Curriculum Planning Essays Examples

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Curriculum and Course Development Debate

Words: 1419 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22791967


What policies should be taken into account for the curriculum design?

Institutional policies concerning the disciplines being offered should be taken into account (Keating).

Case Study #2: Philmore College


What parameters must the curriculum committee consider when designing the courses?

The design parameters that should be considered by the curriculum committee should include "all components (title, purpose, and description; outcomes, teaching-learning strategies, content, classes; opportunities for students to demonstrate learning and faculty evaluation of student achievement), and the relationships between and among them" (Iwasiw et al.).


In what way will a commitment to active learning influence course design?

As the term implies, active learning requires effort on the part of the educator as well as the learners in an intensive fashion. For example, Michael and Modell (2003) report that all active learning approaches "ultimately require students (the learners) to test their current mental models of the phenomenon being considered. All of these techniques require that educators present challenges to the students' mental models" (p. 79). In addition, active learning can influence course design by providing opportunities for educators to fine-tune their curricular offerings to the learning styles being evinced by their students (Michael & Modell). In addition,…… [Read More]

Cook, P.R. & Cullen, J.A. (2003, July/August). Caring as an imperative for nursing education.

Nursing Education Perspectives, 24(4), 192-195.
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Curriculum Philosophy My Philosophy of

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89526782

' Musical intelligence can be deployed through the use of teaching 'times tables songs' and visual intelligence can be stimulated through the use of allowing students to create colorful classroom displays, perhaps even drawing upon student's interpersonal intelligence as well by assigning different teams a single 'table,' like six, to illustrate with pictures.

Although I believe that multiple intelligences can be incorporated into any classroom, with the right degree of creativity on the part of the teacher, I also know that having the resources to make use of computers to create webquests, to have adequate access to art and musical materials, to be able to conduct field trips, and to have a diversity of books, pictures, guest speakers, and hands-on materials will enhance my ability to make use of the multiple intelligence philosophy in my curriculum

How does it fit in with my school?

Because of national pressure, schools are forced to comply with standardized assessments based upon 'No Child Left Behind' legislation that emphasize math and reading alone, often in a highly standardized format. However, there is also a corresponding pressure to ensure that students are technically literate, and can work in teams, and I hope to incorporate other…… [Read More]

Armstrong, Thomas. (2000). "Multiple intelligences." Retrieved 17 Mar 2008 at

Four Pillars of NCLB." (2008). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved 20 Mar 2008 at
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Curriculum Design There Is No

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26656708

Making principals and school administrators involved in the process along with parents creates additional support and potential for learning reinforcement at home and in creates greater cohesiveness in terms of the school's overall learning environment. While any number of step-by-step curricular models exists for individual teachers, since the underlining principle of all curriculum design is to impart skills to students that build upon previous units of learning, it is better that there exist some continuity in curriculum planning between teachers. Also, if all teachers take a similar approach there is a greater chance that learning outcomes will build on one another, throughout a student's educational career.

Curriculum design will no doubt be different 10 years from now, as state and perhaps even national standards require learning outcomes to be more measurable and clearly defined within individual units. This may create more homogeneity in terms of basic skills demanded between schools. However, the idea that a curriculum should be cohesive has also encouraged some schools to be more innovative and explore venues of experiential learning, like teaching a single subject, such as Native American culture, to address multiple curricular skill areas in a grade-appropriate fashion, including as social studies, literature, math,…… [Read More]

Hlynka, Denis. (30 Nov 2005). "Course Syllabus: Theory and Practice of Curriculum

Design and Development." Retrieved 30 Jan 2007 at
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Curriculum Are Social Forces Human

Words: 3065 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18898865

The third step is creating which is doing. It is taking action on what you find, what you suspect, what you think will make a difference. The last step is confirming. In this stage, you are evaluating your efforts, learning from feedback, and starting the cycle again.

6. Define "data-driven" decision making.

Data driven decision making uses student assessment data and relevant background information, to inform decisions related to planning and implementing instructional strategies at the district, school, classroom, and individual student levels. Data literacy consists of a person possessing a basic understanding of how data can be used to inform instruction. Studies have often shown that if instructional plans at the state, county, district, school, classroom, and individual student levels are based on assessment information relevant to the desired learning outcomes for students, the probability is increased that they will attain these desired learning outcomes.

Data from a variety of sources can also serve a number of important staff development purposes. Data on student knowledge gathered from standardized tests, district-made tests, student work samples, portfolios, and other sources provide important input to the selection of school or district improvement goals and provide focus for staff development efforts. This procedure…… [Read More]

Allen, Janet. (2004). Tools for Teaching Content Area Literacy. Stenhouse Publishers: Tyler

Kowalski, T.J., Lasley II, T.J., and Mahoney, J.W. (2008). Data-driven decisions and school leadership: Best practices for school improvement. Pearson: Boston.
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Curriculum Evaluation Models Ornstein and

Words: 508 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25763643

Teachers will need to look at process models for implementing these two approaches to achieve the benefits of both outcome-based education which emphasizes what students are expected to learn as well as open-ended education which encourages teachers to create a positive learning experience for the student. The former is best served by technical-scientific approaches while the later is best accomplished by nontechnical-nonscientific approaches. Fortunately, the approaches do appear to be complimentary more so than conflicting ideologies as positioned by some.

Therefore, teachers should seek out an integrative approach to their curriculum development approaches that weds process models. Practically speaking, this will mean striking a balance between student-centered and subject-centered curriculum and forming measurable expectations for the general student population as well as the flexibility to aim for highly individualized expectations that are unique to each student and that may be more subjectively assessed. and, of course, a broader community will need to be brought into the curriculum development process.


Curriculum development.

Ornstein & Hunkins (2003). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (4th ed). Boston: Allyn and Becon.

Ritz, J. Curriculum development.… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Curriculum development.

Ornstein & Hunkins (2003). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (4th ed). Boston: Allyn and Becon.
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Curriculum Implementation an Implementation of

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95548352

Negative feedbacks and criticisms cannot be avoided at this point, especially upon knowing that it is necessary for them to undergo training on how this program will be implemented, including its advantages for them as teachers.

Educators, especially those who have been practicing the profession for a long time have a greater tendency to abhor going through the learning process once more. As a principal, they should be encouraged to undergo the learning process again and become students, therefore, joining their trainings would promote confidence in learning new ideas once more.

As the teachers become students, the idea of the students becoming teachers at some point upon the implementation of the program would somehow alleviate their fear of integrating the use of technology in their learning process. Within the 30 minutes math lad, they should be allowed to explore the program and share among their classmates what they have learned and how they have learned it.

Cooperative learning is putting together several ideas in order to develop the teaching-learning process, not just among the students but the teachers as well. According to Michael Dickmann, a professor of education at Cardinal Stritch University, it physiologically engages more of the brain's neural…… [Read More]

Franklin, J. (2002) the Importance of Instructional Leadership. The Necessary Principal.

