69 results for “Cyber Terrorism”.
The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:
- easily approachable
- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information
- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe
- the power for the user to remain…
Army, U. (2005). Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism. In U. Army, U.S. Army Training Doctrine Command, Handbook No. 1.02
Bridis, T. (2005, May 26). USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from "Silent Horizon" war games wrap up for The CIA:
Coleman, K. (2003, October 10 ). Cyber Terrorism. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from Cyber Terrorism Article: http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=432&trv=1
The increasing skill of these terrorists in using cyberspace has led some officials to believe that they are on the point of using computers for increasing bloodshed. This new threat is not similar to hackers' earlier using computers for passing viruses and worms. This has now reached a level of being able to reach the meeting point of computers and physical structures controlled by computers. The belief of analysts in U.S. is that they may try to disable or control floodgates in dams or electrical stations handling large quantities of power and through them destroy lives and property around them.
Though there is not much evidence, they believe that al Qaeda may be using these capacities with other weapons like explosives. The al Qaeda is known to have capacity to use other sites for their own benefit, and al Qaeda laptop in Afghanistan had visited the French site of Anonymous…
Cyber-terrorism. (30 April, 2005) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber-terrorismAccessed on 14 May, 2005
Gellman, Barton. (June 27, 2002) "Cyber-Attacks by Al Qaeda Feared" Washington Post. P: A01. Retrieved at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A50765-2002Jun26?language=printerAccessed on 14 May, 2005
Lewis, James a. (December, 2002) "Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other Cyber Threats" Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved at http://www.csis.org/tech/0211_lewis.pdf . Accessed on 14 May, 2005
O' Neil, Michael J. (2001) "Cyber-Terrorism: Case Study" Excerpt from Terrorism and the Law, by Yonah Alexander and Edgar H. Brenner, Editors. Transnational Publishers, Inc. Retrieved at http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Library/Teasers/ONeil.CyberT.html. Accessed on 14 May, 2005
With the continued integration of technology, and especially internet-based technologies, into everyday life, the threat of cyberterrorism becomes more and more of a concern, as the potential for exponentially devastating effects increases alongside reliance on these emerging technologies. However, combating cyberterrorism is not as simple as one might think (or hope), because even the definition of the word itself remains under discussion. Nonetheless, after examining some of the more common definitions of cyberterrorism as well as the most obvious and evolving cyberterrorist threats, it becomes clear that much of the official preparation and response to cyberterrorism tends to focus on red herrings, missing the areas with the greatest potential for harm while focusing on far less likely doomsday scenarios. ealizing this fact ultimately offers some better ideas for stopping current and future cyberterrorists.
The first hurdle to understanding and combating cyberterrorism is the fact that there is no singularly…
Anonymous, . (2001). Client-side distributed denial-of-service: valid campaign tactic or terrorist act?. Leonardo, 34(3), 269-274.
Baldwin, FN. (2004). The financing of terror in the age of the internet: wilful blindness, greed or a political statement?. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 8(2), 127-158.
Collin, B. (1997). Future of cyberterrorism: the physical and virtual worlds converge. Crime and Justice International, 13(2), 15-18.
Kaiser, J. (1999). Cyberterrorism threat hyped?. Science, 283(5399), 139.
Cyber terrorism is the process of using disruptive, electronic activities to disrupt or destroy computers or computer networks with the aim of causing further damage or fear. Cyber terrorism is therefore a very great threat to information as it can lead to the leaking, damage or loss of very critical information by countries. In any case, cyber terrorism is facilitated through hacking and other activities aimed at affecting information across the world Verton, 2003.
Therefore as a threat, cyber terrorism involves terrorists using information technology in order to further their evil causes. The present technological world offers terrorists the opportunity to use information technology to make electronic threats through hackings, introduction of viruses defacing websites and Denial-of-service attacks.
Evolution of cyber terrorism
The evolution of cyber terrorism has basically grown in tandem with the developments realized in information technology. The initial threats began in the 1980s and continue as terrorists…
Alexander, Y., & Swetnam, M.S. (2001). Cyber terrorism and information warfare: threats and responses. Ardsley, NY: Transnational.
Elmusharaf, M.M. n. d. (2012). Cyber Terrorism: The new kind of Terrorism. Computer Crime Research Center - Daily news about computer crime, internet fraud and cyber terrorism. Retrieved May 29, 2012, from http://www.crime-research.org/articles/Cyber_Terrorism_new_kind_Terrorism
Taylor, R.W. (2006). Digital crime and digital terrorism. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Verton, D. (2003). Black Ice: the Invisible Threat of Cyber-Terrorism. New York: McGraw-Hill.
hat is Cyberterrorism?
Cyberterrorism is characterized by the fusing of terrorism and technology; it has made it such that guarding against terrorism necessitates careful use of computers and technology, and constant awareness of one's software and security systems. According to Gordon and Ford (2002), cyberterrorism has greatly expanded the scope and procedures used for terrorism, and have made acts of terrorism more difficult to police. Because of the technological component, it is most often directed at the workplace, where computers are prevalent and important files (often involving vast sums of money) are housed and protected (Matchulat,, J.J., 2006). hile terrorism has always resulted in tragic consequences, it was previously much easier to identify since it was characterized by more overt acts of violence. However, cyberterrorism makes it such that one could be a victim of a terrorist attack and not even be aware of the terrorist act.
Awan, A., & Blakemore, B. (2012). Policing Cyber Hate, Cyber Threats, and Cyber Terrorism. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Ford, R., & Gordon, S. (2002). Cyberterrorism? Computers and Society, 21(7), 636-647.
Gori, U. (2011). Modelling cyber security: Approaches, methodology, security. International Journal of Information Technology and Security, 1(1).
Johnson, T.A. (2006). Forensic Computer Crime Investigation. Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis Group.
Terrorism has become the most heatedly discussed and debated subject in social and political circles. In fact these days, this one issue has been dominating all other national and international problems. This is because on the one hand, we have just been witness to world's worst and probably the most sophisticated terrorist acts when airplanes were used as missiles to hit the two most powerful buildings in the United States and on the other hand, terrorism is spreading so fast that there appears to be no suitable and permanent solution to this problem.
Terrorism has turned into a national issue because on the one hand it is becoming more effective and lethal and on the other terrorists are now adopting newer and better tactics to meet their goals and objectives. After September 11, "President Bush, Vice President Cheney, and senior administration officials have alerted the public not only…
Joshua Green, The Myth of Cyberterrorism: There Are Many Ways Terrorists Can Kill You-Computers Aren't One of Them. Washington Monthly. Volume: 34. Issue: 11. November 2002. 8+.
John M. Deutch, Terrorism. Foreign Policy. Issue: 108. Fall 1997. 10+.
Peter Chalk, Grave New World. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy. Volume: 15. Issue: 1. 2000. Page Number: 13.
Giles Trendle, Cyber Threat! Although There Were No Major Catastrophic Cyber Attacks during the War on Iraq, as Some Had Feared an Increase in Hostile Electronic Strikes Was Registered during the Term of the Conflict. The Middle East. June 2003. 38+.
Cyber Terrorism: The Greatest isk in the U.S.
Tremendous technological advancements have been made in the last few decades. Today, humans depend more on computer networks and information technology (IT) systems than on other means for information. From business to government, computer networks are relied upon to store, process, retrieve, and transfer critical information. Increased dependence on computer networks has, however, posed a major threat. Cyber terrorism is now arguably the biggest threat facing the U.S. (Harress, 2014; Thomas, 2016). Attacks against computer networks via computer viruses, worms, malware, and hacking have become increasingly common. The attacks are directed to information systems and infrastructures that support critical processes such as defense, transportation, banking, and energy production. This threatens the country's social, economic, and political stability. Nonetheless, there are often assertions that the risk of cyber terrorism is not as pervasive or substantial as often portrayed. Though there could be some…
Caplan, N. (2013). Cyber War: The Challenge to National Security. Global Security Studies, 4(1), 93-115.
Chen, T., Jarvis, L., & Macdonald, S. (2014). Cyberterrorism: understanding, assessment, and response. New York: Springer.
Geers, K. (2012). Strategic Cyber Defense: Which Way Forward? Journal of Homeland Security & Emergency Management, 9(1), 1-10.
Harress, C. (2014, February 2). Obama says cyberterrorism is country's biggest threat, U.S. government assembles "cyber warriors." International Business Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/obama-says-cyberterrorism-countrys-biggest-threat-us - government-assembles-cyber-warriors-1556337
internet and the increased availability of personal computers around the world have increased the vulnerability of critical infrastructure systems. In recent years computers have been used by terrorist to distribute information about terrorist attacks. Now many experts fear that terrorist will use computers to carry out an attack on electricity grid or other systems that are crucial to the operation of a nation's infrastructure. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the ways in which cybercrimes occur and the how it applies to the criminal justice system approach to dealing with terrorism. efore we began the literature review let us provide an overview of the methodology used to identify and locate sources of information found in the literature review.
The sources used in the following literature review are from Academic Journals, books, newspapers, government agencies and articles found on the internet. Many of the Journals used are published…
Arquilla J., Ronfeldt D. 2001. Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Rand. Santa Monica, CA.
Boulard G. May 2003. Cyber Terrorism: No Longer Fiction; the Threat of Cyber Terrorism Became Much More Real after Sept. 11. Here's How States Are Trying to Reduce the Risks. State Legislatures. Volume: 29. Issue: 5. Page Number: 22+.
