caravans was in the form of safety from the dangers of the road, a place to sleep, food and water for the camels, hot tea, food, and graciousness, according to Central Asian Cultures.
The route through Uzbekistan is called the Silk Road because on many of the "complex overland routes gained their name from the most famous of luxury items" to pass through -- and that was silk (www.centralasiacultures.com/silkroad). It was not just silk…
Adams, Laura L. (1999). Invention, Institutionalization and Renewal in Uzbekistan's National
Culture. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 2(3), 355-373.
Central Asia Cultures. (2010). Uzbekistan -- Uzbek Culture, Customs and Traditions. Retrieved June 4, 2010, from http://www.centralasiacultures.com/uzbekistan .
Djumaev, Alexander. (2005). Musical Heritage and National Identity in Uzbekistan.
Culture of Germany
Germany has a very unique culture that is shaped both by medieval realities, Cold War politics, and modern day success. Before becoming a country, Germany was made up of dozens of small fiefdoms or princeling states, territories that were German speaking but controlled by local municipal cities. Germany as a country did not exist formally until 1871 when the Prussian Kingdom defeated France, and became united with Bavaria and the West German states to form the German Empire. Otto Von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm II were the leading forces behind the unification of Germany, and with the unification of Germany came great success and a rebalancing of power in Europe. The success of Germany at the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century led to power struggles that split Europe into two, causing the start of World War I in 1914. (German…
Consumption, Society and Culture
There are two social processes which are linked with each other and provide the basis of popular culture in modern capitalist societies. These two processes are related with production and consumption of cultural goods. In the first step, the commodities are produced in the light of customers' desirable features and packaged in culturally acceptable methods. In the second step, the products are used by their respective target markets as status symbols to satisfy self-esteem needs. The identification of the target market as a considerable portion of society is largely based on its presentation in fine arts particularly TV programs, music shows and films (Benjamin, 1968).
Social system is a comprehensive study, whose knowledge is mandatory to understand the popular culture. Artifacts represent the cultural symbols, yet these artifacts are strongly influenced by the taste and choice of professionals and cultural elites. There are many…
Adorno, Theodor W., "Art, Autonomy and Mass Culture," in Art in Modern Culture: An Anthology of Critical Texts, ed. By Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris (New York: Icon Editions, 1992), 74-79.
Adorno, Theodor W., Critical Models; Interventions and Catchwords, trans. By Henry W. Pickford (New York: Colombia University Press, 1998).
Adorno, Theodor W., "The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture, " (London: Routledge, 2001).
Adorno, Theodor W. et al., The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row Publications, 1950).
Zhenshi, Guo " Playing the Game by the Rules" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Zhengrong, Hu (2004) the Post-WTO Restructuring of the Chinese Media Induistries and the Consequences of Capitalism." Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Fong, Chien-san (2004) "It is Legitimate to Imagine China's Media as Socialist?"
Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Ampuja, Marko (2004) "Critical Media Research, Globalization, Theory and Commercialization" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
rants, Kees (2003) "Auditing Public roadcasting Performance: Its Theory and Practice" Javnost -- the Public Vol.10 No.3 November 2003.
McQuail, Denis (2003) "Public roadcasting: oth Free and Accountable" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Media Shakeup: Public What Readers Want or Perish" (2004) China Daily News [Online] located at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003/09/02 / content 260549.htm
Feng, Chien-san (2004) "Is it Legitimate to Imagine China's Media…
Zhenshi, Guo " Playing the Game by the Rules" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Zhengrong, Hu (2004) the Post-WTO Restructuring of the Chinese Media Induistries and the Consequences of Capitalism." Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Fong, Chien-san (2004) "It is Legitimate to Imagine China's Media as Socialist?"
Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Adorno's theories on mass culture and commoditization were one of the fundamentals of postmodernism as it appeared in the 20th century. Even if rejected by many, nevertheless, his theories help explain some of the cultural phenomenon, such as the success of the American type culture, with its Hollywood movies and McDonald culture, against the traditional European one.
The tango dance is one of the most representative forms of manifestation of the Argentinean spirit and people. orn in the mid-1800s, tango was quickly exported to Europe and became a true success story, until its downfall in 1955. It was reborn in 1983 and has been a success ever since.
Investigating Adorno's theories and applying them in the case of tango, we may wonder whether this is the best example we may choose to argument the truth in Adorno's statements. Indeed, while on one hand, tango can be considered an element of…
1. Watson, Ben. THEODOR ADORNO & MASS CULTURE. Goldsmiths College. October 1995. On the Internet at http://www.militantesthetix.co.uk/adorno/twaprimer.htm
2. Theodor W. Adorno. On the Internet at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/adorno/
3. Watson, Ben. THEODOR ADORNO & MASS CULTURE. Goldsmiths College. October 1995. On the Internet at
Popular culture defines what is desired by any given sociological group based on pressure by peers. Every moment of the day, we are saturated by culture. hen we turn on the television, not only are we watching the programs but we are inundated by advertisers trying to convince the viewer that there is some new product that needs to be purchased or a new movie that needs to be seen or a new service that is essential to the happiness of the consumer. On the Internet, each inquiry provides banner headlines where we are also bombarded with advertisements and attitudes. Similarly, there are billboards and ads on cars and radio commercials while we drive to and from work. It is characteristic of a capitalistic society that so much of our culture has to do with the consumption of goods and services (Yar, Lecture 2, slide 2). Everywhere someone or something…
Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 2: Popular Culture, Ideology, and Capitalism: Critique of the 'Culture Industry'"
Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 3: Reading the Popular: Culture as a System
Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 5: Popular Culture and Gender Identities"
Popular Music and Identity
Sound Clash-Popular Music and American Culture
Identifying through music is fantastic and creates social movements. People find music to be liberating, relaxing, and calming. Identifying oneself through music a person is able to have direct experiences in their body. This allows a person to place them self in an imaginary cultural narrative. Popular music has been analyzed as though it is a classical composition, which makes the analysts neglect the improvisational and performative aspects of popular music. Analyzing how audiences respond to popular music and how they identify with this kind of music is vital. This would allow people to better understand how different people identify with certain popular songs. Theodor Adorno viewed popular music as a culture industry, which is designed to appeal to society by creating a false need for entertainment. Simon Frith views popular music as a complex world where that values and…
Adorno, Theodor W, and George Simpson. On Popular Music. Institute of Social Research, 1942. Print.