Allen, R. (2002) Honing the Tools of Instruction: How Research Can Improve Teaching for the 21st Century.
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Curriculum Development Scholl 2001 Points

Words: 341 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31139922

Teachers will need professional development to integrate curricula with technology. Strudler (1994, cited in Professional development overview) suggested the need for a technology coordinator who can serve as a mentor or "translator" of technology applications and instructional integration for teachers. Teachers who engage in collaborative planning and sharing of instructional strategies with other teachers most frequently demonstrate effective use of computers in the classroom (Becker & Riel, 2000, cited in professional development overview). Still teachers must have the flexibility to develop and implement their own personalizes plans to increase chances of success (Cradler, 2002a, cited in professional development overview).


Professional development overview. San Diego Unified School District. Retrieved at

Scholl, J.F. (2001, March/April) Using technology to improve curriculum development. The Technology Sourc.e Retrieved at… [Read More]

Professional development overview. San Diego Unified School District. Retrieved at

Scholl, J.F. (2001, March/April) Using technology to improve curriculum development. The Technology Sourc.e Retrieved at
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Curriculum Development and Implementation Curriculum Development When

Words: 838 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64245601

Curriculum Development and Implementation

Curriculum Development

When developing curriculum for a particular course, which comes first: the determination of learning objectives or the identification of necessary content?

According to Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (2005) the process of backward design begins with the end in mind. One starts with the end, the desired results, or learning objectives, and then designs the curriculum for the evidence of learning as measured against the goals and standards called for and the tasks needed to ensure student understanding. The design process involves three planning stages each focused on a question: 1) What is worthy and requiring of understanding? 2) What is the evidence of understanding? 3) What learning experiences and teaching promote understanding, interest and excellence?

In the first stage, teachers focus on learning goals. These are the enduring understandings that they want their students to have developed at the completion of the learning sequence. There is also a focus on a number of essential, or guiding, questions. Enduring understandings go beyond facts and skills to focus on larger concepts, principles or processes. The second stage involves how students will demonstrate their understanding. The authors describe six facets of understanding. They contend that students…… [Read More]

Hueber, T.A. (2010, February). Differentiated instruction. Educational leadership, Vol. 67, Issue 5, 79-81. Retrieved August 13, 2012, from

Kirkwood, M. (2000, July). Infusing higher-order thinking and learning to learn into content instruction: a case study of secondary computing studies in Scotland. Journal of curriculum studies, Vol. 32, Issue 4, 509-535. Retrieved August 13, 2012, from
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Planning and Reflection During My Student Teaching

Words: 2663 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15884440

Planning and Reflection

During my student teaching experiences I kept a journal, which greatly helped me to organize my thoughts and clarify the areas in which I most needed to improve. My mentor also pointed out for me the key areas that need improvement. Therefore, as I look forward to a professional career as a teacher, I will be able to draw on these early experiences. I will remember what works and what doesn't and I already feel far more confident and proficient than I did before I undertook the student teaching challenge. In general a few major themes emerged through reviewing my journal entries and the statements written by my mentors. My strengths are my willingness to use a wide variety of teaching materials and teaching styles. An enthusiastic implementation of multimedia materials keeps students actively engaged, and keeps lessons more interesting. Moreover, my lessons are well-planned and incorporate a number of different activities that also keep the students' interest. I noticed myself that on days when I incorporated multimedia materials and meaningful activities that the students absorbed more of the material and remained focused on the lessons. My mentor also noted that I plan my lessons well, which…… [Read More]


Ballantyne, R & Packer, J 1995, making connections: gold guide no 2, Hersda, Canberra, pp 4-14
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Curriculum Concept-Based Curriculums What Is

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31063128

Students, by seeing that a concept can unite so many different aspects of an idea are better able to draw connections between what is learned in the classroom and subjects that are common to their daily lives.

For example, take the broad curricular concept of 'travel.' The most obvious application of this concept is in a literature class, where students can learn about travel from stories about other lands, or about people traveling over the course of a story. But students can also apply the concept to math class, as they learn to budget for a trip, and calculate the speeds of various modes of transportation. They can learn about the science of how trains and planes are propelled, as well as research the weather conditions and geography of a possible destination. They can learn about the different people, cultures, religions, and wildlife of a land, and even create art projects, listen to music, and cook food reflective of a region.

The final destination of the class is to learn required academic concepts like how to do word problems, learn new vocabulary words, learn the differences between different states of matter, and to become more aware of world events. A…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Gail G. Muir & Sally S. Blake. "Foundations of Collaboration." (2006). The Professional

Organizational Development Network in Higher Education. Retrieved 19 Jan 2007 at
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Planning Freedom in the Course

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56296640

(Philpott, Clabough, McConkey, and Turner, 2011).

Handling controversial social studies topics in the classroom setting is often not an easy undertaking. In the words of Philpott, Clabough, McConkey, and Turner (2011), "even though controversial issues are included in the curriculum, teachers face uncertainty on how to best teach the content" (42). As Byford, Lennon, and Russell (as cited in Russell, 2009) observe, teachers avoid controversial subjects in social studies because of lack of the relevant classroom management skills, discomfort when discussing some issues, restrictive district or school policies, and job security. To handle controversial subjects and topics appropriately, teachers can make use of a number of strategies and approaches.

To begin with, it helps to ensure that while at the same time seeking to ensure that one does not veer off the topic, learners are exposed to multiple perspectives with regard to the issue at hand. When there is a need to take a stand on an issue, teachers must ensure that students have been involved in the exploration of all the existing alternatives. In the words of High (1962) "the teacher's job is not to indoctrinate but to equip students to make decisions based on sound and objective knowledge"…… [Read More]

High, J.F. (1962). Teaching Secondary School Social Studies. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Levstik, L.S. & Tyson, C.A. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of Research in Social Studies Education. New York, NY: Routledge.
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Curriculum the Principals Role in

Words: 9119 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69665171

Human relations are vital. Teachers must trust each other, there must be norms that support productive criticism, and there must be techniques in place for combining and resolving disputes. Arrangements need to be in place that generates discussion for problem identification and decision making. These arrangements could be things such as normal team meetings amid teachers at the same grade level or department meetings within high schools and middle schools. Frequently useful are school connections to inside and outside sources of knowledge and scrutiny coupled to a readiness to learn from such sources. Also, schools must work to secure the power to proceed with actions that might go against existing policies and practices. By doing this they master the micro-politics of their districts and their communities.

In schools where circumstances to maintain collaborative problem solving are not in place, leaders must expertly manage two plans at the same time. They must establish the helpful conditions while taking on the problem solving process. They must construct the bus while maneuvering it. The essential of raising student performance does not permit pauses. If schools are to meet the test of incessant improvement, the commitment with both the procedure and the circumstances that…… [Read More]

Adkins, D. (1990). The Relationship between visionary Leadership and instructional leadership behavior of secondary school principals: regression analysis and hermeneutic

Balsamo, M. (2004). Assessing principal practices in a standards-based environment and examining the association between principal practices and student achievement.
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Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions About Curriculum Innovation in Learning and Technology

Words: 22121 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4872492

Self-Efficacy: A Definition

Social Cognitive Theory

Triangulation Data analysis

Teacher Self-Efficacy

Problems for the researcher

Data Analysis and Related Literature review.