Davis J. 2003. The Global War on Terrorism: Assessing the American Response. Contributors: - author. Journal Title: White House Studies. Volume: 3. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: vii
Ditzion R., Geddes E., Rhodes, M. 2003. Computer Crimes. . American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 40. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: 285+.
As quickly as tools are created to prevent unauthorized access of information, ways are being created to work around these protections.
Just as technology has become increasingly smarter, the danger of disruption to vital parts of the nation's security, infrastructure, and banking systems has rapidly increased. It is no longer a matter the threat of the annoyance of a simple computer virus to temporary disable a computer network. The potential for widespread electronic attacks from cyber-terrorists could result in the leakage of national security information and the disabling of banking systems. Enemies of the United States no longer need to reply on physical acts of terrorism when they are able to potentially cause more lasting damage through cyber-terrorism. This paper seeks to explain cyber-terrorism, ways in which it is employed, and the way in which the United States is responding to its dangers.
In Al Qaeda and the…
In Al Qaeda and the Internet: The Danger of "Cyberplanning" by Timothy L. Thomas (2003), the author states that, "We can say with some certainty, al Qaeda loves the Internet" (Thomas 112). This point-of-view has been reiterated by many experts in the field of terrorism and counter terrorism and there is a growing realization of the way that computers and the Internet are being used as another tool in the terrorist's arsenal. The term cyber-terrorism has developed as a result of the role of modern technology in the furtherance of national and international terrorism.
It is ironic that on the one hand the advent of the Internet and the age of digital communication have been welcomed as one of the greatest innovations of our age and on the other hand as one of the greatest threats to our security. This dichotomy
Healthcare and the Threat of Cyber-Terrorism
Cyber-Terrorism and Healthcare
Government and military computer networks in the United States have been repeatedly attacked over a period of several years by China, North Korea, and third parties suspected of working for these two states (Gewitz, 2010). Although most of the known attacks by China and North Korea constituted espionage, denial-of-service attacks and network intrusions to assess network vulnerabilities have also occurred. The denial of service attacks are a form of cyber-terrorism. Acts of cyber-terrorism are not limited to governments and can be committed by individuals and groups, either acting alone or in conjunction with a more traditional terrorist organization. In a recent survey of nearly 8,000 American businesses it was revealed that 1.5 million viruses had been detected in 2005 alone (antala, 2005, p. 1), so the scale of the problem is considerable.
HIPAA Security ule
The seriousness of the cyber-terrorism threat…
California Beat. (2011, Aug. 14). Anonymous hackers attack BART, personal information for some riders released. Retrieved Oct. 17, 2011 from http://www.californiabeat.org/2011/08/14/anonymous-hackers-attack-bart-personal-information-for-some-riders-breached
Clem, A., Galwankar, Sagar, and Buck, George. (2005). Health implications of cyber-terrorism. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 18, 272-275.
Gewitz, David. (2010). State-sponsored cyberterrorism. Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International, 16, 8-10.
Rantala, Ramona R. (2008). Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2011 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/cb05.pdf
hat is cyber-crime?
Cybercrime denotes an illegal action committed primarily by deploying technology (or, to be more precise, a computer and internet). America's justice department expands this definition to cover all illegal actions employing computers to store evidence of crime (Tech Target, 2016).
hat is cyber space?
Cyberspace represents a domain characterized by application of electromagnetic spectrum and electronics for storing, altering, and communicating information through networked structures and related physical infrastructures. Basically, one may regard cyberspace as an interlinking of people by means of telecommunication and computers, with no connection with their physical geography (Rouse, 2016).
Problems in prosecuting cyber-crime cases
The internet, when it was first commercialized and made easily accessible and affordable to everyone (earlier, it was accessible only to the government and academicians), was a novel frontier. Akin to the old ild est, the Internet was chiefly unregulated. Lawmakers did not expect it to…
Info Security. (2011). Cybercrime Knows No Borders. Retrieved from http://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/magazine-features/cybercrime-knows-no-borders/
Opposing Views. (n.d.). Examples of Cyber Crime. Retrieved from http://science.opposingviews.com/examples-cyber-crime-1544.html
Rouse, M. (2016, Jan 03). Cyberspace. Retrieved from TechTarget: http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/definition/cyberspace
Shinder, D. (2011). What makes cybercrime laws so difficult to enforce. Retrieved from Tech Republic: http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/it-security/what-makes-cybercrime-laws-so-difficult-to-enforce/
goals of this study are to reveal some of the common and prevailing cyber security threats. Here we plan to explore the risk that is most difficult to defend: social engineering. We seek answers to the human elements and characteristics that contribute to the frauds and how they themselves unwittingly give out information that eventually leads to difficult situations. There are many ways in which the attackers 'phish' their targets. We will look into the origin of such techniques and proceed to develop a methodology to avert such attacks. In the highly computerized environment that we are living, a new method of multitenant services has been evolved to substitute for the demands on memory space and time- the Cloud. The impact of these vast and complex systems has raised newer kinds of concerns that will then be assessed and hence a strategy to safeguard the interests of the user because…
Cybersecurity has emerged as one of the important components of modern security initiatives because of rapid advancements of technology and the Internet. Ensuring cybersecurity has become important because of the vulnerabilities of critical infrastructures to cyber attacks in the aftermath of the 9/11 terror attacks. As part of efforts to enhance cybersecurity, federal and state governments in the United States have enacted laws that define the role of various stakeholders in protecting the nation's critical infrastructures. These laws govern the responsibilities of companies and organizations in protecting themselves and customers. In addition, these regulations have some costs associated with them given that enhancing cybersecurity is a relatively complex process.
Organizations' ole in Protecting Themselves and Customers
As cyber attacks continue to increase in the recent past, the federal government has enacted laws and policies to govern the role of organizations in protecting themselves and customers. Based on the…
Aspen Publishers. (2015, January). President Obama Signs Cybersecurity Executive Order. The Computer & Internet Lawyer, 32(1), 24. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=18551_mcpls&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA394183506&it=r&asid=5cc81d8f040ed73e605ae170f9d004c1
Heilbrun, M.R. & Brown, I. (2011, December). Cybersecurity Policy and Legislation in the 112th Congress. Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal, 23(12), 24. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=18551_mcpls&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA273587143&it=r&asid=ceebf07425038136e6c561f5eaf0f61d
Schwalb, M. (2006). Exploit Derivatives & National Security. Yale Journal of Law & Technology, 9, 162. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=18551_mcpls&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA182035194&it=r&asid=bdba2800f5f791182662e8f9083e0333
arfare & Terrorism
The proliferation of cyberattacks -- aptly referred to as cyberterrorism -- carried out by criminal miscreants with grudges, shadowy techies with political motives, and other anti-social individuals, represent the new digital wars that threatened personal and state security worldwide. This is not a problem that will go away any time soon, and cyber security officials it seems will always be one or two steps behind the offenders causing the digital carnage. The cyberattacks that are reviewed in this paper include: Russia's denial-of-service attacks on Estonia in 2007 and Georgia in 2008, and the cyberattacks against U.S. State Department computers in 2006. Denial of service refers to strategies that "…block access of legitimate users" through the "…relentless transmission of irrelevant information" -- called "flood attacks" -- which restrains computer servers (Richards, 2010).
Russia's cyberterrorism against Estonia -- 2007
An article in the International Affairs Review indicates that the…
Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defense
Review, 11(1), 4-40.
Associated Press. (2006). Computer Hackers Attack State Department. The New York Times.
Retrieved January 19, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Cyberspace as the Most Dominant Domain
Cyberspace is the indefinite place where all online communications take place. It can also be defined in computer networks as the electronic medium. The name was coined by William Gibson a science fiction author. When he coined the name, he was looking for a word to describe the global computer network he was envisioning. The U.S. government defines cyberspace as the country's control system composed of interconnected computers, routers, servers, switches and fiber optic cables Adams, 1997.
It states that cyberspace is the nervous system for the military. The use of electromagnetic spectrum and electromagnetic to modify, store, and exchange information using physical infrastructures and networked information systems can also be used to refer to the cyberspace domain.
The use of cyberspace to attack others is referred to as cyber terrorism. The attacks occur in form of viruses, which are meant to disrupt…
Adams, P.C. (1997). Cyberspace and Virtual Places. Geographical Review, 87(2), 155-171.
Halloran, J. (2011). Game Changer? How VoIP Is Impacting the Way We Play. [Article]. International Journal of Interactive Worlds, 1-27. doi: 10.5171/2011.144197
Molina, A. (2003). Cyberspace: The "Color Line" of the 21st Century. Social Justice, 30(2 (92)), 143-149.
Yan, H. (2010). On the Clouds: A New Way of Computing. [Article]. Information Technology & Libraries, 29(2), 87-92.
These teams are called in to deal with highly dangerous and threatening situations, including terrorist attacks. Some of the "special operations" tactics that may be employed to deal with active shooters, barricades, and hostage situations include: three or four man entries using shields, power flooding for "large structure clearing," mobile hostage rescues, "linear entry techniques," and vehicle takedowns (Navy Seals, 2010).
eapons of Mass Destruction
eapons of mass destruction (MD) include any weapons that can cause catastrophic damage or destruction to a large number of people, structures, organizations, or the environment. Examples include bombs, nuclear, chemical, radiological, or biological weapons. Due to the catastrophic threats posed by MD, in 2006 the FBI launched the eapons of Mass Destruction Directorate (MDD) to further integrate agency efforts for better prevention against MD attack.
