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Curriculum and Instructional Leadership:
A commitment to life-long and self-directed learning is essential for effective learning-centered curriculum and instructional leaders. These leaders need to have a deeper understanding of the way students learn and their level of learning. In most cases, effective instructional leaders are extremely committed and involved in both curricular and instructional issues that have a direct impact on student accomplishment ("What is Instructional Leadership?" 2005). Currently, efficient school leadership must combine the traditional leadership duties like evaluation, scheduling, maintenance of facilities, and budgeting with an increased engagement with particular teaching and learning aspects. The creation of a professional learning environment in which students constantly improve their knowledge and skills requires an understanding of how they learn. Consequently, curriculum and instructional leadership plays a critical role in the process because leaders must put curriculum and instruction first ("Leadership Professional Development Policy," 2009).
History of Curriculum and Instructional Leadership:…
Chell, J (n.d.), Introducing Principals to the Role of Instructional Leadership, Saskatchewan
School Boards Association, viewed 17 May 2012,
DuFour, R (2002), 'The Learning-Centered Principal', Beyond Instructional Leadership, vol. 59,
no. 8, pp. 12-15.
One negative impact of ELL laws on curriculum development is presented in Education eek (Zehr, 2009). In schools with a small number of ELLs, "…first generation immigrant students do better academically if they aren't placed in an ESL class" (Zehr, p. 1). This may be true because ELLs aren't invited to access to mainstream "…core academic curriculum"; also, their counterparts that are in mainstream classes with no ESL available "do better academically than students who are put in ESL classes" (again this is only true in schools with few ELLs) (Zehr, p. 1). A positive impact vis-a-vis the benefits of SIOP for non-ELL teachers is that the SIOP protocol helps "distinguish teachers" (who work with the program) from other teachers with no experience in SIOP (ARCC).
THREE: How has the gifted educational movement impacted the evolution of curriculum development? Address both negative and positive impacts…provide examples.
For one thing,…
Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center. (2007). SIOP Implementation: NC Success Stories.
Retrieved August 13, 2013, from http://www.arcc.edvantia.org.
Cal Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. (2013). What is the SIOP Model? Retrieved
August 14, 2013, from http://www.cal.org/siop/about/ .
What policies should be taken into account for the curriculum design?
Institutional policies concerning the disciplines being offered should be taken into account (Keating).
Case Study #2: Philmore College
What parameters must the curriculum committee consider when designing the courses?
The design parameters that should be considered by the curriculum committee should include "all components (title, purpose, and description; outcomes, teaching-learning strategies, content, classes; opportunities for students to demonstrate learning and faculty evaluation of student achievement), and the relationships between and among them" (Iwasiw et al.).
In what way will a commitment to active learning influence course design?
As the term implies, active learning requires effort on the part of the educator as well as the learners in an intensive fashion. For example, Michael and Modell (2003) report that all active learning approaches "ultimately require students (the learners) to test their current mental models of the phenomenon…
Cook, P.R. & Cullen, J.A. (2003, July/August). Caring as an imperative for nursing education.
Nursing Education Perspectives, 24(4), 192-195.
Fontaine, K.E. Curriculum planning for degree nursing programs.
Iwasiw, C., Andrusyszyn, M.A. & Goldenberg, D. Curriculum development in nursing education. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Curriculum Change Plan Chart
Subject Area Targeted:
We are targeting Social Studies as a curriculum change. This change is designed to follow through the elementary levels through high school, to be integrated not just in a factual approach, but to reflect newer ideas surrounding critical thinking, vetting of sources, use of electronic data, and events that have occurred in the era of globalization.
Specific to this is the issue surrounding globalization. We must, in fact, prepare the study of today to be the global leader of tomorrow. Globalization, or the idea that there is increased cooperation (economic, political, social and cultural) between nations, contributes immensely to the idea of diversity management within the public and private sectors. This should not be surprising, since with the removal of trade barriers, organizational culture and the movement of employees and stakeholder expectations change as well. Global societies, thus global public management, is more…
Especially with the emphasis by the federal government on student performance with "No Child Left Behind," there exists an essential need for a well-educated and skilled curriculum specialist for school systems.
Excellent classroom presentation, facilitation, and management abilities.
Strong organizational and time management skills.
Ability to complete responsibilities in a professional environment with cross-functional teams, as well as an individual contributor.
Excellent verbal, written and interpersonal communication skills. Most important, providing full attention to what others have to say, taking time to listen to and understand points being made, questioning as appropriate, and only offering input when needed.
Facility in multi-tasking and handling high-pressured situations.
Capability to think proactively and strategically. This consists of applying logic and reasoning to identify the pros and cons of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
Mediation and negotiating.
PC capabilities including Microsoft Word, PowerPoint and database skills
Lord, M. "Leave no school behind: they're fighting for high-quality education. You can, too.(Parenting Special)." (2005) Essence (35)11: 190-196.
Thorton, S, & Houser, N. (1996) "Status of Social Studies Curriculum in Delaware."Center for Educational Leadership and Development College of Education, University of Delaware.
Summary Report for:25-9031.00 - Instructional Coordinators
According to the Education World Web site, the National tandards for Language Arts was created by the National Council of Teachers of English. The Language arts include reading, writing, speaking and listening skills. For the English language, the National tandards include building skills involving communication, critical thinking, and evaluation. The educational system is to provide students with a wider perspective not only of themselves, but also of the world in which they function.
Philosophically and socially this means an intercultural build-up of an educational basis that will help students not only cope with further educational demands, but also with life in general. uch standards are in keeping with the democratic principles of the country. In pragmatic terms, students are indeed given a much more equal basis of education than the case was in the past. On sociological terms, learning to handle language in both academic and non-academic contexts help learners…
California State Board of Education (1997, Dec). English-Language Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools. http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/elacontentstnds.pdf
Chiba, Susan (1992, Jan 8). A National Curriculum: Seeking Fairness for All. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/01/08/us/a-national-curriculum-seeking-fairness-for-all.html
Education World. (2009). National Standards -- English Grades K-12. http://www.education-world.com/standards/national/lang_arts/english/k_12.shtml
Robertson, Caryn. (1998, March 24). Correcting the Curriculum. Online News Hour. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/march98/education2.html
At which point, students who are enrolled in the program will begin to see improvements in their mental attitudes and achievement scores. (Lindhold, 2002)
However, there have been concerns that this program could often ignore Hispanic students who have trouble learning English. The reason why, is because a high percentage of Hispanic students have the highest dropout rates among all the different minorities. As a result, researchers found that Two Way Immersion programs help to improve the performance of Hispanic students who are English language learners. The reason why, is because these programs reach out to them from a cultural perspective and it has the students pledge, to remain in school. This is significant, because it helps to give these students direction and assistance. At which point, they will begin to perform better in school, changing their mental attitudes. (Lindhold, 2002)
The Strengths and Limitations of Two Way Immersion Programs…
Two Way Immersion Education. (1998). Tools for Schools. Retrieved from:
Lindhold, K. (2002). The Impact of Two Way Immersion on Students Attitudes Toward School and College. ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics.
Post-secondary education would benefit from a Pan-Canadian plan to assess the impact of e-learning initiatives.
It is important that instructional design match the goals and potential of e-learning.
Research is needed to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of such things as learning objects and multimedia applications.
Properly implemented computer mediated communication can enrich the learning environment; help reduce low motivation and feelings of isolation in distance learners.
