Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Conceptual or Substantive Assumptions
Cybersecurity is fast approaching a place where it is becoming a form of currency with consumers and clients. It is only in the past decade that digital environments became a normal and typical way to transact business. Consumers and clients quite rapidly adapted to the convenience of conducting business and managing their finances in online environments. Certainly, there were -- and are -- people who did not fully trust digital commerce, but consumers choices narrowed to a point where non-digital transactions were constrained. For instance, customers of banks were funneled into online transactions as some banks gave up a bricks-and-mortar presence. Consumers who wanted more choices when making everyday purchases found meager goods on the shelves but an abundance of inventory online. Patients learned to access their medical records and test results online, and many medical practitioners now keep online office hours for emergency…
Internet Security Alliance (ISA). (2014). Social Contract 2.0: A 21st Century Program for Effective Cyber Security. Retrieved from http://www.isalliance.org/social-contract/
Daniel, M. (2013, August 6). Incentives to support adoption of the cybersecurity framework. Retreived from http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2013/08/06/incentives-support-adoption-cybersecurity-framework
Mobile Devices on Cyber security:
The modern society including corporate environments has been characterized by the proliferation of mobile devices. The increased use of these devices is attributed to the significant opportunities they bring and their contribution towards enhanced communication. However, the increased use of mobile devices has been accompanied by considerable concerns regarding the privacy of personal information and sensitive corporate data that are stored on them. In essence, mobile devices have significant impacts on cyber-security because the type of data stored and accessed on the devices contributes to heightened security risks. Despite the significant benefits associated with the increased use of mobile devices, they generate new cyber security issues including heightened financial risks, loss of company data, and non-compliance issues.
Increased Use of Mobile Devices:
Mobile devices have become attractive platforms for communication in today's society to an extent that they are increasingly used for storing and accessing…
Ayrapetov, D. (2013, February 8). Cybersecurity Challenges in 2013. Retrieved February 8,
2014, from http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/it-security/cybersecurity-challenges-in-2013/# .
Smith, T.D. (2012, January). Cyber Security Emerging Trends and Threats for 2012. Retrieved
from New York State Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services website: http://www.dhses.ny.gov/ocs/awareness-training-events/news/2012-01.cfm
Mobile Devices on Cybersecurity
One of the most important aspects of our current age and the rapid pace by which technology has developed has a direct connection to the development and use of smartphones. The first smartphones were just capable of allowing one to check one's email on one's phone: nowadays smartphones appear to be bounded by nothing. They are razor-sharp and razor fast tools for offering up efficient and convenient means of accessing information. However, given these abilities and trends of these phones, they are still vulnerable to cyber attacks. "Currently, cyber threats range from Trojans and viruses to botnets and toolkits. Presently, 96% of smartphones do not have pre-installed security software. This lack in security is an opportunity for malicious cyber attackers to hack into the various devices that are popular (i.e. Android, iPhone and Blackberry). Traditional security software found in personal computers (PCs), such as firewalls, antivirus,…
Mello, J. (2013, April 2). Army knocked over mobile device cybersecurity. Retrieved from CSOonline.com: http://www.csoonline.com/article/731079/army-knocked-over-mobile-device-cybersecurity
RBC.com. (n.d.). Cyber Security Awareness month: Security and. Retrieved from rbc.com: http://www.rbc.com/privacysecurity/ca/alert-security-and-privacy-in-a-mobile-device-world.html
Wright, J., Dawson, M., & Omar, M. (2012). Cyber Security and Mobile Threats. Retrieved from academia.edu: http://www.academia.edu/2431028/Cyber_Security_and_Mobile_Threats_The_Need_for_Antivirus_Applications_for_Smart_Phones
technology a field study choice. a. The impact mobile devices cybersecurity Courses fulfill General Education equirements (GEs) UMUC a common theme -- technological transformations.
The preferred device for browsing the web, making purchases, using social media, and emailing is the smartphone. Many people find it is easier to carry a smartphone due to its size. A breeding ground for cyber attacks has resulted from the popularity of mobile devices. Mobile devices like smartphones and tablets have no security software that protects the data held within the device. Mobile devices do not contain the traditional security software like antivirus, encryption, and firewalls found in personal computers. According to Wright, Dawson Jr., and Omar (2003)
the operating system used in mobile phones is not frequently updated, which makes it easy for cyber attackers to use this for their advantage. In the corporate environment, almost all employees use mobile devices. These devices provide…
Barrera, D., & Van Oorschot, P. (2011). Secure software installation on smartphones. IEEE Security & Privacy, 9(3), 42-48.
Goyal, S., & Carter, J. (2004). A lightweight secure cyber foraging infrastructure for resource-constrained devices. Paper presented at the Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 2004. WMCSA 2004. Sixth IEEE Workshop on.
Leavitt, N. (2011). Mobile security: finally a serious problem? Computer, 44(6), 11-14.
Ruggiero, P., & Foote, J. (2011). Cyber threats to mobile phones. United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team.
Future of Cyber Security
eport on the Legal and Technical Future of Cyber Security
The future of Cyber security relies on the quality of decisions that the government seconded by the private sector process as for now. Attacks on networks and databases have become a complex and lucrative activity that attracts a financial gain for people involved in that business. For this reason, there is a need to determine whether the existing pieces of legislation are responsive enough to mitigate cyber attacks. This study proves that the existing legislation in relation to ethical security requires an upgrade. It will also establish one existing law courtesy of Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) of 1986 and one proposal law courtesy of Ethical Cyber Situation and Perimeter Building Act ECSPBA (2014).
Future of cyber-security
Cyber security is proving a disturbing concern to both the public and private sectors. The government, in particular,…
Broucek, V., & Turner, P. (2013). Technical, legal, and ethical dilemmas: distinguishing risks arising from malware and cyber-attack tools in the 'cloud' -- a forensic computing perspective. Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques, 9(1), 27-33.
Farsole, A.A., Kashikar, A.G., & Zunzunwala, A. (2010). Ethical Hacking. International Journal of Computer Applications, 1(10), 14-20.
Goldman, L. (2012). Interpreting the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Pittsburgh Journal of Technology Law and Policy, 13(0), 32-49.
Lehto, M. (2013). The Cyberspace Threats and Cyber Security Objectives in the Cyber Security Strategies. International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism, 3(3), 1-18
President Obama's Cybersecurity and Internet Policy
In the recent past, cyber attacks have become commonplace in the U.S. And also in other parts of the world. The said attacks are also increasingly becoming sophisticated. In that regard, there exists an urgent need to rein in this problem before it gets out of hand. In this text, I discuss the benefits of President Obama's Cybersecurity and Internet Policy.
President Obama's Cybersecurity and Internet Policy: Key Benefits
As reported on the White House website, "Americans deserve an internet that is safe and secure, so that they can shop, bank, communicate, and learn online without fear that their accounts will be hacked or their identity stolen" (White House, 2013). With this in mind, the President has been very supportive of initiatives and measures that support a free and secure internet. Indeed, President Obama has in the past identified cyber threat as being amongst…
Bayuk, J., Healey, J., Rohmeyer, P., Sachs, M.H., Schmidt, J. And Weiss, J. (2012). Cyber Security Policy Guidebook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Schmidt, H.A. (2011, April 26). The National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace and Your Privacy. Retrieved February 6, 2013, from the White House website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2011/04/26/national-strategy-trusted-identities-cyberspace-and-your-privacy
The White House (2013). Technology. Retrieved February 6, 2013, from the White House website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/technology
Plan Development and esearch
This paper discusses what is referred to as the Federal Plan is for Cyber Security and Information Assurance (CSIA- &D) esearch and Development. Details of the federal government's plan will be discussed as well as what is expected and can be done about cyber security in the long-term.
