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Field Experience Report Observation in the Deaf Classroom
Words: 2606 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99266210
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Field Experience Report - Observation in the classroom at the school for the Deaf
In the US, residential institutions of learning have had a long relationship with the deaf community. They are the centers where linguistic and cultural transmission takes place. The residential, educational institutions for deaf people serve learners at K-12 levels. They avail dormitories for learners who hail from far geographical distances. Usually, each state has built, at least, one residential program of education for the deaf (Romano, 2013). It has also been noted that large communities of the deaf usually settle near a residential school. A good number of states offer education programs that provide language services and training for the deaf, including a rich cultural environment where American Deaf learners are taught American Sign Language and English Bilingual instruction. Such settings are also referred to as deafcentric. Learners are enabled to interact with teachers, heads,…

LEAD-K in America
Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49038258
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Hard of Hearing and Deaf Students
Youth and children with hearing challenges or even deaf are broad and range from support accessibility to advanced specialized care. For most children with the said challenges, there are multiple opportunities to learn, and such chances require maximum utilization. Whenever such children and their associated families get learning and language support and presented with opportunities that minimize hearing nuances, they can easily thrive in both occupations and education (Payne-Tsoupros, 2019). This paper focuses on kids with hard of hearing and the deaf and refers to LEAD-K to assess the best practices used to enhance their learning and communication skills.
The acquisition of education for children with hearing challenges or deaf is a daunting task for educators who aspire to support students' development. First, the deaf faces numerous complexities and controversies in defining the most appropriate methods and modes to communicate or even give…

Cawthon, S. W. (2001). Teaching strategies in inclusive classrooms with deaf students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 6(3), 212-225.
Howerton-Fox, A., & Falk, J. L. (2019). Deaf children as \\'English learners\\': The psycholinguistic turn in deaf education. Education Sciences, 9(2), 133.
Juillerat-Olvera, A. (2019). Bridging the language gap: LEAD-K. The Nevada Independent - Your State. Your News. Your Voice. 
Payne-Tsoupros, C. (2019). Lessons from the LEAD-K Campaign for Language Equality for Deaf and Heard of Hearing Children. Loy. U. Chi. LJ, 51, 107.

Deaf Community and Its Need
Words: 3490 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23751505
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Equally destructive is the attitude that communicating with the Deaf person may involve more time and effort than one wishes to expend" (Zieziula, 1998, p. 193).

Moreover, and perhaps one of the most important challenges related to this issue, a large percentage of deaf individuals do not trust the hearing society. "Historically, the dominant hearing culture has relegated deaf people to social categories such as "handicapped" and "outsider." The history of oppression and exclusion of the deaf community -- although with important variations depending on the countries -- and the ignorance and rejection of the natural and preferred means of communication of many of them is a well-known and many times denounced phenomenon," (Munoz-Baell & uiz, 1999, p. 1).

Finally, there is a real deficiency of information in Deaf culture regarding hospice and its related services. Finding appropriate facilities can be a time-consuming and frustrating process.

The program: breaking down…


Berke, J. (2009). Deaf Awareness Week. Retrieved April 10, 2010, from the Website: 

Deaf Community Health Workers Provide Education and Support to Deaf Patients, Facilitating

Access to Linguistically and Culturally Appropriate Care, Improving Patient Health

Knowledge and Adherence to Recommended Care. (2005.) Retrieved April 10, 2010, from the AHRQ Health Care Website:

Deaf Culture
Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86759080
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Deaf culture has become fairly well established in academia and to a lesser degree in mainstream public consciousness. However, Holly Elliot offers a unique perspective on Deaf culture and identity in Teach Me To Love Myself. Elliot begins her narrative by sharing her experience as a bicultural person: someone who had straddled the worlds of the hearing and of the Deaf. Her biculturalism allows Elliot to build bridges instead of barriers, engendering cross-cultural communication. As such, Teach Me to Love Myself offers a tremendously valuable contribution to the evolving and nuanced discourse on Deaf culture.
Elliot had been both hearing and Deaf, but made a conscious decision to “move from the hearing to the Deaf world,” (Kindle Edition). The very notion that Elliot could “move” suggests the notion of the liminal in Deaf identity as well as a conflict between the different worlds in which a Deaf individual resides. Elliot’s…

Education in China History of
Words: 1683 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36246897
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The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.

Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…


Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,


Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.

Retrieved April 11, 2010, from

Deaf There Has Been a Dearth of
Words: 2431 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99025107
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There has been a dearth of literature on the training and development of deaf and hard of hearing employees. This research attempts to highlight gaps in the research and suggest methods of improving deaf awareness in the fields of human resources and organizational development. The Americans With Disabilities Act requires all organizations to make reasonable accommodations to the workplace environment, policy, and procedure for deaf and hard of hearing employees. This applies to employee training and development as well as daily functionality on the job. Because six to nine percent of the population identifies as deaf or hard of hearing, it is critical for organizations to adapt their training and employee development programs to attract and retain deaf employees (Hersh, 2012).

To create effective training and development programs, it is important that human resources managers and staff understand best practices in adapting the workplace and making accommodations. The adaptation…


Haynes, S. & Linden, M. (2012). Workplace accommodations and unmet needs specific to individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Disability and Rehabilitation 7(5), 408-415.

Hersh, M. (2012). Deaf people in the workplace. Chapter 10 in Lessons on Profiting from Diversity. Moss, G. (Ed.). Palgrave MacMillan.

National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers (2009). The case for deaf self-advocacy training. Retrieved online: 

National Association of the Deaf Law and Advocacy Center (n.d.). Reasonable Accommodations for Deaf Employees Under the Americans With Disabilities Act. Retrieved online:

Deaf Marlee Matlin Is One
Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 8914754
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Sign language has become a politically charged issue in the deaf community: a means to create a cohesive social group. For the same reason that cochlear implants are viewed as controversial, speaking is occasionally viewed as selling out. atlin's move did not deter her, however. With moral support from Whoopie Goldberg, atlin maintained her identity as a proud member of the deaf community while still being willing to express herself in whatever way she pleased.

atlin is married to a police officer and has four children. She still works as an actor and views herself not as a deaf person who happens to be an actor but the reverse: as an actor who happens to be deaf (Putz 2005). Her level of comfort with the mainstream hearing society is far from threatening to the cohesiveness of the deaf community. atlin can also be a role model for any aspiring actor…

Matlin would not seem to be a controversial figure but she has been. Reading about Matlin reminded me of how politically charged deafness and deaf culture have become. Speech and cochlear implants can be viewed as bridges between deaf individuals and the world around them, as a means to solidify membership in the deaf community, or both. Matlin shows that deafness is not a hindrance to success; only doubt can prevent the fulfillment of a dream. What Matlin also shows is that deaf individuals are just that: individuals. The deaf community is no more monolithic than the Jewish community or the Latino community. Each person must decide for himself or herself whether or not to embrace speech.

Most likely, Matlin was using her voice to express herself fully. Her decision was a courageous and admirable one, because deaf children and also adults sometimes feel ashamed to use their speaking voice. The voice can be a more shocking reminder of the barriers between deaf and hearing communities. When Matlin was a child her brother humorously referred to her voice as being a foreign accent (Putz 2005). Vocal expression does not need to be perceived as a negative for deaf people. Those who choose to use their voice are not subverting the deaf community. In some ways, those who elect to speak are enhancing the diversity of the deaf community. Being proud of a minority voice is one of the strongest affirmations a deaf person can make. Matlin shows that deaf individuals can remain deeply involved with their communities: actively encouraging deaf children to pursue their dreams and preserving the integrity of the deaf community by encouraging multiple means of solidarity.