E-learning appears to be more effective in distance education, where technology use is required than in face-to-face instructional settings. (Abrami, et al., 2006)
Implications for policymakers include the "effective and efficient implementation of e-learning technologies represents new, and difficult challenges to practitioners, researchers, and policymakers." (Abrami, et al., 2006) it will be further necessary that administrators of schools "balance the needs of all stakeholders, and the cost-benefit ratios of technology tools" not only in making decisions as to what technologies should be used…
Bedi, K and Lange L (2007) the Impact of Faculty Interaction on E-Learning at U21 Global - Some Preliminary Evidence. U21Global Graduate School for Global Leaders. March, 2007. Online available at http://www.u21global.com/PartnerAdmin/ViewContent?module=DOCUMENTLIBRARY&oid=157372
Abrami, Philip C. et al. (2006) a Review of e-Learning in Canada: A Rough Sketch of the Evidence, Gaps and Promising Directions. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology Vol. 32(3) Fall. 2006. Online available at http://www.cjlt.ca/content/vol32.3/abrami.html
The district must then serve as the interpreter of specific and global need for the district, based on its particular composition and the state where needed. (Koppang, 2004, p. 154)
Choose two of the eleven major functions as described in the Power point presentation and describe how these functions are instantiated in the Tempe document. Give examples to illustrate the ways that each function can be implemented. (I do not have this information)
Analyze how the functions are represented in the curriculum document for that district. Are the functions adequately implemented? Give reasons for your opinion. (I do not have this information)
Section 2 eferences:
Gross, P.A. (1997). Joint Curriculum Design: Facilitating Learner Ownership and Active Participation in Secondary Classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Koppang, a. (2004). Curriculum Mapping: Building Collaboration and Communication. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 154.
Tempe Union High School Curriculum Development Model. etrieved July…
Alaska Department of Education & Early Development: Mathematics and Science. Retrieved July 2007 at http://www.eed.state.ak.us/TLS/FRAMEWORKS/mathsci/ms4inst.htm
This assignment improved my understanding of curriculum development and the diversity that is seen across states and districts. I was particularly impressed with the information I gathered on individualized (campus based) curriculum development as it seems the most logical starting place for the development of meaningful curriculum. I also enjoyed learning about older theories that are being applied today to curriculum development and theory, i.e. Bruner and Tyler. Understanding the skills needed to assess and help implement curriculum, in need of change is essential to administration and even classroom skills, as process for curriculum development vary across the states and districts.
If I were to perform this task again I would like to further explore the primary documents associated with the theorists, and research a bit more about the history of curriculum development plans, before and after NCLB to better understand how curriculum development has changed and how the various states are implementing change. Lastly I would like to look more closely at secondary literature with regard to assessment of development standards, as I believe this would improve the material learning in this section. Some of the specific gorgon offered in the state curriculum planning documents was hard to understand, specifically Vermont, more time to look at a glossary would likely help.
Curriculum Trends in the Next 10 Years
For more than 20 years, curriculum and its accompanying emphasis on standards and accountability for learning have dominated the debate over improving education. Today, the controversy over how to provide equity in achieving the curriculum, how to achieve compatibility between equity and high standards, and what comprises a meaningful curriculum are increasingly commonplace and serve to focus attention on the performance and progress of all students in America (Pugach & Warger, 2001). The most common strategy that educators have used in the past to get students to learn and do the right things is to modify the curriculum. Unfortunately, this approach to curriculum development has been largely unsuccessful. While there is no crystal ball that will allow educators to look into the future to determine the direction of curriculum trends over the next decade, a critical analysis of the relevant literature will provide…
Childs, K., Clarke, S., Delaney, B., Dunlap, G. & Kern, L. (2001). Improving the Classroom
Behavior of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Using Individualized
Curricular Modifications. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9(4), 239.
Cuban, L. (1993). The Lure of Curricular Reform and Its Pitiful History. Phi Delta Kappan,
For example, to assess arithmetic, number and operations concepts, the measurable objectives used include the pupil being able to demonstrate an understanding of the relative magnitude of numbers, being able to accurately solve problems involving proportional reasoning and applying properties of numbers. These criteria would be assessed and supported through documentation as evidence. To assess the overall depth of knowledge of each pupil, the attainment of each measurable objective is compared to a standardized chart in order to assess the level of achievement reached (Department of Education, n.d.). The Department of Education Web site also supplies teachers supplementary materials which outline the required knowledge which must be demonstrated by the pupil to attain each measurable objective.
The materials meet the first aim of the strategic plan, as they are designed to promote high-quality instruction, in such a way as to improve student achievement. The provision of these materials is aimed…
Cuban, L. (1995) the hidden variable: How organizations influence teacher responses to secondary science curriculum reform. Theory Into Practice, 34(1), 4-11.
Department of Education (n.d.) Mathematics Grade Expectations: Depth of Knowledge Levels. State of Vermont Department of Education. Retrieved October 27, 2007, at http://education.vermont.gov/new/pdfdoc/pgm_curriculum/mathematics/resources/dok_levels.pdf .
Department of Education (2006) Strategic Plan 2006-2007. State of Vermont Department of Education. Retrieved on October 27, 2007, at http://education.vermont.gov/new/pdfdoc/pubs/strategic_plan_07.pdf .
Department of Education (2007) State Board of Education. State of Vermont Department of Education. Retrieved on October 26, 2007, at http://education.vermont.gov/new/html/mainboard.html .
Instead, the curriculum development responsibility is placed on the individual teachers, the majority who have less than two years of teaching experience. The result is that the teachers spent most of their time focused on such things as classroom management, that curriculum development is overlooked and no succinct curriculum is used in the school. This will cause problems as the students advance through the grades.
The Curriculum: No
As previously noted, the school is currently operating under numerous curriculums taken from various sources and therefore alignment is non-existence. At one level is the school district's mandated curriculum and testing that does not align with the theory of an expeditionary learning curriculum. On the other hand there is the lack of an aligned curriculum within the school. Instead teachers develop their own curriculum that is vaguely based on the expeditionary learning philosophy and simply provide assessment through the school district's procedures,…
English, F.W. (2000). Deciding What to Teach and What to Test: Designing, Aligning and Auditing the Curriculum (Millennium Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA.: Corwin Press, Inc.
Expeditionary Learning Schools Outward Bound. Homepage. www.elschools.org.
Hawley, Suzanne W. And Carolyn V. Spillman. Literacy and Learning: An Expeditionary Discovery through Children's Literature. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2003
What role do administrators and staff developers play in the curriculum design or revision process?
The governor of the state appoints members to the Florida State Board of Education. Some educational commissioners are elected locally by the public during general elections. This means that school administrators and staff developers play an indirect role in curriculum design and revision. The superintendents of school districts are also in charge of local variances in curriculum and instruction. For example, in Miami-Dade County, Associate Superintendent Milagros . Fornell addresses curriculum and instruction (Miami-Dade County Public Schools, n.d.). Staff developers and school administrators can and often do participate as consultants in the curriculum design and revision process.
What are the expectations related to who uses the curriculum that is developed and how the curriculum is used?
There are several expectations related to who uses the curriculum that is developed at both the state and…
Florida Department of Education (2012). Next Generation Sunshine State Standards. Retrieved online: http://www.fldoe.org/bii/curriculum/sss/
Miami-Dade County Public Schools (n.d.). Curriculum and instruction. Retrieved online: http://curriculum.dadeschools.net/
These two areas of the curriculum are equally important and thus should be treated that way. Both should have excellent programs for students so that they have an outstanding chance to succeed in both. The other area that the school needs to enhance is that of their theology curriculum. They appear to have a very good basic program but one that could be made even better with a little work. The idea of obtaining a religious-based education is to enable a student to do good things in the community with what they learn at school. The school needs to implement a program where the students could use what they are learning to give back to the community while learning how things in the real world work. The students should be given the opportunity to learn and grow by way of real world experiences, as this will only make them better…
Catholic Education. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.worcesterdiocese.org/schools/CatholicEducation/tabid/1085/Default.aspx
Hall, T., & Mengel, M. (2002). Curriculum-based evaluations. Wakefield, MA: National
Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/curriculum-based_evaluations
Kuehey, D., Morrison, J.Q., & Geer, C.H. (2009). A Professional Development Model for Math and Science Educators in Catholic Elementary Schools: Challenges and Successes. Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry & Practice, 12(4), 475-497.
The idea of community service was also involved. The students not only got to visit a nursery, they were instructed on the benefit of trees. After their visit to the nursery, the students participated in planting several trees throughout the community.
The basic concept of expeditionary learning is beneficial to the students. However, because the school is still tied to the district, they still must meet various standards and benchmarks. These standards and benchmarks often do not fit into the expeditionary learning curriculum, thus there is often a conflict of two competing curriculums. This does not benefit the students because they end up being stuck between the two and therefore do not get the benefit of the singular curriculum. Further, the general flow of the expeditionary learning curriculum is interrupted, and the main point of teaching the children self-learning and the concept of how everything is connected is lost.