Baseline Group

Gender Deviation

Age Deviation

Comparison of data with other literature in the field.

Everyday Integration

Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience

Barriers to use

Integration paradigm.

Co-oping and Project design.

Organizational Climate

Teacher Integration Education.

Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.

Data Analysis and Comparison

Recommendation for Further Research

Data Review Report

Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, Bandura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.

Bandura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:

Through cognitive experiences

Through motivational experiences

Their affective interactions with environment

Through selectional experiences and choices.

Cognitive Experiences

Bandura believed that the effects of self-efficacy beliefs on cognitive processes take many directed by individually selected, and personal goal setting is influenced by self-appraisal of capabilities. The stronger the teacher perceives their self-efficacy, the higher the goals and challenges people will set for themselves and the firmer is their commitment…… [Read More]

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Curriculum Books Have Been Written Since the

Words: 3875 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59141556

curriculum books have been written since the turn of the [20th] century; each with a different version of what 'curriculum' means (Ackerman, 1988). I define classroom curriculum design as the sequencing and pacing of content along with the experiences students have with that content. My use of the qualifier classroom is important. By definition, I am considering those decisions regarding sequencing, pacing, and experiences that are the purview of the classroom teacher. Some aspects of curricular design are addressed at the school level if, in fact, a school has a guaranteed and viable curriculum. Regardless of the direction provided by the school (or district), individual teachers still need to make decisions regarding curricular design at the classroom level given the unique characteristics of their students. Indeed, in a meta-analysis involving 22 studies, Anderson, (2003) found a strong relationship between a student's knowledge and experience with content and the type of sequencing and pacing necessary to learn that content (Jonassen, 2009).

Unfortunately teachers frequently do not make the decisions about how to sequence and pace content within their lessons and units. Rather, they rely on the design of textbooks for guidance. Roger Farr and his colleagues note that this is common…… [Read More]

Ackerman, P.L. (1988). Determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition: Cognitive abilities and information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117(3), 288-318.

Anderson, J. (2003). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Curriculum the Hidden Curriculum The

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81091221

When dealing with students from a wide variety of cultures and levels of ability, enhanced self-consciousness on the part of all members of the classroom can promote tolerance within the learning environment. The awareness of the classroom's 'hidden' assumptions can foster greater self-consciousness and compassion regarding those who are less fluent in the norms of the hidden curriculum.

The hidden curriculum of social assumptions thus is least harmful when it is not so hidden. An effective teacher cannot eliminate all social norms from the classroom, nor would this be desirable, but the teacher can grow more self-conscious and explicit about her expectations. Some of the teacher's assumptions might be valid, others might not be, but not until the rules of the hidden curriculum are revealed can they be fairly upheld. Hidden rules are often arbitrarily enforced, and frustrate those who do not understand them.

The 'hidden curriculum' has been viewed alternatively as insidious and necessary. The curriculum has even been called the conscious and the unconscious "indoctrination that attempts to maintain social privilege" within the framework of a formal education setting (Deutsch, 2004, p. 3). Yet it has also been called the "unstated rules necessary for successful completion of formal…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Deutsch, Nellie (2004). Hidden curriculum paper. The University of Phoenix.

Retrieved March 21, 2010 at
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Planning Function of Management in

Words: 1529 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93259027

(iii) The mounting significance of the role of the corporate and public affairs function in companies (iv) the transforming roles of the HRM function in corporate and especially the significance of strategic HRM. The narrow role of HRM in corporate social responsibility has relevantly unfavorable connotations for HR profession itself as corporate social responsibility has attained spheres of more strategic relevance in case of companies. (Corporate Citizenship & Human Resource Management: A new tool or a missed opportunity?)


Building Level Administrators" Retrieved at Accessed on 5 August, 2005

Ethics, Excellence and the Los Angeles Unified District School" Retrieved at Accessed on 5 August, 2005

The Functions of School Management" Retrieved from http://library.unesco- http://library.unesco- Accessed on 5 August, 2005

Zappala, Gianni. (February, 2004) "Corporate Citizenship & Human Resource Management:

new tool or a missed opportunity?" Retrieved at Accessed on 5 August, 2005… [Read More]

The Functions of School Management" Retrieved from http://library.unesco- http://library.unesco- Accessed on 5 August, 2005

Zappala, Gianni. (February, 2004) "Corporate Citizenship & Human Resource Management:

new tool or a missed opportunity?" Retrieved at Accessed on 5 August, 2005
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Curriculum for Healthcare

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16741165

Curriculum Design


The obj3ective of this study is to review and research issues and trends in curriculum design relating to healthcare and to elaborate on recommendations dealing with the issues and in view of the trends.

Gone are the days in education when the issues were simple and the lessons followed course since in today's society there are healthcare issues such as AIDS, premarital sex and needed birth control measures as well as other non-sexually related diseases including cancer and other health issues. The curriculum for healthcare education is a touchy issues because of the various religion, political, social, and familial values that exist in a diverse society with many races, ethnicities, and backgrounds. For this reason, the educator in healthcare must understand the volatile ground on which curriculum design may tread and the various view of parents, communities, as well as religious and political leaders in the community.

I. The Literature

Albert (2007) reports that he medical education literature describes 4 main elements of curriculum development that should be used: (1) curriculum design, which comprises the content and organization; (2) instructional design, which comprises teaching and learning strategies; (3) the assessment of learners;…… [Read More]

Albert LJ (2010) Curriculum Design: Finding a Balance. The Journal of Rheumatology. Retrieved from: 

McKimm, J. (nd) Curriculum Design and Development. Retrieved from:
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Curriculum Into an Online Course

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76877948

2. Develop a filing system on the computer and a physical filing system to put everything in its place.

3. Plan the teams of people and shifts as well.

Facilitating processes:

1. Identify the risk of people not cooperating with each other.

2. Analyze environment for stress and in-competencies, accommodate.

Executing Process Group:

1. Give set schedule

2. Notify staff of teams and who they will be working with.

3. Check all the information in the DML needed to file everything

4. Buy necessary storage for the files to be stored

5. Checking on the development of online storage as well.

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group:

1. Monitoring the output of the workers through surveillance cameras and logs.

2. Check to see if the teams are getting along, IE social monitoring.

Closing: Finally, with the project's success comes a new way to file and store the approved paperwork both physically and on the computer. I will record all data that arise from emergency situations or problematic situations for future use.

Page 3 Scenario 3:

Introduce the organization to a set of practices for it service management (ITSM) that focuses on aligning it services with the needs of businesses. Implement social…… [Read More]

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Planning and Implementing Early Childhood Assessment

Words: 2704 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95492768

EC Assessment & Intervention

Mission Statement

Partial Portfolio

Background Information Related to Diagnostic Test

Diagnostic Test -- Developmental Area of Concern

At the Playground.