Putz, K. (2005). Marlee Matlin What my parents understood. Hands and Voices. Retrieved Mar 9, 2009 at

Deaf & Mental Health Individuals
Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 97176908
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Secondly, there is a need for a Code of Ethics to interpret mental health in these settings. Third, therapists require training that consists of knowledge about the cognitive, social, emotional and psychological development of deaf people. Fourth, interpreters also need specialized training for therapeutic contexts. Finally, both therapists and interpreters need to work collaboratively with the deaf community's professional organizations to offer informative and psychoeducational workshops for deaf members and to provide them with further insights on the role that the therapist plays, the purpose of and techniques that are used in therapy and the function of the interpreters and families in the therapeutic process.

Given this found need for better training, education and understanding by healthcare professionals and interpreters, it comes as no surprise, then, that deaf individuals may be reluctant to get mental health care support when they need it or have greater fear, mistrust and frustration than…


DeVinney, J, & Murphy, S. (2002) Mental Health Experiences and Deafness: Personal and Legal Perspectives. Psychiatric rehabilitative journal, 25(3), 304-309.

Cornes, a. & Napier, J. (2005) Challenges of mental health interpreting when working with deaf people. Australasian Psychiatry. 13(4).

Dickert, J. (1988) Examination of Bias in Mental Health Evaluation of Deaf Patients.

Social Work, May-June.

Funding Deaf People Are Rightfully
Words: 482 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11055749
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Another means for supporting and financing the education of deaf people is through the promotion of a financial package meant to improve the resources available to special schools and teachers. In this sense, schools in Great Britain for instance receive special funds for training their teachers to reach British Sign Language level 3 (Scottish Council on Deafness, n.d.), to become more aware of the special needs such persons have in the society and the academic environment. At the same time, the recruitment of already trained personal is fully funded in order to have the best teachers available for these special schools.

In theory, these projects are worth mentioning and offer a positive perspective on the issues concerning deaf people. However, not all children or grownups can benefit from such funding possibilities. In the education area, there are only specialized agencies which commit their funds to providing financial support to special…


National Foundation for the Deaf - Deaf Education Scholarship. (2006). New Zeeland Culture Online. Retrieved 18 Jan. 2008, at 

Scottish Council on Deafness. (n.d.) Education and training. Access to communication and language, audiology, employment, health, social work and social care. Retrieved 18 Jan, at

Children with Hearing Difficulties Special Education
Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64147886
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Teaching Children with Hearing Difficulties: Evidenced-Based Practice
Early evaluation and detection for hearing difficulties forms the basis for timely intervention. This text emphasizes the need for early intervention as a way of maximizing the linguistic competence and literacy development of children with hearing difficulties. It covers the JCIH position statement and uses research evidence to demonstrate how early audiological intervention could help promote academic outcomes for children with hearing difficulties.
Reaction to the JCIH 2007 Position Statement
The JCIH position statement advocates for early evaluation and diagnosis of auditory problems for children with hearing loss. Early hearing loss detection and intervention helps to maximize the literacy development and linguistic competence of children with hearing difficulties, thus helping to enhance their academic and social outcomes. Studies have, in fact, shown that children whose hearing problems are diagnosed early (before 2 months of age) and intervention initiated have better functional, language, and…

American Psychological Association (2010). Publication Manual (7th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Cole, E. & Flexer, C. (2016). Children with Hearing Loss: Developing Listening and
Talking (4th ed.). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing, Inc.
Cupples, L., Ching, T., Crowe, K., Seeto, M., Leigh, G., Street, L., Day, J., Marnane, V., & Thomson, J. (2013). Outcomes of 3-Year-Old children with Hearing Loss and Different types of Additional Liabilities. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 19(1), 20-39.
Dobie, R. A., & Hemel, D. (Eds.). (2004). Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Easterbrooks, S. & Estes, E. (2007). Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students to Use
Spoken Language. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
NIH (2014). Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Retrieved from

Asl the Deaf Community
Words: 1722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90798118
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ASL the Deaf Community

