Curriculum Planning Essays (Examples)

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Curriculum Philosophy My Philosophy of

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89526782

' Musical intelligence can be deployed through the use of teaching 'times tables songs' and visual intelligence can be stimulated through the use of allowing students to create colorful classroom displays, perhaps even drawing upon student's interpersonal intelligence as well by assigning different teams a single 'table,' like six, to illustrate with pictures.

Although I believe that multiple intelligences can be incorporated into any classroom, with the right degree of creativity on the part of the teacher, I also know that having the resources to make use of computers to create webquests, to have adequate access to art and musical materials, to be able to conduct field trips, and to have a diversity of books, pictures, guest speakers, and hands-on materials will enhance my ability to make use of the multiple intelligence philosophy in my curriculum

How does it fit in with my school?

Because of national pressure, schools are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Armstrong, Thomas. (2000). "Multiple intelligences." Retrieved 17 Mar 2008 at http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm

Four Pillars of NCLB." (2008). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved 20 Mar 2008 at http://www.ed.gov/nclb/overview/intro/4pillars.html

Lane, Carla.."Multiple Intelligences." The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide. Retrieved 20 Mar 2008 at http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html
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Curriculum Design There Is No

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26656708

Making principals and school administrators involved in the process along with parents creates additional support and potential for learning reinforcement at home and in creates greater cohesiveness in terms of the school's overall learning environment. hile any number of step-by-step curricular models exists for individual teachers, since the underlining principle of all curriculum design is to impart skills to students that build upon previous units of learning, it is better that there exist some continuity in curriculum planning between teachers. Also, if all teachers take a similar approach there is a greater chance that learning outcomes will build on one another, throughout a student's educational career.

Curriculum design will no doubt be different 10 years from now, as state and perhaps even national standards require learning outcomes to be more measurable and clearly defined within individual units. This may create more homogeneity in terms of basic skills demanded between schools.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hlynka, Denis. (30 Nov 2005). "Course Syllabus: Theory and Practice of Curriculum

Design and Development." Retrieved 30 Jan 2007 at http://www.umanitoba.ca/centres/ukrainian_canadian/hlynka/courses/132756/syllabus.html

Learning Outcomes." (2004). Learning Development Unit. Retrieved 30 Jan 2007 at http://www.livjm.ac.uk/lid/ltweb/ldu_12/learning_outcomes.htm

Ornstein & Hunkins. (1998). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues.
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Curriculum Are Social Forces Human

Words: 3065 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18898865

The third step is creating which is doing. It is taking action on what you find, what you suspect, what you think will make a difference. The last step is confirming. In this stage, you are evaluating your efforts, learning from feedback, and starting the cycle again.

6. Define "data-driven" decision making.

Data driven decision making uses student assessment data and relevant background information, to inform decisions related to planning and implementing instructional strategies at the district, school, classroom, and individual student levels. Data literacy consists of a person possessing a basic understanding of how data can be used to inform instruction. Studies have often shown that if instructional plans at the state, county, district, school, classroom, and individual student levels are based on assessment information relevant to the desired learning outcomes for students, the probability is increased that they will attain these desired learning outcomes.

Data from a variety…… [Read More]

References

Allen, Janet. (2004). Tools for Teaching Content Area Literacy. Stenhouse Publishers: Tyler

Kowalski, T.J., Lasley II, T.J., and Mahoney, J.W. (2008). Data-driven decisions and school leadership: Best practices for school improvement. Pearson: Boston.

Parkay, F.W., Anctil, E. and, Hass, G. (2010). Curriculum leadership: Readings for developing quality educational programs, 9th Edition, Allyn and Bacon: Needham Heights,

Massachusetts.
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Curriculum Evaluation Models Ornstein and

Words: 508 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25763643

Teachers will need to look at process models for implementing these two approaches to achieve the benefits of both outcome-based education which emphasizes what students are expected to learn as well as open-ended education which encourages teachers to create a positive learning experience for the student. The former is best served by technical-scientific approaches while the later is best accomplished by nontechnical-nonscientific approaches. Fortunately, the approaches do appear to be complimentary more so than conflicting ideologies as positioned by some.

Therefore, teachers should seek out an integrative approach to their curriculum development approaches that weds process models. Practically speaking, this will mean striking a balance between student-centered and subject-centered curriculum and forming measurable expectations for the general student population as well as the flexibility to aim for highly individualized expectations that are unique to each student and that may be more subjectively assessed. and, of course, a broader community will…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Curriculum development. http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:JfY-Nw6yUmgJ:people.coe.ilstu.edu/malorber/411/Notes/07%2520curr%2520devel%252010-29-04.doc+Noye%27+%22curriculum+development%22+deliberation&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us

Ornstein & Hunkins (2003). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (4th ed). Boston: Allyn and Becon.

Ritz, J. Curriculum development. http://www.odu.edu/~jritz/oted885/ntg8.shtml
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Curriculum Implementation an Implementation of

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95548352

Negative feedbacks and criticisms cannot be avoided at this point, especially upon knowing that it is necessary for them to undergo training on how this program will be implemented, including its advantages for them as teachers.

Educators, especially those who have been practicing the profession for a long time have a greater tendency to abhor going through the learning process once more. As a principal, they should be encouraged to undergo the learning process again and become students, therefore, joining their trainings would promote confidence in learning new ideas once more.

As the teachers become students, the idea of the students becoming teachers at some point upon the implementation of the program would somehow alleviate their fear of integrating the use of technology in their learning process. ithin the 30 minutes math lad, they should be allowed to explore the program and share among their classmates what they have learned…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Franklin, J. (2002) the Importance of Instructional Leadership. The Necessary Principal.

Allen, R. (2002) Honing the Tools of Instruction: How Research Can Improve Teaching for the 21st Century.

Shu-Sheng, L. (2004) Considerations for developing constructivist Web-based learning. International Journal of Instructional Media.
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Planning and Reflection During My Student Teaching

Words: 2663 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15884440

Planning and Reflection

During my student teaching experiences I kept a journal, which greatly helped me to organize my thoughts and clarify the areas in which I most needed to improve. My mentor also pointed out for me the key areas that need improvement. Therefore, as I look forward to a professional career as a teacher, I will be able to draw on these early experiences. I will remember what works and what doesn't and I already feel far more confident and proficient than I did before I undertook the student teaching challenge. In general a few major themes emerged through reviewing my journal entries and the statements written by my mentors. My strengths are my willingness to use a wide variety of teaching materials and teaching styles. An enthusiastic implementation of multimedia materials keeps students actively engaged, and keeps lessons more interesting. Moreover, my lessons are well-planned and incorporate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Armidale. http://www-personal.une.edu.au/~jmalouff/problem.htm

Ballantyne, R & Packer, J 1995, making connections: gold guide no 2, Hersda, Canberra, pp 4-14

Department of Education and Training. Online at < http://www.eddept.wa.edu.au/>.

Lorsbach, Anthony and Tobin, Kenneth. "Teaching"
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Curriculum Concept-Based Curriculums What Is

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31063128

Students, by seeing that a concept can unite so many different aspects of an idea are better able to draw connections between what is learned in the classroom and subjects that are common to their daily lives.

For example, take the broad curricular concept of 'travel.' The most obvious application of this concept is in a literature class, where students can learn about travel from stories about other lands, or about people traveling over the course of a story. But students can also apply the concept to math class, as they learn to budget for a trip, and calculate the speeds of various modes of transportation. They can learn about the science of how trains and planes are propelled, as well as research the weather conditions and geography of a possible destination. They can learn about the different people, cultures, religions, and wildlife of a land, and even create art…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gail G. Muir & Sally S. Blake. "Foundations of Collaboration." (2006). The Professional

Organizational Development Network in Higher Education. Retrieved 19 Jan 2007 at http://teaching.uchicago.edu/pod/muir.html.