Frith, Simon. "Music and Identity." Questions of cultural identity (1996): 108-27. Print.
Hill, S., and B. Fenner. Media and Cultural Theory. London: Bookboon. Print.
culture workplace. (This include, necessarily limited, fellow employees,
Culture plays a vital role in the workplace in contemporary times. Most organizations have their own respective cultures, as well as do individual industries, countries, parts of countries, and even different parts of the world. All of these varying cultures and sub-cultures come together in the workplace environment, and make for some interesting interactions -- not all of which are beneficent. I have had a number of different interactions with individuals who were part of cultures that are not innately my own, and have always come away with them by gaining a degree of didactic knowledge that sheds insight into future situations of intercultural activity.
Industry specific culture is one that is difficult to assess -- or even to necessarily prepare for -- without fully emerging oneself into it. For instance, when I attended my first data governance conference last winter, I…
Your PowerPoint Slide, Chapter 3 Slide 9. I don't have the rest of the reference.
culture is playing on international business. This is accomplished by comparing cultural traditions of elgium and South Africa using Arcelor Mittal. Once this occurs, is when we are able to understand how the firm is able to utilize these factors to give them an advantage in the global marketplace.
Over the last several years, globalization has been having profound impact on firms. What has been happening is corporations, have been seeking out those areas that can provide them with the lowest costs. This is part of an effort to increase productivity and their overall profit margins. As a result, a variety of different firms have been establishing operations around the world to deal with these underlying challenges. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the fact that 47% of American and European companies are outsourcing some aspect of their operations. (Sears, 2009) This is important, because…
About. (2011). Arcelor Mittal. Retrieved from: http://www.arcelormittal.com/index.php?lang=en&page=9
Belgium. (2011). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/be.html
Belgium. (2011). KWI Essential. Retrieved from: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/belgium-country-profile.html
Financial Highlights. (2010). Arcelor Mittal. Retrieved from: http://www.arcelormittal.com/rls/data/upl/658-4-0-ARC_FB10.pdf
In addition, stratification contributes to cultural determinism, which again, alludes to when a person's position or class within a stratified society determines their culture, what kind of labor they will have the opportunity to have, what quality of education they may have access to, and other aspects (or limitations) of a particular culture.
When social stratification becomes too extreme and tensions within a culture rise too high, there is a distinct possibility for cultural differentiation. This occurs in societies where the tensions and imbalances are apparent and transparent. In many countries, such as the United States, the media helps to minimize class imbalances. The media is often used as an institution that will communicate and distribute the dominant ideology and specific hegemony. Hegemony is a form of social control and ideology is the greater societal structure of which hegemony is a tool or strategy. Hegemony may is often skewed or…
Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations, 4th Edition. Chapter 3 -- Understanding Race and Culture. Print. Provided.
Although the general public is not likely to know what semiotics is the concepts that have been used by the cultural study known as semiotics have been used by advertising and marketing professionals for a number of years. Through the use of semiotics such professionals have successfully used the information and techniques suggested through semiotics to manipulate the consumer culture so that certain products are now considered to represent style, success, and power in modern society. Semiotics, which is simply, the study of signs and their impact on life, is not a recognized science but incorporates many of the same techniques in defining its studies and recommendations. egardless of its acceptance as a legitimate educational discipline, semiotics has successfully transformed modern culture through its use by advertisers and marketers. It has allowed manufacturers such as Burberry and Gucci to become not only leading clothing manufacturers but also cultural icons. Cultural…
Ahuvia, A.C. (1998). Social criticism of advertising: on the role of literary theory and the use of data. Journal of Advertising .
Beasley, R. (2002). Persuasive Signs: The Semiotics of Advertising. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.
Fox, I. (2010, September 15). British fashion industry now worth nearly 21 Billion Dollars a year. Retrieved August 28, 2011, from Guardian.co.uk: http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2010/sep/15/british-fashion-industry-report-business
Gers, D. (2009, October 14). Social Climbing: Luxury Fashion Brands Must Embrace Social Media. Forbes .
industry companies historically competed maintain a significant share marketplace. These include: Coca-Cola Pepsi-Cola, Apple Microsoft, GM Ford Motor Company, - pair competitors. rite a (3-4) page paper: 1.
Apple and Microsoft are currently two of the most successful corporations on earth and in spite of the fact that they tend to direct their attention toward similar products it is intriguing to observe that they use different strategies in order to achieve goals that are basically the same. One might be inclined to consider that the two companies are extremely different because one sells hardware while the other sells software. However, when considering that they are concerned about putting across the same message considering innovation and that both company are currently actively involved in playing an important role in helping people become mobile, it appears that they are actually very similar.
One of the biggest differences between Apple and Microsoft in…
Edson, J. (2012). Design Like Apple: Seven Principles For Creating Insanely Great Products, Services, and Experiences, (John Wiley & Sons)
GadChick, (2012). Apple Vs. Microsoft: The Innovation, the Power, the Epic Nerd Catfight!. BookCaps Study Guides.
Hill, C.W., and Jones, G.R. (2011). Essentials of Strategic Management. Cengage Learning.
Hughes, N. The One Thing That Separates Apple From Microsoft. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from the Business Insider Website: http://www.businessinsider.com/apple-covered-in-37-posts-in-one-day-microsoft-3-heres-why-2011-6#ixzz2ZglB0lPT
As a result, what could be a solid expose on how cultural art forms have been misappropriated becomes a spurious, although interesting piece. Intellectual property and the laws surrounding it are indeed direct products of the Western European culture in which we live. Therefore, it is only natural that the laws of such a society would reflect its cultural ideals. Moreover, Coombo fails to account for how it would be possible to protect collective cultural expressions, many of which are universal symbols such as those from nature. Coombo also fails to offer any clear examples of how artistic forms have been misappropriated from the "ritual contexts" she refers to. The Crazy Horse example is a clear-cut and understandable example to support Coombo's argument, and the article would be strengthened had the author offered more. The article can serve as a good springboard for sociological research studies and investigations into means…
culture of a country is likely to affect an individual's business practices including the distribution of its products within the country and outside, the production process and configuration of a product, and other business operations that contribute to the business growth and output. Cultures determine the different ways in which people behave and mostly in business.
'Knowing about the cultural circumstance of your country or foreign country where you wish to transact your business, can either help you prevent making mistakes that will affect your business.' (Hill, 2004) To do this, the paper chooses to focus it's analyzes on China's culture as the country of target and its implications to the business operations.