ASL: The Deaf Community

Although there has been a call for equality for all students with disabilities in the arena of education, the fact is that there are still inequalities that exist for individuals with deafness. It was reported September 23, 2013 that the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) and Joseph B. Espo, attorney with Brown, Golstein & Levy, LLP in Baltimore, Maryland, "filed a lawsuit against the University of Maryland College Park and several of its officials over the university's long-standing and continuing failure to provide captioning of announcements and commentary made over the public address systems during athletic events at Byrd Stadium and the Comcast Center. The complaint was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Maryland." (National Association of the Deaf, 2013, p.1) According to National Association of the Deaf, a new international human rights treaty, and specifically…

Works Cited

World Federation of Deaf (2013) World Federation of Deaf News. Retrieved from:

Kannapell, B. (n.d.) Hierarchies of Power in Deaf Community. Retrieved from: 

Cripps, J. And Supalla, SF (2012) The Power of Spoken Language in Schools and Deaf Students Who Sign. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 16 [Special Issue -- August 2012]. Retrieved from: 

NAD Joins Celebration for International Week of the Deaf (2013) National Association of the Deaf. Retrieved from:  

Improving Deaf Students' Texts in
Words: 1261 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 86933817
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In order to compare educational strategies from the two lingual forms, the study used signed video tapes using both ASL and English sign. The three students then watched the tapes over a period of two separate sessions, after which they were asked to produce "a written version of the text they had viewed," (Mayer & Akamatsu 2000 p 295). This was then followed up by later interviews comparing and evaluating the two different signed texts they had been exposed to. Study results showed that the three students understood both forms of sign rather similarly, with some slight misunderstandings based on differing contexts between the two. Errors in grammar became the element that showed various distance between the two languages used within the study. One student showed similar mistakes in both, the others showed more grammatical understanding in the English form. The types of mistakes the students made based on language…


Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; & Rizzolo, Kathleen. (2010). Enhancing deaf students' learning from sign language and text: Metacognition, modality, and the effectiveness of content scaffolding. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16(1), 79-101.

Hoffman, Mary & Wang, Ye. (2010). The use of graphic representations of sign language in leveled texts to support deaf readers. American Annals of the Deaf, 155(2), 131-138.

Mayer, Connie & Akamatsu, C. Tane. (2000). Deaf children creating written texts: Contributions of American sign language gauge and signed forms of English. American Annals of the Deaf, 145(5), 294-405.

Mueller, Vanessa & Hurtig, Richard. (2009). Technology-enhanced shared reading with deaf and hard-of-hearing children: The role of a fluent signing narrator. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 15(1), 72-102.

Text Comprehension for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 28201882
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Comprehension and Deafness

Language and vocabulary development and therefore reading comprehension, among deaf and hard of hearing children is challenged due to several factors. These factors relate to inherent differences between children with normal hearing and those with hearing difficulties. However, efforts and innovation have been put into practice to facilitate language and reading development among deaf and hard of hearing students in order to achieve successful comprehension despite their inabilities to learn through conventional methods. It is important that reading development is maintained at a high level to ensure hard of hearing students are able to maintain comprehension and age appropriate and grade appropriate levels. The following discussion outlines some issues and challenges faced by children with hearing difficulties and how these problems can be overcome in order to achieve effective levels of language, vocabulary, and text comprehension.

Vocabulary comprehension is encouraged and promoted through the activity of reading…


Cannon, J.E., Fredrick, L.D., Easterbrooks, S.R. (2010). Vocabulary instruction through books read in American sign language for English-language learners with hearing loss. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 31(2), 98-112.

Kelly, L.P. (2003). Considerations for designing practice for deaf readers. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8(2), 171-86.

Luetke-Stahlman, B., Nielsen, D.C. (2003). The contribution of phonological awareness and receptive and expressive English to the reading ability of deaf students with varying degrees of exposure to accurate English. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8(4), 464-84.

Mayer, C., Akamatsu, C.T. (2000). Deaf children creating written texts: contributions of American sign language and signed forms of English. American Annals of the Deaf, 145(5), 394-403.

Deaf Ears An Exercise in Understanding the
Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1170968
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Deaf Ears: An Exercise in Understanding

The hearing world intersects with the deaf world all the time. As a hearing person, I count many hearing impaired people as friends and I feel that I generally have a good sense of what they go through to make their way in a society dominated by sound. By depriving myself of hearing for one day through the use of earplugs, I was suddenly privy to insights about deafness that might not have otherwise occurred to me. I came away from the experience with a greater understanding of the deaf world, including the disorientation and fear that people with hearing impairments must integrate into their lives.