In this federal plan, the terms 'information assurance' and 'cyber security' refer to measures put in place to protect computer information, systems and networks from unauthorized access or disruptions, modification, use or destruction. The purpose of information assurance and cyber security is to ensure: the protection of integrity against unauthorized destruction or modification of information, networks and systems (Community List.-Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance esearch and Development, 2006) as also to ensure confidentiality protection against illegal access of networks and disclosure of information held therein. Information assurance is likewise…
Axelrod. (2006). Cybersecurity and the Critical Infrastructure: Looking Beyond the Perimeter. ISACA, 3. Retrieved, from http://www.isaca.org/Journal/archives/2006/Volume-3/Pages/Cybersecurity-and-the-Critical-Infrastructure-Looking-Beyond-the-Perimeter1.aspx
Community List (2006). Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development. Retrieved September 10, 2015, from http://ntis.library.gatech.edu/handle/123456789/1591
Homepage -- U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC). (2008). A Scientific Research and Development Approach to Cyber Security. Retrieved September 9, 2015, from http://science.energy.gov/~/media/ascr/pdf/program-documents/docs/Cyber_security_science_dec_2008.pdf
Nat'l Sci. and Tech. Cou (2006) NCIL. Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development. Retrieved from: http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/cybersecurity/Federal_Plan_for_Cyber_Security_and_Information_Assurance_Research_and_Development
Cyber security CybersecurityAbstract 2Introduction 3What is Cybersecurity? 3The dimensions of cybersecurity 4The principles of security 4The States of data 5Cybersecurity safeguards 5Principles of cybersecurity 5Confidentiality 5Integrity 6Availability 6How the principles and dimensions of cybersecurity provide system security 7Importance of cybersecurity principles and the concept of Assured operations 7Conclusion 8References 9AbstractThe term cybercrime is associated with illegal activity involving systems and software. Cybercrime encompasses anything from digital espionage to dishonesty assaults that result in monetary losses for e-commerce businesses (Ekanayake et al., 2020). Cybersecurity is a challenge to almost all modern technology. Numerous strategies have been implemented to protect a customer organizations culture. Cybersecurity refers to a range of approaches for preventing illegal exposure to systems software and information. The paper focuses on the various definitions of cybersecurity and the dimensions and principles to protect against the data on the hardware and software from unauthorized access, harm, or misuse. The three…
Bourgeois, D. (2014). Information systems for business and beyond. The Saylor Foundation.
Ekanayake, Nimesh & Karunarathna, Hashan & Miyuranga, Ravindu. (2020). What is Cybersecurity: The Reality of Modern Threats
Golovanteko, I. (2018). The Three Dimensions of the Cybersecurity Cube - Swan Software Solutions. Retrieved 11 June 2021, from https://swansoftwaresolutions.com/the-three-dimensions-of-the-cybersecurity-cube/
McCumber, J. (2004). Assessing and managing security risk in IT systems: A structured methodology. CRC Press.
The Economics of Cybersecurity: Principles and Policy Options
There are serious issues with cybersecurity when it comes to the principles and policy options that are available, and the economic challenges it faces. While a technical approach to cybersecurity is important, the easiest way to gain perspective on the issue is through economics. When an organization is not prepared for the full cost of a system failure, there is nothing to be done when that system does fail. The critical infrastructures that are seen in cybersecurity systems fall apart, because all of the control systems are highly integrated. That is designed to reduce the costs if a catastrophic failure is to take place, and the losses become society's losses, instead of being absorbed by the company itself. Many people feel as though cybersecurity through antivirus software is enough, but there is a serious flaw in that thinking. Namely, the…
Moore, T. (2010). The economics of cybersecurity: Principles and policy options. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 3(4): 103-117.
Cyber Security Technology
Emerging Technology for Cyber Security
eal-World Examples of the use of Emerging Cyber Security Technologies
Government Efforts to enhance Cyber security Technologies
Benefits and Drawbacks of Government Efforts for new Cyber-security Technologies Conclusion
The development of internet and cyberspace represents of the most revolutionary technological advancement of humanity. Fewer countries and sectors are unaffected by the latest advancement of internet technologies. Although, recent technological phenomenon has influenced several areas, however, it represents one of the most serious security threats to modern society. As organizations and developed world are moving their critical infrastructures online, there are also ever growing cyber criminal activities attempting to steal sensitive data worth billions of dollars. Adversaries of cyber realms include spies from some countries and organized criminals attempting to steal sensitive information that include identities, and money. Complicated issues about the cyber threats consist of fundamental asymmetrical risks and ever-increasing waves of…
Bilge, L. And Dumitras, T. (2012). Before we knew it. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on Computer and communications security - CCS '12,-page 833, New York, New York, USA, 2012. ACM Press.
Goodyear, G. Goerdel, H.T. Portillo, S. et al. (2010). Cybersecurity Management in the States: The Emerging Role of Chief Information Security Officers. IBM Centers for the Business of Government.
Klaper, D. & Hovy, E.(2014). A taxonomy and a knowledge portal for cybersecurity. Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: 79-85
Kuehn, A. & Mueller, M.(2014). Shifts in the Cybersecurity Paradigm: Zero-Day Exploits, Discourse, and Emerging Institutions. ACM Proceedings of the 2014 workshop on New Security Paradigms Workshop: 63-68.
Benefits of Using Cyber-attack Simulator Systems
There is evidence that demonstrates that using simulations is far much better than the education that is provided by real-world experiences. Simulations have been used in numerous industries to teach and test people, and their usage in cybersecurity could be beneficial. Simulating a cyber-attack is easier than having to test the attack in the real world. Having a simulation of the potential cyber-attacks, one can easily test the system to establish how effective the security strategies implemented are and if there are any vulnerabilities in the system. Also, attacking your own system in order to test it for vulnerabilities is foolish and might result in prison time as has been the case for some individuals. Therefore, the easiest and safe way for testing the system is by using a simulation. Simulation allows for the demonstration of what might happen if an organization does not…
Bailey, A., Minto-Coy, I., & Thakur, D. (2017). IT Governance in E-Government Implementations in the Caribbean: Key Characteristics and Mechanisms Information Technology Governance in Public Organizations (pp. 201-227): Springer.
Carr, M. (2016). Public–private partnerships in national cyber?security strategies. International Affairs, 92(1), 43-62.
Hogan, M., & Newton, E. (2015). Report on Strategic US Government Engagement in International Standardization to Achieve US Objectives for Cybersecurity.
Kuhl, M. E., Kistner, J., Costantini, K., & Sudit, M. (2007). Cyber attack modeling and simulation for network security analysis. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 39th Conference on Winter Simulation: 40 years! The best is yet to come.
Kundur, D., Feng, X., Liu, S., Zourntos, T., & Butler-Purry, K. L. (2010). Towards a framework for cyber attack impact analysis of the electric smart grid. Paper presented at the Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), 2010 First IEEE International Conference on.
Department of Homeland Security is clearly start-up: How quickly can DHS be up and running? The department formally began operating on January 24, 2003, and by March 1 had absorbed representatives from most of its component parts. The formal process of transferring agencies is expected to be completed by September 30, 2003, but analysts suggest full integration of agencies will take at least several years.
Notwithstanding, as a practical matter, the new department today is preoccupied with day-to-day start-up issues: finding a physical location, improving communications capabilities, and personnel management tasks. Finding a location for the agency is key. DHS headquarters is currently at a temporary location with the majority of additional personnel scattered elsewhere. Practical staff questions about, for example, new office location and supervisor, remain for the most part unanswered.
Questions abound about how the new organizational components will communicate with each other. Linking phone systems and databases…
Larry K. Gaines Homeland Security 12th edition 2012 Pearson Education
Michael C. Williams "No Greater Threat: After September 11th and the rise of National Security State: 2005.
Homeland Security. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm ill Atoro (2009) The Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Inititave, Retrieved by http://www.nextgov.com/the_basics/tb_20090601_8569.php
Government Accountability Office (GAO), Department of Homeland Security's (DHS's) Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Cybersecurity (2009) Control System Control Program. Retrieved from http://www.us-cert.gov/control_systems/csthreats.html
Disaster ecovery and IT Continuity
Over the last several years, the issue of disaster recovery has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because both manmade (i.e. terrorism / cyber attacks) and natural disasters can create tremendous amounts of disruption to IT infrastructure. The result is that the entire area can be completely cutoff and unable to communicate with the outside world. (Sousa, 2014)
In many cases, everyone is relying on IT-based solutions to meet critical objectives, reduce collateral damage and restore services back to normal. To achieve these larger benchmarks requires focusing on access control. This is when access is provided to select individuals who have the appropriate levels of clearance to access select amounts of information. (Sousa, 2014)
ecently, these challenges are becoming more pronounced with rouge organizations engaging in them to steal and sell sensitive information. This is problematic, as it has the potential to create…
Oz, E. (2009). Management Information Systems. Boston, MA: Thompson.
Sousa, S. (2014). Management Information Systems. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Veiga, A. (2007). An Information Security Governance Framework. Information Systems Management, 24 (4), pp. 361-371.