China has truly emerged as a country with great business opportunities and with a huge potential for economic growth. ith an improved international relations, a robust economy, and increased foreign investment doing business in China is quite…
Charles H, & Trompenaars. (2003) F: Riding The Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business: New York. Ivey publisher
Cateora, P.R. (2007). Strategic International Marketing: New York. McGraw-Hill Education
Cannon, M. (2003). Understanding Global Cultures: New York. Sage Publications
Hill, C. (2004). International Business Competing in the Global Market Place: New York. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
The regulations are necessary to the extent they reduce externality likely to about from the merger. There is also concern that the government may incur a higher cost in paying for unemployment benefits which necessitates it regulations in mergers.
Provision of market activity
Other than the above two likely reasons for government involvement, the government may have non-economic reasons. Such activities include the national security which is a public good which is related to welfare. The government intervene in market activities so that they can provide welfare commodities and products that otherwise cannot be provided for under the market mechanism. The provision of public goods such as defense and security is only possible through government interventions. Government regulations and interventions ensure that society does not miss production of welfare commodities that the market cannot produce.
Cultural Identity Promotion
This includes aspects such as sustaining productive capacity, producing for the future…
Deardorff, Alan V., & Jackson, J.H. (1993). "Problems of Regulating Economic Activity in a World of Increasing Interdependence, . New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ginsburg, Martin D., & Levin, J.S. (1989). Mergers, Acquisitions and Leveraged Buyouts. Commerce Clearing House.
Marks, & Lee., M. (2003). Charging Back up the Hill: Workplace Recovery after Mergers, Acquisitions, and Down-sizings. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Review of Saudi Arabia
Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.
These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western…
Adjustment to a new environment or culture with unfamiliar people is often marred by significant challenges, one of which is culture shock. Culture shock is the confusion and anxiety that arises when one is exposed to unfamiliar social surroundings that are noticeably different from their own (Anjalin, Mazumdar, & Whiteside, 2017). Students, expatriates, and business people who move from one culture to another are at risk of experiencing culture shock, and need to cope with the same to enhance their performance. This text outlines some of the coping strategies that an expatriate moving to a foreign country could adapt to manage culture shock.
An expatriate has received a promotion that requires him and his family to transfer to another country to run operations in that country. The country is not only third-world, but has different cultural norms and speaks a different language. It would be prudent to identify…
Anjalin, U., Mazumdar, A., & Whiteside, E. (2017). Asian Students’ Experience of Culture Shock and Coping Strategies. Journal of Education and Social Development, 1(1), 7-13.
Chen, M. (2019). The Impact of Expatriates’ Cross-Cultural Adjustment on Work Stress and Job Involvement in the High-Tech Industry. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1), doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02228
Kim, J., Suh, W., Kim, S., & Gopalan, H. (2012). Coping Strategies to Manage Acculturative Stress: Meaningful Activity, Participation, Social Support, and Positive Emotion among Korean Immigrant Adolescents in the USA. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Health and Well-Being, 7(1), doi: 10.3402/qhw.v7i0.18870
Rempel, J. N. (2011). Coping Strategies for culture Shock as Indicators of Cultural Identity. Anthro Journal. Retrieved from https://anthrojournal.binghamton.edu/wp-contentuploads/2011/05/COPING-STRATEGIES-FOR-CULTURE-SHOCK.pdf
Smith, A. (2019). Helping Expatriate Employees Deal with Culture Shock. Society of Human Resource Management (SHRM). Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/summer2019/pages/helping-expatriate-employees-deal-with-culture-shock.aspx
As a result, not only are foreign markets changing to adapt to the Chinese marketplace needs, the Chinese marketplace, and consumer, are likewise adapting and changing to meet the needs of the global market. For instance, the economic boom in China's urban areas is creating a new consumer culture where the consumer has more disposable income to work with. This itself has effected consumer preferences and patterns within the Chinese marketplace. The general result is that a more sophisticated Chinese consumer is emerging and foreign companies need to market to their sophisticated needs while at the same time marketing to the general population's needs.
Therefore, the most effective way for a company to build a strong brand name in the rapidly emerging Chinese market is to adapt itself to the rapidly changing Chinese culture. To do this, it is important that the foreign company create a local presence and thus…
Apadu, K., and Sevgin, E. (1991): "Success and Failure of Japanese Companies' Export Ventures in High-Tech Industries," International Marketing Review. Vol. 8, No. 2, p.p. 66-76.
Armstrong, E. (2002): "Communication's Starring Role and Standard Chartered Bank," Strategic Communication Management. Vol. 6, No. 4, p.p. 10-13.
Ayala, J. And Lain, R. (1996): "China's Consumer Market: A Huge Opportunity to Fail?," McKinsey Quarterly, No. 3, p.p. 56-72.
Ayala, J., Lai, R. Mok, B. et. al. (1996): "Winning China's Consumer Market in the 21st Century," McKinsey Quarterly, No. 2, p.p. 178-181.
In the discussion of cultural forces, we identified 10 fundamental person values that are often listed by individuals as central to them and the American culture. How would you rank these values in terms of their relative importance to you? What was the basis for your selection of the top three ranked values?
Ethics help in defining proper and improper behavior and these set of standards show what comportment is tolerable and intolerable. A few characterizations of proper and improper may be contingent on the viewpoint deliberating matters of principle. 4 essential forces affect ethical conduct of persons and administrations: culture, lawful and supervisory, structural and singular. To begin with, cultural values tend to become the mainstay of ethical decision-making and comportment.
Normally, persons change their beliefs to their life conditions. They promote the significance they attribute to beliefs they can freely achieve and relegate the significance of…
(2009). Retrieved from mathermerketing.com: http://www.mathermarketing.co.uk/how-not-to-go-it-alone/some-examples-of-joint-ventures.php
Adeel, A. (2012). Ethical Communication in an Organization. Islamabad: Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
Amadeo, K. (2011). Trade Policy. Retrieved from USeconomy.com: http://useconomy.about.com/od/tradeterms/g/Foreign-Direct-Investment-FDI-Definition.htm
Blagdon, J. (2013, March 06). Retrieved from The Verge: http://www.theverge.com/2013/3/6/4073354/samsung-boosts-lobbying-spend-by-500-percent-in-2012
Gender in Post-Communist Society
Consider the differences between gendered behavior in the Czech Republic and the U.S.A.… which socio-historical factors affect the Czechs' present-day gender identity and gender issues?