At Home.

Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Goals

Cognitive Instructional Goal

Motor Instructional Goal

Physical Instructional Goal

Language Instructional Goal

Mission Statement

The purpose of early childhood assessment is to document the present status of the child with regard to developmental milestones and to identify any developmental areas that require follow-up assessment or follow-along. Assessment of very young children needs to be integral to their daily activities. Children change very rapidly and it is too easy to assume that they have reached developmental milestones in all areas: marked development in one area can distract caregivers and therapists from a deficit or an area in which development is occurring at a slower rate than typical. Recording the developmental progress of children is not an onerous task if it is integrated into the daily routine and becomes a habit. Steps to prepare for this integration of assessment in daily routines includes making recording sheets readily available, review the assessment records weekly, and communicate with other staff and parents on a monthly basis about the observations. An important reason for communicating…… [Read More]

____. (2010, May). Developmental Checklists Birth to Five, The Early Childhood Direction Center. ASQ-SE-Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Retrieved

____. (2014). The HighScope Difference. HighScope. Retreived 
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Curriculum Across the Nation

Words: 2494 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79834268

role of physical education in the public school system has been under pressure from a number of fronts. In the contracting budgetary environment, the amount of dollars dedicated to non-core curriculum studies have experiences forced cut backs. When academic achievement levels are suffering across the board, many school systems make the mistake of cutting phys ed budgets in order to bolster focus on core academic areas. However, school systems that make this choice are often starving the goose that can help lay the golden egg. Studies and experiential evidence demonstrate that academic achievement is tied to both proper educational methods in the classroom, and a curriculum which focuses on developing the entire student, including his or her body through physical education.

For example, according to Maier (2001) 49 states no longer have a daily requirement for physical education. Illinois is a lone exception, and the school system is reaping the dividends for area schools there. In Naperville, a community 35 miles west of Chicago, residents feared that so much attention was being paid to physical education that test scores would drop. The concern however has proven to be misdirected. In 1999, the school district competed in the Third International Mathematics…… [Read More]

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Planning for Special Education Needs

Words: 901 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44584007

videos that pertain to the Individualized Education Plan, or IEP. The IEP is part of the wider programs known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The IEP is a legal document that covers a specific child and mandates how people that come in contact with that child will act and behave when the child is present and/or learning. This brief report will cover a few aspects of the IEP and its process including whether the school leader needs to know the IEP development process, how a school leader assists parents and staff in the IEP development process, which stakeholder(s) have the most authority during the IEP development process and the upsides or downsides of having all stakeholders being a part of the IEP development process. While finding a singular solution and plan from the input of a whole group can be difficult, it is important for all stakeholders to be involved.


The school leader absolutely needs to be involved in the process. Given the teaching and legal implications involved with the IEP, it would be a substantial mistake for a school leader to not be involved in the process. The stated…… [Read More]

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Curriculum for Medical Training Intervention

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24921450

Medical trauma triage management requires skillful curriculum development, which in turn depends on an assessment of needs and an anticipation of potential barriers to implementation. The initial needs assessment has revealed required resources of about four or five medical services providers such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners. Support personnel may be provided, but an additional challenge will arise when implementing the curriculum in a real world setting such as a trauma center, emergency room, or intensive care unit. Adequate space and time must be carved out for the curriculum implementation, without disturbing standard operating procedures. At the same time, improving trauma triage management will ultimately facilitate patient service delivery and maximize care outcomes, goals that should continually be communicated to the institutional administration as well as all participants in the program.

Each phase of the ADDIE model, an industry benchmark for curriculum development, "requires constant evaluation," (Allen, 2006, p. 439). Evaluation from curriculum developers must be supplemented by office and institutional support. Formal institutional support is more likely when curricular elements are presented with technological tools and presentation aids including flow charts, content checkpoints, formative tests, assessments, and other potentially distracting but nevertheless useful tools in the arsenal of…… [Read More]

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Planning Implementation Evaluation Revision Implementation of

Words: 898 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17912063

A training program of such magnitude should continually be evaluated, and improved upon. This could be accomplished through data analysis, student surveys and targeted interviews. Step five is the implementations of any improvements and corrections in the training process.

Players and Stakeholders

The key players in this process could not be more different: technical experts (it) and academic experts (departments, colleges and schools in the university). The academics have a clear vision of what the training program should encompass and the it experts possess the technical skills in facilitating such a process. Clearly, this must be a collaborative effort. For example, let's say the academic side of the team wants to use discussion board that incorporates online reading, YouTube videos as well as Social Networking. For the actual implementation of such an idea, it must be consulted, cajoled and consulted.

Online Students and Objectives

Online learners do not learn in a vacuum. Such learners must be disciplined to succeed in an online learning environment. Therefore, any online training program must carefully balance challenge with practicality. The experience should be interesting, engaging and a challenge. If the training is deemed to difficult, the learner could give up and participate halfheartedly. If…… [Read More]

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Parts of Curriculum

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2588844

Curriculum: A Puzzle of Learning

With an increased focus in literacy and assessment in education, the old curriculum, that is, planning the activities, then searching for resources, and finally deciding how to evaluate a student's achievement has been replaced with a new model. The new model begins with the evaluation, and then focuses on the resources that are available, and finally the tasks to teach the students are created. This model can be adapted to fit the school system philosophy and the individual school and students, but as a general practice, the new model of creating and presenting curriculum falls somewhere within this model. But how do all the parts of the curriculum fit together? Each piece, from the set outcomes to the different types of evaluation must work together to form a unified, understandable curriculum that is accessible to students and teachers alike.

The first factor that must be considered is the school system's philosophy. Cultural and socio-economic factors often play a role in a school system's philosophy on education. Most school systems run with the belief that the curriculum must be culturally relevant, and they understand that students learn better when they are presented with a curriculum that…… [Read More]

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Internal Curriculum Factors for This

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34401707

According to her market research, the primary reason that families do not take traditional birth courses is that the courses are expensive. In order to address this, Brio maximized the online and digital aspects of their curriculum to drastically reduce the costs to families who were primarily paying for the published course material in other classes.

The internal factor that I wish to further evaluate is that of resources within the institution. The hospital that I chose to observe and suggest the change in curriculum for was a hospital in Scottsdale. This hospital is very large and has a large labor and delivery area. Additionally, the hospital also has one-site conference space available that can be requested in advance. This space would provide the ideal place for the training, especially since the training is meant only for labor and delivery nurses within the hospital.

Additional resources to consider for the curriculum would be the need for published materials, as digital copies are less useful in a formal setting. In the past, copy machines have always been made available, so the curriculum could be copied and combined into a useable form for the nurses.

Scottsdale is a private hospital, so economic…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Martin, Karin (2003). "Giving Birth Like a Girl." Gender and Society. Vol 17.1 (54-72).