One of the most important security-related pieces of legislation recently passed in Congress is the H.R. 1731: the National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015, also known simply as the Cybersecurity Act of 2015. The Act has widely been considered a “landmark cybersecurity information sharing legislation,” (Abascal, Archie, Crawford, et al., 2016) and “the most significant piece of federal cyber-related legislation enacted to date,” (Sullivan & Cromwell LLP, 2015, p. 1) because it is one of the first and strongest attempts to federalize cybersecurity in the broader interests of counterterrorism and national security. In fact, the Act specifies the role the Department of Homeland Security plays in coordinating information sharing efforts.
Most significantly, the Act requires that the Department of Homeland Security’s National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) interact with non-federal and private sector organizations for comprehensive information sharing. What this generally means for individuals and businesses is that…
Abascal, M.A., Archie, J.C., Crawford, G.E., et al. (2016). What You Need to Know About the Cybersecurity Act of 2015. Lexology. https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=71db9ab9-d14b-470c-8e9b-c94b29065a94
Bennett, C. & Marcos, C. (2015). Cyber threat-sharing bill heads to Senate. The Hill. http://thehill.com/blogs/floor-action/house/239856-house-sends-cybersecurity-bill-to-senate
Congressional Budget Office (2015). H.R. 1731, National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015. https://www.cbo.gov/publication/50116
“H.R.1731 - National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015.” Congress.gov. https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-bill/1731
Sullivan & Cromwell LLP (2015). The cybersecurity act of 2015. https://www.sullcrom.com/siteFiles/Publications/SC_Publication_The_Cybersecurity_Act_of_2015.pdf
Zakrzewski, C. (2015). House passes complementary cyber information-sharing bill. TechCrunch. https://techcrunch.com/2015/04/23/house-passes-complementary-cyber-information-sharing-bill/
1. The appropriate budget allocation will vary by organization based on what?
The appropriate budget allocation will vary based on the specific profiles of the organization, its needs and the extent to which resources are actually available. In an economic downturn, supply chains can become tight. With tariffs going up or a trade war worsening, obtaining cheap resources becomes more difficult. This has to be taken into consideration when determining a budget--i.e., that organization must look at the macro as well as the micro. The micro in this case would be to determine the individual profile and needs of the organization and how best to obtain a balance between being fiscally conservative and being technologically secure.
2. The information security function should be able to provide a reconciliation of what?
The information security function should be able to provide a reconciliation of prior purchases and their overall effectiveness.…
Cybersecurity has emerged as one of the important components of modern security initiatives because of rapid advancements of technology and the Internet. Ensuring cybersecurity has become important because of the vulnerabilities of critical infrastructures to cyber attacks in the aftermath of the 9/11 terror attacks. As part of efforts to enhance cybersecurity, federal and state governments in the United States have enacted laws that define the role of various stakeholders in protecting the nation's critical infrastructures. These laws govern the responsibilities of companies and organizations in protecting themselves and customers. In addition, these regulations have some costs associated with them given that enhancing cybersecurity is a relatively complex process.
Organizations' ole in Protecting Themselves and Customers
As cyber attacks continue to increase in the recent past, the federal government has enacted laws and policies to govern the role of organizations in protecting themselves and customers. Based on the…
Aspen Publishers. (2015, January). President Obama Signs Cybersecurity Executive Order. The Computer & Internet Lawyer, 32(1), 24. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=18551_mcpls&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA394183506&it=r&asid=5cc81d8f040ed73e605ae170f9d004c1
Heilbrun, M.R. & Brown, I. (2011, December). Cybersecurity Policy and Legislation in the 112th Congress. Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal, 23(12), 24. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=18551_mcpls&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA273587143&it=r&asid=ceebf07425038136e6c561f5eaf0f61d
Schwalb, M. (2006). Exploit Derivatives & National Security. Yale Journal of Law & Technology, 9, 162. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=18551_mcpls&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA182035194&it=r&asid=bdba2800f5f791182662e8f9083e0333
Cyber security, due primarily to globalization has become a profound issue. With the advent of the internet, new threats to privacy and security have arisen. For one, threats have caused data breaches and loss of service for many internet providers. ecently, American banks have become targets of cyber attacks from unknown sources. In many instances, it is difficult to detect the whereabouts of a cyber attack. The anonymity of an attack makes this threat particularly appealing to third world and developed nations. Due primarily to its ability to go undetected PII attacks have become very commonplace. PII, otherwise known as personally identifiable information, have a direct appeal to those who would like to do harm to developed countries. PII attacks are particularly profound as information including name, Social Security numbers and date of birth, stored in the vendor's database can be access by unauthorized user (Denning, 2008).
PII attacks are…
1) Denning, D.E. (2008). The ethics of cyber conflict. The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics. 391 -- 429.
2) Gorman, Siobhan. (4 June 2010) WSJ: U.S. Backs Talks on Cyber Warfare. Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
3) Tom Gjelten (23 September 2010). "Seeing The Internet As An 'Information Weapon'." National Public Radio. Retrieved 23 September 2013
80% of the vulnerabilities been discovered nowadays are from websites.
SQL injection occurs when an attacker uses SQL scripts to send information to the server by using the website forms and UL's. If, the website form data is not sanitized before been sent to the database it can lead to this attack. Without sanitization, an attacker can post any data they want directly to the database thus been able to access the information stored and alter the information if so desired. It is easy to make an SQL query, insert it into a form field with whichever parameters one desires and this would compromise the security of the website and its data. Using SQL injection, an attacker can capture sensitive information stored in the database like passwords or credit card details. To prevent this attack, the website developer will need to ensure that the website form fields do not accept…
Anandarajan, M. (2002). Profiling Web Usage in the Workplace: A Behavior-Based Artificial Intelligence Approach. Journal of Management Information Systems, 19(1), 243-266.
Cavusoglu, H., Mishra, B., & Raghunathan, S. (2004). The Effect of Internet Security Breach Announcements on Market Value: Capital Market Reactions for Breached Firms and Internet Security Developers. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 9(1), 69-104.
Doerr, H.M., & Hecht, C.G. (1995). Navigating the Web. The Mathematics Teacher, 88(8), 716-719.
Hansen, L., & Nissenbaum, H. (2009). Digital Disaster, Cyber Security, and the Copenhagen School. International Studies Quarterly, 53(4), 1155-1175.
Essentially, securing the electronic frontier is very critical because of the potential harms that cyber crime and fraud cause to individual, businesses and nations as a whole.
One of the effective strategies that could be employed to secure the electronic frontier is the collaboration of the government with the private and public organizations. Increasing number of governments has implemented method to secure the electronic frontier without success. Since corporate organizations are more equipped to counter IT threats than the government, a collaboration of the government with organizations will be more effective.
Moreover, the international organizations such as the United Nations should also play effective roles in securing electronic frontier. The United Nation should make a law to ensure that all member nations are obliged to secure electronic transfer in their respective nations since lack of cross-border treaties for data sharing is creating havoc to corporate organizations. Essentially, some countries such…
Berkowitz, B. & Hahn, R.W. (2003).Cyber-security: Who's Watching Store? Issue of Science and Technology.
Goel, S. (2011). Cyberwarfare: Connecting the Dots in Cyber Intelligence. Communications of the ACM. 54 (8): 132-140.
Rosenzweig, P. (2012). The International Governance Framework for Cybersecurity. Canada-United States Law Journal.37 (1).
Information Security contingency plans are very important for firms operating in today's world, where cyber security is a top issue a result of business's technological and digital dependence. This paper will discuss the planning steps, possible recovery options, and recommended testing requirements needed to support a successful business contingency/continuity of operations environment. Included will be recommendations for a proposed 24-month cycle business contingency testing plan, what should be tested and how the test should be conducted. Critical corporate assets will be ranked with the type of testing (i.e. plan reviews, tabletop exercises and backup recovery tests). Costs associated with the recommended testing process will also be taken into consideration, including personnel, equipment and production costs.
Step 1 is to examine the organization of the IS department. An IS department should be organized in order to guard against an attack, blackout or any other natural or man-made…
Bahan, C. (2003). The Disaster Recovery Plan. SANS.org. Retrieved from https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/recovery/disaster-recovery-plan-1164
Gilbert, J. (2015). Contingency Planning. Retrieved from http://jamesegilbert.blogspot.com/2013/11/it-contingency-planning.html
Haes, S., Grembergen, W. (2009). Exploratory study in IT governance implementations and its impact on business/IT alignment. Information Systems Management, 26: 123-137.