Men are respected as the stronger sex and this determines the way they relate women. A Czech has a striking mixture of firm attachment to the labor market and strong family values, considerable independence and personal efficiency. The women are homemakers and breadwinners. They are also able to command attention. Another interesting part of the Czech gender roles is that love outweighs work. For example, more women devote their time to care for their children at home unlike before and make considerable efforts in finding husbands (Delphy & Leonard, 175).
I noticed that Czech women are nicely dressed in order for them to find husbands while the men act chivalrously in order for them to find wives. Many women abandon their…
Nanette Funk and Magda Mueller, "Feminism East and West," Gender Politics and Post-Communism. Reflections from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union,(1993) New York and London, Routledge, pp. 318-330.
Berger, John. "Ways of Seeing. London": BBC Penguin Books. pp. 129-154. 1977
Beauvoir, Simone de, "The Psychoanalytical Point-of-View," pp. 49-61. (2010). In the second sex New. York: Vintage Books
Delphy, Ch. And Leonard, D. "The Variety of Work Done by Wives," in (eds.) Jackson, S. And Scott, S. G Gender: A Sociological Reader. New York: Routledge. pp. 170-179.2002
United States is a large nation that is presently facing a multitude of problems. For many Americans the most important of these problems is the plight of the workforce and the unemployment rate among that workforce. The importance of this problem is reflected through the result of opinion polls conducted by a number of the country's leading pollsters. Displacing concerns with the economy as the nation's number one problem, the fact that unemployment now ranks as the primary concern highlights how serious unemployment has become in the United States. It indicates that the American workforce is eager to get back to work.
The unfortunate thing about the present unemployment figures is that they do not reflect the seriousness of the present situation. The figures do not reflect those who have ceased seeking employment, those working in positions below their capabilities, and those working two or three part-time jobs in order…
Autor, D. (2006). The Growth in the Social Security Disability Rolls: A Fiscal Crisis Unfolding. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Ayton, M. (2007). Conspiracy Thinking and the John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Assassinations. Retrieved from http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ayton2.htm
Meyer, D.S. (1994). Social Movement Spillover. Social Problems, 277-298.
Perraton, H. (2000). Open and Distance Learning in the Developing World. New York: Routledge.
Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: Gender in Criminal Justice
Since the criminal justice field was founded in the 20th century, it has increasingly focused not only crime and what causes it but also on the ways in which crime is perceived, perpetuated and altered in perception over time. While women have played a pivotal role in advancing a variety of other disciplines, from literature to business management to psychology and so on, in the field of criminal justice there is a considerable skew towards male dominance of the discipline. For example, as Fahmy and Young (2017) show, more studies on criminal justice are published by men than by women—and women, when they do conduct research and publish academic papers in the field, most often publish with other men. In fact, their “increasing co-authorship has led some to claim that the intellectual contributions of females may be devalued, systematically putting them at…
Clothing and Culture
Clothing, in the modern definition, is considered to be fiber or textiles that are worn on humans, and one of the anthropological features of human culture and society. The type (color, style, fit) of clothing is typically dependent upon a number of variables -- geography, weather, gender, status, physical state, work activities, and even status symbols. From a practical standpoint, clothing serves as protection from external weather, or for safety reasons (constructing, cooking, hiking, sports); it may protect the wearer from flora and fauna (nettles, bites, thorns); it may insulate against hot or cold conditions; and may even provide a hygienic barrier. Often, studying the aspects of clothing and society tells scholars a great deal about the particular culture -- not just in external appearance but in the technology of textile production, weaving, and adornment (oucher & Deslandres, 1989).
Evolution of Clothing Styles: Scholars are uncertain as…
Blum, S. (Ed.). (1982). Eighteenth-Century French Fashion Plates. New York: Dover Publications.
Boucher, F., & Deslandres, Y. (1989). 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York and London: H.N. Abrams.
Delpierre, M. (1997). Dress in France in the 18th Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Doyle, W. (2001). The Ancien Regime. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Adult Day Care Industry
ABC Adult Day Care will be a mid-sized company, which will provide adult day care services to the residents of Boston. This mid-sized adult care facility will serve adults aged fifty years and above. It will provide community-based day health services for the elderly and disabled. Services offered include living assistance, nursing, therapy, meals, and social activities. Their services will be secure and safe, presenting the elderly with an excellent place where their caring services will be met. ABC Adult Day Care will be a privately held organization headed by its founder, Ben Stevenson. Mr. Stevenson has extensive experience in strategic business planning. His advanced knowledge and interest in business are the driving force behind his business. A few employees who have extensive experience in adult care fields will support the daily operations of the facility. With the rising rate of inflation, many American families struggle…
Bryan, C.J., & Rudd, M.D. (2011). Managing suicide risk in primary care. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
Cooper, P.D. (2010). Health care marketing: A foundation for managed quality. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers.
Davis, C. & Lynn, J. (2010). Start your own senior services business: Adult day-care, relocation service, home-care, transportation service, concierge, travel service and more. Irvine, Calif.: Entrepreneur Press.
Fitzpatrick, J.J., Glasgow, A., & Young, J.N. (2013). Managing your practice: A guide for advanced practice nurses. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
The world is more interconnected now than ever before, both with technological tools and also with population migrations that are occurring on an unprecedented scale. People who grow up in pluralistic, heterogeneous societies like the United States, India, or Canada take cultural diversity for granted. However, many people around the world live in homogenous societies with little contact with other cultures other than through what they read about or see in media. Plurality in a diverse society does not, however, automatically lead to social harmony or understanding. In fact, the United States continues to struggle with racist elements in its own society. Places like India that have for centuries been pluralistic also have problems with xenophobia. Discrimination, stereotyping, and suspicion create innumerable psychological and social problems, which can be remedied simply by changing attitudes and norms. Therefore, it is always important to reiterate the need for cultural literacy and cultural…
Southwest Airlines Organizational Culture
Analysis of Organizational Culture at Southwest Airlines
Application of the OCP Framework
Developing Organizational Culture at Southwest Airlines
Implementation of Organizational Culture
Organizational Culture as an Important Determinant of Organization's Success
Southwest Airlines is a world renowned air travel company and a low cost leader in airline industry of USA. Formed in 1971 by ollin King and Herb Kelleher, the company is committed to "providing highest level of customer service with pride and caring" to its varied market segments ranging from leisure travellers to freight transportation. The two most important stakeholders for the company are its employees and its customers. Southwest Airlines owns 520 different types of aircrafts and serves 411 cities and 63 million customers at 59 airports in 30 different states within the United States with its nonstop air travel service (Southwest Airlines Inc., 2010).