The Bradley Method of Husband-Coached Childbirth. Accessed 5 Feb 2012 at 

Brio Birth. Accessed 5 Feb 2012 at
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Language Policy and Planning Language Planning Refers

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60978398

Language Policy and Planning

Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()

Decision making in language planning

There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning. The first is the linguistic assimilation. This is a belief that all members of the society, regardless of their native language, need to learn and use the language that is dominant in the society or country in which they live. A good example of this is English-only movement which was…… [Read More]

Little, M.E.R., & McCarty, T.L. (2006). Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools. Tempe, AZ: Language Policy Research Unit.

Martin, J.J. (1988). An American Adventure in Bookburning in the Style of 1918. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher.
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Strategic Planning in Education Every

Words: 3871 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35723521

General Electric (Collis, Montgomery, 2008) pioneered the development of this framework, working in conjunction with the Boston Consulting Group to tailor its specific market sizing and profitability measures to the conglomerate of businesses that comprised GE at the time. One of the key assumptions of the BCG Growth/Share Matrix is that there must be continual monitoring of the market, specifically competitors and relative market share growth over time. Only by continually measuring and monitoring these two attributes can the Growth/Share matrix be an effective framework for strategic planning. GE, through their Crotonville Learning Center in Connecticut also defined a series of external customer-facing processes that managers at GE could use to gain the critical information they needed to populate the BCG Growth/Share Matrix and use it as a planning tool. Soon other larger multinational corporations (MNCs) with complex value chains and series of unrelated businesses also relied on the key concepts of the BCG Growth/Share Matrix (Panshef, Dorsam, Sakao, Birkhofer, 2009). In conjunction with Harvard University's creation of the Profit Impact of Marketing Strategies (PIMS) database, the BCG Growth/Share matrix could then benchmarked across industries. Educational institutions are continually refining the use of these frameworks and concepts in defining how…… [Read More]

Stewart Adam, Andrea Vocino, David Bednall. 2009. The world wide web in modern marketing's contribution to organisational performance. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 27, no. 1 (January 1): 7-24.

Deborah F. Beard. 2009. Successful Applications of the Balanced Scorecard in Higher Education. Journal of Education for Business 84, no. 5 (May 1): 275-282.
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Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum Locate a Set of

Words: 977 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90232897

Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum

Locate a set of standards that relate to the arts or aesthetic learning. Read them through and select one or two that apply to a particular early childhood age group. Discuss how you could use these standards to plan an art activity for young children. You may use The National Standards for Arts Education website or choose any other state standards you would like.

The category that I selected is Dance, and the standard is Grade K-4 Dance Standard 3 which reads: Understanding dance as a way to create and communicate meaning. The Achievement Standard consists of the following objectives:

Students observe and discuss how dance is different from other forms of human movement (such as sports, everyday gestures)

Students take an active role in a class discussion about interpretations of and reactions to a dance

Students present their own dances to peers and discuss their meanings with competence and confidence

Even though this particular standard is intended for children in grades K. through 4, the achievement standard is not too advanced to use, with some adaptation, with pre-school children. The activities are planned with dance as the theme and the medium for expression is art.

Materials…… [Read More]

Stuart Brown: Importance of Play. [video]. Retrieved

Stuart Brown: Why Play Is Vital -- No Matter Your Age. [video]. Retrieved

Zaretskii, V.K. (November -- December 2009). "The Zone of Proximal Development What Vygotsky Did Not Have Time to Write." Journal of Russian and East European Psychology 47-70 -- 93. doi:10.2753/RPO1061-0405470604.
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Concept Learner Centered Curriculum in TESOL

Words: 4782 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63782176

Learner-centered curriculum' in TESOL

The most important learning processes in any school anywhere in the world involve the use of several different means of communication. The communication methods may be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal communication involves the use of oral and written symbols that can communicate a message to the student, and non-verbal involves the use of, primarily, among other means, body language. Without communication there can be no means of telling the other person what one person wants or needs, and communication is used between teachers and parents, between groups, between the parents and the community, and also for the formation of interpersonal relationships and as the medium of instruction in a school. Any sort of behavioral problems in school would be dealt with by effective means of communication, and it can be stated that without communication there would be no education.

However, the culture or the background of the individual has a lasting impact on how that person communicates, and this is the reason why the teacher who is more aware of the varied cultural backgrounds of her students will be bale to communicate better with them and also understand them with respect to their cultural backdrop. When…… [Read More]

Bacon, Suzanne. "Communicative Language Teaching" Retrieved From Accessed on 15 November, 2004
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Moore & Kearsley Strategic Planning

Words: 934 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37245983

There is no formula to fall back on when trying to address the real needs and perceived needs of various elements in the organizational hierarchy: hence the challenge for the administrator.

The administrative budget is often the aspect of the online learning environment most tempting to "skimp" upon, given that administrative savings are supposed to be one of the benefits of the online environment, "Good management means extensive planning and this needs market research and other studies which are more difficult to justify to the faculty for the public than creating new courses, hiring more academics staff, or buying new technology." But scheduling constantly overlapping semesters of students and teachers, distributing dates for course registration and tuition payments; completion of the course assignments, examinations, and graduation procedures are required for the university to work as it should, and to maintain a high-quality reputation. Scrutinizing the quality of instruction in a realistic and timely fashion also requires strong administrative procedures and a staff willing to implement them effectively.

Online courses have come under criticism because of the "discrepancy between the literature cited and the actual practice of the institutions surveyed and concluded" and a lack of real educational design and student…… [Read More]

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Rethinking Curriculum in Education for

Words: 3030 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73299583

253). Based on their review of 20 existing education for sustainability initiatives, Ferreira and her associates identified three primary models that exist along a continuum from local to more broad-based approaches as follows:

1. Collaborative Resource Development and Adaptation model: This model seeks to bring about change through the development and adaptation of high quality curriculum and pedagogy resources. It does not usually seek to bring about change across a whole teacher education system;

2. Action Research model: This model aims to build capacity by engaging the initiative participants in a 'deep' process of reflective action. This model thus targets change at the practitioner and institutional level; and,

3. Whole-of-System model: This is a radically different model from the other two in that it seeks change in a multi-faceted and system-wide manner (2007, p. 46).

An analysis of these three models by Ferreira et al. showed that while each model provided a useful framework in which to promote education for sustainability initiatives, their effectiveness was mitigated by a number of factors, including the extent to which they actively engaged learners in developing the critical thinking skills they would need to formulate alternative and innovative solutions to issues of sustainability. The…… [Read More]

Companion, M., Laurie, J. & Shaw, G. (2002, Summer). Education for sustainability: an ecological approach. Green Teacher, 68, 6-7.

Davies, J., Engdahl, I., Otieno, L., Pramling-Samuelson, I., Siraj-Blatchford, J. & Vallabh
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ELL Curriculum Implementing a Unit

Words: 2422 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70556501


Alignment Procedure

As Popham (2006) makes clear, choosing the best instruments for program is reliant on how well the instrument is aligned with the goals of the program and the school. To achieve this objective I recommend instituting a task forced charged with the responsibility of working with teachers to develop a set of both short-term and long-term goals.