What is concept-based curriculum?" (18 Jun 1998) District 118 Curriculum Design. Retrieved 19 Jan 2007 at http://www.d118.s-cook.k12.il.us/central/curriculum/what.html#generalization

Ornstein, Alan C. & Francis Hunkins. (1998). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues. 3rd Edition, Allyn and Bacon.
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Planning Freedom in the Course

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56296640

(Philpott, Clabough, McConkey, and Turner, 2011).

Handling controversial social studies topics in the classroom setting is often not an easy undertaking. In the words of Philpott, Clabough, McConkey, and Turner (2011), "even though controversial issues are included in the curriculum, teachers face uncertainty on how to best teach the content" (42). As Byford, Lennon, and ussell (as cited in ussell, 2009) observe, teachers avoid controversial subjects in social studies because of lack of the relevant classroom management skills, discomfort when discussing some issues, restrictive district or school policies, and job security. To handle controversial subjects and topics appropriately, teachers can make use of a number of strategies and approaches.

To begin with, it helps to ensure that while at the same time seeking to ensure that one does not veer off the topic, learners are exposed to multiple perspectives with regard to the issue at hand. When there is a…… [Read More]

References

High, J.F. (1962). Teaching Secondary School Social Studies. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Levstik, L.S. & Tyson, C.A. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of Research in Social Studies Education. New York, NY: Routledge.

National Council for the Social Studies. (2007, September). Academic Freedom and the Social Studies Teacher: A Position Statement of National Council for the Social Studies. Retrieved from:  http://www.socialstudies.org/positions/academicfreedom 

Philpott, S., Clabough, J., McConkey, L. & Turner, T.N. (2011). Controversial Issues: To Teach or Not to Teach? That is the Question! The Georgia Social Studies Journal, 1(1), 32-44.
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Curriculum the Principals Role in

Words: 9119 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69665171

Human relations are vital. Teachers must trust each other, there must be norms that support productive criticism, and there must be techniques in place for combining and resolving disputes. Arrangements need to be in place that generates discussion for problem identification and decision making. These arrangements could be things such as normal team meetings amid teachers at the same grade level or department meetings within high schools and middle schools. Frequently useful are school connections to inside and outside sources of knowledge and scrutiny coupled to a readiness to learn from such sources. Also, schools must work to secure the power to proceed with actions that might go against existing policies and practices. By doing this they master the micro-politics of their districts and their communities.

In schools where circumstances to maintain collaborative problem solving are not in place, leaders must expertly manage two plans at the same time. They…… [Read More]

References

Adkins, D. (1990). The Relationship between visionary Leadership and instructional leadership behavior of secondary school principals: regression analysis and hermeneutic

Balsamo, M. (2004). Assessing principal practices in a standards-based environment and examining the association between principal practices and student achievement.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: language, literacy and cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions About Curriculum Innovation in Learning and Technology

Words: 22121 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4872492

Self-Efficacy: A Definition

Social Cognitive Theory

Triangulation Data analysis

Teacher Self-Efficacy

Problems for the researcher

Data Analysis and Related Literature review.

aseline Group

Gender Deviation

Age Deviation

Comparison of data with other literature in the field.

Everyday Integration

Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience

arriers to use

Integration paradigm.

Co-oping and Project design.

Organizational Climate

Teacher Integration Education.

Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.

Data Analysis and Comparison

Recommendation for Further Research

Data Review Report

Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.

andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:

Through cognitive experiences

Through motivational experiences

Their affective interactions with environment

Through selectional experiences and choices.

Cognitive Experiences

andura…… [Read More]

Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)

Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web:  http://www.campuscomputing.net/ 

Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.

Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
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Curriculum Books Have Been Written Since the

Words: 3875 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59141556

curriculum books have been written since the turn of the [20th] century; each with a different version of what 'curriculum' means (Ackerman, 1988). I define classroom curriculum design as the sequencing and pacing of content along with the experiences students have with that content. My use of the qualifier classroom is important. By definition, I am considering those decisions regarding sequencing, pacing, and experiences that are the purview of the classroom teacher. Some aspects of curricular design are addressed at the school level if, in fact, a school has a guaranteed and viable curriculum. egardless of the direction provided by the school (or district), individual teachers still need to make decisions regarding curricular design at the classroom level given the unique characteristics of their students. Indeed, in a meta-analysis involving 22 studies, Anderson, (2003) found a strong relationship between a student's knowledge and experience with content and the type of…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, P.L. (1988). Determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition: Cognitive abilities and information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117(3), 288-318.

Anderson, J. (2003). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Anderson, J. (2009). Rules of the mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Brooks, C. (2000). Knowledge management and the intelligence community. Defense Intelligence Journal, 9(1), 15-24.

Anderson, J.R., & Fincham, J.M. (2004). Acquisition of procedural Skills from Examples. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20(6), 1322-1340.
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Curriculum the Hidden Curriculum The

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81091221

When dealing with students from a wide variety of cultures and levels of ability, enhanced self-consciousness on the part of all members of the classroom can promote tolerance within the learning environment. The awareness of the classroom's 'hidden' assumptions can foster greater self-consciousness and compassion regarding those who are less fluent in the norms of the hidden curriculum.

The hidden curriculum of social assumptions thus is least harmful when it is not so hidden. An effective teacher cannot eliminate all social norms from the classroom, nor would this be desirable, but the teacher can grow more self-conscious and explicit about her expectations. Some of the teacher's assumptions might be valid, others might not be, but not until the rules of the hidden curriculum are revealed can they be fairly upheld. Hidden rules are often arbitrarily enforced, and frustrate those who do not understand them.

The 'hidden curriculum' has been viewed…… [Read More]

References

Deutsch, Nellie (2004). Hidden curriculum paper. The University of Phoenix.

Retrieved March 21, 2010 at www.nelliemuller.com/HiddenCurriculum.doc

Hasler, Angela. (2010). Sparhawk's Hidden Curriculum. Sparkshaw School.

Retrieved March 21, 2010
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Planning Function of Management in

Words: 1529 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93259027

(iii) he mounting significance of the role of the corporate and public affairs function in companies (iv) the transforming roles of the HRM function in corporate and especially the significance of strategic HRM. he narrow role of HRM in corporate social responsibility has relevantly unfavorable connotations for HR profession itself as corporate social responsibility has attained spheres of more strategic relevance in case of companies. (Corporate Citizenship & Human Resource Management: A new tool or a missed opportunity?)

REFERENCE

Building Level Administrators" Retrieved at http://www.doe.state.in.us/dps/standards/BuildingLevelAdminContStds.html. Accessed on 5 August, 2005

Ethics, Excellence and the Los Angeles Unified District School" Retrieved at http://www.josephsoninstitute.org/lausd.htm. Accessed on 5 August, 2005

he Functions of School Management" Retrieved from http://library.unesco- iicba.org/English/Better_Schools/Better%20Schools/MODULE2/module2_unit3.htm http://library.unesco- iicba.org/English/Better_Schools/Better%20Schools/MODULE2/module2_unit3.htm Accessed on 5 August, 2005

Zappala, Gianni. (February, 2004) "Corporate Citizenship & Human Resource Management:

new tool or a missed opportunity?" Retrieved at http://www.acirrt.com/pubs/WP89.pdf. Accessed on 5 August, 2005… [Read More]

The Functions of School Management" Retrieved from http://library.unesco- iicba.org/English/Better_Schools/Better%20Schools/MODULE2/module2_unit3.htm http://library.unesco- iicba.org/English/Better_Schools/Better%20Schools/MODULE2/module2_unit3.htm Accessed on 5 August, 2005

Zappala, Gianni. (February, 2004) "Corporate Citizenship & Human Resource Management:

new tool or a missed opportunity?" Retrieved at http://www.acirrt.com/pubs/WP89.pdf. Accessed on 5 August, 2005
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Curriculum for Healthcare

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16741165

Curriculum Design

ISSUES AND TRENDS IN CURRICULUM DESIGN

The obj3ective of this study is to review and research issues and trends in curriculum design relating to healthcare and to elaborate on recommendations dealing with the issues and in view of the trends.