Terrorism group, (International or Domestic)
Terrorists most often operate from within radical groups with political motivations. ithin the United…
With America's increasing dependence upon the Internet for storage and retrieval of critical information, and the use of computers to direct and make critical decisions, terrorists have more and more opportunities to hack or otherwise sabotage the Internet and cost human lives (as well as lots of money) as a result. While many people believe the threat of lost lives from a cyber attack is minimal, experts warn that the danger must be taken seriously, because "servers in the United States are the most aggressively targeted information systems in the world, with attacks increasing in severity, frequency, and sophistication each year" (CDI, 2011). Malicious computer users are becoming more skilled day-to-day, so defensive measures against these attacks must increase in strength and remain vigilant at all times. Cyber-terrorism threats can involve banks, hospitals, and government agencies; motivations include profit, general harm, or even assassination. While the U.S. has only experienced minor attacks, other countries such as the Ukraine and Estonia have suffered more massive attacks (CDI, 2011).
Bin Laden and Al Qaeda
Osama Bin Laden established his terrorist group, Al Qaeda, in 1988; it's "goals were the advancement of Islamic revolutions throughout the Muslim world and repelling foreign intervention in the Middle East" (ADL, 2011). Bin Laden's efforts began with fights against the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, and he always had access to large sums of money as the son of a Saudi Arabian billionaire. After the Gulf Wars began, Al Qaeda became involved in terrorist activities against U.S. involvement in the Middle East, particularly the presence of American troops in Islamic holy lands (ADL, 2011). Bin Laden began to align with other terrorist groups, and in 1996 moved back to Afghanistan and joined forces with the Taliban (ADL, 2011). Attacks continued over the years since then, until the culmination of Al Qaeda's efforts in the 9/11 terrorist attacks -- in which nearly 3,000 innocent people lost their lives
The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.
At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.
Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke…
Amendments to Section 225 Cyber Security Enhancement Act, 2002 (2003). Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.
Antal, J. Counter-terrorism multipliers needed (2010). Military Technology, 34(4), 4.
Ashley, Col. (S) B.K, USAF (2004). The United States Is Vulnerable to Cyberterrorism. Signal Online. Retrieved from: http://www.afcea.org/signal/articles/templates/SIGNAL_Article_Template.asp?articleid=32&zoneid=10
Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 409 F.2d 718, (U.S.App. LEXIS 12867 2d Cir. N.Y., 1969).
Hacking, the apolitical counterpart of hacktivism, is also not necessarily a form of terrorism. However, cyberterrorists often use hacking as a tool of terrorism.
Terrorists may be tempted to use computer attacks for several reasons including the following. First, cyberterrorism can be relatively inexpensive. Second, terrorists can easily remain anonymous when they use computer terrorism. Third, the scope of the attack can potentially be larger than physically combative ones. Fourth, cyberterror can be launched and managed remotely and fifth, computer terrorism can garner instant and widespread media attention. Cyberterrorism is not only in the province of international terrorist organizations but may also be used by fanatical religious groups or even by disgruntled employess. Using computer terrorism can also become an adjunct to traditional forms of terror like bombs.
The National Security Agency (NSA) has investigated vulnerabilities in their own systems and have hired hackers to expose weaknesses in their systems.…
Weimann, G. (2004). Cyberterrorism: How Real Is the Threat? United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved April 17, 2007 at http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr119.html
Cyber warfare continues to grow larger than imagination as the public becomes more aware of and involved in technology. This work in writing will identify a case study that presents a 'cell', 'klan', or 'state', which conducted or has the capacity to conduct cyber warfare. This work will describe the elements of: who, what, where, and why and means of conducting such cyber warfare and the organizational ideology behind the attack. Finally, this work will conclude with a review of how the attack could be prevented, either through training or certain tools.
There is a group that calls themselves 'Anonymous' which has exposed the weaknesses in American cybersecurity and while the group Anonymous is not staging or conducting cyberwarfare, they have revealed through their hacking of the Internet that hacking down the American infrastructure would not be as far-fetched as once was believed. Anonymous has managed to conduct hacking operations…
Al Qaeda Video Calls for 'Electronic Jihad' on America (2012) The Threat Journal 23 May 2012. Retrieved from: http://threatjournal.com/archive/tj05242012.html
Paganini, Pierluigi (2012) Plan X: Developing U.S. Cyber Warfare Capabilities. Infosec Island. 4 Jun 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.infosecisland.com/blogview/21532-Plan-X-Developing-U.S.-Cyber-Warfare-Capabilities.html
Rollins, John and Wilson, Clay (2007) Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues. CRS Report for Congress. 22 Man 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL33123.pdf
Cyberterrorism, illegal (and legal) espionage, piracy, and cybercrimes differ from their pre-digital counterparts in serious and meaningful ways. For one, the nature of online social interactions diverges from that of face-to-face or even voice-only interactions due to the shields of anonymity. Second, technological prophylactics ranging from encryption to skillful network architecture can add multiple levels of protection to shield perpetrators while exposing the weaknesses in a less advanced consumer public. Third, the rapid advancement of artificially intelligent systems creates new possible realities and problems, as non-human actors become part of increasingly complex systems. Finally, digital media has enabled formal and informal surveillance and other forms of illicit behavior, transforming the relationship between actors and objects in ways that could alter political and social realities. Actor-network theory is an ideal lens and process by which to better understand the complex gamut of cybercrime. Developed initially in the 1980s and solidified…
In the first instance an attack of this nature usually serves a symbolic purpose from the terrorist's point-of-view in that he or she is seen to be attacking the bastion of global Western commerce. Secondly, many business concerns are more vulnerable to attack as they are usually not as heavily secured as military or energy installations. There is also the factor that American financial institutions are invariably identified with the international polices and political stances of the U.S. government, making them a prime target for terrorists and radical groups. (Kirkpatrick, 1983, p. 94)
American multinational Corporations (MNCs) in particular are an increasing focus of terrorist attention. As Harvey (1993) states, "If the trends of the past are any indication of the future strategies of terrorists, United States MNCs will continue to be their primary targets" (Harvey, 1993 p. 465). In this regard studies have found that financial and commercial institutions…
Bayles, W.J. (2001). The Ethics of Computer Network Attack. Parameters, 31(1), 44. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000729437
Beard, J.M. (2002). America's New War on Terror: The Case for Self-Defense under International Law. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(2), 559+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424066
Beebe, J.L. (2006). Inherently Safer Technology: The Cure for Chemical Plants Which Are Dangerous by Design. Houston Journal of International Law, 28(1), 239+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021769883
Description of the issue and its global reach;
Bachmann, S., & Gunneriusson, H. (2014). errorism and Cyber Attacks as Hybrid hreats: Defining a Comprehensive Approach for Countering 21st Century hreats to Global Risk and Security. he Journal On errorism and Security Analysis, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2252595
his article discusses cyber terrorism and its growing threat in the digital age. he author present finding covering a continuous Hybrid hreat experiment undertaken by researchers at the Swedish Defense College focusing on cyber-attacks and its role in asymmetric conflict.
Graham, M., & Ramiah, V. (2012). Global terrorism and adaptive expectations in financial markets: Evidence from Japanese equity market. Research in International Business and Finance, 26(1), 97-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ribaf.2011.07.002
his article examines five terrorist attacks and the impact they had on Japanese industries. he information provides an indicator of how terrorist attacks affect global markets and economies.
Source 3: Pain, R. (2014). Everyday terrorism: Connecting domestic violence…
This article discusses the variations in NGOs' responses to post-2001 variances in counterterrorism regulation in various parts of the world like the United States and the United Kingdom. They present various type responses such as shirking, hiding, and vocal opposition.
Source 3: Cole, J. (2013). 9/11 and the design of counterterrorism institutions. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 8(1), 99-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/18335330.2013.790123
This article highlights the design of counterterrorism institutions after the 9/11 attacks. It discusses the Karlsson theoretical framework and how it might aide in define differences as well as the drivers behind them.
Homeland Security and Information Technology
Security and Technology
Geospatial Information System
The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations.
Security and Technology
In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Cybercrime. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The FBI: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/cyber
Goodchild, M.F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GI Science in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 3-20.
John D. Woodward, N.M. (2002). Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information Age. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.
Jussi, P. (2007). Digital Contagions: A Media Archaeology of Computer Viruses. New York: Peter Lang.
Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity Outline
Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security
Methods of the Government Interventions
Impacts of Government egulation on National Security
Failure to comply to related cyber regulations
Meeting the minimum requirements.
Exceeding the Minimum equirements
The economic and national security of the United States rely on the effective functioning of the country critical infrastructures. ecently, the U.S. government has issued an executive order to manage the cybersecurity and protect the country critical infrastructure since a destruction of the critical infrastructures whether virtual or physical can have a negative impact on the national economic security, safety or national public health. The computer and information systems are part of the country critical infrastructures that facilitate effective data communication between organizations. Presently, the U.S. information systems have enhanced interconnectivity that enhances business advantages, which has never happened before. Despite the benefits of…
Coyne, C.J. (2012). Who's to Protect Cyberspace? Department of Economics Hampden-Sydney College
Liu, E.C. Stevens, G. Ruane, K. A. et al. (2013). Cybersecurity: Selected Legal Issues. Congress Research Service
Rosenzweig, P. (2012). An emerging threats: Cybersecurity and Public Goods. The Public/Private "Partnership." Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Stalling, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice. (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall
In general, utilitarianism is an ethical system most often attributed to John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, both 19th century social philosophers commenting on conditions arising from the Industrial evolution. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical thing one can do is any action that will maximize the happiness within an organization or society. Actions have quantitative outcomes and the ethical choices that lead to the "greatest good for the greatest number" are the appropriate decisions, even if that means subsuming the rights of certain individuals. It is considered to be a consequential outlook in the sense that while outcomes cannot be predicted the judgement of an action is based on the outcome -- or, "the ends justify the means" (obinson and Groves, 2003).