Expeditionary Learning Schools Outward Bound. Homepage. www.elschools.org.
Hawley, Suzanne W. And Carolyn V. Spillman. Literacy and Learning: An Expeditionary Discovery through Children's Literature. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2003.
Outward Bound Staff. Roots. San Francisco: Outward Bound, Inc., 2000.
hen a group of individuals designed to be members of a sales force for a brick and mortar multinational business go 'back to school,' the curriculum philosophy, implementation and design of the firm will be by definition much, much different in its objectives than the aims of the curriculum of a local school district. The difference will not simply be in the age of the individuals, as many older people are becoming part of the nation's high school and community college graduates. Rather, the primary difference will be that the curriculum for the corporation must be praxis-driven, rather than simply designed to foster learning in the students. Customer service and retention and employee satisfaction and retention must be the prime objectives of such corporate training. Companies "use training to meet an ever-growing mix of strategic objectives. Significantly, nearly 60% use training to instill brand identity." (Vargas, 2005) The…
Fenton, Richard and Andrea Waltz. (2003) "Retail Industry: Sales Training and Selling Skills for Managers." About.com. Retrieved 21 Apr 2005 at http://retailindustry.about.com/library/uc/03/uc_apt3.htm
O'Toole, Barbara. (2005) "Orientation vs. Integration." Retail Sales.
About.com. Retrieved 21 Apr 2005 at http://humanresources.about.com/library/weekly/uc022601a.htm
Vargas, Andrea. (2005) "Management Skills Key Focus of Retail Training." About.com. Retrieved 21 Apr 2005 at http://retailindustry.about.com/od/education_training/l/aa010116a.htm
This, in a sense, will be a return to the original set-up of education in the United States. Originally, each school district was given the responsibility of implementing the needed educational reforms to meet their individual and unique needs. However, as the nation grew and became less and less agricultural based, the need for a national protocol became necessary. Yet, today our society is less similar than it was before. There are greater cultural and class differences between communities. For these reasons, in school reform measures need to be localized in order to properly meet these needs.
In conclusion, based on all the evidence found in the above cited reference materials, it is likely that in twenty years education will be based on addressing local needs and abilities. The federal government will play less of a role in implementing rules and regulations and instead the school boards will once again…
Deal, Terrence E., Kent D. Peterson. (1999): Shaping School Culture: The Heart of Leadership. New York: Wiley, John & Sons.
Eaker, Robert, Richard DuFour, Rebecca DuFour. (2002): Getting Started: Reculturing Schools to Become Professional Learning Communities. Washington, D.C.: National Educational Service.
English, F.W. (2000). Deciding What to Teach and What to Test: Designing, Aligning and Auditing the Curriculum (Millennium Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA.: Corwin Press, Inc.
Evans, Robert. (1996): Human Side of Change: Reform, Resistance, and the Real-Life Problems of Innovation. New York: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers.
Facilitating greater communication between faculty members
Faculty members must use one another as resources. More experienced teachers can mentor less experienced teachers to prevent other teachers from making the same mistakes that they did during their careers -- and so the new teachers can use proven techniques more effectively. Being exposed to new teachers and new teaching techniques will keep older teachers 'fresh' and 'on their toes' as well! A formal mentoring program for first-year teachers should be instated. Also, monthly staff meetings devoted to discussing problems with students, and creating effective solutions to educational challenges will enables faculty members to learn collectively from one another, old and young, and to identify students with special needs. Students who are gifted, challenged, or simply had family or behavioral issues would see their education improve because teachers who had these students from year to year could talk during those meetings and design…
Armstrong, Thomas. (2000). "Multiple intelligences." Retrieved 17 Mar 2008 at http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm
Good classroom teaching for all kinds of learners." Adapted from Carolyn
Olivier and Rosemary Bowler's Learning to Learn. Hello Friend: Ennis William Cosby Foundation. Retrieved 17 Mar 2008 at http://www.hellofriend.org/teaching/good_classroom.html#multisen
Means, Barbara. (1997). "Critical issue: Using technology to enhance engaged learning for at-risk students." North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved 17 Mar 2008 at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/atrisk/at400.htm
Tested curriculum is that which is taught in order to be assessed. One example of tested curriculum would be in spelling, where a child is given a list of spellings to take home and learn in preparation to be tested at some later stage. There is no other motive behind the curriculum other than for the child to learn the information presented (Cuban, 1995).
The hidden curriculum relates to the aspects of schooling which are implicit, such as aspects which produce changes in the students' values, perceptions and behaviors. These changes may be either desirable or undesirable, depending upon the behaviors and attitudes learnt. This has the power to affect an educational institution, particularly if the hidden curriculum produces undesirable effects in children (Glatthorn et al., 2006). For example in a school in which many of the children are perceived to develop worsening behavior and attitudes as they get older,…
Cuban, L. (1995) the hidden variable: How organizations influence teacher responses to secondary science curriculum reform. Theory Into Practice, 34(1), 4-11.
Glatthorn, a.A., Boschee, F. And Whitehead, B.M. (2006) Curriculum Leadership: Development and Implementation. London: Sage.
Goodman, C.A. (2006) Teaching manual communication to preservice teachers of the deaf in accredited comprehensive undergraduate teacher preparation program. American Annals of the Deaf, 151(1), 5-15.
Wilson, L.O. (2005) What are the Types of Curriculum? Wilson's Curriculum Pages. Retrieved on October 26, 2007, at http://www.uwsp.edu/Education/lwilson/curric/curtyp.htm .
The field of education has experienced significant reforms in the past decade because of the need for a standards-based, accountability-centered, and systematically-integrated approach for enhancing the quality and outcomes of learning (Porter & Smithson, 2001). As a result of these reforms and need, policymakers, researchers and other relevant stakeholders in this field have become interested in examining the curriculum delivered to students. This interest has primarily focused on the link between the taught curriculum and the intended curriculum. In light of this, curriculum alignment has emerged as an important aspect towards promoting the success of student learning and achievement of learning goals and objectives. In this regard, aligning the intended curriculum, taught curriculum, and learned curriculum is vital towards enhancing learning outcomes.
According to Seitz (2017), curriculum is defined as all courses offered at a school or the learning of students as directed by the school. Therefore, the intended curriculum…
Alberta Learning. (2002). Instructional Strategies. Retrieved November 15, 2017, from https://education.alberta.ca/media/482311/is.pdf
Drake, S.M. & Burns, R.C. (2004). Meeting Standards Through Integrated Curriculum. Retrieved November 15, 2017, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/103011/chapters/Using-Standards-to-Integrate-the-Curriculum.aspx
Porter, A.C. & Smithson, J.L. (2001, December). Defining, Developing, and Using Curriculum Indicators. Retrieved November 15, 2017, from http://www.cpre.org/sites/default/files/researchreport/788_rr48.pdf
Seitz, P. (2017). Curriculum Alignment Among the Intended, Enacted and Assessed Curricula for Grade 9 Mathematics. Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 15(1), 72-94.
Watermeyer, R. (n.d.). Curriculum Alignment, Articulation and the Formative Development of the Learner. Retrieved November 15, 2017, from http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/publications/ib-research/curriculumalignmenteng.pdf
Winn, J.A. (1994, February 1). Promises and Challenges of Scaffolded Instruction. Learning Disability Quarterly, 17(1), 89-104.
The curriculum unit selected in this regard is Interactive Fractions and Decimals.
Specifically, the teaching is expected to include multiplication and division of numbers between 1 and 100 and solving word problems.
Specifically, the standard that is taken into consideration in this analysis is:
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.4.1: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
Principle of Culturally Responsive Teaching
Current State of Curriculum Unit
Gaps Between Principles and Curriculum Unit
Recommendation for Improvement
Developing Positive and authentic relationships across differences and getting to know students, families, and communities are important to creating a classroom culture where students feel safe and supported.