It is easy to go without realizing how much one interacts verbally on a given day until that function is impaired. In attempting to talk to family, friends, and coworkers, I found myself struggling to make sense of…


M Backenroth-Ohsako, G.A., Wennberg, P., & Klinteberg, B.A. (2003). Personality and Work Life: a Comparison between Hearing-impaired Persons and a Normal-hearing Population. Social Behavior and Personality, 31(2), 191+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database:  

Deaf Population's Stand on Cochlear
Words: 2033 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 21641627
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Sign language is one of the most important elements of deaf communication, and losing this element frightens and outrages some members of the deaf community.

In addition, many deaf people feel that the rehabilitation necessary after implant surgery is often neglected or not budgeted for, and so, it is not managed effectively, and the implants are not used to their full potential. In addition, the implants do not miraculously cure deafness, what implanted patients experience is a reduced and altered sense of sounds and speech at best. Some patients have described the voice as "robotic," and the device will never allow people to hear the same way that a non-deaf person hears. This is another reason the deaf community is against the implants. They believe they make a deaf person even more "handicapped," to put it one way, because they do not fit in either world. They cannot hear the…


Blamey, Peter J. "17 Development of Spoken Language by Deaf Children." Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language, and Education. Ed. Marc Marschark and Patricia Elizabeth Spencer. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. 232-246.

Glickman, Neil S., and Sanjay Gulati, eds. Mental Health Care of Deaf People: A Culturally Affirmative Approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.

Harkins, Judith E., and Matthew Bakke. "29 Status and Trends." Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language, and Education. Ed. Marc Marschark and Patricia Elizabeth Spencer. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. 406-419.

Harvey, Michael a. "9 Does God Have a Cochlear Implant?." Mental Health Care of Deaf People: A Culturally Affirmative Approach. Ed. Neil S. Glickman and Sanjay Gulati. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003. 327-346.

College Deaf Student
Words: 1504 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 50917311
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Education Structures for Deaf Students

The paper focuses on six different studies that focus on two different viewpoints on the higher education learning structures for deaf students. The paper first highlights the viewpoints of the students towards their learning structure and then highlights the perceptions of the teachers on the teaching structures and how they highlight the teaching characteristics and structures that prove to be most effective for the deaf or hard of hearing students.

Deaf Student Perceptions of Higher Education

Deaf students generally have trouble in learning the English language across all academic levels despite their linguistic expertise or knowledge. In an earlier study conducted by Berent and colleagues (2000), the researchers highlighted that the deaf individuals or even those who are hard of hearing usually experience learning disabilities (LD) when learning the English language. The combined impact of deafness and LD for English language is difficult to analyze,…


Berent, G.P., Samar, V.J. And Parasnis, I. (2000). College Teachers' Perceptions of English Language Characteristics That Identify English Language Learning Disabled Deaf Students. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 145, No. 4.

Lang, H.G., McKee, B.G. And Conner, K. (1993). Characteristics of Effective Teachers: A Descriptive Study of the Perceptions of Faculty and Deaf College Students. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 138, Number 3, pp. 252-259.

Marschark, M. Richardson, J.T.E. Sapere, P. And Sarchet, T. (2010). Approaches to Teaching in Mainstream and Separate Postsecondary Classrooms. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 155, No. 4.

Nickerson, J.F. (2003). Deaf College Students' Perspectives on Literacy Portfolios. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 148, No. 1.

Student Education What Were the
Words: 1479 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3965558
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10. What was the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in Honig v. Doe?

In this case, the Supreme Court was of the opinion that free and appropriate public education also applied to children having behavioral difficulties. Further, the Supreme Court also concluded that when a student's misbehavior has a definite connection to his or her disability, such a student should not be excluded from school.