For Google, then, the issue at its core was to continue allowing censorship of Chinese issues based on governmental regulations, or simply state, we will no longer…
Deming, Stuart. (2006) the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the NewInternational Norms.
American Bar Association.
Drucker, P.F., et.al. (2001). Harvard Business Review on Decision Making. Harvard "Google vs. China." (January 14, 2010). The Washington Post. Cited in:
The most refined understanding on the issue of morality of terrorism is given by Michael Walzer. According to him in modern times, terror is considered to be the totalitarian view of politics as well as war. It destroys the conventional thinking as well as the political mode. It ignores moral confines and for being inside the groups of citizens/civilian population, there is no such small category wherein the immunity may be claimed. Terrorists anyhow do not make provisions for such forms of claim and they kill any person. (Blin; Schneider; Pulver; Browner, 2007)
V. Terrorist or Freedom Fighter:
Whether a person is a terrorist or a freedom fighter depends on the perspective. Civilian society treats terrorists as 'those involved in spreading terror' while terrorist groups regard their brethren as 'freedom fighters'. Interestingly there are three perspectives of terrorism. First is the terrorist, the next is the victim and the third…
Abrahms, Max. (2008) "What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counterterrorism Strategy" International Security, vol. 32, no. 4, pp: 78-105.
Blin, Arnaud; Schneider, Edward; Pulver, Kathryn; Browner, Jesse. (2007) "The history of terrorism" University of California Press.
Borum, Randy. (2004) "Psychology of Terrorism: Psychological Approaches to Understanding Terrorism" Retrieved 25 March, 2009 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/208552.PDF
Hudson, Rex A. (1999) "The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who becomes a Terrorist and why" A Report Prepared under an Interagency Agreement by the Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 March, 2009 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
Although many of the figureheads of international terrorism have been exterminated, terrorism remains a pervasive reality. Whether from domestic or foreign sources, terrorism remains a real threat. Even in the absence of an actual attack, fear of terrorism inevitably harms the quality of life of citizens. Members of our organization should feel safe and secure, knowing that at least at work they are protected from all manner of terrorist attack: whether that be a lone gunman, an explosion, a biological or chemical weapon, or cyberterrorism.
esearch into the most effective responses to terrorism shows that terrorism is too diverse and complex a phenomenon to warrant a singular or simple response. We must remain vigilant of multiple types of terrorism, which is why I recommend the creation of a special position in our organization devoted to counterterrorism and internal security. The importance of this new position cannot be underestimated. An…
Henwood, D. (2001). Terrorism and globalization. The Nation. 3 December, 2001. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/terrorism-and-globalization
Witkowsky, A. (2010). Preventing Terrorism: Strategies and Policies To Prevent and Combat Transnational Threats. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved online: http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/rm/2010/150068.htm
On an individual level, however, such safeguards can be interpreted as learning how to survive in a non-technological world. In other words, it is important that we ensure that a technologically run world does not end up creating a complacent and physiologically inept human society.
Human ingenuity has resulted in computer technology and the Internet creating untold opportunities for improving the quality of life. The same human ingenuity must also now ensure that the use of Information Technology and the Internet is responsibly done and placed in the right perspective.
CNN.com (1999, June 24). Internet Alert: FTC warns against false health claims.
etrieved Dec.1, 2004: http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9906/24/internet.health.02/
Home Office. (2004). Crime & Policing: Internet Crime. etrieved Dec. 1, 2004:
Jackson, W. (2004, February 4). Senator calls for mandatory reporting of viruses.
TeCrime International, Inc. etrieved Dec. 1, 2004: http://www.tecrime.com/llartV22.htm
Joshi, V. (2003, Oct. 12). Cell phones now debit cards…
CNN.com (1999, June 24). Internet Alert: FTC warns against false health claims.
Retrieved Dec.1, 2004: http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9906/24/internet.health.02/
Home Office. (2004). Crime & Policing: Internet Crime. Retrieved Dec. 1, 2004:
yber Ethics, Morality, and Law
A lot security and privacy issues have attracted the attention of many individuals with the coming internet communication and cyber-wars. World leaders caution that the cyber threat to the country is a standout amongst the most national and economic challenges security challenges we confront. This has also raised numerous concerns regarding the legal parameters of cyber activities like the standards relevant to cyber war (Dipert, 2010). Parallel to the developing investment in the lawful parts of cyber war is the increasing number of concerns concentrated on the moral perspective. That is an essential attention for any military attempt in the handling cyber operations. Developing concern about the moral aspect of cyber exercises influenced this study. This study will discuss ethical, moral and legal perspectives of cyber operations.
Dunlap, ., J. (2013). Some Reflections on the Intersection of Law and Ethics in yber War.…
Cook, J., C. (2010). Cyberation and Just War Doctrine: A Response to Randall Dipert. Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 411- 423
Dipert, R.R. (2010). The Ethics of Cyberwarfare, Journal of Military Ethics, 9(4), pp. 384410 (Abingdon, Routledge).
Dunlap, C., J. (2013). Some Reflections on the Intersection of Law and Ethics in Cyber War. Air & Space Power Journal Vol. 2, No. 1, 22-38
EAL DO YOU THINK THE TEOIST THEAT IS TO THE COMMECIAL SECTO?
With the current wave of terrorist's activities and attacks, terrorists' threat is incredibly real to the commercial sector. Since 2008, terrorists target commercial organizations such as hotel that accommodate huge numbers of people. For instance, in 2009, terrorists bombed the JW Marriott and itz-Carlton hotels in Jakarta, Indonesia leaving 9 people dead and 42 injured. While terrorism has been around in geographical isolation, for scores of years, 20% of terrorists' acts affect the business community (Levene 2007, p.7). The contemporary history is full of horrific incidences carried out by extremists for divergent reasons. Indeed, terrorism is the plague of a contemporary and civilized society, and it is real and detrimental to the commercial sector.
Numerous countries across the globe experience terrorism triggered by different reasons; ideological, social, religious among other causes. The effects of terrorists' attack and threat…
Business Executives for National Security Metro Atlanta Region 2003. Company primer on preparedness and response planning for terrorist and bioterrorists attacks. Washington: BENS.
Gill, M 2006. The handbook o security. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Homeland Security 2011. The evolving terrorist threat: Enhancing vigilance for commercial facilities. New York: Policy Agenda.
Jackson, R 2011. Terrorism: A critical introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007
2007 Estonian Cyber-war
This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication. This form of globalization also yielded benefits for Estonia by improving the standard of living of its people. However, other than benefits, it has also ascended the availability of new weapons of confrontation for groups who have been seeking and opposing certain Estonian political measures and ideologies. The digital activists from the ussian land did the same to Estonia in May 2007 (Herzog, 2011).
More than 340,000 ethnic ussians reside in Estonia which means that the ussians comprise about 25% of the country's populace. Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, the small country has been experiencing an unsteady and shaky relationship with Moscow (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Thus, Estonia and ussia share an extensive history of…
Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defence Review, 11, 4-40. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.bdcol.ee/files/files/documents/Research/BSDR2009/1_ Ashmore - Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks .pdf
Authority of the House of Lords, European Union Committee. (2010). Protecting Europe against Large-Scale Cyber-Attacks. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from the Stationery Office Limited website: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldeucom/68/68.pdf
Czosseck, C., Ottis, R., & Taliharm, A. (n.d.). Estonia after the 2007 Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic and Organisational Changes in Cyber Security. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from http://www.ccdcoe.org/articles/2011/Czosseck_Ottis_Taliharm_Estonia_After_the_2007_Cyber_Attacks.PDF
Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, IV (2), 49-60. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1105&context=jss
Terrorism in elation to International Governance
The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States highlighted the global threat of terrorism since it changed the ways in which the world views terrorism. Actually, the attacks demonstrated the evolution of the threat of terrorism that has become a major security threat across the globe. Given the global dimension of terrorism, state actors and the international community has become increasingly concerned and developed various ways to deal with the threat of terrorism from a national and international level. Domestic and international law has altered policy towards terrorism, leading to an evolution of counterterrorism efforts. However, the effectiveness of these counterterrorism efforts requires an understanding of what terrorism is, its impact on countries, and international laws. Since terrorism is a global concern, international response may be crucial to resolving such a troubling issue.
Description of the Issue
Terrorism has continued to evolve in recent…
Bachmann, S. & Gunnerisson, H. (2014). Terrorism and Cyber Attacks as Hybrid Threats: Defining a Comprehensive Approach for Countering 21st Century Threats to Global Peace and Security. The Journal on Terrorism and Security Analysis, 1-37.
Bogdanoski, M. & Petreski, D. (2010). Cyber Terrorism -- Global Security Threat. International Scientific Defense, Security, and Peace Journal, 59-72.
Ervine, P. (2010, November 15). Does Terrorism Pose a Real Threat to Security? Retrieved May 14, 2016, from http://www.e-ir.info/2010/11/15/does-terrorism-pose-a-real-threat-to-security/
Gaibulloev, K., Sandler, T. & Santifort, C. (2011). Assessing the Evolving Threat of Terrorism. Retrieved from Homeland Security Center -- University of Southern California website: http://create.usc.edu/sites/default/files/publications/assessingtheevolvingthreatofterrorism_2.pdf
Hacker Culture and Mitigation in the International Systems
The explosion of the internet technology in the contemporary business and IT environments has assisted more than 300 million computer users to be connected through a maze of internet networks. Moreover, the network connectivity has facilitated the speed of communication among businesses and individuals. (Hampton, 2012). Despite the benefits associated with the internet and network technologies, the new technologies have opened the chance for hackers to attack the information systems of business organizations and collect sensitive information worth millions of dollars. Each year, businesses have been a victim of cyber-attacks in the United States. As an increasing number of people and businesses own internet-enabled devices, more businesses have become a victim of cyber-attacks, which has become a critical concern in the business and governmental environments. (Hacker news, n.d.).