Linking mathematics, culture and community and the different ways of accomplishing that take into consideration the cultural diversity of the students so as to come up with learning activities. Mathematical concepts of multiplication and division…
Caro-Bruce, C., Flessner, R., Klehr, M., & Zeichner, K. (Eds.). (2007). Creating equitable classrooms through action research. Corwin Press.
d’Entremont, Y. (2015). Linking mathematics, culture and community. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 2818-2824.
Krasnoff, B. (2016, August 02). Culturally responsive teaching: A guide to evidence-based practices for teaching all students equitably.
Rimm-Kaufman, S., & Sandilos, L. (2018). Improving students\\' relationships with teachers. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/education/k12/relationships.aspx
Shade, B. J., Oberg, M., & Kelly, C. (2004). Creating culturally responsive classrooms (Updated reprint). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Common Core Standards have been established in the field of education as a set of objectives for students to accomplish by the conclusion of their school year. These standards are geared towards enhancing students learning and outcomes through shaping curriculum. In addition, standards must serve as the foundation for a productive, balanced assessment system. This assignment focuses on unpacking a standard, creating a table of test specifications, and developing a curriculum map for a unit of study to demonstrate the alignment of assessment, curriculum, and assessment. In this case, the researcher utilizes Pennsylvania’s Standard 8.3.12 and focuses on Civil Rights in History class for high school students.
Part 1 – Unpacking a Standard
The Pennsylvania Department of Education has established Common Core Standards for different subject areas, grade level, and content area. For this assignment, PA’s Standard 8.3.12 will be utilized for a History class for high school students with…
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2002, July 18). Academic Standards for History. Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Education website: http://www.stateboard.education.pa.gov/Documents/Regulations%20and%20Statements/State%20Academic%20Standards/E%20HISTORY%20web03.pdf
The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was designed by the Obama Administration in response to many of the criticisms about excessive federal control of the nation’s school systems under the strictures of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). States are still required to have high standards, in the words of ESSA, but these standards do not have to adhere to Common Core standards, although states are free to ensure that they do so (Klein 2016). According to Education Week, while states still have to get accountability plans approved, states under ESSA have now been given considerably more flexibility in setting goals for themselves, to allow for greater differentiation in student ability on a state-by-state basis. There are still a number of specific areas that state plans are bound to address, including proficiency standards and graduation rates (Klein 2016). There must also be a plan to close the gap when there are…
Klein, A. (2016). The Every Student Succeeds Act: An ESSA Overview. Education Week. Retrieved from: https://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/every-student-succeeds- act/index.html
Teacher evaluation and support systems: A roadmap for improvement. (2016). The Aspen Institute. Retrieved from: https://assets.aspeninstitute.org/content/uploads/2016/03/Teacher_Evaluation_Support_S ystems.pdf
The learning and skills sector (LSS) is an Essential part of educational development in the United Kingdom. For many years this educational program faltered and was not taken seriously. However in recent years Legislators in the UK have dedicated a great deal of time and resources to improving LSS. According to Maxwell (2009)
The Learning and Skills Sector (LSS) in England is diverse, comprising further education (FE) colleges, sixth-form colleges, personal and community development learning and work-based training and learning in other adult settings such as prisons and the uniformed services. Over the last 15 years the sector has moved from a position of 'benign neglect' (Young et al. 1995, 7) to being placed 'at the forefront of UK's attempt to raise its skill profile' (Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills, and Department for Children, Schools and Families 2007, 3). Developing the workforce needed to support this ambitious agenda…
Curriculum for diversity guide. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from: http://shop.niace.org.uk/media/catalog/product/C/u/Curriculum-for-Diversity-Guide.pdf
Fisher, R., and Webb, K. (2006) Subject specialist pedagogy and initial teacher training for the learning and skills sector in England: the context, a response and some critical issues. Journal of Further and Higher Education. 30(4), 337 -- 349
Foundation Learning Curriculum for adults. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from:
A teacher must research the curriculum she or he will teach over the summer, to ensure that it is grade-appropriate and meets certain standards. The teacher must also be open to new possibilities, to try different approaches to structuring the syllabus and to changing the types of skills that are taught as a part of the curriculum, based upon his or her reading of educational journals, talking with colleagues, and reflecting upon the previous year.
But the process of curriculum design does not end when school begins. The teacher must assess the abilities of the students, and gain a sense of how the class functions as a unit. Are there many different levels of ability in the class? If so, the teacher may need to teach certain groups of students independently, to remedy current deficits in knowledge. The teacher should also be ready to alter the activities used to convey…
About the Curriculum Wizard." (2006). WNSS School Guide. Retrieved 22 Jan 2007 at http://www2.dpi.state.wi.us/sig/practices/cw/index.aspOrnstein, Alan C. & Ornstein, Allen C & Francis Hunkins. (1998). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues. 3rd Edition. Allyn and Bacon.
Smith, M.K. (1996, 2000). "Curriculum theory and practice." The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved 22 Jan 2007. www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm.Last updated: 30 January 2005.
hat are the dominant influences on school curriculum in America? hat was the approach to curriculum development in the past? Those issues are addressed in this paper.
The Literature on Curriculum and its Influences
Philosopher and educator John Dewey wrote in 1906 that there was a wide gulf between the child of that era and the curriculum being offered. He posed a picture of the "…narrow but personal world of the child" put up against the "…impersonal but infinitely extended world of space and time" (Dewey, 1906, p. 11). In other words, Dewey was trying to make the point that curricula should attempt to allow the child to proceed "…step-by-step to master" each separate parts of a lesson rather than present "…an abstract principle of logical classification and arrangement" (11-12). The road is long when you're asking a child to view a subject in its entirety, Dewey continued (12),…
Dewey, John (1906). The Child and the Curriculum. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan
Phillion, JoAnn, Connelly, F. Michael, and He, Ming Fang. (2007). The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Pinar, William F. (2004). "The Reconceptualization of Curriculum Studies," in The Curriculum
Making principals and school administrators involved in the process along with parents creates additional support and potential for learning reinforcement at home and in creates greater cohesiveness in terms of the school's overall learning environment. hile any number of step-by-step curricular models exists for individual teachers, since the underlining principle of all curriculum design is to impart skills to students that build upon previous units of learning, it is better that there exist some continuity in curriculum planning between teachers. Also, if all teachers take a similar approach there is a greater chance that learning outcomes will build on one another, throughout a student's educational career.
Curriculum design will no doubt be different 10 years from now, as state and perhaps even national standards require learning outcomes to be more measurable and clearly defined within individual units. This may create more homogeneity in terms of basic skills demanded between schools.…
Hlynka, Denis. (30 Nov 2005). "Course Syllabus: Theory and Practice of Curriculum
Design and Development." Retrieved 30 Jan 2007 at http://www.umanitoba.ca/centres/ukrainian_canadian/hlynka/courses/132756/syllabus.html
Learning Outcomes." (2004). Learning Development Unit. Retrieved 30 Jan 2007 at http://www.livjm.ac.uk/lid/ltweb/ldu_12/learning_outcomes.htm
Ornstein & Hunkins. (1998). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues.
(a new history of Iraq)
Psychologically, it is very difficult for them to believe that Islamic believers, meaning Arabs in this case have lost wars with the infidels. Islam is the religion of victors and one day, God willing Islam will rule the world is their belief. This is what leads Sheikh Abdul Settar Jabber head of the Muslim Awareness Association; a leading Sunni group to feel that the entire role of the schools should be changed to one that trains students in Islamic law and in how to be good Muslims. (a new history of Iraq) This is the psychological reaction of a child which when frightened hides near its mother and in this case is hiding within its language. The curriculum of Arabs has to reflect what their culture tells them, and religion is a very important part of their culture along with their language.
4. Future for…
Eaglesfield School" Retrieved at http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/sie/si/SfCC/. Accessed on 21 July, 2005
Al-Khatib, Mahmoud a. (2000) "The Arab World: Language and Cultural Issues" Language
Culture and Curriculum. Volume: 13; No: 2; pp: 121-125. Retrieved at http://www.channelviewpublications.net/lcc/013/lcc0130121.htm . Accessed on 21 July, 2005 new history of Iraq" (25 November, 2003) Retrieved at http://education.guardian.co.uk/schoolsworldwide/story/0,14062,1092208,00.html . Accessed on 21 July, 2005
Neyman, Julia. (24 August, 2004) "Colleges embrace homeland security curriculum" USA
" (Hunzicker, 2004) in fact Hunzicker states that changing a teacher's beliefs makes a requirement of new information presented repeatedly to the point that the teacher "begins to feel disequilibrium between current beliefs and new information." (2004) Leading curriculum change in the school is often difficult and requires that the principal ensure a continuous and ongoing dialogue concerning the necessary changes and the positive impacts that these changes will bring about.