The major reason for company's 35 years of phenomenal…
Aguinis, H. (2009). Performance Management. Upper Sadle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Bailey, J. (February 13, 2008). Southwest. Southwest Way. New York Times, Business.
Box, T.M. (2009). Southwest Airlines 2007. Journal of the International Academy of Case Studies Vol. 15, 21-27.
Erdogan, B. & . (2010). Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational Behavior. Flat World Knowled Organizational Culture . Flat World Knowledge.
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36 [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Many countries developed their own automobile industries, and did so in order to create jobs, for national security reasons, and simply because shipping cars overseas was impractical for much of the 20th century. This paper will look at three major automobile manufacturers, one each from Europe, Japan and America, to examine the differences and similarities between them. Each company evolved differently, and did so on the basis of both national culture and in terms of the markets in which they operated. The companies studied are Ford, Hyundai and Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi. The latter makes a nice case study because it is a French-Japanese firm, one of the biggest and most powerful transnational automakers, but a model that if successful might be replicated increasingly in the future.
American automakers are depicted both as monolithic giants, and as dinosaurs at the same time. It is only grudgingly that international press talks about…
National Culture and elated Theories
This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the cultural diversity and its impact on the organizational performance and management practices. The paper includes a methodical analysis of the influence of culture on operational performance of an organization and the working patterns of individuals. A logical criticism has also been done on the relevant theories and concepts that are widely practiced in the business world.
Cultural diversity refers to the differences of cultural backgrounds, religious beliefs, social norms, races, and other dimensions among individuals. Cultural diversity is widely seen in large societies and multinational organizations. Due to its importance in today's challenging and complex business environment, organizations are giving more focus on managing cultural diversity in their workplaces. A number of research studies have been conducted which explain the importance, challenges, and issues of cultural diversity for business organizations. The most important studies are conducted in…
Collings, D.G. 2012, International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices for Multinational Enterprises. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23 (7): 1509-1511.
Dowling, P.J., & Welch, D.E. 2008, International Human Resources Management: Managing People in a Multinational Context. 5th Edition, London: Prentice Hall
Fischer, R., & Poortinga, Y.P. 2012, Are cultural values the same as the values of individuals? An examination of similarities in personal, social and cultural value structures, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 12 (2):157-170.
Gopalan, S., & Stahl, A. 1998, Application of American Management Theories and Practices to the Indian Business Environment: Understanding the Impact of National Culture, American Business Review, 1 (1): 33-38.
Navajo Culture: Primary Modes of Subsistence
The Navajo currently stand as the largest federally recognized tribe of the United States of America. The Navajo Nation manages the Four Corners eservation in the Southwestern United States. They continue to speak their native Navajo language. Modern Navajo Society resembles other American communities in many ways. It derives its present income sources through taxation of its people, casinos, banking, and other sectors. This research will focus on traditional and ancient forms of subsistence in society on the Navajo reservation at Four Corners.
Subsistence and Commercial Activities
It is difficult to determine subsistence in ancient times as few records exist. During the reservation period, which began in 1868 and ended in 1960, farming and animal husbandry were the primary forms of economic activity. The Navajo also produced several goods for traders (Alessi, 1980). As the fabric of American society grew, opportunities for…
Carmean, K. (2002). Spider Woman Walks this Land: Traditional Cultural Properties and the Navajo Nation. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press,
Dempsey, P. & Gesse, T. (1995). Beliefs, values, and practices of Navajo childbearing women. West J. Nurs Res. Dec;17(6):591-604.
Denetdale, J. (n.d.) We Shell Remain -- The Dine. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from http://www.kued.org/productions/weshallremain/pdfs/WSRDenetdaleInterview.pdf
Van Sickle, D., Morgan, F. And Wright, A. (2011). Qualitative Study of the Use of Traditional
Intra-Industry International Trade
Standard trade theory and its deviations
The classical theory of international trade can be traced back to the founding father of capitalism Adam Smith: Smith's 1776 Wealth of Nations theorized that free trade would be beneficial to all nations. Smith stated that much like merchants, nations should specialize in the particular goods and services which they could produce most efficiently and trade with other nations who could produce alternate goods and services equally efficiently. Thus free trade resulted in advantages for both trading parties. Smith's theory was later fleshed out by David icardo in his Principles of Economics. iccardo stated that free trade could optimize efficiency for every country on a global level by reducing the inefficiencies generated by the excess resources involved in producing the goods and services the nation was not suited to produce (Sen 2010: 2).
This common wisdom remained relatively consistent…
Agglomeration economies. (2013). Economics Help. Retrieved from:
Carlton & Perloff. (2010). Strategic trade. Modern Industrial Organization (4th ed). Pearson.
Retrieved from: http://wps.aw.com/aw_carltonper_modernio_4/21/5566/1425036.cw/content/index.html
Levine centers on popular culture and how it is an adequate mechanism in comprehending Depression America. The writer attempts to get away from austere adjective labels as often as possible. He notes that while culture may not be seamless, it is integrated or connected. The piece asks for the reader to re-evaluate a long history of preconcevied notions and images that prevent the serious study of popular culture. The image of the strictly docile, non-aggressive mass audience and the endless amount of consumption defines pop culture in the eyes of academics. Popular culture is percevied as purely formulaic.
The idea that popular culture was and still is "escapist" and the concept that popular culture is not considered to be cutting edge on knowledge or style creates the belief it is not an art form or does not represent art. ut what is popular culture? Popular culture is in its simplest…
1 Brookover, Sophie, and Elizabeth Burns. Pop Goes the Library: Using Pop Culture to Connect with Your Whole Community. Medford, N.J.: Information Today, Inc., 2008.
2 Danesi, Marcel. Popular Culture: Introductory Perspectives. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.
3 De Groot, Jerome. Consuming History: Historians and Heritage in Contemporary Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 2009.