In regard to alignment with long-term goals, our program evaluation designers and analysts need to be fully aware that their objectives must be fully attainable, fully supportive of national standards objectives, and consistent with the long-term objectives of the teachers and the school. Goal-setting by faculty does not mean that they can do whatever they want to do. The leaders of this evaluation process must remember that in the end they have the responsibility for ensuring that all objectives are consistent, and for approving their subordinates' objectives. This means being continually on the lookout for goals that are unreasonable or impossible to reach. However, faculty must be allowed to exercise a major influence on their objectives, since improved motivation can result if they are allowed to help in determining the criteria by which their performance will be evaluated (Mintzberg, Quinn…… [Read More]

Fitzpatrick, J. Sanders, J. & Worthen, B (2003). Program evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. (3rd ed.) Allyn & Bacon.

Garret, J.E. & Holcomb, S. (2005, Fall) Meeting the needs of Immigrant students with limited English ability, International Education 35, 49-62
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Program Planning Models Educational Philosophy

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98922132

I was able to find funding to send some teachers abroad for training courses and have used technology to connect with educators abroad over the Internet. I have organized workshops to clarify the aims and strategy of the program to teachers, to encourage them to get 'on board' and believe in the curriculum changes.

A child's education must entail more than memorization or even passing standardized exams. Education must open a student's mind, and the teacher is the key to unlock the mystery of a student's inherent gifts. Teachers must guide a child's life and foster every child's innate passion for learning, before the child learns that school is not supposed to be 'cool' or fun. As an instructor of science teachers, I stress that all children are innate experimenters and lovers of science, until the children learn they 'should be' otherwise: it is the mission of every science teacher to keep the flame of the love of science alive, so that no student ever thinks that he or she is not good at science.

Understanding a student's development, while fostering innate personal interests is a central factor of my program planning philosophy. A teacher must never forget that serving…… [Read More]

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Education Research Planning What Are the Critical

Words: 461 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2969543

Education Research Planning

What are the critical aspects?

According to the United States Government's "National Directions in Education Research Planning," educational research planning must emphasize focus and selectivity in curriculum design and "concentrate on those areas that the public and profession believe are important as well as those that will become important," to render education practical for student's future lives outside of the classroom. Student learning is the touchstone issue and there must be "a particular but by no means exclusive emphasis on the challenges presented by ever-growing diversity and inequality." (Timpane, 1998)

Additionally, the selection of specific areas of inquiry for teachers, through the use of objective research, must be clear enough to "build strategies consisting of related projects executed over time." The candidates for the "short list of research priorities seemed rather obvious: continued focus on reading and language learning; expanded attention to mathematics; the dynamics of teacher performance and effectiveness in schools and classrooms; and new emphasis on technology and telecommunications, international studies, and learning in family, community, and workplace settings." Peer planning amongst teachers was also deemed critical in preparing students for the future in a practical fashion, given research-based statistical support as to its effectiveness.…… [Read More]

Chaskin, Robert. (2005) "Democracy And Bureaucracy in a Community Planning Process." Journal of Planning Education and Research. 24: 408-419.

Timpane, Michael. (November 1998) "National Directions in Education Research Planning." U.S. Government Publications. Retrieved 31 May 2005 at
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Program Planning Which Approach to

Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54573363

A critical approach can enhance a naturalistic one also, by showing how race, class, gender, and social power influence self-esteem and motivation to learn.

3.If respected authority from each of the three approaches (classical, naturalistic, or critical) were invited to your agency to evaluate your agency's educational programs, what advice would each give to your agency? How would your agency likely respond to such advice?

A classical theorist would hold a formal seminar during which each participant would be given handouts. Handouts would include lists and outlines of suggested courses of action. A presentation would accompany the lecture, after which seminar participants would be allowed to ask questions in a traditional format. The authority would evaluate my agency's educational programs in terms of quantitative data. Assessment measures would guide further action. Most subjective input would be politely dismissed. The authority would ask program directors to come up with a formal plan detailing the objectives of the adult education project and any assessment measures used to evaluate its effectiveness. Our agency would respond well to the advice but it is unlikely that a purely classical approach would help.

A naturalistic authority might also hold a formal lecture or meeting but the…… [Read More]

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Program Planning Classical Naturalistic and

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92286438

In the case of a sexual harassment education seminar, assessments would consist of both short-term and long-term investigations of the organizational culture. If necessary or possible, dramatic shifts in the organizational culture could prepare the future workforce for a harassment-free environment. The need for more females in positions of power remains one of the greatest stumbling blocks to eliminating sexual harassment. A naturalistic approach to educational intervention would emphasize how females in the workplace could overcome obstacles such as unequal pay and inequitable distributions of power.

However, the approach most suitable for an educational intervention focusing on gender in the workplace would be a critical one. A critical intervention strategy focuses on the "political and ideological activity connected with social inequalities in society as a whole," ("The Nature and Context of Program Planning" p. 4). Given that large-scale transformations of organizational culture are outside the realm of the current educational intervention, a critical approach at least raises awareness about the global context of sexual harassment. Of course, sexual harassment is not limited to the workplace. Gender inequities are endemic to almost all societies on the planet. An adult education intervention can capitalize on scholastic research to illustrate the extent to…… [Read More]

Cookson, Knowles, Nadler & Nadler. "Prototypical Program Planning Models."

The Nature and Context of Program Planning."
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Effective Strategies for Integrating Ethical Use of Technology Into the K-12 Curriculum

Words: 1922 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98713218

integrating ethical use of technology into the K-12 curriculum

Integrating Technology in the Classroom

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 aims to close the achievement gap between disadvantaged and struggling students and their peers. The message is that every child can learn, and that schools are accountable for a child's progress.

At the federal level, there is to be more money for at-risk children in low-income communities. The government will invest in teacher training and innovative education practices that improve student performance.

While this new law defines a destination, it is up to the states and school districts to define the paths for getting there. Best practice begins with ensuring that all the components for successful integration of technology are in place. The primary ethical concerns of access, attitude, training, and support must be addressed before moving on to the more popular topic of integrating instructional technology into the classroom.

Access occurs when school systems plan for and provide enough equipment for all students. Without modern working computers and software, project-based learning is impossible (Linn, 1997).

Attitudes of all the parties involved (students, teachers, administrators, parents, and community) have to be addressed. If necessary, some "attitude adjustment" may…… [Read More]

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Parts of Curriculum Fit Together

Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26672971


Definition method of teaching that focuses on what students can actually do after they are taught, is known as outcome-based education. All teaching and curriculum decisions are made on the basis of how can the students be best facilitated to obtain the desired outcome.