11. Explain when a school must hold a "manifestation determination hearing"

A manifestation determination hearing is held when as a result of a disabled student's inappropriate or wrongful behavior, the school deems it fit to have the student removed. Amongst other things, the said hearing is held to determine whether there is a connection between the student's disability and his or her faulty behavior.

12. Explain when a school must develop a "behavior intervention plan" (BIP) for a student

A school must develop the…


Merrell, K.W., Ervin, R.A., & Peacock, G.G. (2011). School Psychology for the 21st Century: Foundations and Practices (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

New York State Education Department. (2011, May). Behavioral Intervention Plans. Retrieved from 

Odom, S.L., Horner, R.H. & Snell, M.E. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of Developmental Disabilities. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Oyez. (2013). Schaffer v. Weast. Retrieved from

Amico, Deborah.(2011).Providing Worker Education and Building the Labor Movement: The Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York. Adult Learning; Winter2011, Vol. 22 (1)

In this paper, D'Amico discusses the provision of worker education as well as the building of the labor movement activities that takes place at Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York (CUNY).This educational facility is dedicated to the provision of worker education as well as the building of the city's labor market. The author indicates that the institute is active in the provision of workers access to education as well as advancement should they seeks it. The article also mentions that the institute is also involved in the coalescing of the labor-management education funds as well as academic departments with the widely accepted industry expertise in order to create the best programs that can adequately serve the union members.

Martin, Larry…


D'Amico, Deborah.(2011).Providing Worker Education and Building the Labor Movement: The Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York. Adult Learning; Winter2011, Vol. 22 (1) p12-17

Martin, Larry C., Smith, Regina O (2011).Pre-Apprenticeship Urban Workforce Training Programs. Adult Learning; Winter2011, Vol. 22 (1), p23-27

Maslow, A.H. (1998). Maslow on management. New York: Wiley.

Special Education Until 1975 Disabled
Words: 2069 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 62291897
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S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999).

Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs themselves. Moreover, the legislation raised awareness about the breadth and diversity of the disabled community and helped to reduce stigma. President Johnson followed well in the footsteps of his predecessor by establishing the Committee on Mental etardation and helping to pass Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, PL 89-10). The Act opened up funds to be used at the state level for special education and lead to the creation of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. Although focused on the needs of the mentally disabled community, the Johnson era legislation was integral in providing precedent for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.

Osgood (1999) also suggests that impetus for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act came from…


Ford, Gerald. (1975). Statement on Signing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at

Osgood, R.L. (nd). The History of Inclusion in the United States. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at 

Raschke, D. & Bronson, J. (1999). "Inclusion." Excerpt from "Creative Educators at Work: All Children Including Those with Disabilities Can Play Traditional Classroom Games." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at 

Special Education Laws and Legislation." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at

Fieldwork Report for Special Education Classroom
Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20491329
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Fieldwork Paper and Fieldwork Form
The purpose of the fieldwork is to observe the two certified special education teachers and make connections to course content within real world classroom settings. One of the schools where the observation was conducted is P.S. / I.S. 266 whose address is 74-10 Commonwealth Blvd, Jamaica, NY 11426 (P.S. / I.S. 266, 2018). The school, which falls under New York City Public Schools district, is a pre-kindergarten to eighth grade learning institution that was established in September 2003 and has a student population of nearly 700 students. The second school is CLASP, which is located at 80 Grace Avenue, Great Neck NY, 11021 (CLASP Children’s Center, n.d.). This pre-kindergarten setting seeks to provide quality childcare for working parents and has existed for more than 35 years. This paper provides a summary of observations made in each of these schools as part of this fieldwork.