4 Foster, George M. "What is Folk Culture?." In American Anthropologist, 159-173. 1953.
Knowledge Management Titan Industries' Knowledge Management
Titan Industries' Best Practices in Knowledge Management
The ability of Titan Industries to attain best practices so rapidly in their Knowledge Management (KM) implementation illustrates how effective this strategic initiative can be in unifying business managers and Information Technology processors to a common objective. Global outsourcing leader Tata Information Systems is the subsidiary that owns Titan, so it is understandable how a very high priority was placed on KM planning, implementation and success. What makes the success of this KM initiative all the more remarkable was the scale it was attained on. Titan is operating with over 100+ departments, 1,550+ users and over 100 diverse and often desperate business processes to coordinate. This is a daunting project even by Tata Information Services standards.
Titan's Success with KM: An Analysis and Assessment
Titan was able to successfully integrate tacit and implicit knowedlge stored in both…
Gao, F., Li, M., & Clarke, S. (2008). Knowledge, management, and knowledge management in business operations. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(2),
Goel, A., Rana, G., & Rastogi, R. (2010). Knowledge management as a process to develop sustainable competitive advantage. South Asian Journal of Management, 17(3), 104-116.
Randeree, E. (2006). Knowledge management: Securing the future. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(4), 145-156.
Ringel-Bickelmaier, C., & Ringel, M. (2010). Knowledge management in international organisations. Journal of Knowledge Management, 14(4), 524-539.
Music on American Culture and Values
Over time, music has molded the American culture and its values in a variety of ways. In this text, I will highlight the various ways in which both music and radio have shaped American values and culture. In so doing, I will identify my favorite genre/type of music in an attempt to highlight the impact the music I listen to has had on American culture and social behavior.
How the American Culture and Its Values Has Been Shaped by Music and adio
In the words of Eldridge (2008), "by the close of the 1930s, twenty-eight million households (and seven million cars) boasted at least one radio set, with most tuned-in to a network or local station for an average of five hours a day." In that regard, it would be correct to point out that radio has played a critical role in the growth…
Bob & Hanger, J. (2012). The Silent Generation: 1925 -- 1945. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.
Eldridge, D.N. (2008). American Culture in the 1930s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Keith, M.C. (2008). Radio Cultures: The Sound Medium in American Life. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
Bookselling Industry in Japan
Individual Integrative Case Study: The Japanese Bookselling Industry
This paper focuses on the Japanese Bookselling industry. Under this, it analyzes two successful firms, Bookoff and Amazon. These firms overcome the implications of Saihan Systems using unique ways, making them to achieve a competitive advantage over other firms.
There is a reduction in the number of firms in the bookseller retailing industry in Japan. This is because of many reasons. First, the Saihan System, which makes it mandatory for publishers to fix prices of books before selling them to the retailers. The effect of this rule is that large retailers no longer push other firms out of the industry due to price.
Despite the imposition of Saihan System on the bookselling industry in Japan, both Bookoff and amazon have overcome its implications. The two are doing so through use of unique methods making them have competitive advantage…
Amazon japan may sell other firms' goods. (2006, Jul 27). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/399005127?accountid=35812
By Yumiko Ono and, Masayoshi Kanabayashi. (2000, Jun 22). Focus on japan: A special background report on trends in industry and finance. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/398738784?accountid=35812
IPO profile: Bookoff corp. (2004, Mar 05). Jiji Press English News Service. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/448498097?accountid=35812
McClure, S. (2001). Japanese labels retain right to set prices. Billboard, 113(14), 3-3. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/227152099?accountid=35812
marketing industry introduces people to the belief that they need to acquire a specific product because of this or that benefit. As a result of the marketing campaign, people may start developing a feeling of want, allowing themselves to be convinced that the product in question is imperious for their well being. It is through these strategic techniques that people's perceptions are influenced. And it is because of such strategies that, more than in one occasion, people end up purchasing products they don't really need. However, in certain circumstances, it just so happens that an advertisement meets people's needs and, as a result, the circumstances have created relevant opportunities. In this essay, the key words are need, want, and opportunities which we will be addressing in terms of concepts and strategies. We will provide specific examples to substantiate our research.
Consumer behavior is dependent of a multitude of factors that,…
It was irresponsible for banks to operate from a position of absentee management, and the careless ownership enabled reckless conduct from their "agents" who ran the day-to-day operation. While some blame must be placed on the public for continuing to spend at outrageous rates, the bank itself promoted and enabled such activity. Blankfein's argument that no one had been arrested is irrelevant since the issue at hand is whether the financial industry was responsible, not whether bank officials should be arrested. Banks made profound miscalculations concerning interest rates and loans, and should have been aware that their business practices were not feasible toward long-term success (Murphy).
Issue 7 places the theories of authors oger Lowenstein and obert Samuelson against one another. Lowenstein contends that government should bail out economic institutions; however, he does not argue that bailouts are necessary in order to assist the careless companies, but instead asserts that…
Newton, L., Englehardt, E., & Pritchard, M. (2012). Taking Side: Clashing Issues on Business Ethics and Society. New York: McGray Hill.
Murphy, a. (Nov. 4, 2008). An analysis of the financial crisis of 2008: Causes and solutions. SSRN. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1295344 .
Andrews, E.L. (2008, Oct. 23). Greenspan 'shocked' that free markets are flawed. International Herald Tribune.
Assembling Southern Appalachian Belief Culture from the Foxfire Archive
This project looks at the belief structure of people in the Southern Appalachian mountains as recognized through the Foxfire archival project, documentary evidence and artistic interpretation. Through an examination of belief systems it is believed that unique cultural aspects of this isolated group of people can be determined. The Foxfire project is an archive that documents how the people lived prior to the mass introduction of outside influences that happened concurrent to the ability of residents to electrify their houses which occurred from approximately 1935 and into the 1950's. Prior to this time the residents of these southeastern mountains were isolated due to the remoteness of villages, and they were able to remain relatively self-contained even though some sections were being encroached by industry. The belief systems in this examination include religion and healing, but mainly relate to how…
Breton, Andre. Nadja. New York: Grove Press, 1960. Print.
Cheek, Angie, and Lacy Hunter Nix. The Foxfire 40th Anniversary Book: Faith, Family, and the Land. New York: Anchor Books, 2006. Print.
Cohen, Margaret. Profane Illumination: Walter Benjamin and the Paris of Surreal Revolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995. Print.
De Caro, Frank. The Folklore Muse: Poetry, Fiction, and Other Reflections by Folklorists, Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2008. Print.