Gone are the days in education when the issues were simple and the lessons followed course since in today's society there are healthcare issues such as AIDS, premarital sex and needed birth control measures as well as other non-sexually related diseases including cancer and other health issues. The curriculum for healthcare education is a touchy issues because of the various religion, political, social, and familial values that exist in a diverse society with many races, ethnicities, and backgrounds. For this reason, the educator in healthcare must understand the volatile ground on which curriculum design may tread and the various view of parents, communities, as well as religious and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albert LJ (2010) Curriculum Design: Finding a Balance. The Journal of Rheumatology. Retrieved from:  http://www.jrheum.com/subscribers/07/03/458.html 

McKimm, J. (nd) Curriculum Design and Development. Retrieved from:  http://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk/e-learning/setting-learning-objectives/Curriculum_design_and_development.pdf 

Olsen, LK (1994) Trends and Issues in Health Education Curriculum. Liberty University. 1994. Department of Health Professions. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=health_fac_pubs

Stevenson, KR (201) Educational Trends Shaping School Planning, Design, Construction, Funding and Operation. National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Retrieved from:  http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED539457.pdf
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Curriculum Into an Online Course

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76877948



2. Develop a filing system on the computer and a physical filing system to put everything in its place.

3. Plan the teams of people and shifts as well.

Facilitating processes:

1. Identify the risk of people not cooperating with each other.

2. Analyze environment for stress and in-competencies, accommodate.

Executing Process Group:

1. Give set schedule

2. Notify staff of teams and who they will be working with.

3. Check all the information in the DML needed to file everything

4. Buy necessary storage for the files to be stored

5. Checking on the development of online storage as well.

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group:

1. Monitoring the output of the workers through surveillance cameras and logs.

2. Check to see if the teams are getting along, IE social monitoring.

Closing: Finally, with the project's success comes a new way to file and store the approved paperwork both physically…… [Read More]

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Planning and Implementing Early Childhood Assessment

Words: 2704 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95492768

EC Assessment & Intervention

Mission Statement

Partial Portfolio

Background Information elated to Diagnostic Test

Diagnostic Test -- Developmental Area of Concern

At the Playground.

At Home.

Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Goals

Cognitive Instructional Goal

Motor Instructional Goal

Physical Instructional Goal

Language Instructional Goal

Mission Statement

The purpose of early childhood assessment is to document the present status of the child with regard to developmental milestones and to identify any developmental areas that require follow-up assessment or follow-along. Assessment of very young children needs to be integral to their daily activities. Children change very rapidly and it is too easy to assume that they have reached developmental milestones in all areas: marked development in one area can distract caregivers and therapists from a deficit or an area in which development is occurring at a slower rate than typical. ecording the developmental progress of children is not an onerous task if it is…… [Read More]

References

____. (2010, May). Developmental Checklists Birth to Five, The Early Childhood Direction Center. ASQ-SE-Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Retrieved http://ecdc.syr.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/Developmental_checklists_Updated2012.pdf

____. (2014). The HighScope Difference. HighScope. Retreived  http://www.highscope.org/ 

Vygotsky, L.S. (1987). Thinking and speech. In R.W. Rieber & A.S. Carton (Eds.), The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky, Volume 1: Problems of general psychology (pp. 39 -- 285). New York: Plenum Press. (Original work published 1934.) Retreived  http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html
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Curriculum Across the Nation

Words: 2494 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79834268

role of physical education in the public school system has been under pressure from a number of fronts. In the contracting budgetary environment, the amount of dollars dedicated to non-core curriculum studies have experiences forced cut backs. When academic achievement levels are suffering across the board, many school systems make the mistake of cutting phys ed budgets in order to bolster focus on core academic areas. However, school systems that make this choice are often starving the goose that can help lay the golden egg. Studies and experiential evidence demonstrate that academic achievement is tied to both proper educational methods in the classroom, and a curriculum which focuses on developing the entire student, including his or her body through physical education.

For example, according to Maier (2001) 49 states no longer have a daily requirement for physical education. Illinois is a lone exception, and the school system is reaping the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bunting, C. (1989). The compatibility of physical education and outdoor education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 60(2), 35-39.

Chase, Matthew R. (2004, March 1) Nontraditional recreation activities a catalyst for quality physical education: these activities offer the most promising path to lifelong physical activity, and the barriers to implementation disappear in the face of careful planning. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance.

Maier, T. (2001, Aug 27) Schools Giving P.E. Short Shrift. Insight on the News, Vol. 17.

McCracken, B. (2001). It's not just gym anymore: Teaching secondary school students how to be active for life. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
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Planning for Special Education Needs

Words: 901 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44584007

videos that pertain to the Individualized Education Plan, or IEP. The IEP is part of the wider programs known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The IEP is a legal document that covers a specific child and mandates how people that come in contact with that child will act and behave when the child is present and/or learning. This brief report will cover a few aspects of the IEP and its process including whether the school leader needs to know the IEP development process, how a school leader assists parents and staff in the IEP development process, which stakeholder(s) have the most authority during the IEP development process and the upsides or downsides of having all stakeholders being a part of the IEP development process. While finding a singular solution and plan from the input of a whole group can be difficult,…… [Read More]

References

YouTube. (2015). The IEP Team Process: Chapter 1 - IDEA and IEPs. YouTube. Retrieved 19 September 2015, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bSm3wOjkkVw&feature=share&list=UUH0Ri4JnpXj0p3lno5rxO_g

YouTube. (2015). The IEP Team Process: Chapter 2 - The IEP Team. YouTube. Retrieved 19 September 2015, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMctXPmG7bc&feature=share&list=UUH0Ri4JnpXj0p3lno5rxO_g

YouTube. (2015). The IEP Team Process: Chapter 3 - What's Included in the IEP. YouTube. Retrieved 19 September 2015, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BIi0xanOVcs&feature=share&list=UUH0Ri4JnpXj0p3lno5rxO_g

YouTube. (2015). The IEP Team Process: Chapter 4 - Getting Ready for the IEP Meeting. YouTube. Retrieved 19 September 2015, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDhLjYSbwCc&feature=share&list=UUH0Ri4JnpXj0p3lno5rxO_g
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Curriculum for Medical Training Intervention

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24921450

Medical trauma triage management requires skillful curriculum development, which in turn depends on an assessment of needs and an anticipation of potential barriers to implementation. The initial needs assessment has revealed required resources of about four or five medical services providers such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners. Support personnel may be provided, but an additional challenge will arise when implementing the curriculum in a real world setting such as a trauma center, emergency room, or intensive care unit. Adequate space and time must be carved out for the curriculum implementation, without disturbing standard operating procedures. At the same time, improving trauma triage management will ultimately facilitate patient service delivery and maximize care outcomes, goals that should continually be communicated to the institutional administration as well as all participants in the program.

Each phase of the ADDIE model, an industry benchmark for curriculum development, "requires constant evaluation," (Allen, 2006, p.…… [Read More]

References

Allen, W.C. (2006). Overview and evolution of the ADDIE training system. Advances in Developing Human Resources 8(4): 430-441.

Bass, E.B. (n.d.). Step 1: Problem identification and general needs assessment.

Swanson, R.A. & Holton, E.F. (2009). Training and development practices. Chapter 12 in Foundations of Human Resource Development.
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Planning Implementation Evaluation Revision Implementation of

Words: 898 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17912063

A training program of such magnitude should continually be evaluated, and improved upon. This could be accomplished through data analysis, student surveys and targeted interviews. Step five is the implementations of any improvements and corrections in the training process.

Players and Stakeholders

The key players in this process could not be more different: technical experts (it) and academic experts (departments, colleges and schools in the university). The academics have a clear vision of what the training program should encompass and the it experts possess the technical skills in facilitating such a process. Clearly, this must be a collaborative effort. For example, let's say the academic side of the team wants to use discussion board that incorporates online reading, YouTube videos as well as Social Networking. For the actual implementation of such an idea, it must be consulted, cajoled and consulted.