Technolgy Benefits the Deaf and
Words: 1432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 77963798
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There is an initial purchase of sound field equipment and some installation and in-service costs which are stated to be negotiable. (Ray, 1995; paraphrased)

III. Computers in the Classroom and Deaf Learners

The government is presently making a dedicated effort to put computers into place in every classroom throughout America however in regards to learners who are deaf technological solutions have appeared slowly however, it has been indicated in online science and mathematics studies that computer technology is promising for learners who are deaf. In what was a metasynthesis of 287 studies, the work of raden and Shaw (1987) report that "the degree of success with computer-assisted instruction was inversely related to methodological rigor." Technology in the classroom for deaf learners may include use of:

(1) closed-captioning; and/or

(2) Real-time captioning. (National Science Foundation, 2009)

Study findings appear to indicate that deaf students are inherently more rigid in their manner…


Ray, Helen (1995) Mainstream Amplification Resource Room Study (MARRs) (1995) Educational Programs that Work. Online available at: 

How Does C-Print Work? (2009) National Technical Institute for the Deaf -- Rochester Institute of Technology. Speech to Text System. Online available at: 

Technology in the Classroom (2009) National Science Foundation. COMETS. 02 Oct 2002. Online available at: 

Bandura A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.

Technology for the Deaf There
Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63187631
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Closed Captioning/CAT -- Closed captioning provides an ongoing written transcription of movies, television, and/or stage productions. With new technology, Closed Captioning has moved into Communication Access eal-Tim Translation, or CAT. CAT transcribes spoken words into printed text onto a screen or computer, and is much more interactive and used for not only entertainment, but court or other official meeting presentations (Nomeland, pp. 180-1).

Alert Systems -- Are relatively low-tech; flashing lights when the doorbell rings, vibrating pillows if there is a smoke or burglar alarm, etc. Most of these technologies have been supplanted by more sophisticated applications on smart phones (Nomeland, p. 187).

Internal devices are medically oriented implants that either amplifies sound in those who have a hearing disability or replace some of the inner ear mechanisms to allow the deaf person to actually "hear" sounds. These are becoming more and more sophisticated, some even with computer "smart"…


The Cochlear Implant Controversy. (February 11, 2009). CBS News Sunday Morning.

Television Show Transcript.

Baron, N 2008, Always on: Language in an Online and Mobile World, Oxford

Univeristy Press, New York.

Increasing Number of Students in Special Education
Words: 10876 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30150873
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Special Education

Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among educators all across the country.

The purpose of this investigation is to discuss the increase in the American special education population. We will discuss the factors that have contributed to the increase including; the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms, pressure from parents, the disproportionate amount of minorities that…


Digest of Education Statistics. (2001) U.S. Department of Education.


Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Questia database, .

Presidents Commision on Revitalizing Special Education. 2002. United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 28, 2003, from.

Special Education Has Changed Dramatically Gone Are
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special education has changed dramatically. Gone are the days of the special classroom down the hall where special education students were hidden away and kept from the general student population. Gone are the days when special education students were given comic books to read and passed because they were there. Civil rights mandates of the 1960's turned the world of special education inside out and today, four decades later, special education students are fully protected by federal law. Special education students are now educated in the least restrictive environment which many times means they are mainstreamed into regular education classrooms, with a variety of peer abilities. This blending of abilities is commonly referred to as inclusion, and it is so named because of the idea that it includes students of different abilities in one educational setting. Inclusion is practiced throughout the nation, and in all grade levels at this point…


Teaching Techniques

Preparing Teachers for the Inclusion Classroom:

understanding assistive technology and its role in education

History of Special Education Why
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Before IDEA "in 1970, U.S. schools educated only one in five children with disabilities, and many states had laws excluding certain students, including children who were deaf, blind, emotionally disturbed, or mentally retarded" from the educational system entirely (Special education and rehabilitative services, 2007,

Mainstreaming special needs students reduced the social stigma of many conditions, such as mental retardation and autism, which were formally not spoken of or recognized by the wider public. This also made it easier to encourage parents to identify children who might have more minor special needs that would be helpful to address with therapy and resource room support. Now it is 'normal' for students with mild learning challenges to receive extra time on their SATs, additional tutoring, and classroom accommodations that can make significant improvements in the quality of their education.