Introduction to Cultural Differences
It is obvious that differences in cultures are very important, though these differences are difficult to handle. The failure to understand and appreciate that differences in cultures bring variety to lifestyles leads to embarrassment, uneasy relationships, and failed businesses. Culture permeates both life and death. Take, for instance, the high rate of plane crashes in Korea from the year 1970 to 2000. The discovery made from the analysis of the black boxes from the crashed planes show that the flight engineers and the co-pilots in the cockpits carry out actions only in deference to the captains. Even at the wake of the possibility of a crash, the flight engineers and the co-pilots rarely made suggestions that would go against the good judgment of the captains.
In this presentation, culture is seen as a shared system of values, beliefs, assumptions and projections which are imbibed…
Agar, M. (1994). Language Shock: Understanding the Culture of Conversation. New York: Quill.
Aggarwal, R., Kearney, C. And Lucey, B. (2009). Gravity as a cultural arteface: Culture and distance in foreign portfolio investment.
Argentina mental health (2009). Its GDP Is Depressed, but Argentina Leads World in Shrinks Per Capita. Wall Street Journal. Accessed from: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125563769653488249.html
Benassy-Quere, A., Coupet, M. And Mayer, T. (2005). Institutional Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment. CEPII Working Paper No. 2005-05.
The first installment of the Iron Man franchise can be analyzed in the context of whether it either reaffirms or criticizes mainstream culture. Indeed, the film does a bit of both. The movie script itself as well as the underlying method and motives of the filmmakers and actors in terms of how the film is being marketed and portrayed potentially irrespective of what is being asserted directly in the movie itself will also be assessed.. Iron Man and films like it play a two-sided game of both glorifying and condemning ideas that are political and ideological in nature but often does so in a way that is not even-handed or is otherwise not grounded in reality.
Iron Man Observations
hat is clear straight away with the interactions and the developments surrounding Tony Stark (Downey) and Obadiah is that the movie is making a statement about corporate greed and…
Fisje, John "The Cultural Economy of Fandom," pp. 30-49, in Adoring Audience
Friday, Kirster "A Generation of Men Without History": Fight Club, Masculinity, and the Historical Symptom," Postmodern Culture 13:3 (2003),
Henry A. Giroux and Imre Szeman, "Ikea Boy Fights Back: Fight Club, Consumerism,
IKEA Organizational Culture
Strong and Weak Sides of Organizational Culture
Impact of Internal and External Factors
Leadership and Organizational Culture
Employees and Organizational Structure
IKEA Organizational Culture
Every organization has a unique culture that dictates how things are done -- it defines the organization's social and psychological behavior. Though there is no universally agreed definition, organizational culture essentially refers to the values, beliefs, attitudes, assumptions, principles, habits, and customs shared by members of a given organization (Schein, 2010). These behavioral aspects constitute the distinctiveness of the organization (Jain, 2005). Indeed, organizational culture can be an important source of competitive advantage for an organization as it determines its strategic orientation, personnel management approaches, and other aspects of organizational behavior (Schein, 2010; Mullins & Christy, 2010). One organization that has built a distinctive organizational culture is IKEA, a Swedish multinational firm involved in the designing and marketing…
Browaeys, M., & Price, R. (2008). Understanding Cross-cultural Management. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Clarke, L. (n.d.). Corporate culture of the heart. Retrieved from: https://inside.6q.io/ikea - corporate-culture-of-the-heart/
Geert-hofstede.com (n.d.). Country comparison. Retrieved from: https://geert- hofstede.com/sweden.html
Grol, P., & Schoch, C. (2010). IKEA: Culture as competitive advantage. CPA, Paris Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved from: http://www.efbl.org/upload/7730963-Strategijski- menadzment-Studija-slucaja-IKEA-2010-12-16.pdf
The Balinese seem to be coping with the tourist invasion as well as they have coped with others, that is they are taking what they want, but they are not allowing themselves to be any the less Balinese. This appears to have been the story throughout Bali's history, outside cultures came, perhaps as conquerors, perhaps only as visitors and traders, but Balinese society and culture have remained distinctive, accepting outward forms, but molding them to its own different purposes." (Pickard, 1996)
These insights are showing how the changes in tourism are having an effect on Bali by developing the industry. However, for most local residents, they are maintaining their basic cultural traditions. This is despite the fact that there are added pressures to continually adopt these practices (in spite of the transformations). (Pickard, 1996)
However, many local officials feel that an influx of tourism is having an adverse impact on…
Bali Weather and Climate. (2011). Indonesia Point. Retrieved from: http://www.indonesiapoint.com/tourist-attractions/bali/bali-weather.html
Botetar, R. (2012). The Beauty of Bali is under Pressure. ABC News. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-01-05/over-development-of-bali-feature/3760496
Fiegenbaum, E. (2012). The Impact of Tourism in Bali. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_7195825_impact-tourism-bali.html
Hitchcock, M. (2009). Tourism in Southeast Asia. Copenhagen: NAIS.
Unintentional Appropriation in Cultures
The cultural appropriation concept of using another culture's symbol, genres, artifacts, rituals, or technologies, as per Rogers is just inescapable when two of them had to meet at a certain point of time. This includes both the virtual as well as the representational contacts. Such appropriations involve in exploiting the marginalized and colonized cultures and help in the survival of subordinated cultures. Their resistance to dominant cultures is also quite visible. According Rogers, the definition of cultural appropriation is the association of one culture to another and ends their own culture. This imitation or borrow tactic might have been done unintentionally to deconstruct or distort one's culture and this is a form of appropriation. [footnoteRef:1] [1:. Ibid., 476]
We can even say that the Cultural appropriation as an active process that represents the meaning as 'taking'. However, cultural appropriation does not include the mere exposures to…
Finley, Taryn. 10 Times Black Culture Was Appropriated In 2015. December 16, 2015. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/10-times-black-culture-was-appropriated-in-2015_us_566ee11de4b011b83a6bd660 .
McLeod, L. Poppy. Nice Day for a 'White' Wedding: The Problem With Whiteness in Bridal Magazines. July 23, 2016. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://www.theroot.com/articles/culture/2016/07/nice-day-for-a-white-wedding-the-problem-with-whiteness-in-bridal-magazines .