RECOMMENDED STRATEGY: The strategy recommended for bringing Mrs. Nagal around to the changes in curriculum that are necessary and required involve first speaking with the teacher and discovering what it is about these curriculum changes that she is so set against and then mitigating the fears and trepidations of this teacher. Bringing Mrs. Nagal more firmly into the curriculum change process is advised and this can be accomplished by appointing Mrs. Nagal as lead over some aspect of the…
Hunzicker, Jan (2004) the Beliefs-Behavior Connection: Leading Teachers Toward Change. Principal. November/December 2004. www. Naesp.org
Teachers will need to look at process models for implementing these two approaches to achieve the benefits of both outcome-based education which emphasizes what students are expected to learn as well as open-ended education which encourages teachers to create a positive learning experience for the student. The former is best served by technical-scientific approaches while the later is best accomplished by nontechnical-nonscientific approaches. Fortunately, the approaches do appear to be complimentary more so than conflicting ideologies as positioned by some.
Therefore, teachers should seek out an integrative approach to their curriculum development approaches that weds process models. Practically speaking, this will mean striking a balance between student-centered and subject-centered curriculum and forming measurable expectations for the general student population as well as the flexibility to aim for highly individualized expectations that are unique to each student and that may be more subjectively assessed. and, of course, a broader community will…
Curriculum development. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:JfY-Nw6yUmgJ:people.coe.ilstu.edu/malorber/411/Notes/07%2520curr%2520devel%252010-29-04.doc+Noye%27+%22curriculum+development%22+deliberation&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us
Ornstein & Hunkins (2003). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (4th ed). Boston: Allyn and Becon.
Ritz, J. Curriculum development. http://www.odu.edu/~jritz/oted885/ntg8.shtml
and, some teachers focus mainly on staff development issues related to changes in curriculum, measures and/or desired outcomes.
Of these various roles, I am most interested in how to change instruction so that it can meet desired standards and measurements. Ultimately, I believe that this is what makes the real difference in being able to achieve outcomes, particularly with the growing need for differentiated teaching strategies to achieve the same results for students with unique learning needs.
As I have mentioned, I am an advocate of summative and formative assessments because I believe they serve two very different, but complimentary purposes. That being said, I also believe there needs to be the right mix of the two. Currently, our school relies too much on summative assessments due to increased standardized test requirements by our district and state. This has affected every role that teachers play in our assessment process. This…
Ornstein, a.C., & Hunkins, F.P. (2003). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Shavelson, R.J., Dylan, P.J. And Coffey, J. On linking formative and summative functions in the design of large-scale assessment systems. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:DI8Y2NFddAUJ:www.stanford.edu/dept/SUSE/SEAL/Reports_Papers/on%2520Aligning%2520Formative%2520and%2520Summative%2520Functions_Submit.doc+%22curriculum+assessment%22+%22formative+and+summative%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us
Swearingen, R, (2002). A orimer: Diagnostic, formative, & summative assessment http://www.mmrwsjr.com/assessment.htm
Thiel, T. & Feeny, M. Literature synopsis. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:zAO6k54RBXEJ:www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/special/aisi/pdfs/Project_Evaluation_UniversityofLethbridge.pdf+formative+summative+Bhola&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=7&gl=us
The political climate within the United tates is one moving away from conventional medical practices and moving toward alternative medicine. With President Obama's healthcare reform bill, it was made clear that costs within healthcare and the liability from certain procedures is unacceptable. Educating nurses in natural birthing techniques saves hospitals the excessive expenses associated with interventions and results in a happier and less likely to complain patient. Very few hospitals within the United tates open support natural birth techniques. In fact, most nurses at the hospital were unaware of different birthing positions, the advantages of walking while in labor, or the advantages of water during labor. This ignorance will only result in a loss of patients who will seek out those hospitals with educated staff. Finally, the demographics within the hospital I observed demand better care. The families entering the labor and delivery floor were educated upper-class families who expected…
Sargent, Carolyn & Stark, Nancy (2009). Childbirth Education and Childbirth Models: Parental Perspectives on Control, Anesthesia, and Technological Intervention in the Birth Process. Medical Anthropology Quarterly. Vol 3.1 (36-51)
Simkin, Penny (2007). Just Another Day in a Woman's Life? Women's Long-Term Perceptions of Their First Birth Experience. Birth. Vol 18.4 (203-210)
Zwelling, Elaine (2006). Childbirth Education in the 1990s and Beyond. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. Vol 25.5 (425-432)
By the end of this portion, I had gained confidence in the processes and the procedure and could remember all the requirements.
The learning outcome of the course was to educate nurses on the new protocols and technology to complete this procedure on difficult patients. I feel that the curriculum attended very well to these goals. It was always on task and efficient in its training. I'm guessing that it was so efficient because it was through the hospital to train the staff and they did not want to waste time.
After the training I was certified and expected to use this technique on difficult patients. The only lacking competency was using this technique on children. I had not had any previous experience of inserting lines into children and was unaware of protocols or strategies to ease the child's nervousness. This was addressed by more senior nurses in the pediatric…
Brannam, Larry (2008); et al. Emergency Nurses' Utilization of Ultrasound Guidance for Placement of Peripheral Intravenous Lines in Difficult-access Patients. Academic Emergency Medicine. Vol 11.12, 1361-1363.
Overton, David (2005). Ultrasonography-Guided Peripheral Intravenous Access vs. Traditional Approaches in Patients With Difficult Intravenous Access. Annals of Emergency Medicine. Vol 46.5, 456-461.
Negative feedbacks and criticisms cannot be avoided at this point, especially upon knowing that it is necessary for them to undergo training on how this program will be implemented, including its advantages for them as teachers.
Educators, especially those who have been practicing the profession for a long time have a greater tendency to abhor going through the learning process once more. As a principal, they should be encouraged to undergo the learning process again and become students, therefore, joining their trainings would promote confidence in learning new ideas once more.
As the teachers become students, the idea of the students becoming teachers at some point upon the implementation of the program would somehow alleviate their fear of integrating the use of technology in their learning process. ithin the 30 minutes math lad, they should be allowed to explore the program and share among their classmates what they have learned…
Franklin, J. (2002) the Importance of Instructional Leadership. The Necessary Principal.
Allen, R. (2002) Honing the Tools of Instruction: How Research Can Improve Teaching for the 21st Century.
Shu-Sheng, L. (2004) Considerations for developing constructivist Web-based learning. International Journal of Instructional Media.
' Musical intelligence can be deployed through the use of teaching 'times tables songs' and visual intelligence can be stimulated through the use of allowing students to create colorful classroom displays, perhaps even drawing upon student's interpersonal intelligence as well by assigning different teams a single 'table,' like six, to illustrate with pictures.
Although I believe that multiple intelligences can be incorporated into any classroom, with the right degree of creativity on the part of the teacher, I also know that having the resources to make use of computers to create webquests, to have adequate access to art and musical materials, to be able to conduct field trips, and to have a diversity of books, pictures, guest speakers, and hands-on materials will enhance my ability to make use of the multiple intelligence philosophy in my curriculum
How does it fit in with my school?
Because of national pressure, schools are…
Armstrong, Thomas. (2000). "Multiple intelligences." Retrieved 17 Mar 2008 at http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm
Four Pillars of NCLB." (2008). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved 20 Mar 2008 at http://www.ed.gov/nclb/overview/intro/4pillars.html
Lane, Carla.."Multiple Intelligences." The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide. Retrieved 20 Mar 2008 at http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html
This in turn reflects badly upon me. There is no valid way in which I can adjust my teaching methods to relate to the narrowly focused test material without severely harming my or my students' goals towards excellence and future success.