Information Technology Contingency Planning. (2012). Apd.Army.Mil. Retrieved from http://www.apd.army.mil/jw2/xmldemo/p25_1_2/main.asp
Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity Outline
Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security
Methods of the Government Interventions
Impacts of Government egulation on National Security
Failure to comply to related cyber regulations
Meeting the minimum requirements.
Exceeding the Minimum equirements
The economic and national security of the United States rely on the effective functioning of the country critical infrastructures. ecently, the U.S. government has issued an executive order to manage the cybersecurity and protect the country critical infrastructure since a destruction of the critical infrastructures whether virtual or physical can have a negative impact on the national economic security, safety or national public health. The computer and information systems are part of the country critical infrastructures that facilitate effective data communication between organizations. Presently, the U.S. information systems have enhanced interconnectivity that enhances business advantages, which has never happened before. Despite the benefits of…
Coyne, C.J. (2012). Who's to Protect Cyberspace? Department of Economics Hampden-Sydney College
Liu, E.C. Stevens, G. Ruane, K. A. et al. (2013). Cybersecurity: Selected Legal Issues. Congress Research Service
Rosenzweig, P. (2012). An emerging threats: Cybersecurity and Public Goods. The Public/Private "Partnership." Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Stalling, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice. (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall
Metrics, Implementation, and Enforcement (Security Governance)
How can you determine whether there has been a malware outbreak?
The threat situation today has become more dangerous than in the past. Security and safety threats have been increasing in an alarming rate; there are more than 70,000 brand new bits of malware recognized daily. Well-funded cybercriminals have been currently making advanced malware that has been made to bypass present security options by launching prior to the operating-system and then evading antivirus defence (Mitre, 2012). Consequently, danger vulnerability has hit unprecedented degrees that need a brand new method of security and safety. With built-in security and safety options from McAfee as well as Intel, one might gain an additional layer of safety that is effective aside from the operating-system to avoid attacks instantly whilst successfully managing security over to a system of endpoints. These revolutionary options gather world-class processor chip technologies from Intel…
McAfee Labs (Q1 2012).
Intel IT Centre. (2012). Planning Guide: Preventing Stealthy Threats with Next-Generation Endpoint Security -- A Proactive Approach from Intel and McAfee. Intel IT and McAfee.
Mitre. (2012). Standardizing Cyber Threat Intelligence Information with the Structured Threat Information eXpression (STIX). Mitre Corporation.
Jones, D.R. (2011). Managing Cyber Threats Risk Management & Insurance Solutions. Roach Smith and Howard Burton.
Chief Security Officer:
As the Chief Security Officer for a local University, my main role is establishing and maintaining an enterprise wide information security program that helps to ensure all data and information assets are not compromised. This process involves developing a plan to conduct a security program that prevent computer crimes, establishes a procedure for investigation, and outlines laws that are applicable for potential offenders. To develop an effective plan, the process would involve identifying recent computer attacks or other offenses that have been carried out against higher educational institutions and processes established by these institutions to prevent the recurrence of the crimes. In addition, procedures, methodologies, and technologies that could be bought to lessen computer crime threats and effective laws for convicting offenders will also be examined. The other parts of the process include identifying computer crime fighting government programs and the types and costs of computer forensics…
"Data Security Breach at Ferris State University." (2013, August 16). Local. CBS Local Media.
Retrieved December 16, 2013, from http://detroit.cbslocal.com/2013/08/16/data-security-breach-at-ferris-state-university/
Easttom, C. & Taylor, J. (2011). Computer crime, investigation, and the law (1st ed.). Stamford,
CT: Cengage Learning.
Cyber-Crime in a New Age of Law Enforcement
ith the new introduction of the online sphere, law enforcement today faces unique challenges those previous generations could never even imagined. The internet allows the ability to create an online presence that has virtually no relevance to the real world character of the user. People can now create an online presence with the ability to construct a range of pseudonymity that was never before possible (Gyorgy, 2002). Therefore the person that you think you are communicating with may be a different person altogether.
Furthermore, people can set up a range of different personalities and have multiple identities online that they can use for a range of malicious activities. For example, it is possible for an elderly man who has perverted tendencies to portray himself as a young school girl on online chat forums. In these arenas there is seldom any verification…
Gyorgy, P. (2002). The Tale of Cookies (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde). Social Research, 239-245.
Jayakumar, A. (2014, March 13). Target looking into response to cybersecurity breach; retail sales rose in Feb. Retrieved from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/target-looking-into-response-to-cybersecurity-breach-retail-sales-rose-in-feb/2014/03/13/91d16ece-aae8-11e3-af5f-4c56b834c4bf_story.html
TEDGlobal. (2010, July). Julian Assange: Why the world needs WikiLeaks. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/julian_assange_why_the_world_needs_wikileaks.html
TEDGlobal. (2012, July). Michael Anti: Behind the Great Firewall of China. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/michael_anti_behind_the_great_firewall_of_china.html
Law Enforcement -- Computer Security
Three agencies that are part of the U.S. Federal Government's effort to thwart computer crimes are the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, and the Secret Service. Computer crime (also known as cyber crime) is a growing and dangerous menace, not just to the government -- and to all 50 state governments -- but to corporate networks, private computers and educational institution computer networks as well.
hat challenges face the three departments mentioned above based on the independent nature of these agencies, and can they cooperate to provide steadfast collaboration against terrorists and other hackers who seek to steal important information and interrupt normal business cycles?
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a massive, multi-agency department with many responsibilities, and cybersecurity is just one of its duties. It is also responsible for border security, customs (including enforcing immigration laws) and emergency management (FEMA) (www.dhs.gov).…
Harlow, R. (2011). Two Missions, One Secret Service: The Value of the Investigative Mission.
Naval Postgraduate School. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.hsdl.org .
Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Our Mission. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.dhs.gov.
Krieger, M. (2013). How the FBI Wants to Penalize Internet Companies for Providing "Too
IT Security Plan
The technological advances that have been witnessed in the past twenty to thirty years, has placed a tremendous emphasis on data and information. Computers have changed the world in many facets and the ability to communicate and perform work have been greatly assisted by the digital age. Along with these new found powers, there exists also new found threats. The ability to protect these investments and resources of an informational matter, has produced new sciences and approaches to accomplishing such a task.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss and analyze how to establish an information security program to protect organizational information. This essay will address the specific guidelines and elements that compose such a program and explore ways in which these methods can be exploited for the fullest possible benefit. Specific guidelines will be discussed however this is a general overview of a program and…
Bulling, D., Scalora, M. Borum, R. Panuzio, J., and Donica, A. (2008, July). Behavioral science guidelines for assessing insider threat attacks. Public Policy Center, University of Nebraska. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=publicpolicypublications
Boscolo, C. (2008). How to implement network access control. Computerweekly, November 2008 . Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/How-to-implement-network-access-control
Durbin, S. (2013). Security Think Tank: ISF's top security threats for 2014. Computerweekly, Dec 2013. Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/Security-Think-Tank-ISFs-top-security-threats-for-2014
Grimes, R. (2012). IT's 9 biggest security threats. Infoworld, 27 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.infoworld.com/d/security/its-9-biggest-security-threats-200828
Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity
An innovation in IT (information Technology) has revolutionized the method organizations store, record and retrieve information. Moreover, a large percentage of business organizations has taken the advantages internet technology to offer their businesses online where customer's data such as credit cards, SSN (social security number), tax information, and other personal information are recorded in the organizational databases. A major benefit that internet technology offers to organizations is that it assists businesses to transact businesses globally without establishing entities in other countries. The strategy has assisted organizations to achieve competitive market advantages. Despite the benefits associated with IT, businesses face the ethical implications in business transactions because they are faced with a hacking dilemma.
The primary goal of ethics is to promote ethical practices that will enhance availability, confidentiality, and integrity of organizational informational resources. To achieve this objective, employees are to demonstrate a highest…
Resources Management Association.
Whitman, M.E. & Mattord, H.J. (2014). Principles of Information Security. New York. Cengage Learning.