The objective of this paper is to analyze the cyber incidents of the Sony…
Atkinson, S (2015). Psychology and the hacker - Psychological Incident Handling. Sans Institute.
Christopher, A. & Vasili, M. (2006). The KGB and the World: The Mitrokhin Archive II. Penguin. 41: 120-1.
FBI (2014). Update on Sony Investigation. Federal Bureau of Investigation. USA.
Fotinger, C.S. & Ziegler, W.(2004). Understanding a hacker's mind -- A psychological insight into the hijacking of identities. Donau-Universitat Krems. Commissioned by RSA Security.
A Peer Review of the Reality of Cyberrime Paper
In the Introdution to the Reality of Cyberrime Are (2011) states that "The threat of yberrime is of growing onern in our soiety…" (p. 1). This provides an attention-getting tehnique that is highly effetive. The entire introdution follows suit and lays the foundation for the analysis. The reader has automati buy-in due to the personal nature of how Are relates the topi to the average daily onsumer of digital media. For example, s/he states that "It is our responsibility as a soiety to prepare ourselves by taking the neessary ountermeasures in order to prevent these types of attaks from ourring and unfortunately when they do our, punish those to the fullest extent the law permits" (p. 1) the only suggested improvement for the introdutory paragraph is to work on basi editing. For example, terms like 'full sale" and "law maker" need…
cited in Arce, 2011, paras. 2-4). Most of the methods mentioned are aimed at catching attackers. One system, the Cyberterrorism First Responder is directed towards programmers and helps prevent future cybercrime (p.3). The body of the paper is well organized and demonstrates the writer's command of the researched material. Arce does a very good job of explaining cybercrimes that the audience is probably familiar with, but also those that the audience may not readily think of such as child exploitation, spamming and cyberstalking (p.4). The body of the paper could be improved upon in transitioning from paragraph to paragraph and through some editing for grammatical and APA formatting errors and revision sentences using passive voice.
The conclusion adds to the topic by restating the writer's purpose and by arguing in favor of systems for fighting cybercrime. No suggestions for improvement of the conclusion. It is impressive and powerful as-is.
This occurs when a server happens to receive more connection requests that are incomplete and that it cannot possibly handle. This kind of attack's source code were released in 2006 by 2600 and Phracks two well-known underground hacker magazines. The second threat is IP Spoofing which is an attack which involves the impersonation of a legitimate host user at the IP layer. The third one is sequence number attack. The third one is TCP session hijacking. The third threat is denial of service attacks Security strategies to address various threats that are addressed by IPSec that users who use unsecured TCP/IP face
In order to ensure that users of unsecured TCP/IP don't fall victims to the threats outlined above, the following strategies must be employed;
Countering SYN Flooding:
The ISPs that are responsible for the IP packets must block the non-internal addresses that are responsible for the flooding. The attacker…
CEEnet (2000)Applications of IPSec
Ferguson, B Poulton, D and Barrett, D (2004). MCSA/MCSE 70-299 Exam Cram 2:
Implementing and Administering Security in a Windows 2003 Network
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…
Most of the time, intellectual property theft involves stealing copyrighted material in the form of a book, a magazine or journal article or material on the Internet and claiming that the material is one's own property, also known as plagiarism. This type of high-tech crime is very widespread in today's America and often shows up as major news stories in the media, especially when the copyrighted material belongs to a high-profile author.
Another high-tech crime which is closely linked to identity theft is credit card fraud which occurs when "purchases are made using another individual's credit card or credit card number with the intent to defraud" ("Credit Card Fraud," Internet). These purchases might include buying products and goods at a well-known business establishment or purchasing products from Internet sites. Some of the more common forms of credit card fraud found in the U.S. include counterfeiting or creating fraudulent credit cards,…
About Identity Theft." (2008). FTC. Internet. Retrieved January 8, 2009 at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/consumers/about-identity-theft.html .
Credit Card Fraud." (2009). Criminal Law. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/criminal-law/credit-card-fraud.htm .
Financial and High-Tech Crimes." January 7, 2009. Interpol. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at http://www.interpol.int/Public/FinancialCrime/Default.asp .
Thompson, William T. (2004). High-tech crime in the United States. Boston: G.K. Hall.
However genius terrorist organizations might seem, the United States and its allies has at its command an even more sophisticated and comprehensive body of technological tools that can be harnessed toward the counterterrorism effort. Counterterorrism has become, especially since September 11, one of the hallmarks of the American intelligence system. Learning how to stay one or several steps ahead of those who would attack the United States is one of the primary jobs of counterterrorism units. Using technology to their advantage, counterterrorism units in United States government agencies can thwart planned attacks and minimize damage from any that happen to take place at home or overseas.
The new terrorism is, however, characterized by its lack of clear centralized power. Combating a faceless, subversive, sneaky enemy means mobilizing as many resources as possible. Technology is only one part of the counterterrorism process, which relies on its human resources as much as…
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/index.htm
Terrorism." Section in Crime in the Modern World, Chapter 10: Crimes Against Persons.
This is not an isolated incident, many experts believe there are many other biological weapons available to terrorist organizations, and the biggest problem they face is how do disperse them effectively.
Many considerations must be handled in order to control these types of attacks. First, the country must attempt to block these items from entering the country. Intelligence, monitoring, infiltration, and higher security at the nation's borders and ports can fend off at least some of these weapons. Second, if they do enter the country, there must be ways of locating and disarming them before they are set off. Of course, that is much easier said than done. Local and national response experts will need to be trained in how to deal with these weapons. Expert Steven Simon states, "Emergency response teams will need to be able to pinpoint the location of a device, identify its type, and know in…
Higgie, Dell. "Combatting Terrorism: Dell Higgie Surveys the International Counter-Terrorism Scene." New Zealand International Review 30.1 (2005): 2+.
Lsser, Ian O., et al. Countering the New Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1999.
Mockaitis, Thomas R. "Winning Hearts and Minds in the 'War on Terrorism'." Grand Strategy in the War against Terrorism. Ed. Thomas R. Mockaitis and Paul B. Rich. London: Frank Cass, 2003. 21-38.
Noricks, Darcy M.E. "Can the U.S. Counter the New Terrorism? Counterterrorism Leadership Must Shift from Dept. Of Defense to State Dept., Says Defense Analyst." Whole Earth Fall 2002: 25+.
"Government representatives are responsive to and reliant upon feedback and suggestions from their constituents" and "the most direct way of impacting a legislator is through a letter-writing campaign. The more letters a legislator receives, the more important the issue becomes" (Keene State College Advocates, 2011).
One of the emerging threats that is now a more commonplace threat is that of cyber security. With technology advancing at a rapid rate, it seems that security is sometimes overlooked. Our society is well-versed in how hackers can hack into e-mail, social networking sites and bank accounts but it is absolutely something that the public needs to be more cautious of. A way to combat cyber threats would be to make sure that the computer is completely secure and use common sense when it comes to certain online transactions. People should band together and use one place to reveal the scams that they may…
Garcia, Mary Lynn. (1997). Emerging threats. Retrieved from http://engr.nmsu.edu/~etti/fall97/security/mlgarcia.html
Keene State College Advocates. (2011, March 09). Write to your legislator. Retrieved from http://kscadvocates.org/write-to-your-legislator/
The development of the atomic bomb as well as its perceived success rate however made further development in chemical and biological weaponry unnecessary.
It is worth noting that biological weapons were never employed significantly in World War I and World War II. The effects of biological weapons even if crude has been pointed out by Spiers (2010) when he mentioned how Japanese surrendered in 1945 abut six of their soldiers released several plague-infested rates as well as sixty horses that were infested with the deadly glanders into the relatively quite and safer Chinese countryside. This left Changchun as well as its environs unsafe for habitation until the 1950s
A review of literature indicates that the United States never actively used chemical or biological weapons as part of its military operations. In its history of military development and its rise to be the world superpower. There are cases however when…
Anderson, F (F) ed. The Oxford Companion to American Military History
Black.J (2002) America as a Military Power: From the American Revolution to the Civil War
Chambers, JW (1999)ed., The Oxford Guide to American Military History
Doughty, R., Gruber, I, Flint, R, Grimsley, M and Herring, G (1995)American Military History and the Evolution of Western Warfare. Wadsworth Publishing
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
The effects of information technology on the society
The social capital framework
In this paper, we evaluate the validity of the statement that IT is radically changing the social world. We perform a critical analysis of the concept of social world and social capital and how it is influenced by information technology. This is carried against the backdrop of the concept of information technology as the conceptual framework. The paper concludes that indeed the statement that IT is radically changing the social world is true.
The contemporary society has witnessed a series of transformations which can directly be attributed to the concept of technological dynamism. Technological dynamism is a concept which was defined by Albu (2009) as the rate of exchange in the level of predictability of new technologies. The technological advancements that we witness today are largely as a result of the lack of knowledge that exists…
Veenstra, G. (2000). Social capital, SES and health: An individual-level analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 50, 619-629.
Wellman, B.A., Quan-Haase, A., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? Social networks, participation, and community commitment. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 437-456.
Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer, 15, 225-249.