Online Students and Objectives

Online learners do not learn in…… [Read More]

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Parts of Curriculum

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2588844

Curriculum: A Puzzle of Learning

With an increased focus in literacy and assessment in education, the old curriculum, that is, planning the activities, then searching for resources, and finally deciding how to evaluate a student's achievement has been replaced with a new model. The new model begins with the evaluation, and then focuses on the resources that are available, and finally the tasks to teach the students are created. This model can be adapted to fit the school system philosophy and the individual school and students, but as a general practice, the new model of creating and presenting curriculum falls somewhere within this model. But how do all the parts of the curriculum fit together? Each piece, from the set outcomes to the different types of evaluation must work together to form a unified, understandable curriculum that is accessible to students and teachers alike.

The first factor that must be…… [Read More]

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Internal Curriculum Factors for This

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34401707

According to her market research, the primary reason that families do not take traditional birth courses is that the courses are expensive. In order to address this, Brio maximized the online and digital aspects of their curriculum to drastically reduce the costs to families who were primarily paying for the published course material in other classes.

The internal factor that I wish to further evaluate is that of resources within the institution. The hospital that I chose to observe and suggest the change in curriculum for was a hospital in Scottsdale. This hospital is very large and has a large labor and delivery area. Additionally, the hospital also has one-site conference space available that can be requested in advance. This space would provide the ideal place for the training, especially since the training is meant only for labor and delivery nurses within the hospital.

Additional resources to consider for the…… [Read More]

Resources

Martin, Karin (2003). "Giving Birth Like a Girl." Gender and Society. Vol 17.1 (54-72).

The Bradley Method of Husband-Coached Childbirth. Accessed 5 Feb 2012 at  http://bradleybirth.com/ 

Brio Birth. Accessed 5 Feb 2012 at http://www.briobirth.com/
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Language Policy and Planning Language Planning Refers

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60978398

Language Policy and Planning

Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()

Decision making in language planning

There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…… [Read More]

References

Little, M.E.R., & McCarty, T.L. (2006). Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools. Tempe, AZ: Language Policy Research Unit.

Martin, J.J. (1988). An American Adventure in Bookburning in the Style of 1918. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher.

Woolard, K.A., & Gahng, T.-J. (1990). Changing Language Policies and Attitudes in Autonomous Catalonia. Language in Society, 19(3), 311-330.

Wyburn, J., & Hayward, J. (2009). OR and Language Planning: Modelling the Interaction between Unilingual and Bilingual Populations. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 60(5), 626-636.
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Strategic Planning in Education Every

Words: 3871 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35723521

General Electric (Collis, Montgomery, 2008) pioneered the development of this framework, working in conjunction with the oston Consulting Group to tailor its specific market sizing and profitability measures to the conglomerate of businesses that comprised GE at the time. One of the key assumptions of the CG Growth/Share Matrix is that there must be continual monitoring of the market, specifically competitors and relative market share growth over time. Only by continually measuring and monitoring these two attributes can the Growth/Share matrix be an effective framework for strategic planning. GE, through their Crotonville Learning Center in Connecticut also defined a series of external customer-facing processes that managers at GE could use to gain the critical information they needed to populate the CG Growth/Share Matrix and use it as a planning tool. Soon other larger multinational corporations (MNCs) with complex value chains and series of unrelated businesses also relied on the key…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Stewart Adam, Andrea Vocino, David Bednall. 2009. The world wide web in modern marketing's contribution to organisational performance. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 27, no. 1 (January 1): 7-24.

Deborah F. Beard. 2009. Successful Applications of the Balanced Scorecard in Higher Education. Journal of Education for Business 84, no. 5 (May 1): 275-282.

Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.

Rob Docters, Christine Durman, Tracy Korman, Bert Schefers. 2008. The neglected demand curve: how to build one and how to benefit. The Journal of Business Strategy 29, no. 5 (September 1): 19-25.
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Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum Locate a Set of

Words: 977 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90232897

Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum

Locate a set of standards that relate to the arts or aesthetic learning. Read them through and select one or two that apply to a particular early childhood age group. Discuss how you could use these standards to plan an art activity for young children. You may use The National tandards for Arts Education website or choose any other state standards you would like.

The category that I selected is Dance, and the standard is Grade K-4 Dance tandard 3 which reads: Understanding dance as a way to create and communicate meaning. The Achievement tandard consists of the following objectives:

tudents observe and discuss how dance is different from other forms of human movement (such as sports, everyday gestures)

tudents take an active role in a class discussion about interpretations of and reactions to a dance

tudents present their own dances to peers and discuss their meanings…… [Read More]

Stuart Brown: Importance of Play. [video]. Retrieved http://www.goplayproject.org/2010/06/importance-of-play/

Stuart Brown: Why Play Is Vital -- No Matter Your Age. [video]. Retrieved http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHwXlcHcTHc

Zaretskii, V.K. (November -- December 2009). "The Zone of Proximal Development What Vygotsky Did Not Have Time to Write." Journal of Russian and East European Psychology 47-70 -- 93. doi:10.2753/RPO1061-0405470604.
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Concept Learner Centered Curriculum in TESOL

Words: 4782 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63782176

Learner-centered curriculum' in TESOL

The most important learning processes in any school anywhere in the world involve the use of several different means of communication. The communication methods may be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal communication involves the use of oral and written symbols that can communicate a message to the student, and non-verbal involves the use of, primarily, among other means, body language. Without communication there can be no means of telling the other person what one person wants or needs, and communication is used between teachers and parents, between groups, between the parents and the community, and also for the formation of interpersonal relationships and as the medium of instruction in a school. Any sort of behavioral problems in school would be dealt with by effective means of communication, and it can be stated that without communication there would be no education.

However, the culture or the background of…… [Read More]

References

Bacon, Suzanne. "Communicative Language Teaching" Retrieved From

http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/comlangteach/index.htm Accessed on 15 November, 2004

Counihan, Gerard. (July 1998) "Teach students to interact, not just talk" The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No. 7. Retrieved From

http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Counihan-Interaction.html Accessed on 15 November, 2004
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Moore & Kearsley Strategic Planning

Words: 934 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37245983

There is no formula to fall back on when trying to address the real needs and perceived needs of various elements in the organizational hierarchy: hence the challenge for the administrator.

The administrative budget is often the aspect of the online learning environment most tempting to "skimp" upon, given that administrative savings are supposed to be one of the benefits of the online environment, "Good management means extensive planning and this needs market research and other studies which are more difficult to justify to the faculty for the public than creating new courses, hiring more academics staff, or buying new technology." But scheduling constantly overlapping semesters of students and teachers, distributing dates for course registration and tuition payments; completion of the course assignments, examinations, and graduation procedures are required for the university to work as it should, and to maintain a high-quality reputation. Scrutinizing the quality of instruction in a…… [Read More]

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Rethinking Curriculum in Education for

Words: 3030 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73299583

253). Based on their review of 20 existing education for sustainability initiatives, Ferreira and her associates identified three primary models that exist along a continuum from local to more broad-based approaches as follows:

1. Collaborative esource Development and Adaptation model: This model seeks to bring about change through the development and adaptation of high quality curriculum and pedagogy resources. It does not usually seek to bring about change across a whole teacher education system;

2. Action esearch model: This model aims to build capacity by engaging the initiative participants in a 'deep' process of reflective action. This model thus targets change at the practitioner and institutional level; and,

3. Whole-of-System model: This is a radically different model from the other two in that it seeks change in a multi-faceted and system-wide manner (2007, p. 46).

An analysis of these three models by Ferreira et al. showed that while each model…… [Read More]

References

Companion, M., Laurie, J. & Shaw, G. (2002, Summer). Education for sustainability: an ecological approach. Green Teacher, 68, 6-7.

Davies, J., Engdahl, I., Otieno, L., Pramling-Samuelson, I., Siraj-Blatchford, J. & Vallabh

(2009). Early childhood education for sustainability: Recommendations for development.