Traffic Analysis/Homeland Security
One of the biggest challenges currently faced by the Department of Homeland Security is guaranteeing cybersecurity. Each and every day some type of cyber crime occurs. Such crimes have the potential to affect the country's national security. This paper investigates the significance of internet traffic and analysis to Homeland Security. It will look at the importance of internet traffic and analysis to Homeland Security as well as encrypted traffic and its implications to cyber-security. The manner in which the U.S. has handled cybersecurity over the past twenty years and the methods that the government has used in this time period will be discussed. Encrypted mobile messaging applications will also be discussed. At the end of the discussions, solutions are recommended and a conclusion given.
In the recent past, the DHS (Department of Homeland Security) and the DoD (Department of Defense) signed an agreement to enhance the…
Bobby, M. (2010, November 10). Harvard National Security Journal. Harvard National Security Journal -- DoD-DHS Memorandum of Understanding Aims to Improve Cybersecurity Collaboration. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://harvardnsj.org/2010/11/dod-dhs-memorandum-of-understanding-aims-to-improve-cybersecurity-collaboration/
(2012). DHS Can Strengthen Its International Cybersecurity Programs. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIGr_12-112_Aug12.pdf
(2015, May 10). Fox News - Breaking News Updates -- Latest News Headlines -- Photos & News Videos. 'Terrorism has gone viral': U.S. officials, lawmakers warn of growing jihad-inspired attacks -- Fox News. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2015/05/10/mccaul-terrorism-has-gone-viral.html
Harknett, R., & Stever, J. (2015). The Cybersecurity Triad: Government, Private Sector Partners, and the Engaged Cybersecurity Citizen. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 6(1).
Social Media Presence at LinkedIn
Professional Picture Here
Cyber Security Graduate/Cyber Security Officer at University of Maryland
idgewood Area, Baltimore, Maryland -- Information and Cyber Security
Current: University of Maryland University of College
Previous: Northrop Tech, CPCI,
Education: University of Maryland
Send Ibrahim InMail
us.linkedin.com/pub/ibrahim-swaray/35/ab7/537 Contact Info
Innovative cyber security graduate seeking position as an IT and Cyber Security Analyst to provide cyber, technical and information security advice for your organizations to protect your information assets.
A broad knowledge of cyber and information security with a good understanding of practical application of various security technologies and their theoretical frameworks.
My Values and Experience
I am a graduate from University of Maryland University College with Bachelor of Science and Master Degree in Cyber Security. My university education and practical knowledge during my industrial experience have assisted me to gain practical knowledge in cyber security that enhanced my greater…
Ford, B. & Risler, J. (2010). Entry-level Cyber Cyber Security Analyst Skill
Hughe, J. & Cybenko, G. (2013). Quantitative Metrics and Risk Assessment: The Three Tenets Model of Cybersecurity. USA.
Infosec Institute (2015). Cyber Threat Analysis. USA.
" (Johnson, 2005) the notion of ruling against the defendant in all identity theft or related cases may establish the wrong precedent for future cases. "On the other hand, if liability is too readily assessed, it will have the power to bankrupt valuable enterprises because of the often vast numbers of potential plaintiffs and consequent extensive resulting damages." (Johnson, 2005)
Internet security and identity theft is a very pervasive problem globally. In fact, most every nation with a web presence must deal with the same issue of hackers breaching server security or web browser security and stealing identities or other destructive behavior with malicious intent. The United States has a much more serious issue in this realm, however, when compared to countries within Europe, Asia, Africa, ussia, and South America. Although the threat remains global and can affect any nation at any time, the probability of identity theft in America…
Anthes, G. (2010) Security in the Cloud. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(11), 16. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2198161791).
Babcock, C. (2010) Cloud Computing Differences Between U.S. And Europe. Information Week. Retrieved from: http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224202598
2009. New Straits Times. Cyber security challenges. Retrieved from: http://www.lexisnexis.com.rlib.pace.edu/lnacui2api/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T10848791436&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T10848791439&cisb=22_T10848791438&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=151977&docNo=13
Campbell K., Gordon L., Loeb M., Zhou L. The economic cost of publicly announced information security breaches: empirical evidence from the stock market. Journal of Computer Security Vol.11 Number 3/2003 pgs 431-448
Honeypot and Honeynet Emerging Technologies
In the present IT environment, individuals and businesses are becoming more dependent an open network that includes the Internet where business transactions, government services and commercial activities are realized. However, the use of open network has led to the development of new information security issues and cyber threats that are being utilized by the cyber criminals. Thus, a mistrust in computer network technologies and telecommunications can affect socio-economic of global enterprises, an increase in the complexity of network infrastructures and communication lead to an increased demand for a new approach to cybersecurity.
Essentially, the threats in the cyber security landscapes are continuously evolving. The reactive and traditional security measures are no more sufficient to protect cyber information infrastructures. Thus, honeypots are the new emerging technology tools focusing in the areas of network forensics and network security, which is effective in enhancing network security of an…
Clark, D., Berson, T., & Lin, H.S. (2014). At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues. Washington. National Academies Press.
Sokol, P. Misek, J. & Husak, M. (2017). Honeypots and honeynets: issues of privacy. EURASIP Journal on Information Security. 4.
The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.
At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.
Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke…
Amendments to Section 225 Cyber Security Enhancement Act, 2002 (2003). Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.
Antal, J. Counter-terrorism multipliers needed (2010). Military Technology, 34(4), 4.
Ashley, Col. (S) B.K, USAF (2004). The United States Is Vulnerable to Cyberterrorism. Signal Online. Retrieved from: http://www.afcea.org/signal/articles/templates/SIGNAL_Article_Template.asp?articleid=32&zoneid=10
Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 409 F.2d 718, (U.S.App. LEXIS 12867 2d Cir. N.Y., 1969).
Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist and Criminal Activities
Canadian Policies to Combat Crime and Terrorism
Problems being faced due to Cyber-Crime in Today's World
What is Identity Theft?
How and Why Cyber-Crime Occurs?
Why Cyber-Crime has become an Important Issue?
How elease of Personal Information makes an Individual vulnerable to Identity Theft?
Since time immemorial, crime and criminal activities have been found at an accelerated pace, however, with the penetration of the world into the twenty first century with numerous technological advancements and innovations, these acts have taken a new form. This evidently signifies that crime through cyberspace has become one of the widespread and prevailing activities of the today's fast paced world, where the entire human race is moving towards the industrial and hi-tech progressions at a constant speed. Moreover, the criminal and terrorist activities in a more sophisticated version have become a common aspect of mundane…
Balkin, J.M. (2007). Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment. Edited Version. New York, USA: NYU Press.
Brenner, S.W. (2010). Cybercrime: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace. USA: ABC-CLIO.
Burgess, A., Regehr C., & Roberts, A. (2011). Victimology: Theories and Applications: Theories and Applications. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Clough, J. (2010). Principles of Cybercrime. 1st Edition. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Technology and Product eview for Endpoint Protection Solutions: Kasperksy Lab
Whereas technological advancements have presented important advantages for business organisations, they have increased security concerns. Viruses, worms, hacking, identity theft, and other cyber threats have been on the rise, with cyber criminals advancing in skill, expertise, and shrewdness. These threats, which are increasingly targeted at the point of the end user, can result in the loss of critical and confidential information such as customer data and business secrets, consequently leading to dire consequences on an organisation, such as reduced customer confidence, loss of revenue, and expensive lawsuits. To avoid this risk, it is important for ed Clay enovations to have a strong endpoint protection platform. This is particularly crucial given the widespread usage of intermittent cellular devices by employees to access the internet and the organisation's network while in the field. Endpoint protection platforms provide endpoints with defence…
Consumer Affairs (2016). Consumer complaints and reviews. Retrieved from: https://www.consumeraffairs.com/computers/kaspersky-anti-virus.html
Kaspersky Lab (n.d.). Company overview. Retrieved from: https://www.kaspersky.com/about/company
Rouse, M. (2015). Endpoint security management. Retrieved from: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/endpoint-security-management
Rubenking, N. (2016). Kaspersky antivirus. Retrieved from: http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2460689,00.asp
Corporate governance, IT Governance and Information Security Governance
IS 8310 Governance, isk Management and Compliance
Governance is the process of empowering leaders to implement rules that are enforceable and amendable. For comprehensive understanding of the term' governance' it is essential to identify the leaders and the set of rules, and various positions that leaders govern. Corporate governance, IT Governance and Information Security Governance embraces a linkage with certain acquiescence system while focusing on information security and privacy issues in the organization. This work will give a distinction between the three terms and identify how they related to each other and how endeavors to comply with each system is leveraged to apply to each other.