The Backward Mapping

By its objective, the planning process of an outcome-based education is in reverse of a traditional educational plan. In the former, the desired outcome is selected first and the curriculum is secondarily created to support that intended outcome. It can be understood from the library instructions very well in the sense that librarians want students to have specific information seeking skills (e.g. The ability to use online card catalogs, etc.) as an outcome of library instruction.

Curriculum Alignment


Clear, observable expressions of student learning that appear after a considerable set of learning experiences, comprise outcomes. Unlike majority beliefs, outcomes are not values, goals, scores, grades, or averages, but one that has well-defined content or concepts, and is established through a well-defined process, depending on what the student knows; what the student can do with the prior knowledge; and what confidence and motivation rests in students carrying out the expression. (Spady and…… [Read More]

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Preschool Preparation Preschool Planning the Mission of

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91309377

Preschool Preparation

Preschool Planning

The mission of the preschool will be to provide services in a fun, safe, and educational environment. Each child will be guaranteed individualized attention and a quality learning experience, including group activities, educational and interactive toys, games, books, and quality scholastic television programming and computer applications for select age groups. Children will also participate in seasonal field trips to petting zoos, community gardens and recreational centers. The preschool's overall aim will be to assist with all developmental milestones of students by focusing on activities that encourage cognitive, psychological and emotional growth.

Implementation of Objectives

The preschool will accomplish its goal by hiring a highly qualified team of certified pre-Kindergarten educators and other staff who will assume daily responsibility for providing engaging learning experiences. Staff will be designated to specific age groups to offer appropriate instruction and encourage peer relationships. Emphasis will be placed on discovery-centered learning through both organized and spontaneous play. This will provide the best social, physical, mental, and emotional stimulation of all students (White, 1999).


Ideally, we would like to explore leases of previous preschools or childcare facilities that meet the form and function of the envisioned facility and also include an…… [Read More]

Alasuutari, M., & Karila, K. (2010). Framing the Picture of the Child. Children & Society, 24(2), 100-111. doi:10.1111/j.1099-0860.2008.00209.x.

Frazee, B. (1993). Core knowledge: How to get started. Educational Leadership, 50(8), 28.
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Marketing Strategies Planning Implementation &

Words: 3342 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95689371

Kodak decided to implement this initiative after conducting market research on the costs of printing at home. According to a study by InfoTrends, the greatest obstacle to printing at home is the cost of ink and supplies (Kodak, 2007). Another printer from the new line, the Kodak EasyShare 5300 offers a 3-inch color LCD display that enables photo viewing and cropping directly from the printer, with a memory card slot that provides an additional quick and simple way to print digital pictures without a PC. Other printers in the new line consist of printers geared toward home-office users. In this way Kodak maintained competitive with other photo companies offering the same products. Kodak's main marketing strategy is that the company is producing a less-expensive product with few frills that still fits its customers' needs. This allows Kodak to create a cheaper product that consumers love but competitors don't want to copy. According to Christensen & Anthony (2007), whenever a company attempts this kind of strategy, there are three aspects that assess its chances of success: overshooting existing customers' needs; having competitors copy their strategy; and whether success will expand the market. Research indicates that when a company overshoots customers, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Ailawadi, K., Borin, N., Farris, P. (1995). Market Power and Performance: A Cross-Industry Analysis of Manufacturers and Retailers. Journal of Retailing,(71)(3): 211-248.

Blair, R. & LaFontaine, F. (2005). The Economics of Franchising. Cambridge Brandt, M. (2000). Introducing New Products. Retrieved November 12, 2007, at .
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Academic Artifacts Iviannette Figueroa Academic Planning and

Words: 915 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96027723

Academic Artifacts

Iviannette Figueroa

Academic Planning and Career Exploration

The personal artifact selected is a time management plan for a three-day period between the 19th and 21st. The plan shows the schedule for each day and the times the activities actually occurred:

Saturday the 19th: My plan for the day

am -- Wake up; shower

6:30 am -- Breakfast

7:00 am -- Take babies to day care

am -- Anatomy and Physiology

pm -- Cook the main meal

3:00 pm -- Dinner

pm -- Play outside with the children

7:00 to 9:00 PM -- Study

9:30 pm -- Shower

11:00 pm -- Watch TV; bed

What really happened:

7:00 am -- Woke, showered

7:30 am -- Breakfast

8:00 am -- Drive children to day care; drive to school

to 11:00 AM -- Anatomy and Physiology

12:00 am -- Picked up children

1:00 pm -- Purchased ready-made meal for the children

2:00 -7:00 PM -- Played outside with children

7:30 pm -- Dinner time

8:00 pm -- Shower

pm - midnight -- Watched television

12:30 am --Went to bed

Sunday 20: My plan for the day

9: 00 am -- Wake up and shower

1:00-2:00 PM -- Attend church

2:00 to…… [Read More]

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Emergency Planning and Operations Methodology

Words: 1276 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12023788

Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology

The Department of Homeland Security is fully aware of the importance of local and state first responders. Currently managed under the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other various offices, local firefighters, state and local law enforcement, and local emergency medical personnel would be subject to the Department of Homeland Security's authority (, the Department is prepared to "develop and manage a national training and evaluation system to design curriculums, set standards, evaluate, and reward performance in local, state, and federal training efforts" ( FEMA, emergency supplies, food and shelter would be allocated to supplement the work of local agencies that are already providing such needs at the community level (, FEMA would coordinate "private industry, the insurance sector, mortgage lenders, the real estate industry, homebuilding associations, citizens, and others" in high-risk areas (

It is clearly laid out that the Department of Homeland Security would assume control of and responsibility of all federal, state, and local emergency response departments. The Department states that in the event of an emergency it "would manage and coordinate federal entities supporting local and state emergency response efforts"…… [Read More]

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Analysis of Inclusion in Special Education Curriculum

Words: 2205 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45085666

inclusion" is not part of the law; instead, it states that each student must be educated in the least restrictive educational environment (LRE). Analyze all sides of "inclusion," (1. full inclusion; 2. inclusion in special classes like physical education, art, or lunch; and 3. inclusion in all classes except for reading or math).


The term 'inclusion' means complete acceptance of every student which leads towards sense of acceptance and belonging in the classroom. Over the years, there has not been any fixed definition of inclusion, but different groups and organizations have provided their own definitions. The most basic definition of 'inclusion' states that every student with special needs are supported in 'chronologically age appropriate general education classes' in schools and get the instructions specialized for them by the Individual Education Programs (IEPs) within the general activities of the class and the main curriculum. The idea of 'inclusion' is to ensure the presence of disabled students at school along with the neighbours and friends of their community while at the same time receiving specially designed support and instructions that they require in order to get high standards and gain success in learning (FDDC, 2012).