International Journal of Early Childhood, 41(2), 113-115.
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ELL Curriculum Implementing a Unit

Words: 2422 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70556501

1)

Alignment Procedure

As Popham (2006) makes clear, choosing the best instruments for program is reliant on how well the instrument is aligned with the goals of the program and the school. To achieve this objective I recommend instituting a task forced charged with the responsibility of working with teachers to develop a set of both short-term and long-term goals.

In regard to alignment with long-term goals, our program evaluation designers and analysts need to be fully aware that their objectives must be fully attainable, fully supportive of national standards objectives, and consistent with the long-term objectives of the teachers and the school. Goal-setting by faculty does not mean that they can do whatever they want to do. The leaders of this evaluation process must remember that in the end they have the responsibility for ensuring that all objectives are consistent, and for approving their subordinates' objectives. This means being…… [Read More]

References

Fitzpatrick, J. Sanders, J. & Worthen, B (2003). Program evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. (3rd ed.) Allyn & Bacon.

Garret, J.E. & Holcomb, S. (2005, Fall) Meeting the needs of Immigrant students with limited English ability, International Education 35, 49-62

Hays, D.G. (2008). Assessing multicultural competence in counselor trainees: A review of instrumentation and future directions. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86, (1), 95-101.

Krashen, S. (1985) Principles and practice in second language acquisition, Oxford: Pergamon
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Program Planning Models Educational Philosophy

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98922132

I was able to find funding to send some teachers abroad for training courses and have used technology to connect with educators abroad over the Internet. I have organized workshops to clarify the aims and strategy of the program to teachers, to encourage them to get 'on board' and believe in the curriculum changes.

A child's education must entail more than memorization or even passing standardized exams. Education must open a student's mind, and the teacher is the key to unlock the mystery of a student's inherent gifts. Teachers must guide a child's life and foster every child's innate passion for learning, before the child learns that school is not supposed to be 'cool' or fun. As an instructor of science teachers, I stress that all children are innate experimenters and lovers of science, until the children learn they 'should be' otherwise: it is the mission of every science teacher…… [Read More]

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Education Research Planning What Are the Critical

Words: 461 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2969543

Education Research Planning

hat are the critical aspects?

According to the United States Government's "National Directions in Education Research Planning," educational research planning must emphasize focus and selectivity in curriculum design and "concentrate on those areas that the public and profession believe are important as well as those that will become important," to render education practical for student's future lives outside of the classroom. Student learning is the touchstone issue and there must be "a particular but by no means exclusive emphasis on the challenges presented by ever-growing diversity and inequality." (Timpane, 1998)

Additionally, the selection of specific areas of inquiry for teachers, through the use of objective research, must be clear enough to "build strategies consisting of related projects executed over time." The candidates for the "short list of research priorities seemed rather obvious: continued focus on reading and language learning; expanded attention to mathematics; the dynamics of teacher…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chaskin, Robert. (2005) "Democracy And Bureaucracy in a Community Planning Process." Journal of Planning Education and Research. 24: 408-419.

Timpane, Michael. (November 1998) "National Directions in Education Research Planning." U.S. Government Publications. Retrieved 31 May 2005 at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/nationaldirections/implicat.html
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Program Planning Which Approach to

Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54573363

A critical approach can enhance a naturalistic one also, by showing how race, class, gender, and social power influence self-esteem and motivation to learn.

3.If respected authority from each of the three approaches (classical, naturalistic, or critical) were invited to your agency to evaluate your agency's educational programs, what advice would each give to your agency? How would your agency likely respond to such advice?

A classical theorist would hold a formal seminar during which each participant would be given handouts. Handouts would include lists and outlines of suggested courses of action. A presentation would accompany the lecture, after which seminar participants would be allowed to ask questions in a traditional format. The authority would evaluate my agency's educational programs in terms of quantitative data. Assessment measures would guide further action. Most subjective input would be politely dismissed. The authority would ask program directors to come up with a formal…… [Read More]

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Program Planning Classical Naturalistic and

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92286438

In the case of a sexual harassment education seminar, assessments would consist of both short-term and long-term investigations of the organizational culture. If necessary or possible, dramatic shifts in the organizational culture could prepare the future workforce for a harassment-free environment. The need for more females in positions of power remains one of the greatest stumbling blocks to eliminating sexual harassment. A naturalistic approach to educational intervention would emphasize how females in the workplace could overcome obstacles such as unequal pay and inequitable distributions of power.

However, the approach most suitable for an educational intervention focusing on gender in the workplace would be a critical one. A critical intervention strategy focuses on the "political and ideological activity connected with social inequalities in society as a whole," ("The Nature and Context of Program Planning" p. 4). Given that large-scale transformations of organizational culture are outside the realm of the current educational…… [Read More]

References

Cookson, Knowles, Nadler & Nadler. "Prototypical Program Planning Models."

The Nature and Context of Program Planning."
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An indepth analysis of Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum

Words: 9575 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48996400

Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects

This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…… [Read More]

References

Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.

Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_science_of_ecd/

Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.

Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
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Effective Strategies for Integrating Ethical Use of Technology Into the K-12 Curriculum

Words: 1922 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98713218

integrating ethical use of technology into the K-12 curriculum

Integrating Technology in the Classroom

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 aims to close the achievement gap between disadvantaged and struggling students and their peers. The message is that every child can learn, and that schools are accountable for a child's progress.

At the federal level, there is to be more money for at-risk children in low-income communities. The government will invest in teacher training and innovative education practices that improve student performance.

While this new law defines a destination, it is up to the states and school districts to define the paths for getting there. Best practice begins with ensuring that all the components for successful integration of technology are in place. The primary ethical concerns of access, attitude, training, and support must be addressed before moving on to the more popular topic of integrating instructional technology into…… [Read More]

References

Dede, C. (1996) Emerging technologies and distributed learning. American Journal of Distance Education, 10, 2, 4-36.

Linn, M.C. (1997) Learning and Instruction in Science Education: Taking Advantage of Technology. Handbook of Science Education.

Salpeter, J. (1998) Taking stock: What's the research saying? Technology and Learning, 18(9) 24-25, 28-30, 32, 34, 36, 40.

Wenglinsky, W. (1998) Does it compute? The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics. Princeton, N.J.
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Parts of Curriculum Fit Together

Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26672971

Education

Definition method of teaching that focuses on what students can actually do after they are taught, is known as outcome-based education. All teaching and curriculum decisions are made on the basis of how can the students be best facilitated to obtain the desired outcome.

The Backward Mapping

By its objective, the planning process of an outcome-based education is in reverse of a traditional educational plan. In the former, the desired outcome is selected first and the curriculum is secondarily created to support that intended outcome. It can be understood from the library instructions very well in the sense that librarians want students to have specific information seeking skills (e.g. The ability to use online card catalogs, etc.) as an outcome of library instruction.

Curriculum Alignment

Outcomes

Clear, observable expressions of student learning that appear after a considerable set of learning experiences, comprise outcomes. Unlike majority beliefs, outcomes are not…… [Read More]

References

Boschee, F. And Baron, M.A. (1994). OBE: Some answers for the uninitiated. Clearing House, 67 (March/April), 193-96.

Furman, G.C. (1994). Outcome-based education and accountability. Education and Urban

Society, 26(4), 417-37.

Spady, W. And Marshall, K. (1994). Light, not heat, on OBE. The American School Board
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Preschool Preparation Preschool Planning the Mission of

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91309377

Preschool Preparation

Preschool Planning

The mission of the preschool will be to provide services in a fun, safe, and educational environment. Each child will be guaranteed individualized attention and a quality learning experience, including group activities, educational and interactive toys, games, books, and quality scholastic television programming and computer applications for select age groups. Children will also participate in seasonal field trips to petting zoos, community gardens and recreational centers. The preschool's overall aim will be to assist with all developmental milestones of students by focusing on activities that encourage cognitive, psychological and emotional growth.