Governance is the process of empowering leaders to implement rules that are enforceable and amendable. Therefore, for comprehensive understanding of the term' governance' it is critical to categorize the leaders and the set of rules,…
1) Adegbite, E. 2009. Corporate governance Journal of the Society for Corporate Governance in Nigeria 1(1): 45-48.
2) Adegbite, E. 2010. A scrutiny of corporate governance. Journal of the Society for Corporate Governance 2(1): 242-265.
3) Adegbite, E. 2012. Corporate governance in the banking industry: Towards a strategic governmental engagement. International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 7(3): 209-231.
4) Barnhizer, D. 2006.Waking from sustainability's 'impossible dream': the decision-making realities of business and government. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, 18,662; Cleveland-Marshall Legal Studies Paper
The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:
- easily approachable
- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information
- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe
- the power for the user to remain…
Army, U. (2005). Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism. In U. Army, U.S. Army Training Doctrine Command, Handbook No. 1.02
Bridis, T. (2005, May 26). USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from "Silent Horizon" war games wrap up for The CIA:
Coleman, K. (2003, October 10 ). Cyber Terrorism. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from Cyber Terrorism Article: http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=432&trv=1
hacking of Sony's network information systems last year that led to the pulling of a big-budget comedy from theaters and the resignation of head Amy Pascal remains a current problem for businesses and not just Sony. As he Wall Street Journal reports, this incident shines a light on the protection that businesses need against hackers -- but it also highlights the need for management to communicate with more self-awareness, always considering that someone somewhere might be listening. Words do come back to haunt us, as Amy Pascal has learned the hard way. Fritz (2015) of the Journal reports that "Ms. Pascal was outraged and upset at the way her emails were picked apart by the media and even found herself chased by paparazzi amid the controversy over whether Sony would release the Seth Rogen comedy "he Interview," which the hackers -- said to be connected to North Korea -- wanted…
The strengths and interests I have gained in the study of management/leadership during my journey are that I now understand the importance of a strong leadership theory and the value of organizational culture as well as the importance of security. I'd like to research these topics, therefore, in a case study like the one described.
Fox News. (2016). Hacker group releases information about Cincinnati Police
Department employees. Fox News. Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/us/2016/02/22/hacker-group-releases-information-about-cincinnati-police-department-employees.html
Technology and Product eview for Application Lifecycle Management Tools: OutSystems
Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) tools are important for ensuring software quality and trustworthiness. They track applications throughout their entire lifecycle, from requirements definition and design to development, testing, execution and maintenance (Search Software Quality, n.d.). ALM also entails documenting and tracking modifications to applications. This ensures all software components meet the acceptable configuration requirements all through an application's whole lifecycle. More importantly, using ALM software can minimise time to market, enhance collaboration across the software development process, increase compliance with regulatory requirements and industry standards, and enhance project visibility and stability (Search Software Quality, n.d.). With growing operations, it is important for Aberdeen Software to adopt a suitable ALM tool, particularly against the backdrop of increased cyber security risk. The organisation must ensure its software products are properly configured and of the expected quality.
There are numerous ALM tools…
Capterra (2016). Outsystems. Retrieved from: http://www.capterra.com/application-lifecycle - management-software/spotlight/103549/OutSystems%20Platform/OutSystems
GetApp (2017). OutSystems pricing, features, reviews & comparison of alternatives. Retrieved from: https://www.getapp.com/it-management-software/a/outsystems - platform/#questions
OutSystems (n.d.). Platform overview. Retrieved from: https://www.outsystems.com/platform/#_
Search Software Quality (n.d.). Application lifecycle management tools: a buyer's guide to ALM software. Retrieved from: http://searchsoftwarequality.techtarget.com/buyersguide/Application-lifecycle - management-tools-A-buyers-guide-to-ALM-software
Regarding Border ecurity, "the Department of Homeland ecurity prevents and investigates illegal movements across our borders, including the smuggling of people, drugs, cash, and weapons" (DH.gov. Border ecurity. 2012. PP. 1). Customs, Coast Guard, and Immigration (IN) are working departments in this area.
Preparedness, Response, Recovery refers to "providing a coordinated, comprehensive federal response and mounting a swift and effective recovery effort" (DH.gov. Preparedness. Response. Recovery. 2012. PP. 1). FEMA is the direct provider of government action and coordination in this realm.
On Immigration, "the Department is responsible for providing immigration-related services and benefits such as naturalization and work authorization" (DH.gov. Immigration. 2012. PP. 1). IN is the primary vehicle in this context however, cross-over with Border ecurity functions are common.
Lastly, DH engages in cyber security "keeping our federal civilian networks secure, and secure the cyberspace and critical infrastructure on which we all depend" (DH.gov. Cyber ecurity. 2012. PP.…
Succinctly, no! The encompassing mission of the DHS is so broad as to incorporate far too many active departments, agencies directorates, and components for the structure to effectively work. The flow chart itself is complex in its reporting and layered approach. The unification which is necessary to protect the U.S. from threats is not possible under the auspices of a broad tent approach to control and information dissemination. As an example, a recent report indicated "86 reported attacks on computer systems in the U.S. that control infrastructure, factories, and databases between October 2011 and February 2012" (Schmidt, M. March 13, 2012. PP. 1); yet no one Federal agency "has the authority to compel businesses that run the nation's infrastructure to improve their security" (Schmidt, M. March 13, 2012. PP. 1). If the DHS were to assume control of this task, the assumption would be that economies of scale in resources and scope would allow for greater efficacy. The counter is that the nimbleness and coordination necessary to prevent such hacking is anathema under a monolithic structure. Decentralization would be a more logical method of countering the multiple risks to homeland security.
2. Are there any federal, state, and/or local agencies present in DHS that do not belong? If so, explain why / if not, explain why. Be detailed.
The best example, and most obvious is FEMA, the
Summarized Goals 1-5: Fundamental improvements in platform cybersecurity; website UI and UX; easier access to accurate and comprehensive information by phone or through digital portals; increased emphasis on beneficiary-centric information; communication and services; and improved customer service on all channels.
What SS Invests
What SS Does
Who SS Reaches
Accurate data and relevant information
Timely delivery of information (currently constrained by the evolution of technology platforms and website build-out)
Safeguards against fraud
Provides timely, accurate information to the beneficiaries and others
Protects the database from cybercrime and digital data breaches
Provide benefits according to the legal parameters and calculations to those who qualify
To establish access to data and information via several secure channels (mail, physical offices, phone, and online)
Beneficiaries who are of full retirement age (FRA)
Beneficiaries who are retiring early
Veterans who are beneficiaries
Widows and widowers…
American Express and Data Theft isk
In March 2016, American Express admitted that customer data was stolen from the company in 2013 in a letter to the California Attorney General (Condliffe, 2016). As a credit card company, AMEX works with a large number of merchants, and the data breach came on the merchant end and that the affected customers were notified as soon as was possible. However, this incident provides a learning experience, and the key problem now is how Amex can learn from this experience going forward with respect to how it handles such third-party data breaches in the future. This one particular incident is not the problem, but it highlights a broad category of problems -- credit card fraud and cybercrime -- that cost the industry billions of dollars every year. Managing this better than competitors will be a boon to consumer confidence in the American Express…
American Express Form 10K for 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2016 from http://ir.americanexpress.com/Cache/1500081626.PDF?O=PDF&T=&Y=&D=&FID=1500081626&iid=102700
Barker, K., D'Amato, J. & Sheridon, P. (2008). Credit card fraud: Awareness and prevention. Journal of Financial Crime. Vol. 15 (4) 398-410.
Condlifee, J. (2016). American Express admits to theft of customer data three years late.. Gizmodo. Retrieved March 19, 2016 from http://gizmodo.com/american-express-admits-to-theft-of-customer-data-three-1765441909
Papadimitrou, O. (2016). Market share by credit card network. CardHub. Retrieved March 19, 2016 from http://www.cardhub.com/edu/market-share-by-credit-card-network/
Cyber Attacks on Financial Institutions
The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated cyber attacks from criminals. These criminals often email phishing campaigns to customers which have remained the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions. New innovations in banking, like online and mobile banking, have continued to create new vulnerabilities for cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and procedures for quick interventions in the event of an actual attack. However, beyond simply creating harmful software intended to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).
In 1998, one of the foremost examples of infrastructure hijacking ever discovered is known as The Morris worm. This…
Cordle, I. P. (2014, August 7). TotalBank responds to computer security breach, Miami Herald. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/news/business/article1978822.html Comment by dkamari: are all of these cited in your paper? If not, do not list them.