Having spoken with other teachers in my school and district, I have found that the problem also applies to teachers of other subject areas and other schools in my district. After carefully considering the issue, it was decided that a number of suggestions should be made to the chool Board and district authorities. These are of course substantiated with current teaching and assessment theory.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The first and most important suggestion will be that the assessment methods should be more closely related to teaching methods in the classroom. Like children, teachers have their particular personalities and goals for the classroom. These are concomitant with teaching methods, and…
Hlebowitsh, Peter S. (2005). Designing the School Curriculum. First Edition. Allyn and Bacon.
Porter, Andrew. (1995). Critical Issue: Integrating Assessmsent and Instruction in Ways that Support Learning. Wisconsin Center for Education Research. http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/assment/as500.htm
Porter, Andrew (2004, Jan 2). Curriculum Assessment.Vanderbilt University. http://www.secsupport.org/pdf/curricassess.pdf
Taylor, Catherine S. & Nolen, Susan Bobbitt. (2005). Classroom Assessment: Supporting Teaching and Learning in Real Classrooms. Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Curriculum is a matter often decided based on earlier curriculum, and not changed even when the changes are required and approaches have changed. This leads to opposition from existing students, teachers and parents to the recommended curriculum in schools. It is interesting to find out about the attitudes of these groups to specific subjects on the matter.
It is very important for the involved groups within the schools -- teachers, students and parents to find out regarding as to what is the general opinion on matters important to the school students. This is the method of deciding a curriculum which will be suited for the development of students and also meeting the needs for development of the school curriculum by the principals. The help to principals is in terms of their being able to mobilize their staff, students, parents and community interest groups in becoming proactively involved in the issues…
AARE paper. (December, 2000) University of Sydney. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/00pap/asp00171.htm Accessed 14 October, 2005
Boyd, Graham; Hemmings, Brian; Braggett, Eddie. The development of a career education program for gifted high school students. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/00pap/hem00464.htm Accessed 14 October, 2005
The evaluation facilitator will explain that curriculum evaluation is a necessary process to help foster student growth and that evaluation is not a negative critical review; rather, it is to recognize progress and to identify areas for future improvement. This is important because evaluation has traditionally been focused on the identification of shortcomings and, for this reason, has caused anxiety and resentment which can impede constructive participation.
Second, the facilitator will explain the process of curriculum evaluation. The process will be described as an analysis of current curriculum, the expression of key goals in a formal mission statement, allocation of resources, implementation of curriculum change and the monitoring of progress over time. In this way, teachers will know exactly what to expect and this will help allay their fear of change. Plus, showing that there are well-defined processes will help lend credibility to the curriculum evaluation program.
Third, the facilitator…
Carl, AE 1995: Teacher empowerment through curriculum development: theory into practice. Kenwyn, Cape Town: Juta, p. 178.
Evaluation and assessment: Curriculum evaluation. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/curriculum/Rpack/e_evaluation.htm
The three discussion groups. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/curriculum/GulfStatesProjectsPdf/omanVI.pdf
If an instructor is tied down to a time consuming curriculum, they are not allowed much room for thought and passion behind their subject leaving students unenthusiastic and dull (Erickson, 2008). Also according to the same book, whose author conducted and compiled several studies, concept-based curricula are more effective than topic-based curricula because they call for students to synthesize, generalize, and analyze facts to gain a deeper understanding (Erickson, 2008). Topic-based curricula on the other hand, allow for a capacious overview of one subject without the ability to further understand in the classroom. Moreover, topic-based curricula has become obsolete as it is necessary in our ever-changing and fast paced world for students to analyze facts given instead of rereading information from decades past (Erickson, 2008).
Though there are conflicting studies, it seems to be the general consensus that the relationship between instruction and curriculum needs to change whatever it may…
Cummings R., Maddux C.D., & Richmond A. (2008). Curriculum-embedded performance assessment in higher education: maximum efficiency and minimum disruption.
Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33 (6), 599-605.
Erickson H.L. (2008). Facilitator's Guide: Stirring the head, heart, and soul: redefining curriculum, instruction, and soul. United Kingdom: Corwin Press.
Students, by seeing that a concept can unite so many different aspects of an idea are better able to draw connections between what is learned in the classroom and subjects that are common to their daily lives.
For example, take the broad curricular concept of 'travel.' The most obvious application of this concept is in a literature class, where students can learn about travel from stories about other lands, or about people traveling over the course of a story. But students can also apply the concept to math class, as they learn to budget for a trip, and calculate the speeds of various modes of transportation. They can learn about the science of how trains and planes are propelled, as well as research the weather conditions and geography of a possible destination. They can learn about the different people, cultures, religions, and wildlife of a land, and even create art…
Gail G. Muir & Sally S. Blake. "Foundations of Collaboration." (2006). The Professional
Organizational Development Network in Higher Education. Retrieved 19 Jan 2007 at http://teaching.uchicago.edu/pod/muir.html .
What is concept-based curriculum?" (18 Jun 1998) District 118 Curriculum Design. Retrieved 19 Jan 2007 at http://www.d118.s-cook.k12.il.us/central/curriculum/what.html#generalization
Ornstein, Alan C. & Francis Hunkins. (1998). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues. 3rd Edition, Allyn and Bacon.
Bellevue School District in Washington recently underwent series changes to its mathematics curriculum. The primary goal of these changes was to better prepare all students for college educations. Thus, the district implemented a subject-centered development model focusing on the discipline to help standardize mathematics education across the board and better prepare students for what they would encounter in college life.
In an era where college is so important, Bellevue School District wanted to ensure that all students graduating from high school within the district were properly prepared for college. According to the research, "Bellevue's goal was to create a coherent K -- 12 aligned mathematics curriculum with support structures for teachers and students to ensure all students would be prepared to attend and graduate from college" (Dana, 2008). The district is now partnering with higher education facilities to help build curriculum that prepare students for college. The changes…
Dana, Charles A. (2008). K-12 Aligned Mathematics Curriculum. Practices Worthy of Attention. Bellevue School District.
Hoeger, Jami & Roghan, Kerry. (2013). Bellevue School District Mathematics. Web. https://www.bsd405.org/Portals/10/Documents/Medina%20Principal%20Coffee%205-15%20Math%20District_final.pdf
Additionally related is that readers in this first six weeks of the 9th grade should "develop, select and apply strategies" to assist them in reading comprehension." Equally matching such is the teacher's responsibility for administering timed readings to assess the independent reading rate of individual students as well as their responsibility to establishing a learning community within the classroom and to engage students in processes that enhances their reading comprehension and reading skills.
Score applied 1-3 being least effective and efficient and 3 being most effective and efficient
Assessment of Learning
FINDINGS: CUICULUM IMPLEMENTATION
Curriculum implementation is very much required to take place in a collaborative manner as the teacher interacts with students and encourages discussion in the learning community environment that the teacher also is responsible for fostering among students in the classroom. The students are provided with the specific…
Because the curriculum is so informing as to precisely what is expected to take place in the classroom optimally, this information should be readily provided to students and parents so they will know what to expect from each semester of the 9th grade school year.
Curricula associated with LSS are important and must be carefully considered in Maths and electronics teaching. The purpose of this discussion is to carry out further research connected with the topic of curricula and evaluate the extent to which this research might have an impact on personal practice in subject specialism and future professional development.
Impact of Curriculuum
Understanding of maths is essentially important to ensuring that adult learners will have the capacity to work well in the work place. The type of curricullum utlized to teach math is therefore essential to guaranteeing that students master the appropriate skills.
In addition maths teaching, electronics teaching is also important and the use of technology is an essential aspect of maths and electronics instruction. As it relates specifically to LSS and electronics, the graph on the left depicts the utilization of technology in the Classroom. Information Technology (IT) serves a vitally…
Keeley-Browne L. (2007) Training to Teach in the Learning and Skills Sector: From Threshold Award to QLTS Longman
Leading Mathematics in the Learning and Skills Sector. http://tlp.excellencegateway.org.uk/tlp/stem/introduction.pdf
Owston, Ronald. (2007) Contextual factors that sustain innovative pedagogical practice using technology: an international study. Journal Educational Change 8:61 -- 77
My view was that each classroom should implement computer technology in the teacher process. Therefore my superiors also had to be convinced of the current benefits of implementing a computer system that students could use almost constantly.