Nittle, K. Nadra. What Is Cultural Appropriation and Why Is It Wrong? November 14, 2016. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://racerelations.about.com/od/diversitymatters/fl/What-Is-Cultural-Appropriation-and-Why-Is-It-Wrong.htm .
Rogers, Richard A. "From Cultural Exchange to Transculturation: A Review and Reconceptualization of Cultural Appropriation." Communication Theory, Vol 16, Issue 4 (November 2006): 474 -- 503. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2006.00277 .
culture in an organization using Southwest Airlines as a model. It uses Geert Hofstede Four Dimension of Culture to analyze the company and provides an over view of how the company's policies enable it to secure a top position in the industry. It uses 5 sources in MLA Format.
Globalization has changed the way people do business today. Factors like strategies, resources or capacity to produce has become secondary to business agendas. Instead today businesses and businesspeople are more concerned with how they can achieve the maximum productivity and prosperity through alliances. These alliances often span far and wide, pilfering to foreign cultures. Often the alliances prove beneficial to the companies because of observation and approach companies take to deal with partner company's culture. On the other hand there are also cases where the alliances have resulted in losses because partner companies fail to understand each other's culture. For instance…
Ioannou, Lori. Herb Kelleher, Interview: The Best of Herb Kelleher: Southwest's Ceo Says He Succeeds in Business by Putting Staff Needs First and Making Work Fun. Your Company, 08-01-1998, pp 66+.
Author not available. Fortune 5 Hundred: Can Anyone Replace Herb? [Southwest Airlines No. 339] Kelleher's manic stamp is all over Southwest. If he goes, what happens to its famous culture?, Fortune, 04-17-2000, pp 186+.
Yung, Katherine. From David to Goliath: Southwest struggling to stay true to culture in the face of growth., the Dallas Morning News, 12-26-1999, pp 1H.
It should be pointed out, however, that many of these issues exist for women in developed countries such as the United States.
Voices from Iran, however, also looks at aspects of Iranian women's power and influence, an issue that often receives little notice with Western scholars and activists. Iranian wives, the interviewees point out, possess a great influence over their husbands, giving them great power within their families. Among younger generations, women have made strides towards amassing greater social capital, through institutions such as education.
More than fifty percent of new college admissions, for example, are female students. After the Islamic Revolution (1978-1979), and the following war with Iraq, female college graduates began to enter emerging businesses and industries. Many women, for example, enter the publishing industry, open private medical clinics or enter artistic fields such as film. Younger women have turned to writing and graphic design. This influx has…
This polarization of different groups is likely to carry over into the classroom: socio-economic disadvantages often translate into economic disadvantages. If one population is more represented in higher-level classes this can foster prejudice. High-performing minority students may feel uncomfortable if they make up an even slimmer majority in their honors and AP classes.
The segregation in the business indicates how on an adult level there is even more community division. Students are to some extent 'forced' to be in a diverse environment in public schools while adults are not compelled to do so and the shopping throughout the city exhibited relatively homogenous patterns between the dominant composition of the neighborhoods, the owners of the shop, and the shoppers.
However, the high levels of education in the community and the changing population suggest that a more diverse and multicultural perspective is possible, provided there is greater political will within the school…
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Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…
UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].
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There are many different pathways to success for companies, and as a result successful organizations can have distinctly different cultures. This paper will examine a couple of different companies – Southwest Airlines and Koch Industries, to examine their different cultures, and how those cultural differences have emerged, and support the overall business objectives of those two organizations.
Culture of Southwest Airlines
The Southwest Airlines culture is one of the more celebrated organizational cultures in business. The company is based around \" A warrior spirit, a servant\'s heart and a fun-loving attitude.\" A focus on fun-loving is more to the day-to-day, as the servant emphasis, but the warrior heart showcases that employees at Southwest are expected to rise to the challenges that they face, and overcome obstacles in their service (Makovsky, 2013).
These values are even reflected on the company website. For example, this month the Star of the Month…
This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.
Polley and ibbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and ibbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).
Polley and ibbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high…
Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.
Amason, A.C., Thompson, K.R., Hochwarter, W.A. And Harrison, A.W. (1995). Conflict: an important dimension in successful management teams. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 20-35.
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Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2), 199±218.
"Social messages sent by clothing, accessories and decorations can invoke social status, occupation, ethnic and religious affiliation, marital status and sexual availability etc."
4.2 Product innovation and technological changes
The rapid rate of technological development set the course of development in numerous other domains, including apparel. In this order of ides, the technology adherent to the apparel production process is on its path from computer made designs to technologically improved materials' quality. For example, future directions in the apparel industry involve "more types of fiber developed using nanotechnology or smart clothes that incorporate electronics."
4.3 Marketing innovation
The main characteristic of current trade and production is that the items tend to focus more and more on the customers' needs and desires. Apparel producers are today faced with the difficult task of combining the publics' needs with a high quality of work and material as well as with the latest fashion…
October 2001, Contracts and Modifications by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Codes, Manufacturing NAICS Codes,
Fratto, M.G., Jones, M.R., Cassill, N.L., 2006, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Volume 10, Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, October 2006, Apparel, article was last modified on October 26, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparel , last accessed on October 31, 2006
October 2006, Apparel Resources, Exim News, Sri Lanka: Apparel Exports to U.S. Show 9.5% Increase, http://www.apparelresources.com , last accessed on October 31, 2006
administered a culture survey (e.g., the OCI) to all store employees (a.k.a. "crew members") and management, do you think espoused culture as described by management would match the culture expressed by the employees? Why or why not?
I think it likely that the espoused culture as described by the management of Trader Joe would match that expressed by the employees as a whole since, as the article indicates, employees receive intensive training during which they are likely imbued with culture expectations on n overt and covert level. More so, Trader Joe has its culture explicitly delineated and customer service is emphasized. The employee of Trade Joe who wishes to retain his or her position - and who does not given the attractive compensation, the difficulty in retain a job today, the opportunities 'at the end of the tunnel' and Trader Joe's fun and positive working environment -- would seek to…
Bloomberg Business week "Twenty Best Companies for Leadership http://images.businessweek.com/ss/10/02/0216_best_places_for_leadership/17.htm
Solomon, M. (2010) Exceptional Service, Exceptional Profit: The Secrets of Building a Five-Star Customer Service Organization, Solomon, Amacom Books (New York)
Twitchell, J. (June 16, 2009) upstart to $1 billion behemoth, Zappos marks 10 years. Las Vegas Sun.