It starts with 2 broad branches -- Psychopathic rapists and Non-psychopathic rapists. In this category, Homolka can be classified to be a Psychopathic rapist. The next classification under psychopathic rapists divides them into opportunistic, pervasively angry and sadistic rapists. Here, the behavior of Homolka can be thought to be sadistic in nature. Under sadistic, there are 2 categories of rapists who are the overt and the muted rapists. Here, Homolka is classified as a muted rapist since her actions were not well pronounced and they were hidden and secret. The acts of rape only came to be known when they came clean to their uncle under the fear that their separation would lead to the rapes being discovered. Therefore according to the MTC:3, Homolka can be thought to be a type 5 rapist.
Under the gross typology there are various categories of rapists. There is the power reassurance rapist who…
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2009330156_holocaustshooting12.htmlEmery , T., & Robbins, L. (2009). Holocaust Museum shooter James von Brunn had history of hate Retrieved 21st January, 2012, from Goodwin, J. (2006). A Theory of Categorical Terrorism. Social Forces, 84(4), 2027-2046.
Kruttschnitt, C. (1989). A Sociological, Offender-Based, Study of Rape. The Sociological Quarterly, 30(2), 305-329.
hereas adult obesity rates have always been present, they have never been so high. hat is more worrisome is that youth is becoming increasingly obese. The American Heart & Stroke Association conducted a study, for instance, in which it found the following data to be true:
"Among children ages 2 -- 19, about 1 in 3 are overweight and obese (BMI-for-age at or above the 85th percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts.):
- 32.1% of all boys, and - 31.3% of all girls, and Among children ages 2 -- 19, about 1 in 6 are obese (BMI-for-age at or above e 95th percentile of the CDC growth charts.):
- 17.8% of all boys, and - 15.9% of all girls."
ith the aid of the internet, staying home has become much easier and just as mind stimulating as actual human interaction. The most prevalent example of such instances is the…
Clarke, Richard a., and Robert K. Knake. Cyber War: The next Threat to National Security and What to Do about it. New York: Ecco, 2010. Print.
"Deloitte Study Finds That Facebook Has an Overall Economic Impact of €2.6 Billion in the UK." Deloitte Study Finds That Facebook Has an Overall Economic Impact of €2.6 Billion in the UK. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. .
"Educational Benefits of Online Learning." Blackboard. 1998. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. .
"The Facebook Effect: How Congress Is Using Social Networks to Strengthen Ties to Constituents." Congressional Institute. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. < he Facebook Effect: How Congress is Using Social Networks to Strengthen Ties to Constituents>.
Anonymous is one of the groups that can be seen as participating in this form of hacktivism, as is ikileaks.
ikileaks is probably the best know hactivist site to the general public because of the sheer volume of political information that it has made public and because of the unapologetic nature of the owner of the site. This is unfortunate in many ways because it has given individuals a false view of what hacktivism is because Julian Assange seems to have been motivated more often by pique than by genuine political concerns for making the world a better place. This is not, as one might guess, how the ikileaks founder sees the nature of his mission.
ikileaks, like Anonymous, is based on the idea that information -- all information -- should be available to everyone. This is a radical claim, and indeed resembles radical claims made by groups in the…
"Analysis: WikiLeaks -- a new face of cyber-war?" Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/12/09/us-wikileaks-cyberwarfare-amateur-idUSTRE6B81K520101209 . Retrieved 8 May 2012.
The Atlantic Wire. http://www.theatlanticwire.com/technology/2011/07/did-lulzsec-trick-police-arresting-wrong-guy/40522/ . Retrieved 10 Mary 2012.
Castells, Manuel. The Internet galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, business, and society. Oxford: Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001.
Old-time hacktivists: Anonymous, you've crossed the line. CNET News March 30, 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
Following from this is the assumption that ideological connections may be the precursor to more definite and practical interactions between these groups and organizations.
In other words, terrorist groups, whether representing different nationalistic and ideological persuasions, can also be linked by shared concerns, objectives and perceptions. The increase in the ease of communications and the Internet has also accelerated the possibly of these connections. This has highlighted the threat of domestic extremists and the possible connections between extremist groupings. There has also been a more directed contemporary focus on the underlying causative facets that motivate and precipitate terrorist actions, resulting in a growing realization that these underlying causative elements in extremist groups can be more important and possibly override national and regional differences.
Cyber-terrorism has become a particularly virulent and dangerous form of terrorism that is not restricted by any regional or international boundaries. Experts agree that this form of…
Alexander, M. (2010). Martyrdom, Interrupted. The National Interest 10+. Retrieved from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5041434091
Ashour, O. (2007). Lions Tamed? An Inquiry into the Causes of De-radicalization of Armed Islamist Movements: the Case of the Egyptian Islamic Group. The Middle East Journal, 61(4).
Beres, L. (1971) the MEANING of TERRORISM. Prepared for COUNTERTERRORISM and SECURITY INTERNATIONAL . Department of Political Science Purdue University. Retrieved from http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~lberes/terroris.html
Chowdbury, F. And Hearne, E. ( 2008). Beyond Terrorism: Deradicalization and Disengagement'from Violent Extremism. International Peace Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ipinst.org/media/pdf/publications/beter.pdf
FIGHT AGAINST TEOISM
A similar crime was witnessed on September 11, 2001. The United States of America saw the sad death of thousands of innocent people just because some people wanted to acquire their goals. This followed an economic crisis and many innocent civilians faced unnecessary loss of jobs. The political environment has ever since been changing constantly and the United States went into war against Afghanistan. After Afghanistan there was a pre-emptive action on Iraq against the regime of Saddam Hussein who was accused of possessing weapons of mass destruction.
With terrorism becoming more organized, the law enforcement bodies try to formulate more laws to provide security to their citizens. There have been many congressional debates on the Antiterrorism and the Immigration policies of the United States. The immigration laws have been made stricter with a better screening of who comes in and who does not. ecently the citizens…
(1) The History Guide -- Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History [ http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(2) Frank Elwell - The Sociology of Karl Marx [ http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Marx/#Printable%20Version ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(3) Conflict Theories [ http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(4) Council on Foreign Relations [ http://cfrterrorism.org/home/ ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
Financial and law enforcers, military and reporting of intelligence are carried out by respective agencies drawn on limited coordination efforts (Whitmore, 2002). While agencies can pull and push intelligence data, these structures lack a centralized system for collecting intelligence. This limits the ability to conduct a meta-analysis of data across inter-agencies systems. Lack of proper coordination efforts reduces the usefulness of financial intelligence thus making it difficult to link the financial intelligence with other useful information. Critics claim that financial evidence is useful in supporting a case; it does not lead to prevention of terrorism attacks (Linden, 2007).
However, a centralized system of coordination may be an effective way of exploring financial data through linking it with other useful information. This can be made useful if the agencies improve their overall understanding of the financial networks of terrorists. The new homeland security departments are signals that there are efforts for…
Amos, M. & Petraeus, D. (2009). The U.S. Army Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field
Manual. New York: Signalman Publishing
Center for Excellence Defense against Terrorism (2008). Responses to Cyber Terrorism.
California: IOS Press
Society's Overdependence On Computers
Today, the human race has become dependent almost entirely on computers for everything from communication to research to classroom instruction. Indeed, it would be hard to imagine of a world without computers. This text concerns itself with society's overdependence on computers.
Society's Overdependence on Computers
In the words of Kizza, "computer dependency is increasing as computers increasingly become part of our everyday lives" (81). To begin with, computers today effectively define how a majority of us communicate and interact with our friends and families. Emails and social media have replaced the traditional telephone and post office mail as popular communication mediums. People (especially the younger generation) now interact via social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. Most of those in their 20s would find it quite difficult to interact with their peers were such platforms to be removed from the equation.
Secondly, the education sector…
Gitman, Lawrence J., and Carl McDaniel. The Future of Business: The Essentials. 3rd ed. Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education, 2007. Print.
Hobrock, Brice G., ed. Library Management in the Information Technology Environment: Issues, Policies, and Practice for Administrators. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, Inc., 1992. Print.
Janczewski, Lech and Andrew M. Colarik. Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism. Hershey: IGI Global, 2008. Print.
Kizza, Joseph M. Computer Network Security and Cyber Ethics. 3rd ed. North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2011. Print.
Terrorist Threat and the Commercial Sector:
Terrorist threat has emerged as one of the major global threats in the 21st Century that has significant impacts on global security. In the past few centuries, the nature and values of terrorism have slowly shifted and resulted in the emergence of different definitions or descriptions of terrorism. These different descriptions have not only been used by scholars but also by governments to broaden the phenomenon to political, judicial, psychosocial, and moral arenas. The differences in definitions of terrorism is attributed to the fact that these attacks are usually characterized by political motivations towards the use or threat of violence, intentional and pre-meditated actions, fear, psychological effects, and asymmetric warfare. The other aspects of these definitions include immorality, social coercion, and reactions. However, terrorist groups and activities continue to pose significant threats to every facet of the modern society including the commercial sector (aman,…
A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 2007, Terrorist Motivations and Behaviors, Chapter 2, viewed 20 April 2013,
Brandt, B 2011, Terrorist Threats to Commercial Aviation: A Contemporary Assessment.