Mossburg, E. (2015). A Deeper Look at the Financial Impact of Cyber Attacks. Financial Executive, 31(3), 77-80. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/
Crossman, P. (2015, March 5). Is Apple Pay a Fraud Magnet? Only If Banks Drop the Ball. Retrieved from American Banker: http://www.americanbanker.com/news/bank-technology/is-apple-pay-a-fraud-magnet-only-if-banks-drop-the-ball-107312
Dean, B. (2015, March 4). Why companies have little incentive to invest in cybersecurity. Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://theconversation.com/why-companies-have-little-incentive-to-invest-in-cybersecurity-37570
Compliance Patch Level
The author of this report has been tasked with discussing the overall subject of patch compliance level. Indeed, the pros and cons of using the patch compliance level framework will be assessed. There will also be an assessment of several critical things such as the patch compliance level of a given patch, what level of patch compliance is safe and what needs to be considered when evaluating the current patch compliance level. Patching is very much a security-related matter and helps both system and network administrators to keep their systems completely up-to-date and as safe as possible from vulnerabilities and hacking attacks. Not applying and installing needed patches to software such as operating systems, firmware, device drivers, databases and so forth can leave an enterprise information technology environment susceptible to attack. While the deployment of patches should be planned and deployed carefully, it is very important to…
Blue, V. (2015). New report: DHS is a mess of cybersecurity incompetence -- ZDNet. ZDNet.
Retrieved 21 October 2015, from http://www.zdnet.com/article/new-report-the-dhs-is-a-mess-of-cybersecurity-incompetence/
Chan, J. (2015). Patchmanagement.org. Retrieved 16 October 2015, from http://www.patchmanagement.org/pmessentials.asp
Codenomicon. (2015). Heartbleed Bug. Heartbleed.com. Retrieved 21 October 2015, from http://heartbleed.com/
Call centers have become a very vital component of business today and employ several million people the world over. Their increasing role and place in operations have made them a target for researchers looking to study operations management. This has been the case in several fields including capacity planning, personnel scheduling, queuing and forecasting. Further, with the advancement of information technology and telecommunications, new challenges have arisen that call centers all over the world have to face and various technologies have complicated the operations of call centers (Aksin, Armony & Mehrotra, 2007). Operation Technology (OT) helps in the creation of physical value as well as in the process of manufacturing. It consists of sensors, software and devices needed for the control and monitoring of equipment in a plant as well as the plant as a whole. On the other hand, Information technology (IT) brings together all the required pieces of…
Businesses are always exposed to risks of several kinds, for which risk management becomes mandatory. To keep the corporation safe, an appropriate risk management program is obligatory even in times of uncertainty. Risk management helps in strengthening communication between the higher authorities and low line workers. The reports and analysis would be shared vertically and horizontally so that risk mitigation becomes easier through a smooth communication flow. It is conducive to a healthy organizational culture where trust is boosted and positivity is encouraged. In the absence of this program, the business would be unable to define its objectives or even meet its goals. This paper aims at designing a risk management program in which traditional and financial enterprise risk management would be covered. Further sections of the paper would discuss how those identified risks affect the organizational goals to get a clear picture of the business's existence and prosperity in…
Akhtar, S., Xicang, Z. & Iqbal, S. (2017). Impact of brand image on the profitability of the firm, analysis of Nestle Company Pakistan. Review of Public Administration and Management, 5(3). DOI: 10.4172/2315-7844.1000230
Barillon, T. & Robles, A. (2020, July 1). How growing businesses should tackle cybersecurity challenges. Security Intelligence. Retrieved from https://securityintelligence.com/posts/growing-business-tackle-cybersecurity-challenges/
Chen, J. (2020, September 4). Financial risk. Investopedia. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/financialrisk.asp
Cook, K.D. (2017). Effective cybersecurity strategies for small businesses [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies Collection.
Drzik, J.P. (2016, January 14). How can businesses survive in a world of unrest? World Economic Forum. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/a-world-of-simmering-unrest/
Eccles, R.G., Newquist, S.C. & Schatz, R. (2007, February). Reputation and its risks. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2007/02/reputation-and-its-risks
Eceiza, J., Kristensen, I., Krivin, D., Samandari, H. & White, O. (2020, April 13). The future of operational risk management in financial services. McKinsey. Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/risk/our-insights/the-future-of-operational-risk-management-in-financial-services
Effiong, D.A. & Enya, E.F. (2020). Liquidity risk management and financial performance: Are consumer goods companies involved? International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 9(1), 580-589. DOI:10.35940/ijrte.A1692.059120
These different elements show the overall nature of possible threats that could be facing a variety of organizations and how to mitigate them. This is important, because given the rapid changes in technology and the way various threats could occur, requires all entities to be watchful of different situations. Where, those who implement such strategies will be able to adapt to the various challenges that they are facing in the future; by understanding the nature of the threat and how to address it. Over the course of time, this will help to keep an organization flexible in addressing the various security issues, as the approach will require everyone to remain watchful and understand new threats that could be emerging. This will prevent different weakness from being exploited, by knowing where they are and then fixing them.
Safety, Security, and Physical Plant Systems. (n.d.)
eaver, K. (2010). Introduction to Ethical…
Safety, Security, and Physical Plant Systems. (n.d.)
Beaver, K. (2010). Introduction to Ethical Hacking. Hacking for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 11.
Gallagher, M (2008). Security Tools and Methods. Cyber Security. Cheltenham: Elger. 45 -- 46.
Meyers, M. (2007). Malicious Software. Mike Myers A + Guide. San Francisco, CA: McGraw Hill. 18.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
Democracy, or the right to live in peace while being a fundamental human right is all too often unknown to many places throughout the contemporary and global society. ecause the world is so interconnected due to rapid globalization and integration of society, then it is not reasonable to believe that the threat of war will not affect the United States even if that war is on the other side of the globe.
Shelton, Hugh General and Dalton, John H. (2009) Strong Military Needs Early Education Focus. Politico 44. News Story. Available online at: http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0109/17180.html. Accessed 22 Aug 2009.
James, Rachel (2009) a New World Awaits -- Obama on Cybersecurity. Technosailor. 29 May 2009. Available online at:…
Shelton, Hugh General and Dalton, John H. (2009) Strong Military Needs Early Education Focus. Politico 44. News Story. Available online at: http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0109/17180.html . Accessed 22 Aug 2009.
James, Rachel (2009) a New World Awaits -- Obama on Cybersecurity. Technosailor. 29 May 2009. Available online at: http://technosailor.com/2009/05/29/a-new-world-awaits-obama-on-cybersecurity/ . Accessed 22 Aug 2009.
Less satisfied knowledge dealing processes like keeping copies of old as well as unused spreadsheets which have several Social Security numbers instead of transmitting such data to long period and safe storage- persistently involve data at vulnerable stage. (Schuster 140-141)
Security concerns are associated with primarily to the system security, information security and also to Encryption. Taking into consideration the system security, it is applicable that what is pertinent to make sure that a system is quite secured, and decrease the scope that perpetrators could break into a website server and change pages. System security is a real responsibility particularly if one regulates one's owned Website server. (Creating Good Websites: Security)
There are two primary concerns in system security. One is in the application of passwords that ought to be selected and applied securely. But however protected a system could be, it is ordinarily exposed to the world if the…
Cavusoglu, Huseyin; Mishra, Birendra; Raghunathan, Srinivasan. The Effect of Website security Breach Announcements on Market Value: Capital Market Reactions for Breached Firms and Website security Developers. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, vol. 9, no.1, Fall 2004. pp: 70-104.
Creating Good Websites: Security. http://www.leafdigital.com/class/topics/security / de Vivo, Marco; de Vivo, Gabrieal; Isern, Germinal. Website security attacks at the basic level. SACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, vol. 32, no. 2, April 1998. pp: 4-15.
Farmer, Melanie Austria; Hu, Jim. Microsoft not alone in suffering security breaches.
October 27, 2000, http://news.com.com/Microsoft+not+alone+in+suffering+security+breaches/2100-1001_3-247734.html
Security Plan: Pixel Inc.
About Pixel Inc.
We are a 100-person strong business dedicated to the production of media, most specifically short animations, for advertising clients worldwide. Our personnel include marketing specialists, visual designers, video editors, and other creative staff.