Once I was able to effect this, each classroom was furnished with 4-6 computers, depending upon the average number of students that entered the class per week. tudents were then able to work on the computers in a group capacity, where each group member had an opportunity to work with the technology with the help of the rest of the group. Once this was done, my second challenge was to help my diverse students to become used to the technology and be able to use it effectively. This was particularly challenging, as some students have been working regularly with the library computers, while others have used them as little as possible. Contributing to…
Klopfer, E. Osterweil, S., Groff, J. And Haas, J. (2009). Using the Technology of Today, in the Classroom Today. The Education Arcade. Retrieved from: http://education.mit.edu/papers/GamesSimsSocNets_EdArcade.pdf
Stanford University (2000). Standards-Based Education: Advantages and Disadvantages. Retrieved from: http://www.stanford.edu/~hakuta/www/archives/syllabi/CalTex_SBR/procon.html
Activity -- Work through the rock face problem as a class using an overhead or projector. Ask for input on alternatives to this set of functions? Ask for, and brainstorm other measurements in which we can try our new method (e.g. measurement without a measurement tool).
2. Working on the concept of ratios. Using the measurement skills from Activity 1, students will calculate measurement and ratios to find patterns of sides of a triangle. This will develop the concepts of sine, cosine, and tangent ratios of angles. Students should have a basic concept of ratio, be able to convert fractions to decimals up to three places and be able to measure the length of sides of a triangle.
Divide class into 4 groups, each group will have a set of triangles copied on colored paper. The triangles should be cut and set aside. Class will also need three large charts…
In the example provided, the teacher could explain that homework assignments will allow them to learn more about how life in Ancient Greece and ome influenced modern customs and practices, and the purpose of homework assignments is to break the information they are learning into smaller chunks so they do not have to memorize or learn too much information at once, which might become overwhelming. Knowing this, students are more likely to take time to complete assignments. A teacher can encourage the student to utilize a separate assignment notebook for each subject they are studying, and track daily assessments of what they learned in class about their study of Ancient ome and Ancient Greece. This employs the technique of practice, which enforces student's ability to write well and apply scientific method or logical analysis to information they learn in class. Students may for example, be encouraged to make notes alongside…
Marzano, R.J., Gaddy, B.B., & Dean, C. (2000). What works in classroom instruction?
Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
Marzano, R.J. (1998). A theory-based meta-analysis of research on instruction. McEd. Accessed 7, May 2007:
Human relations are vital. Teachers must trust each other, there must be norms that support productive criticism, and there must be techniques in place for combining and resolving disputes. Arrangements need to be in place that generates discussion for problem identification and decision making. These arrangements could be things such as normal team meetings amid teachers at the same grade level or department meetings within high schools and middle schools. Frequently useful are school connections to inside and outside sources of knowledge and scrutiny coupled to a readiness to learn from such sources. Also, schools must work to secure the power to proceed with actions that might go against existing policies and practices. By doing this they master the micro-politics of their districts and their communities.
In schools where circumstances to maintain collaborative problem solving are not in place, leaders must expertly manage two plans at the same time. They…
Adkins, D. (1990). The Relationship between visionary Leadership and instructional leadership behavior of secondary school principals: regression analysis and hermeneutic
Balsamo, M. (2004). Assessing principal practices in a standards-based environment and examining the association between principal practices and student achievement.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.
Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: language, literacy and cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Curriculum Be Standardized for All?
The question of whether or not the curriculum should be standardized for all is indeed a hot button issue and one which garners a great deal of attention and controversy. When it comes to this particular issue, both sides actually raise very compelling points about what should be done and why standardizing the curriculum (and not standardizing the curriculum) is the best idea. Fundamentally, both sides approach this issue so strongly as a result of the fact that education, both private and public education as they exist in America, are deeply flawed and barely educate our children in a manner which allows them to compete with the best and brightest talent all over the world.
What challenges or problems does the issue present?
The biggest problem that the controversy presents is the fact that both sides raising valid points about how to handle this issue:…
Kohn, A. (2001, May). One-Size-Fits-All Education Doesn't Work. Retrieved from Boston Globe: http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/onesize.htm
Noddings, N. (2010, January 7). Differentiate, Don't Standardize. Retrieved from edweek.org: http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/01/14/17noddings-comm.h29.html
Noll, J. (2009, September). A Standardized Curriculum For All? Retrieved from Standardized Curriculum: http://standardcurriculum.blogspot.com/
Pablo, P. (2010, February). Should the Curriculum be Standardized for All? Retrieved from wordpress.com: http://ewhughes.wordpress.com/2010/02/13/should-the-curriculum-be-standardized-for-all/
curriculum books have been written since the turn of the [20th] century; each with a different version of what 'curriculum' means (Ackerman, 1988). I define classroom curriculum design as the sequencing and pacing of content along with the experiences students have with that content. My use of the qualifier classroom is important. By definition, I am considering those decisions regarding sequencing, pacing, and experiences that are the purview of the classroom teacher. Some aspects of curricular design are addressed at the school level if, in fact, a school has a guaranteed and viable curriculum. egardless of the direction provided by the school (or district), individual teachers still need to make decisions regarding curricular design at the classroom level given the unique characteristics of their students. Indeed, in a meta-analysis involving 22 studies, Anderson, (2003) found a strong relationship between a student's knowledge and experience with content and the type of…
Ackerman, P.L. (1988). Determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition: Cognitive abilities and information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117(3), 288-318.
Anderson, J. (2003). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Anderson, J. (2009). Rules of the mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Brooks, C. (2000). Knowledge management and the intelligence community. Defense Intelligence Journal, 9(1), 15-24.
Anderson, J.R., & Fincham, J.M. (2004). Acquisition of procedural Skills from Examples. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20(6), 1322-1340.
curriculum content that implements strategies and methods that enhance language acquisition. This is done in light of the relevant theories that surround the proper development of linguistics in kindergarten children from vast socio-cultural backgrounds.
The teaching of linguistics to Kindergarten children is indicated by Ellis and McCartney (2011) to be quite a challenge. This is more dominant for the wide range of linguistic diversity as well as literacy development that exists within the 21st century classroom setting (p.44). This challenge is most common among pre-service teachers and the diversity in linguistics is noted to transcend continents as in never limited to the United States (Gerald and Hussar,2003). The diversity is noted to be present in other places that bear the same demographic trends as noted by Portes and umabaut (2001).In this paper we develop a curriculum content that implements strategies and methods that enhance language acquisition.
Strategies and methods
Dynamic curriculum offers diversity, growth, caring, self-care, development, adaptation, the nursing process, evidence-based practice, and a way in which relevance for future practice can be identified. By including all the important concepts, the curriculum is better able to provide exactly what is needed for nurses who want to provide the best care to their patients. The competencies that are studied and the knowledge that is required are both centered around how nurses get their education and what they do with their knowledge once they have acquired it. There are several current trends in health care that affect the development of curriculum and the outcomes of the programs nurses must take. These include understanding the increasing severity of patient illnesses in both community-based and acute care settings, along with the rising demand for affordable prices and good care. Quality assurance and safety for the patients is another area where emphasis is…
Billings, D., & Halstead, J. (2009). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (3th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders.
Billings, D., & Halstead, J. (2012). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.
Faison, K., & Montague, F. (2013). Paradigm shift: Curriculum shift. ABNF Journal, 24(1), 21-22.
Morris, T.L., & Hancock, D.R. (2013). Institute of medicine core competencies as a foundation for nursing program evaluation. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(1), 29-33. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.proxy.devry.edu/ehost
One way to take learning in a direction relevant to student interest is to invite student dialogue about the lessons and units of study. Given the opportunity for input, students generate ideas and set goals that make for much richer activities than I could have created or imagined myself. When students have ownership in the curriculum, they are motivated to work hard and master the skills necessary to reach their goals (Sample Educational Philosophy Statements (accessed 4-26-07) (http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/sample.html)."
The philosophical footprints being used today can help one gain a better understanding of the school's curricular policies in several ways.