Full Inclusion

Inclusion has different aspects…… [Read More]

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Role of Nurse Leaders in Disaster Planning

Words: 2680 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32175420

Role of Nurse Leaders in Disaster Planning

Politics of the Hospital and Disaster Planning

The politics in hospital settings surrounding nurse leaders and any functional change is likely associated with the hierarchy of the hospital systems, where individuals in administrative positions and doctors limit the input of nurse leaders in making change. This can be associated with nurse leaders reluctance to provide input based on the hierarchy, the exclusion of most or all nurses from discussions and meeting surrounding change or any number of other aspects of the system of hierarchy. The reason for this exclusion is multivariate but could be associated with the fact that many nurse leaders feel ill prepared to make major decisions regarding disaster planning as a result of limitations in disaster planning in the nursing curriculum. (Olivia, Claudia, & Yuen, 2009, pp. 3165-3171)

Increasingly hospitals and other large health care organizations are coming to terms with the fact that floor level skilled staff and even unskilled staff are integral parts of the health care delivery team and can offer insight into the everyday and high demand environments of the delivery system, such as would be found during a disaster. In the historical model often a…… [Read More]

Coyle, G., Sapnas, K.G., & Ward-Presson, K. (2007). Dealing with disaster. Nursing Management, 38(7), 24-30. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Fu-Jin, S., Turale, S., Yaw-Sheng, L., Meei-Ling, G., Ching-Chiu, K., Chyn-Yng, Y., & Yen-Chi, L. (2009). Surviving a life-threatening crisis: Taiwan's nurse leaders' reflections and difficulties fighting the SARS epidemic. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(24), 3391-3400. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02521.x
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Effective Lesson Planning

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34493578

Employee Training and Development

A lesson plan contains information describing what will happen within a single lesson. It is necessary to ensure that a lesson plan entails four key elements for a successful learning experience. These are Instructional Objectives, Teaching Activities and Strategies, Sequencing and Materials and Evaluation and Follow-up.

Instructional Objectives

What learners should know and be able to do after the lesson? These are particular "instructional objectives" and articulate a clear focus of the lesson. In courses with a significant number of ELL's, it is important to formulate "language objectives" and the subject's material goals. Requirements from the curriculum frameworks are much more international and usually signify long-term goals. It is common practice to publish the focus objectives of the lesson in the same spot in the classroom for learners to see every day. Many instructors also show the standards (Laird, Holton & Naquin, 2003).

Teaching Activities and Strategies

Particular planning is needed to find out which teaching methods will the trainer use for the lesson. These should tie back to and back up the lesson goals. These organized instructions and events will take place during the instruction period to facilitate accomplishment of the goals. These consist of…… [Read More]

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Nursing Ethics Curriculum and Into Practice

Words: 1813 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79191289

Ethics and Morality

Ethical Analysis: A Nursing Situation

Ethical Analysis

Identify the nursing issue

In ancient times, nurses used to take orders from other senior professionals where they were then permitted to initiate routine procedures. Their intellectual skills and reasoning were not valued or fostered. The approach to nursing made any decision regarding medical and ethical issues at the discretion of the doctors. However, nurses in modern settings have realized the therapeutic potential where patients are involved in treatment decisions and course of care. Changes within the nursing profession reflect their desire to be contributory and responsible to the patients' welfare (Peirce & Smith, 2013). Therefore, people who face influences from major decisions dislike policies from unilateral decision-making process. The diversion appears when nurses have good reasons to act and face treatment consequences during daily works.

A 42-year-old woman had malignant breast lump, which was realized after numerous tests were done. Her consultant called for an immediate mastectomy. Her dismay and grief was evident, as she felt aggrieved during the two nights in the hospital. The ward nurse sought to console her for close to two hours during the first night. Surgery was planned for the second day and one…… [Read More]

Butts, J., B. Rich, K., (2013). Nursing Ethics: Across the Curriculum and Into Practice. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

Fry, S., T. Veatch, R.M. Taylor, C., (2010) Case Studies in Nursing Ethics. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
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Preparedness Planning for Private Sector Business

Words: 2444 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67442991

organization is derived from the preparedness cycle developed by the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and utilized by the Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA) of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other disaster response / emergency preparedness organizations. A primary advantage of using this proven model is that it provides a consistently implemented and commonly understood approach to disaster preparedness. The preparedness cycle is a continuously renewing series of integrated components that enable the a state of preparedness to be achieved and maintained, and includes the following: Planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating, and taking corrective action ("Preparedness," 2014). The components of the NIMS preparedness cycle are shown below.

Figure 1. NIMS Preparedness Cycle

Organizational preparedness requires the coordinated effort of both internal and external individuals, and the engagement of agencies and resources external to the focus organization. These external resources are dedicated to incident response and emergency management, an important aspect of which is coordination of effort. Undergirding the need for disaster readiness is the markedly more efficacious implementation of incident response activities and emergency management processes and procedures in the presence of a continuous organizational preparedness cycle. Source: National Incident Management System, FEMA. 2014

Not every component…… [Read More]

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Recruiting Planning for K-12 the

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25220877

This particular project specifically discusses recruiting, selecting and retaining a multi-ethnic, multi-racial faculty, but what if that just doesn't work out? How does a district address the needs of minorities if they just don't get the candidates they actually want? To quote a public school teacher I overheard one time, "If there are only two Black or Hispanic kids in the whole school, and people are not thoughtful and nurturing, it spoils education for those two." These days, colleges of Education are addressing these issues and school districts are forming such entities as "diversity taskforces."

Another facet to retaining people has to do with inter-district mobility. Schools are very different now than even 20 years ago. Each building has a different philosophy, different programs and obviously, different faculty and staff. The ability to try out different matches to find maximum comfort for the employee can be a very important aspect of retention.

An important aspect of every teacher's professional practice is continuing education. Research constantly offers new strategies, new possibilities for doing a better job, for making a subject clearer, for more effective ways of handling students, both regular and problem students. No Child Left Behind makes this more imperative…… [Read More]

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Hhe 595 Workshop in Comprehensive School Health Education

Words: 3359 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62884560

School Health Education


Comprehensive School Health Education

Kolbe's Expectations

Dr. Lloyd Kolbe lines up the expectations of a school health education. These are: increased understanding about the science of individual and societal health; increased competency to make decisions about personal behaviors that influence health; increased skills required to form behaviors conducive to health; contribute to the development and maintenance of such behaviors; and enhancement of these skills to maintain and improve health of families and communities.

The existing school health education has not come to par with its function. It confronts problems, such as the failure of the home to encourage practice of health habits learned in school, ineffectiveness of instructional methods, and resistance to certain health topics by parents and the community. A more effective or responsive school health education requires a valid curriculum, qualified teachers, and consistent application of what is learned.

Increased understanding about the science of individual and societal health.

Schools are expected not only to provide high-quality instruction but also to pay attention to student health. Studies show the substantial connection between nutrition, physical activity and learning. Healthy children are definitely more prepared and capable to learn, less likely to skip school,…… [Read More]

Fausti, S.A. et al. (2005). Hearing health and care: the need for improved hearing loss prevention and hearing conservation practices. Vol 42 # 4 Journal of Rehabilitation

Research and Development: Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved on August

27, 2011 from