Combating Terrorism Center -- United States Military Academy, viewed 20 April 2013,
Catlin Group Limited 2012, A Business Approach to Terrorism, Catlin Group Limited Report,
The rise of globalization has been a contentious issue both economically and politically. Aspects such as tax incentives for overseas operations, repatriation of dollars earned in foreign markets, and potential currency wars used to devalue exchange rates, are all problems plaguing a globalized society. Add the possible threat of cyber terrorism, and global companies have a cacophony of threats that are as difficult to enumerate as they are to understand. However, through these threats, society has generally benefited for the technological advances and financial globalization of enterprise. For one, capitalism continues to spread all around the world. This provides incentive for society to innovate, and improve the overall quality of life for everyone involved. Financial globalization provides the needed capital to overseas ventures that are deemed worthy of investment. Through transparency initiatives, emerging markets are now better able to secure vital funding needed to innovate. Language adoption has facilitated…
S. interests. What is different is that we have names and faces to go with that warning."3 This emphasis on recognizing the adaptability
3 Dennis C. Blair, Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, (U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, 2010).
of the terrorist is central to the government's overall response, in terms of both planning and execution, as evidenced by findings presented in the wealth of threat assessment material released to the public each year.
With the oft mentioned terrorist training camps and secret underground bases littered throughout the Middle East long since located and reduced to rubble, jihadists the world over have increasingly turned to the internet to lure potential borrowers and launder funds on a global scale.4 the last Homeland Security Threat Assessment, delivered to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 2008 and covering the period from that date…
Bennetch, Paul. 2012. "Terrorism expert: al-Qaida's 9/11 tactics an 'abject failure'." Cornell Chronicle [Ithaca, NY] 13 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/March12/BergenCover.html
Blair, Dennis C. 2010. United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Retrieved from http://intelligence.senate.gov/100202/blair.pdf
Esposito, Richard, Matthew Cole, and Brian Ross. 2009. Officials: U.S. Army Told of Hasan. ABC World News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/fort-hood-shooter - contact-al-qaeda-terrorists-officials/story?id=9030873
Holt, B. 2010. Islamic wealth management. Unpublished raw data, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, CA.
shift of terrorism to the international level. It defines terrorism, the reasons it is carried out, and the parties involved in terrorist acts. It also discusses the reasons due to which, certain states are covertly sponsoring terrorism to fight against their rival states without starting a conventional full scale war, and saving huge costs. It highlights how the military actions involved in the global war against terrorism are fuelling the terrorist movements and strengthening their numbers.
War and Terrorism
War can be defined as an armed conflict between two states, where both the states' main focus is to impose their own will on the rival state. During the last two centuries, the conventional ways of fighting a war have changed immensely due to technological advancements, but the reasons to initiate and fight a war remains the same. A war is fought in order to occupy and control a piece of…
Hudson, R.A. (1999) The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Become a Terrorist And Why?. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
Payne, J.L. (2008). What Do the Terrorists Want?. The Independent Review, 13. Retrieved from http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_13_01_2_payne.pdf
Morgan, M.J. (2004) The Origins of the New Terrorism. Parameters. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/Articles/04spring/morgan.pdf
Technology changed Security and Terrorism?
Terrorists have evolved in their warfare and now they exploit modern technologies to facilitate every stage of their operation such as recruitment, training, planning and attack. Counter terrorism efforts therefore require more effort, continued research and high tech solutions to prevent, protect and to safeguard innocent citizens. The key to victory is not just the volume of information at our disposal but more importantly how effectively the information is analyzed and disseminated among anti-terror vigilance networks in different nations. Only a coordinated approach to counter terrorism would yield fruit, and for this, standardization of security measures across the international checkpoints is indispensible. There is no one solution to solve the problem of terrorism but with the development of newer technological solutions such as iometric identification, iosensors and terahertz imaging systems and other software solutions we can look forward to achieving the objective of a safer…
1) Bruce W. Don, David R. Frelinger & Scott Gerwehr et.al, 'Network technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication technologies to Modern Terrorists Organizations', Dept of Homeland Security, 2007, Accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2007/RAND_TR454.pdf
2) Paul Cornish, 'Technology, Strategy and Counter Terrorism', International Affairs, Vol 86, Issue 4, Accessed March 14th 2011, available at, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2010.00917.x/pdf
3) Emily Turrettini, 'Handsets' Deadly Use: Detonators', (Aug 27, 2005), accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.textually.org/textually/archives/cat_cell_phones_used_by_terrorists.htm?p=2
4) Emily Wax, 'Gunmen Used Technology as a Tactical Tool', The Washington Post, Dec 3, 2008, Accessed Mar 15th 2011, Available at, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/02/AR2008120203519.html
policy makers underestimate internet independence?
YouTube independence of positing video content
The internet moderated terrorism
egulating the internet for anti-terrorism
Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet
The purpose of the study is to explore the use of internet by terrorist organizations and the degree of independence that terrorist enjoy while conducting and coordinating their terrorism activities from the cyberspace. The topic is an area of interest for the researcher as it is significantly relevant in today's environment when cross-border terrorism has increased. As part of the academic and citizen world, the researcher feels it is essential to gauge the scale and severity of terrorism moderated by internet sources.
The main audiences of the research paper are academic instructors, research students of cyber security and government policy makers who can influence to control terrorism originating from the freedom of internet use for every user irrespective of the underlying motive.
Amble, J.C. (2012). Combating terrorism in the new media environment.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(5), 339-353.
Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2006). Digital diasporas and conflict prevention: the case of Somalinet. com. Review of International Studies, 32(1), 25-47.
Crilley, K. (2001, September). Information warfare: new battle fields Terrorists, propaganda and the Internet. In Aslib Proceedings (Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 250-264). MCB UP Ltd.
Denning, D.E. (2009). Terror's web: How the internet is transforming terrorism.Handbook on Internet crime.
One of the great challenges the military faces is remaining current and preparing the current and future generations of soldiers for inevitable shifts to the geopolitical environment, technological changes, and shifts in both domestic and foreign policies. The importance of preparing officers for the new realities of unpredictable environments and non-state actors cannot be underestimated.[footnoteef:1] The roles and goals of the AMSP and SAMS have not changed. These educational programs provide the requisite advanced and specialized knowledge to foster critical thinking and strategic analysis among military leaders. What must be remembered, however, is the need for organizational awareness and the willingness to change. [1: Edward B. Bankston, Boards vs. Bureaucracies: Field Grade Officer Education in the United States Army, 1946-1985. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2013.]
This analysis points out the importance of analyzing post-Cold War realities and adapting AMSP and SAMS programs accordingly to include such things…
Bankston, Edward B., Boards vs. Bureaucracies: Field Grade Officer Education in the United States Army, 1946-1985. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2013.
Beck, William T., Developing Army Leaders Through CGSOC/AMSP and BCTP. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2005.
Goble, Jeffrey J., Wants and Needs: SMAS' Relationship with the Army. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2008.
McKinley, Matthew R., An Assessment of the Army Officer Education System from an Adult Learning Perspective. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2005.
Law Enforcement -- Computer Security
Three agencies that are part of the U.S. Federal Government's effort to thwart computer crimes are the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, and the Secret Service. Computer crime (also known as cyber crime) is a growing and dangerous menace, not just to the government -- and to all 50 state governments -- but to corporate networks, private computers and educational institution computer networks as well.
hat challenges face the three departments mentioned above based on the independent nature of these agencies, and can they cooperate to provide steadfast collaboration against terrorists and other hackers who seek to steal important information and interrupt normal business cycles?
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a massive, multi-agency department with many responsibilities, and cybersecurity is just one of its duties. It is also responsible for border security, customs (including enforcing immigration laws) and emergency management (FEMA) (www.dhs.gov).…
Harlow, R. (2011). Two Missions, One Secret Service: The Value of the Investigative Mission.
Naval Postgraduate School. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.hsdl.org .
Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Our Mission. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.dhs.gov.
Krieger, M. (2013). How the FBI Wants to Penalize Internet Companies for Providing "Too
esponse and Prioritization
When one utilizes power or brutality against individuals or property disregarding the criminal laws of the U.S. For purposes of bringing about fear, compulsion, or ransom it is regarded as terrorism (Homeland Security Advisory System, n.d). Terrorists act this way in an attempt to show citizens that their nation is weak to counteract terrorism, get attention for their causes or just to create fear among the citizens. There are different kinds of acts that constitute terrorism such as including: bombings and bomb scares; executions; kidnappings; hijackings; cyber terrorism (PC based); and the utilization of atomic and radiological, biological and chemical weapons (Homeland Security Advisory System, n.d)
Educating the Citizens on How to Ensure Personal Security
The initial reaction to these kinds of terrorist acts ought to be swift and effective hence setting up precautionary measures would enable the government to fight terrorism proactively and not…
HM Government. (2011). Prevent Strategy
Homeland Security Advisory System. (n.d). General Information about Terrorism
articles that form the foundation of this analysis is Disruptive Behavior and Social Concerns (Barnes, 2015). Included in this analysis is an overview of the ethical, moral and legal implications of cyberterrorism, network and computer hacking, computer viruses, hate speech and pornography. The analysis strives to provide a balanced analysis of each area, illustrating how the inherent freedoms the Internet also provide powerful catalysts for criminals, hackers and hate groups to thrive. The paradoxical nature of Internet freedom is most clearly demonstrated in the examples of how hackers had been able to permeate a wide variety of systems and gain access to valuable data, intent on destroying it (Barnes, 2015). This article discusses the technologies underlying these areas in light detail, choosing instead to concentrate on the societal dilemmas of having an entirely open publishing medium that anyone at any time can use either ethically or unethically. The bottom line…
Barnes, Susan. Disruptive Behavior and Social Concerns (from class)
Coyle, C.L., & Vaughn, H. (2008). Social networking: Communication revolution or evolution? Bell Labs Technical Journal, 13(2), 13-17.