The first and most important philosophy is that every child can learn. Today's educators have been taught that children have different learning styles and that if these styles are identified and addressed than every child with rare exception is capable of learning.
This helps teachers understand the curriculum because it allows…
Sample Educational Philosophy Statements (accessed 4-26-07) ( http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/sample.html )
The third step is creating which is doing. It is taking action on what you find, what you suspect, what you think will make a difference. The last step is confirming. In this stage, you are evaluating your efforts, learning from feedback, and starting the cycle again.
6. Define "data-driven" decision making.
Data driven decision making uses student assessment data and relevant background information, to inform decisions related to planning and implementing instructional strategies at the district, school, classroom, and individual student levels. Data literacy consists of a person possessing a basic understanding of how data can be used to inform instruction. Studies have often shown that if instructional plans at the state, county, district, school, classroom, and individual student levels are based on assessment information relevant to the desired learning outcomes for students, the probability is increased that they will attain these desired learning outcomes.
Data from a variety…
Allen, Janet. (2004). Tools for Teaching Content Area Literacy. Stenhouse Publishers: Tyler
Kowalski, T.J., Lasley II, T.J., and Mahoney, J.W. (2008). Data-driven decisions and school leadership: Best practices for school improvement. Pearson: Boston.
Parkay, F.W., Anctil, E. and, Hass, G. (2010). Curriculum leadership: Readings for developing quality educational programs, 9th Edition, Allyn and Bacon: Needham Heights,
When dealing with students from a wide variety of cultures and levels of ability, enhanced self-consciousness on the part of all members of the classroom can promote tolerance within the learning environment. The awareness of the classroom's 'hidden' assumptions can foster greater self-consciousness and compassion regarding those who are less fluent in the norms of the hidden curriculum.
The hidden curriculum of social assumptions thus is least harmful when it is not so hidden. An effective teacher cannot eliminate all social norms from the classroom, nor would this be desirable, but the teacher can grow more self-conscious and explicit about her expectations. Some of the teacher's assumptions might be valid, others might not be, but not until the rules of the hidden curriculum are revealed can they be fairly upheld. Hidden rules are often arbitrarily enforced, and frustrate those who do not understand them.
The 'hidden curriculum' has been viewed…
Deutsch, Nellie (2004). Hidden curriculum paper. The University of Phoenix.
Retrieved March 21, 2010 at www.nelliemuller.com/HiddenCurriculum.doc
Hasler, Angela. (2010). Sparhawk's Hidden Curriculum. Sparkshaw School.
Retrieved March 21, 2010
Less emphasis, too, should be placed on material values (such as driving, consumer education, and business) and more on academic traditional values that last and promote value. It is these that can produce a multi-faceted individual and serve the individual in all manners of his existence.
Lastly too, the school might consider offering workshops such as on ethics or social skills in its curricula. This would help the student more effectively deal with post-graduate existence and the challenges of living in an increasingly complex, diversified world.
Summary of Findings
A Curriculum Analysis provides a resource for the school to help them make certain that their philosophy/mission is begin carried out in the curriculum and make recommendations on how they can improve the means in which they align the school philosophy and policies to the curriculum.
This curriculum analysis recognizes that the philosophical beliefs and policies of LTHS are somewhat misaligned.…
Lyons Township High School (LTHS). About LTHS. Retrieved on January 27, 2011 from: ( http://www.lths.net/About_LTHS/ ).
Lyons Township High School (LTHS). Code of Conduct. Retrieved on January 27, 2011 from: ( http://www.lths.net/Activities/Code_of_Conduct.html ).
curriculum of all the schools of a district. It uses 5 sources and is in APA format.
The main aim of my curriculum that I have designed for five elementary schools, 4 middle schools and one high school of the district, is that I intend uniformity in the curriculums of all the schools so all the schools impart the same educational quality and therefore there is no discrepancy and the whole community remains satisfied. y this design model, which will be introduced in all the schools of the district, there will be coordination between the schools, the teachers from all the schools will have identical training and the administration will also be trained to monitor and coordinate such a program. The administration of all the schools will have a head administrator to see that all the schools correctly comply to the curriculum and work as one big system of schooling.…
Theory of Instruction: Principles and Applications, 1991 (Rev. ed.), by Siegfried Engelmann and Douglas Carnine (Association for Direct Instruction)
Direct Instruction Reading, 1997 (Rev. ed.), by Douglas Carnine, Jerry Silbert, and Edward Kameenui, (Prentice Hall)
Designing Effective Mathematics Instruction: A Direct Instruction Approach, 1997 (Rev. ed.), by Marcy Stein, Jerry Silbert, and Douglas Carnine (Prentice Hall)
Designing Instructional Strategies, 1990, by Edward Kameenui and Deborah Simmons (Prentice Hall)
These are not complex techniques that only high-school students and beyond should be dealing with. They are also not difficult for teachers to explain to their students, or for the students or parents to understand. In addition, they do not provide that much extra work for the teacher in the form of grading or for the student who has homework in other subjects, as well. Many students today are loaded down with homework, and the quality of what they are learning from this is often in question.
When writing is incorporated into the curriculum it can make the subjects more fun, make some of the homework and other assignments actually easier rather than more difficult, and awaken the interest of the students so that they will have a desire to learn more about the subjects they are studying. That interest in learning has been slipping away from the schools today,…
Braun, J.A. (2004). Technology in the classroom: Tools for building stronger communities and better citizens. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 40(2), 69-73.
Bursuck, W.D., & Munk, D.D. (2002). Research on the prevention of reading problems: Are kindergarten and first grade teachers listening? Preventing School Failure, 47(1), 4-9.
Norris, J., & Ortega, L. (2001). Does type of instruction make a difference? Substantive findings from a meta-analytic review. Language Learning, 51(1), 157-213.
" (Scheibe, 2004)
Part of the problem for teachers in relating to the children of modern learning curricula is the tremendous competition from television programs that force children to process information in an entirely different manner. This assessment is a function of my observations with regard to the interest and understanding of children with regard to environments outside of their immediate radius. The television program appears to limit the viewpoint and concentration of many of my students, up to 1/3 of the class is unable to properly process information regarding a different environment, inclusively foreign and domestic.
According to Scheibe (2004), "In using a curriculum-driven approach, teachers sometimes take a narrow focus for a particular topic or lesson (e.g., linking current advertising appeals to a sixth-grade unit on Greek myths) or weave media literacy into ongoing activities in their classrooms (e.g., in a weekly discussion of current events). Sometimes media…
Hlebowitsh, P.S. (2005). Designing the School Curriculum. First Edition. Published: Allyn and Bacon. Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc.
Oberg, C. (2010). Guiding classroom instruction through performance assessment. Journal of Case Studies in Accreditation and Assessment, 1, 1-1-11. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/759568097?accountid=13044
Scheibe, C.L. (2004). A deeper sense of literacy: Curriculum-driven approaches to media literacy in the K-12 classroom. The American Behavioral Scientist, 48(1), 60-60-68. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/214770498?accountid=13044
A reader would presume that these students find the materials appropriate for use in some way in the classroom, either as background information for themselves or in designing an actual curriculum, but the information provided does not reflect any such analysis. For instance, students wrote about Hearing Us Out: Voices from the Gay and Lesbian Community, "Sutton provides insights to understanding lesbian and gay communities through individuals' unique stories." This statement is so vague that it could have been written without actually looking at the book. A teacher would find this recommendation much more useful with more information: for what age level did the group think it was appropriate? Did the book provide insights that were directly applicable to school, such as stories from these people's experiences while they were in school? Does it include language some might find objectionable or excessively graphic?
The group that looked at "ability" reported…
Also, Greene's stress upon art as critical method of release for students, although inspiring in her passion, neglects to consider the fact that for some students, science and math rather than the humanities may be their ultimate modality of release and achieving a sense of competence. The presence of students who do not speak English as a first language, or who experience cognitive reading difficulties further temper one's idealism for Greene's stress upon a humanities and arts-based curriculum. True, being able to articulate oneself in a number of different languages, including imagery and creative forms of expression are important, but a school must also instill basic skills within a student's cognitive framework, before such subjects can be apprehended with full understanding in the classroom, much less be deployed creatively…