Implementation of Objectives

The preschool will accomplish its goal by hiring a highly qualified team of certified pre-Kindergarten educators and other staff who will assume daily responsibility for providing engaging learning experiences. Staff will be designated to specific age groups to offer appropriate instruction and encourage peer relationships. Emphasis will be placed on discovery-centered learning…… [Read More]

References

Alasuutari, M., & Karila, K. (2010). Framing the Picture of the Child. Children & Society, 24(2), 100-111. doi:10.1111/j.1099-0860.2008.00209.x.

Frazee, B. (1993). Core knowledge: How to get started. Educational Leadership, 50(8), 28.

Hirsch Jr., E.D. (2006). Reading-Comprehension Skills? What Are They Really?. Education Week, 25(33), 42-52.

Nagy, A.C. (2012). A Review of: "Nodding, Nel (2006). The Challenge to Care in Schools: An Alternative Approach to Education (2nd Ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University. 193 pages." Journal of Research on Christian Education, 21(1), 91-96. doi:10.1080/10656219.2012.658604.
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Marketing Strategies Planning Implementation &

Words: 3342 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95689371



Kodak decided to implement this initiative after conducting market research on the costs of printing at home. According to a study by InfoTrends, the greatest obstacle to printing at home is the cost of ink and supplies (Kodak, 2007). Another printer from the new line, the Kodak EasyShare 5300 offers a 3-inch color LCD display that enables photo viewing and cropping directly from the printer, with a memory card slot that provides an additional quick and simple way to print digital pictures without a PC. Other printers in the new line consist of printers geared toward home-office users. In this way Kodak maintained competitive with other photo companies offering the same products. Kodak's main marketing strategy is that the company is producing a less-expensive product with few frills that still fits its customers' needs. This allows Kodak to create a cheaper product that consumers love but competitors don't want to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ailawadi, K., Borin, N., Farris, P. (1995). Market Power and Performance: A Cross-Industry Analysis of Manufacturers and Retailers. Journal of Retailing,(71)(3): 211-248.

Blair, R. & LaFontaine, F. (2005). The Economics of Franchising. Cambridge Brandt, M. (2000). Introducing New Products. Retrieved November 12, 2007, at  http://www.inc.com .

Cuneo, a. (2006). A Cingular Waste. Advertising Age. (May).

Christensen, C. & Anthony, S. (2007). Will Kodak's New Strategy Work?.
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Emergency Planning and Operations Methodology

Words: 1276 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12023788

Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology

The Department of Homeland Security is fully aware of the importance of local and state first responders. Currently managed under the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other various offices, local firefighters, state and local law enforcement, and local emergency medical personnel would be subject to the Department of Homeland Security's authority (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Moreover, the Department is prepared to "develop and manage a national training and evaluation system to design curriculums, set standards, evaluate, and reward performance in local, state, and federal training efforts" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Through FEMA, emergency supplies, food and shelter would be allocated to supplement the work of local agencies that are already providing such needs at the community level (http://www.fema.gov).Moreover, FEMA would coordinate "private industry, the insurance sector, mortgage lenders, the real estate industry, homebuilding associations, citizens, and others" in high-risk areas (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Red Cross." http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/0,1082,0_319_,00.html accessed 11-17-2003).

The Department of Homeland Security." http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html.

A accessed 11-17-2003).

Emergency Food and Shelter." Federal Emergency Management Agency. http://www.fema.gov.(accessed 11-17-2003).
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Analysis of Inclusion in Special Education Curriculum

Words: 2205 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45085666

inclusion" is not part of the law; instead, it states that each student must be educated in the least restrictive educational environment (LRE). Analyze all sides of "inclusion," (1. full inclusion; 2. inclusion in special classes like physical education, art, or lunch; and 3. inclusion in all classes except for reading or math).

Inclusion

The term 'inclusion' means complete acceptance of every student which leads towards sense of acceptance and belonging in the classroom. Over the years, there has not been any fixed definition of inclusion, but different groups and organizations have provided their own definitions. The most basic definition of 'inclusion' states that every student with special needs are supported in 'chronologically age appropriate general education classes' in schools and get the instructions specialized for them by the Individual Education Programs (IEPs) within the general activities of the class and the main curriculum. The idea of 'inclusion' is to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cologon, K. (2013). Inclusion in Education. Children with Disabiliity Australia.

Constable, S., Grossi, B., Moniz, A., & Ryan, L. (2013). Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students With Autism. Council for Exceptional Children.

Evers, T. (2011). Common Core State Standards for Literacy in all subjects. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Public Intrusion.

FDDC. (2012). What is Inclusion? Florida: Florida State Univeristy Center for Prevention and Early Intervention Policy.
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Role of Nurse Leaders in Disaster Planning

Words: 2680 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32175420

ole of Nurse Leaders in Disaster Planning

Politics of the Hospital and Disaster Planning

The politics in hospital settings surrounding nurse leaders and any functional change is likely associated with the hierarchy of the hospital systems, where individuals in administrative positions and doctors limit the input of nurse leaders in making change. This can be associated with nurse leaders reluctance to provide input based on the hierarchy, the exclusion of most or all nurses from discussions and meeting surrounding change or any number of other aspects of the system of hierarchy. The reason for this exclusion is multivariate but could be associated with the fact that many nurse leaders feel ill prepared to make major decisions regarding disaster planning as a result of limitations in disaster planning in the nursing curriculum. (Olivia, Claudia, & Yuen, 2009, pp. 3165-3171)

Increasingly hospitals and other large health care organizations are coming to terms…… [Read More]

References

Coyle, G., Sapnas, K.G., & Ward-Presson, K. (2007). Dealing with disaster. Nursing Management, 38(7), 24-30. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Fu-Jin, S., Turale, S., Yaw-Sheng, L., Meei-Ling, G., Ching-Chiu, K., Chyn-Yng, Y., & Yen-Chi, L. (2009). Surviving a life-threatening crisis: Taiwan's nurse leaders' reflections and difficulties fighting the SARS epidemic. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(24), 3391-3400. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02521.x

Hwang, L. (2006). Living History. California Nurse, 102(3), 18-19. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Kane-Urrabazo, C. (2007). Duty in a Time of Disaster: A Concept Analysis. Nursing Forum, 42(2), 56-64. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6198.2007.00069.x
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Effective Lesson Planning

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34493578

Employee Training and Development

A lesson plan contains information describing what will happen within a single lesson. It is necessary to ensure that a lesson plan entails four key elements for a successful learning experience. These are Instructional Objectives, Teaching Activities and Strategies, Sequencing and Materials and Evaluation and Follow-up.

Instructional Objectives

What learners should know and be able to do after the lesson? These are particular "instructional objectives" and articulate a clear focus of the lesson. In courses with a significant number of ELL's, it is important to formulate "language objectives" and the subject's material goals. equirements from the curriculum frameworks are much more international and usually signify long-term goals. It is common practice to publish the focus objectives of the lesson in the same spot in the classroom for learners to see every day. Many instructors also show the standards (Laird, Holton & Naquin, 2003).

Teaching Activities and…… [Read More]

References

Laird, D., Holton, E.F., & Naquin, S. (2003). Approaches to Training and Development: Third Edition Revised and Updated. New York: Basic Books.

Noe, R. (2012). Employee Training & Development: Sixth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
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Recruiting Planning for K-12 the

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25220877

This particular project specifically discusses recruiting, selecting and retaining a multi-ethnic, multi-racial faculty, but what if that just doesn't work out? How does a district address the needs of minorities if they just don't get the candidates they actually want? To quote a public school teacher I overheard one time, "If there are only two Black or Hispanic kids in the whole school, and people are not thoughtful and nurturing, it spoils education for those two." These days, colleges of Education are addressing these issues and school districts are forming such entities as "diversity taskforces."