This security plan encompasses the general and pragmatic characteristics of the security risks expected for our business and the specific actions that aim to, first and foremost, minimize such risks, and, if that's not possible, mitigate any damage should a breach in security happen.
The measures to be taken and the assigned responsibilities stated in this document apply to all the departments that make up the company. Exemptions can be given but will be only under the prerogative of the CEO under the consultation of the Chief Security Officer that will be formally assigned after the finalization of this document. Otherwise, there will be no exception to the security…
Internet Securit Alliance. (2004). Common sense guide to cyber security for small businesses. Retrieved from: http://www.ready.gov/business/_downloads/CSG-small-business.pdf .
Microsoft. (2004). Step-by-step guide to securing Windows XP Professional in Small Businesses. Retrieved from: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=9faba6ed-2e9c-44f9-bc50-d43d57e17078 .
Noriega, L. (24 May 2011). Seven Cyber Security Basics Every Small Business Needs. Retrieved from: http://www.openforum.com/articles/7-cyber-security-basics-every-small-business-needs .
Teixeira, R. (4 June 2007). Top Five Small Business Internet Securit Threats. Retrieved from: http://smallbiztrends.com/2007/06/top-five-small-business-internet-security-threats.html .
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
Of course, most people will call their banks, credit card companies, and other institution at the first sign that identity theft has occurred, but what happens to those victims who do not realize it immediately?
People need to be aware of what identity theft is, how it is committed, what can happen when such information is stolen, and what should be done when identity theft has occurred. It is not a bunch of hype and it does cause a lot of harm, not only to the victims, but also to the victim's family. Evidently, Foust is trying to calm the reader by saying that most information that is stolen is never used. Rather it is used or not, the fact that someone has or can be a victim of identity theft is cause for concern.
Dean Foust is correct in saying that most information is not ever turned into financial…
Foust, Dean. (7/3/2006). ID Theft: More Hype than Harm. Business Week Magazine.
Malware Incident esponse Plan
This plan is devised to mitigate the effects of malware used during a cyber-attack on a company's security system. The plan uses three levels of staging -- set up, response and recovery. This plan is based on evidence from research that has been conducted to protect the highest levels of secure documents.
The first priority of the plan is to educate all levels of the company regarding the danger incurred from breaching security protocols on their work stations. Whereas it may only seem necessary to conduct in-depth training with individuals new to the company, it has been shown that executives are the most lax when it comes to cyber security. Therefore, a training schedule which updates users regarding any new information and reminds them regarding what they need to be doing every day to protect the overall system is essential. This training…
Choo, K.-K. R. (2011). Cyber threat landscape faced by financial and insurance industry. Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 408, 1-16.
Glennon, M.J. (2012). State - level cyber-security. Policy Review, 171, 85-105.
Lanz, J. (2012). Protecting privacy. Journal of Accountancy, 214(2), 22-23.
Schwalb, M. (2006). Exploit derivatives & national security. Yale Journal of Law & Technology, 9, 62-106.
arfare & Terrorism
The proliferation of cyberattacks -- aptly referred to as cyberterrorism -- carried out by criminal miscreants with grudges, shadowy techies with political motives, and other anti-social individuals, represent the new digital wars that threatened personal and state security worldwide. This is not a problem that will go away any time soon, and cyber security officials it seems will always be one or two steps behind the offenders causing the digital carnage. The cyberattacks that are reviewed in this paper include: Russia's denial-of-service attacks on Estonia in 2007 and Georgia in 2008, and the cyberattacks against U.S. State Department computers in 2006. Denial of service refers to strategies that "…block access of legitimate users" through the "…relentless transmission of irrelevant information" -- called "flood attacks" -- which restrains computer servers (Richards, 2010).
Russia's cyberterrorism against Estonia -- 2007
An article in the International Affairs Review indicates that the…
Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defense
Review, 11(1), 4-40.
Associated Press. (2006). Computer Hackers Attack State Department. The New York Times.
Retrieved January 19, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
goals of this study are to reveal some of the common and prevailing cyber security threats. Here we plan to explore the risk that is most difficult to defend: social engineering. We seek answers to the human elements and characteristics that contribute to the frauds and how they themselves unwittingly give out information that eventually leads to difficult situations. There are many ways in which the attackers 'phish' their targets. We will look into the origin of such techniques and proceed to develop a methodology to avert such attacks. In the highly computerized environment that we are living, a new method of multitenant services has been evolved to substitute for the demands on memory space and time- the Cloud. The impact of these vast and complex systems has raised newer kinds of concerns that will then be assessed and hence a strategy to safeguard the interests of the user because…
In the span of just twenty years, the Internet has radically transformed society. The Internet has changed the ways people interact with technology and with each other. The Internet has democratized information, while also revealing some inequities of access. Likewise, the Internet has given rise to the potential for global democratization. At the same time, the Internet has radically transformed the business and marketing landscape. The Internet enables the formation of online communities and new identities, in keeping with trends towards population migration and geographic independence. Finally, the Internet presents new challenges in terms of cybersecurity, terrorism, and national security.
The Impact of the Internet On Society
Increased Dependency on Technology
Just less than twenty years ago, only 4% of the world was online; now about 50% of the world is online (Rainie & Anderson, 2017, p. 1). The number of people using the Internet increases, although penetration is…
In this Facebook data breach essay, we discuss how Facebook allowed applications to mine user data. The essay will explain what data was breached, how it was breached, and how that data was used. Furthermore, the essay will also discuss the repercussions of the breach, including Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg’s hearing in front of the United States Senate, issues involving Cambridge Analytical, and information that is being revealed about additional data breaches.
In addition to explaining the data breach, the essay will also discuss whether Facebook has a responsibility to users to keep data safe, and the steps that Facebook is taking to resolve data breaches in the future. This example essay should not only provide you with an overview of the Facebook data breach, but also provide you with a technical guide on how to write an academic essay. It will include the following parts of a standard academic…
Infrastructure is effectively what makes a nation run. It encompasses the people, places, and things necessary to deliver critical services and goods. The US Department of Homeland Security often abbreviates critical infrastructure as CIKR (Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources) and defines CIKR as consisting of, “the assets of the United States essential to the nation's security, public health and safety, economic vitality, and way of life,” including “power grids and water filtration plants; national monuments and government facilities; telecommunications and transportation systems; chemical facilities” (“CIKR,” 2009, par.1). Although the majority of CIKR is privately owned, according to DHS, the government still has a vital protective role to ensure it works correctly.
Although the Internet was still in a relatively primitive stage when DHS was first established, the online element of the nation’s critical infrastructure cannot be underestimated and has seismically grown in its importance. People trust a tremendous amount…
According to Toronto Star reporter Stephan Handelman in an article printed in 2005, the U.S. senior intelligence analysts consider China to be the greatest long-term threat to U.S. stability. China's military force and computer intelligence has reached its peak. Both the Europeans and the U.S. agree that the expansion of the Chinese military is more than "worrisome."
Another article posted on November 16, 2007 by the Washington Post claims that spying by China in the United States is the biggest threat keeping American technologies secret. Advances by the Chinese military are catching U.S. intelligence officials by surprise. It has also been suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense could inadvertently outsource the manufacturing of key weapons and military equipment to China. China is attempting to reverse its move into free markets by setting up state-owned enterprises and control over the 12 major industries, which include oil, telecommunications, shipping, automobiles, steel…
(White House, 2003)
II. The NATIONAL STRATEGY for SECURE CYERSPACE
The National Strategy for Secure Cyberspace strategic plan states that its strategic objectives are "consistent with the National Strategy for Homeland Security' and that those objectives include: (1) prevention of cyber attacks against America's critical infrastructure; (2) reduction of national vulnerability to cyber attacks and; (3) minimization of damage and recovery time from cyber attacks that do occur. (White House, 2003) This report additionally relates that the sector best equipped and structured in providing a response to cyber threats which are constantly evolving is the private sector. Specifically stated in the report is "Public-private engagement is a key component of our Strategy to secure cyberspace. Public-private partnerships can usefully confront coordination problems. They can significantly enhance information exchange and cooperation." (White House, 2003) Under this strategy to secure cyberspace it is stated that engagement between the pubic and private sectors…
DHS Intelligence Enterprise Strategic Plan (2006) U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Washington, DC. January 2006.
National Infrastructure Protection Plan (2006) U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington DC.
The National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets (2003) the White House, Washington, DC. February 2003.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.