Yang, M.L., Yang, C.C., & Chiou, W.B. (2010). Differences in engaging in sexual disclosure between real life and cyberspace among adolescents: social penetration model revisited. Current Psychology, 29(2), 144-154.
Cyber Terrorism The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of…Read Full Paper ❯
The increasing skill of these terrorists in using cyberspace has led some officials to believe that they are on the point of using computers for increasing bloodshed. This new…Read Full Paper ❯
Cyberterrorism With the continued integration of technology, and especially internet-based technologies, into everyday life, the threat of cyberterrorism becomes more and more of a concern, as the potential for…Read Full Paper ❯
Cyber terrorism is the process of using disruptive, electronic activities to disrupt or destroy computers or computer networks with the aim of causing further damage or fear. Cyber terrorism…Read Full Paper ❯
Cyberterrorism hat is Cyberterrorism? Cyberterrorism is characterized by the fusing of terrorism and technology; it has made it such that guarding against terrorism necessitates careful use of computers and…Read Full Paper ❯
Cyber Terrorism Terrorism has become the most heatedly discussed and debated subject in social and political circles. In fact these days, this one issue has been dominating all other…Read Full Paper ❯
Cyber Terrorism: The Greatest isk in the U.S. Tremendous technological advancements have been made in the last few decades. Today, humans depend more on computer networks and information technology…Read Full Paper ❯
internet and the increased availability of personal computers around the world have increased the vulnerability of critical infrastructure systems. In recent years computers have been used by terrorist to…Read Full Paper ❯
As quickly as tools are created to prevent unauthorized access of information, ways are being created to work around these protections. Just as technology has become increasingly smarter, the…Read Full Paper ❯
Healthcare and the Threat of Cyber-Terrorism Cyber-Terrorism and Healthcare Government and military computer networks in the United States have been repeatedly attacked over a period of several years by…Read Full Paper ❯
Cyber Terrorism hat is cyber-crime? Cybercrime denotes an illegal action committed primarily by deploying technology (or, to be more precise, a computer and internet). America's justice department expands this…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
goals of this study are to reveal some of the common and prevailing cyber security threats. Here we plan to explore the risk that is most difficult to defend:…Read Full Paper ❯
Cyber Terrorism Cybersecurity has emerged as one of the important components of modern security initiatives because of rapid advancements of technology and the Internet. Ensuring cybersecurity has become important…Read Full Paper ❯
arfare & Terrorism The proliferation of cyberattacks -- aptly referred to as cyberterrorism -- carried out by criminal miscreants with grudges, shadowy techies with political motives, and other anti-social…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
Cyberspace as the Most Dominant Domain Cyberspace Cyberspace is the indefinite place where all online communications take place. It can also be defined in computer networks as the electronic…Read Full Paper ❯
These teams are called in to deal with highly dangerous and threatening situations, including terrorist attacks. Some of the "special operations" tactics that may be employed to deal with…Read Full Paper ❯
The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of…Read Full Paper ❯
Hacking, the apolitical counterpart of hacktivism, is also not necessarily a form of terrorism. However, cyberterrorists often use hacking as a tool of terrorism. Terrorists may be tempted to…Read Full Paper ❯
Cyber warfare continues to grow larger than imagination as the public becomes more aware of and involved in technology. This work in writing will identify a case study that…Read Full Paper ❯
Introduction Cyberterrorism, illegal (and legal) espionage, piracy, and cybercrimes differ from their pre-digital counterparts in serious and meaningful ways. For one, the nature of online social interactions diverges from…Read Full Paper ❯
In the first instance an attack of this nature usually serves a symbolic purpose from the terrorist's point-of-view in that he or she is seen to be attacking the…Read Full Paper ❯
errorism Description of the issue and its global reach; Bachmann, S., & Gunneriusson, H. (2014). errorism and Cyber Attacks as Hybrid hreats: Defining a Comprehensive Approach for Countering 21st…Read Full Paper ❯
Homeland Security and Information Technology Security and Technology iometrics Cyberterrorism Geospatial Information System The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity Outline Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security Methods of the Government Interventions Impacts of Government egulation on…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
In general, utilitarianism is an ethical system most often attributed to John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, both 19th century social philosophers commenting on conditions arising from the Industrial…Read Full Paper ❯
The most refined understanding on the issue of morality of terrorism is given by Michael Walzer. According to him in modern times, terror is considered to be the totalitarian…Read Full Paper ❯
Terrorism Although many of the figureheads of international terrorism have been exterminated, terrorism remains a pervasive reality. Whether from domestic or foreign sources, terrorism remains a real threat. Even…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
On an individual level, however, such safeguards can be interpreted as learning how to survive in a non-technological world. In other words, it is important that we ensure that…Read Full Paper ❯
yber Ethics, Morality, and Law Annotated Bibliography A lot security and privacy issues have attracted the attention of many individuals with the coming internet communication and cyber-wars. World leaders…Read Full Paper ❯
EAL DO YOU THINK THE TEOIST THEAT IS TO THE COMMECIAL SECTO? With the current wave of terrorist's activities and attacks, terrorists' threat is incredibly real to the commercial…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007 2007 Estonian Cyber-war This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication.…Read Full Paper ❯
Terrorism in elation to International Governance The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States highlighted the global threat of terrorism since it changed the ways in which the world…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Hacker Culture and Mitigation in the International Systems The explosion of the internet technology in the contemporary business and IT environments has assisted more than 300 million computer users…Read Full Paper ❯
A Peer Review of the Reality of Cyberrime Paper In the Introdution to the Reality of Cyberrime Are (2011) states that "The threat of yberrime is of growing onern…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
This occurs when a server happens to receive more connection requests that are incomplete and that it cannot possibly handle. This kind of attack's source code were released in…Read Full Paper ❯
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate…Read Full Paper ❯
Most of the time, intellectual property theft involves stealing copyrighted material in the form of a book, a magazine or journal article or material on the Internet and claiming…Read Full Paper ❯
However genius terrorist organizations might seem, the United States and its allies has at its command an even more sophisticated and comprehensive body of technological tools that can be…Read Full Paper ❯
This is not an isolated incident, many experts believe there are many other biological weapons available to terrorist organizations, and the biggest problem they face is how do disperse…Read Full Paper ❯
"Government representatives are responsive to and reliant upon feedback and suggestions from their constituents" and "the most direct way of impacting a legislator is through a letter-writing campaign. The…Read Full Paper ❯
The development of the atomic bomb as well as its perceived success rate however made further development in chemical and biological weaponry unnecessary. It is worth noting that biological…Read Full Paper ❯
Crime Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
social world? The effects of information technology on the society The social capital framework In this paper, we evaluate the validity of the statement that IT is radically changing…Read Full Paper ❯
It starts with 2 broad branches -- Psychopathic rapists and Non-psychopathic rapists. In this category, Homolka can be classified to be a Psychopathic rapist. The next classification under psychopathic…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
hereas adult obesity rates have always been present, they have never been so high. hat is more worrisome is that youth is becoming increasingly obese. The American Heart &…Read Full Paper ❯
Anonymous is one of the groups that can be seen as participating in this form of hacktivism, as is ikileaks. ikileaks is probably the best know hactivist site to…Read Full Paper ❯
Following from this is the assumption that ideological connections may be the precursor to more definite and practical interactions between these groups and organizations. In other words, terrorist groups,…Read Full Paper ❯
FIGHT AGAINST TEOISM A similar crime was witnessed on September 11, 2001. The United States of America saw the sad death of thousands of innocent people just because some…Read Full Paper ❯
Financial and law enforcers, military and reporting of intelligence are carried out by respective agencies drawn on limited coordination efforts (Whitmore, 2002). While agencies can pull and push intelligence…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
Society's Overdependence On Computers Today, the human race has become dependent almost entirely on computers for everything from communication to research to classroom instruction. Indeed, it would be hard…Read Full Paper ❯
Terrorist Threat and the Commercial Sector: Terrorist threat has emerged as one of the major global threats in the 21st Century that has significant impacts on global security. In…Read Full Paper ❯
Culture The rise of globalization has been a contentious issue both economically and politically. Aspects such as tax incentives for overseas operations, repatriation of dollars earned in foreign markets,…Read Full Paper ❯
S. interests. What is different is that we have names and faces to go with that warning."3 This emphasis on recognizing the adaptability 3 Dennis C. Blair, Annual Threat…Read Full Paper ❯
shift of terrorism to the international level. It defines terrorism, the reasons it is carried out, and the parties involved in terrorist acts. It also discusses the reasons due…Read Full Paper ❯
Technology changed Security and Terrorism? Terrorists have evolved in their warfare and now they exploit modern technologies to facilitate every stage of their operation such as recruitment, training, planning…Read Full Paper ❯
policy makers underestimate internet independence? YouTube independence of positing video content The internet moderated terrorism egulating the internet for anti-terrorism Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet The purpose of…Read Full Paper ❯
Monograph One of the great challenges the military faces is remaining current and preparing the current and future generations of soldiers for inevitable shifts to the geopolitical environment, technological…Read Full Paper ❯
Law Enforcement -- Computer Security Three agencies that are part of the U.S. Federal Government's effort to thwart computer crimes are the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, and…Read Full Paper ❯
Terrorist Attack esponse and Prioritization When one utilizes power or brutality against individuals or property disregarding the criminal laws of the U.S. For purposes of bringing about fear, compulsion,…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
articles that form the foundation of this analysis is Disruptive Behavior and Social Concerns (Barnes, 2015). Included in this analysis is an overview of the ethical, moral and legal…Read Full Paper ❯