Another facet to retaining people has to do with inter-district mobility. Schools are very different now than even 20 years ago. Each building has a different philosophy, different programs and obviously, different faculty and staff. The ability to try out different matches to find maximum comfort for the employee can be a very important aspect…… [Read More]

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Difficult Task Often Not Approached

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59312840

The strategy must also include making sure curriculum material is not identical between students but allows the student certain creative license to demonstrate interests in and outside of the test materials. The difficulty I see in the field with regard to making such a tool a part of the curriculum is resistance by stakeholders to allow deviation from test specific curriculum, given that they are seriously concerned about testing outcomes for future funding and other issues that have little if anything to do with current students but are exceedingly important for the future growth and health of the school and future resources for future students. The necessity id then to make sure that stakeholders are aware and have buy in to the idea that curriculum must allow independent thought and foster independent learning (Gallagher, 2010). There is no way to answer this seemingly insurmountable question but it is important to…… [Read More]

Resources

Gallagher, K. (2010). Reversing Readicide. Educational Leadership, 67(6), 36-41. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Longo, C. (2010). Fostering Creativity or Teaching to the Test? Implications of State Testing on the Delivery of Science Instruction. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(2), 54-57. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
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Hhe 595 Workshop in Comprehensive School Health Education

Words: 3359 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62884560

School Health Education

HEALTH THROUGH EDUCATION

Comprehensive School Health Education

Kolbe's Expectations

Dr. Lloyd Kolbe lines up the expectations of a school health education. These are: increased understanding about the science of individual and societal health; increased competency to make decisions about personal behaviors that influence health; increased skills required to form behaviors conducive to health; contribute to the development and maintenance of such behaviors; and enhancement of these skills to maintain and improve health of families and communities.

The existing school health education has not come to par with its function. It confronts problems, such as the failure of the home to encourage practice of health habits learned in school, ineffectiveness of instructional methods, and resistance to certain health topics by parents and the community. A more effective or responsive school health education requires a valid curriculum, qualified teachers, and consistent application of what is learned.

Increased understanding about…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Comprehensive School Health Programs. Healthy Children are Prepared to Learn

Managing Emotional Arousal

Research Findings on Growing Health

National Health Education Standards. Achieving Health Literacy
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Teaching Portfolio I Am a Percussion Teacher

Words: 1496 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89766330

Teaching Portfolio

I am a percussion teacher, and I instruct classes of various sizes in a range of drumming techniques. My students a very diverse in terms of ages and backgrounds, and my classes can include up to twelve students. Some classes focus on group forms of percussion, such as drumming circles, which require skills for both individual and group drumming.

My teaching gradually evolved from my own practice in percussion and music. While I was not formally trained in teaching, as I work with more students, I am quickly developing a deeper understanding of the importance of teaching theories, curriculum planning, and proper assessment.

In this teaching portfolio I aim to first, summarize the feedback I have regarding my lesson planning presentation of material. Over the course of preparing this portfolio I have researched additional teaching and assessment methods, and I will outlined my preferred approaches. Finally, I will…… [Read More]

References

Asmus, Edward A. (1999). Special Focus: Assessment in Music Education

Music Educators Journal. Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 19-24.

Booth, E. (2009). "The Music teaching Artist's Bible: Becoming a virtuoso educator." Oxford University Press. New York.

Fisher, D., Frey, N. (2007). "Checking for understanding: formative assessment techniques for your classroom." Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, Virginia.
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Music Education by Any Objective

Words: 6529 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16215225

Studies here included in this set are evaluations of large multisite and single site after school programs; evaluations of school- and community-based models; evaluations assessing a narrow to a broad range of outcomes; key developmental research studies; and key meta-analyses and research syntheses (Little, imer, and eiss, 2007, 3).

In Music for Citizenship, David J. Elliott, he elaborates upon the vision of Paul oodford in Democracy and Music Education who lays out a vision for music education to take a "radical liberal" turn in order to "prepare [music] students to participate in democratic society and thereby contribute to the common good" (Elliott, 2008, 45). Such a vision is in keeping with the traditions of John Dewey who held that critical thinking was a moral and political kind of thinking. He wants the profession to reclaim a democratic purpose for music education by contributing to intellectual and political conversations about the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abril, C.R., & Gault, B.M. (2008). The state of music in secondary schools: the principal's perspective. Journal of Research in Music Education, 56(1), 68-81.

Afterschool alliance, policy and action center: policy news. (2011). Retrieved from  http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/PolicyFedNewsarchive.cfm .

Baker, S.H. (2011). The effect of in-school opera performance and related curriculum on music cognition and attitude. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University.

Beveridge, T. (2010). No child left behind and fine arts classes. Arts Education Policy Review, 111, 4-7.
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Cultural Diversity Interview Narrative Cultural

Words: 4850 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8522541

While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.

Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…… [Read More]

References

Diller, D. (1999). Opening the dialogue: Using culture as a tool in teaching young African

American children. Reading Teacher, 52(8), 820-828. [Available electronically through ERIC/EBSCOhost]

Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching:

using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31 (2), 132-141.
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Special Education Director Leadership Styles

Words: 11099 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58281810

More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)

Qualitative Research Methods

Qualitative research methods are those of:

(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.

(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.

(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.

Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.

Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.

Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html
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Differentiated Instruction in the Self-Contained

Words: 4869 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87457920

Thus, the idea of inclusion was born, an idea that suggests students with special needs be paired alongside students who are gifted, students with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and students who have different modes of learning (Tomlinson et al., 2003).

Despite this, evidence exists to suggest that the self-contained special education classroom still serves the needs of many students with special needs, suggesting that fears related to special education students' inferior treatment may not related to this particular classroom arrangement. Zigmond et al. (1999) found that students with learning disabilities did not show optimum academic results when integrated into the inclusion classroom. The authors write that students with learning disabilities are often placed in special education for a reason -- because they do not benefit from traditional education. However, the authors do contend that determining where to place such students is never easy. In his brief comparison of education…… [Read More]

References

Agran, M., Alper, S., & Wehmyer, M. (2002). Access to the General Curricuum for Students with Significant Disabilities: What it Means to Teachers. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37(2), 123-133.

Armstrong, Derrick. (2003). Experiences of Special Education: Re-Evaluation Policy and Practice Through Life Stories. New York, Routledge.

Brown, D.L. (2004). Differentiated Instruction: Inclusive Strategies for Standards0Based

Learning That Benefit the Whole Class. American Secondary Education, 32(3), 34-62.
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Analyzing Curirciulum Guide Template

Words: 5336 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19442205

Applying a Literacy Framework to Career Decisions ased on Language Development.

PROPOSAL SECTION 1: ACKGROUND AND CONTEXT

For a while now, a new outlook on literacy, as well as learning processes using which literacy may be acquired, is seen to be emerging. A broad range of educational disciplines has influenced this latest outlook on literacy and its instruction. The perspective is not a collection of old ideas presented under a different name, but instead, denotes a profound move from the traditional text-driven approach to literacy, to one that involves active text transformation (Hiebert, 2014). I am an educator for ELLs (English Language Learners), and I believe the proposed literacy framework will prove immensely valuable in preparing the ELL professionals for future prospects. It can potentially aid my school district and school design a sound career-based plan for the ELL students. The influence on my school will also be very profound;…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brozek, E., & Duckworth, D. (n.d.). Supporting English Language Learners through Technology. Educator's Voice. Vol. 4. Retrieved from: https://www.nysut.org/~/media/Files/NYSUT/Resources/2011/March/Educators%20Voice%204%20Technology/edvoiceIV_ch2.pdf

Butler, G., Heslup, S., & Kurth, L. (2015). A Ten-Step Process for Developing Teaching Units. ENGLISH TEACHING FORUM. Retrieved from: https://americanenglish.state.gov/files/ae/resource_files/02_etf_53-3_2_butler_heslup_kurth.pdf

Lacina, J. (Winter 2004). Promoting language acquisitions: Technology and English language learners. Childhood Education, 81(2), 113-115.

Rioux, R. (2009). English Language Learners and the Development of the English Language Learner Curriculum. All Regis University Theses.
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Lesson Plan with Understanding by Design Framework

Words: 1265 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60075298

Lesson Plan Using Understanding by Design Framework

A creative approach is critical in embedding innovative problem solving, embedding opportunity for inquiry as well as enhancing critical thinking for deep discipline knowledge. When curriculum is to be coherent, and cohesive across multiple grades, the assessment protocols should establish the degree of success and integrate the curricular unit to enhance the desired learning outcomes. The UbD provides an effective framework that assists in addressing the aforementioned key issues. In the U.S. educational system, successful learning outcome requires an integration of meaningful assessment, and contents coupled with effective pedagogy. However, the ability to develop cohesive and coherent curriculum has become overwhelming to experienced school teachers, obviously, the issue creates a barrier to student's efficient learning. Thus, UbD (Understanding by Design) has been identified as the effective tool that overcomes these barriers by providing practical and concise guidance for both inexperienced and experienced teachers.…… [Read More]

Reference

Roth, D. (2007). Understanding by Design: A Framework for Effecting Curricular Development and Assessment. Cell Biology Education, 6(2), 95-97. doi:10.1187/cbe.07-03-0012.
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Organizational Health Educational Institutions Generally Approach Organizational

Words: 2709 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11719523

Organizational Health

Educational institutions generally approach organizational improvement by addressing the performance standards to which students, educators, and administrators are held. The standards movement has been a dominant theme in educational policy arenas and in the public eye. With roots in the 1950s Cold War mentality, the thrust of educational improvement has been prodded by perceptions of international industrial and scientific competition. If the rigor of educational standards in the nation -- according to the logic of this argument -- falls below that of other countries, our economy will falter and the balance of trade will be compromised, perhaps beyond the point of recovery.

Fears for the future of the country and our citizens run deep; these fears propel a course of action that is not particularly based on rational thinking and lacks a base of evidence. The course of action adopted by educational policy makers and educational leaders in…… [Read More]

References

Barth, P. (1997, November 26). Want to keep American jobs and avert class division? Try high school trig. Education Week, 30,33.

Bosch, G. (2000). The Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. In Tremblay, D.-G. And Doray, P. (2000). Vers de nouveaux modes de formation professionnelle? Le role des acteurs et des collaborations. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec.

____. (1998). Business Coalition for Education Reform. The Formula for Success: A Business Leader's Guide to Supporting Math and Science Achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Hacker, A. (2012, July 20). Is algebra necessary? The New York Times [national ed.], SR1, SR6.
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The Creation of an Effective Learning Environment

Words: 1437 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72607354

Nurse Educator and Good Learning Environments

Effective learning can only take place under conditions that are convenient for both the student and the teacher. It is imperative to note however, that the effective learning environment can only be created with the collective contribution of both the teacher or instructors and the students. Each faculty must have guidelines that are geared towards creating an environment that enables the learners to get to understand their lessons and avoid situations where the instructional and learning time is wasted for both the instructors and the learners. An effective environment in the instruction halls and classes can be created by the instructors first so that the time allocated to learning and instruction is maximized.

The instructors can create an effective learning environment trough having a proper curriculum planning which will enable the teachers to dwell on the relevant material for the class and at the…… [Read More]

References

American Association of University Professors, (2015). Sexual Harassment: Suggested Policy and Procedures for Handling Complaints. Retrieved November 9, 2015 from http://www.aaup.org/report/sexual-harassment-suggested-policy-and-procedures-handling-complaints

Gerber C.A., (2008). Seven Strategies for Building Positive Classrooms. Retrieved November 9, 2015 from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept08/vol66/num01/Seven-Strategies-for-Building-Positive-Classrooms.aspx
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Designing Effective Work Teams

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83649383

Americans ave been up in arms about te current state of public education and demanding canges. Wile many new scools are being built for new students, bus routes are being canged to accommodate te need and teacers continue to negotiate salaries, te single most important factor to providing a good education is te curriculum coices being made. Once te basic skills are learned and students prepare to enter middle scool, te curriculum is te deciding factor on ow tose students will learn and be prepared for ig scool and te world. An integrated curriculum at te middle scool level is te strongest and single most effective metod of preparing tose students for te future.

Wile tere is some argument for maintaining middle scool as a basic education atmospere te use of an integrated curriculum makes more sense in te current globalization process being experienced today.

Tis new vision begins wit…… [Read More]

http://ericps.ed.uiuc.edu/eece/pubs/digests/1992/beane92.html

James Beane

EDO-PS-92-2
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School Leadership Personal and Symbolic

Words: 2540 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49318698

" (2005) Stated to be inclusive in these are the following characteristics:

risk-taking;

open-mindedness; optimism; confidence; decisiveness; reflectiveness; enthusiasm; perseverance; respect; courage; integrity; resilience; empathy. (Catholic Education Commission of Victoria, 2005)

The Catholic Education Commission of Victoria (2005) states that specific knowledge that is required to be in the repertoire of the school leader are those listed as follows: (1) the capacity to think creatively, build and communicate effective concepts that serve to inform actions; (2) the ability to think creatively and build and communicate concepts that inform action; (3) the ability to understand, rationalize and defend a point-of-view; (4) The ability to draw connections between the practical knowledge of experience and research-based, theoretical knowledge; and (5) The capacity to share and create knowledge with colleagues. (Catholic Education Commission of Victoria, 2005)

The Catholic Education Commission of Victoria (2005) states that the school leader requires a "bond of understandings that…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Kimball, Steven Miller, Milanowski, Anthony, and McKinney, Sarah A. (2009) Assessing the promise of standards-based performance evaluation for principals: results from a randomized trial. Leadership and Policy in Schools. Volume 8 Number 3, July 2009; Pages 233 -- 263. Online available at:  http://cmslive.curriculum.edu.au/leader/abstracts,58.html?issueID=11875#art28263 

New South Wales Department of Education and Training (2006) Professional Learning and Leadership Development: School Leadership Capability Framework. Online available at: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/proflearn/areas/sld/frameworks/slcf/slcf_more.htm

Personal Domain: School Leadership Capability Framework (2006) New South Wales Department of Education and Training. Professional Learning and Leadership Development. Online available at: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/proflearn/areas/sld/frameworks/slcf/slcf_pers.htm

Interpersonal Domain: School Leadership Capability Framework (2006) New South Wales Department of Education and Training. Professional Learning and Leadership Development. Online available at: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/proflearn/areas/sld/frameworks/slcf/slcf_inter.htm
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School Improvement Plan the Vision

Words: 1033 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48767196

8/18/2004 Classroom Teachers, eading Coach $4,000 for materials, software, and incentives. (PSTF, Title I, Acct.) Ongoing

10. All students will be encouraged to participate in after school tutoring, Saturday tutoring, family nights, FCAT Camp, media center reading group, and both school and county academic competitions. 8/18/2004 Classroom Teachers, Guidance, Administrators, Media Specialist $12,000 for materials, salaries, & incentives (Title I, Acct, PSTF) Ongoing

11. Students will be provided the opportunity to utilize the media center for reading and technology before and after school. 8/23/2004 Media Specialist None

Daily

12. Students will receive curriculum assistance using technology/computers in reading instruction. 8/30/2004 Technology Sp., Media Sp., Classroom Teachers

500 materials & supplies (Title I) Daily

13.Daily school-wide Go STI Crazy (SS program) and Word of the Day.

Alignment of these three factors, shared vision, curricular goals and instructional objectives is clear through this collaborative plan, as all curriculum and human resources issues…… [Read More]

References

Devlin-Scherer, R., & Devlin-Scherer, W.L. (1994). Do School Boards Encourage Parent Involvement?. Education, 114(4), 535+.

Evensen, DH & Hmelo, C.E. (Eds.). (2000). Problem-Based Learning: A Research Perspective on Learning Interactions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Grant, M.M., & Branch, R.M. (2005). Project-Based Learning in a Middle School: Tracing Abilities through the Artifacts of Learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(1), 65+.

Harwell, S.H. (2000). Impediments to Change: An Application of Force-Field Analysis to Leader Master Teacher Training in an Elementary Level Science Systemic Reform Initiative. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 12(2), 7.