IDEA allows for the creation of an IEP (individualized education program) that is…


Special education and rehabilitative services. (2010). Retrieved November 18, 2010 at

Board of Education
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Board of Education in school districts is first set by state law and then by local regulations, with various customs and practices developing over time and becoming part of the role and responsibilities taken by these boards. In New York State, that role includes the governance of local school districts in different municipalities and educational districts (which may cross municipal boundaries in many cases). Among the tasks undertaken by school boars are personnel decisions and policies, the management of the school system including budgetary considerations, decisions regarding educational theory and practice to some degree, and the protection of students on school grounds and advocacy for fulfilling the needs of students and meeting the expectations of parents. Such broad responsibilities may be interpreted differently in different districts.

The school district in New York City is the largest and most complex in the state, facing the need to balance the competing interests…

Works Cited

"A Guide to Special Education." Special Education New York United Teachers (2005). October 30, 2005. .

"Race for the Mineola School Board." Mineola American (13 May 2005). October 28, 2005. .

"Report of the UFT Task Force on School Governance." The United Federation of Teachers (December 1999). October 30, 2005. .

The Roslyn Board of Education (2005). October 30, 2005. .

Rights and Interests of Deaf
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As a part of its responsibility to monitor federal agency compliance with Section 501, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) collects and compiles data regarding agencies' hiring and advancement of workers with disabilities. At the time of hiring, federal agencies provide employees the opportunity to self-disclose that they have a disability, on a Standard Form 256 (SF-256); the numbers of people who so identify are reported to the EEOC. In1979, EEOC officially designated certain disabilities as targeted disabilities in its Management Directive 703 issued on December 6, 1979, which in 2003 was superseded by Management Directive 715. MD 715 defines targeted disabilities as "Disabilities that the federal government, as a matter of policy, has identified for special emphasis in affirmative action programs. They are: 1) deafness; 2) blindness; 3) missing extremities; 4) partial paralysis; 5) complete paralysis; 6) convulsive disorders; 7) mental retardation; 8) mental illness; and 9) distortion…


Supreme Court Decisions Interpreting the Americans with Disabilities Act, subpart

II (J)(1), at , quoting the National Council on Disability, TOWARD INDEPENDENCE, app., at a-15 & a-37 (1986).

Robert L. Burgdorf Jr., "Substantially Limited" Protection from Disability

Discrimination: The Special Treatment Model and Misconstructions of the Definition of Disability, 42 Villanova L. Rev. 409, 529 -- 533 (1997)

Application of a Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
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Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…

Special Education - Inclusion the
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In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition,…


Allan, J. (1999). Actively seeking inclusion: Pupils with special needs in mainstream schools. London: Falmer Press.

Balfanz, R., Jordan, W., Legters, N., & McPartland, J. (1998). Improving climate and achievement in a troubled urban high school through the talent development model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 3(4), 348.

Banks, J. (1994). All of us together: The story of inclusion at the Kinzie School. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Bullard, H.R. (2004). Ensure the successful inclusion of a child with Asperger syndrome in the general education classroom. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 176.

Evolutions in Special Education
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Evolution of Special Education: Pre-1950s to Present

Special Education Evolutions

Special reduction has made tremendous evolutions since its inception. To effectively understand the current state of special education in public education, it is necessary to consider the full trajectory and how the perspectives on special education have developed over the years. The first special education programs were target at "at risk" children who primarily resided in urban slums and ghettos after a public education was made compulsory in the United States. They taught manual skills such as carpentry or metal work while other programs focused on teaching moral lessons to minorities. Later, special education began to focus more on children with disabilities. Although there were students that had physical and mental disabilities in the nineteenth century, making specific provisions for the inherent challenges that these students faced did not became a common educational priority until the 1940s. Since this time,…


Armstrong, F. (2002). The historical development of special education: humanitarian rationality or 'wild profusion of entangled events'? History of Education, 437-456.

Aron, L., & Loprest, P. (2012). Disability and the Education System. Future of Children, 97-122.

Lloyd, J., & Llloyd, P. (2015). Reinforcing Success: What Special Educaiton Could Learn From Its Earlier Accomplishments. Remdial and Special Education, 77-82.

Seave, P. (2011). Evidence-Based Practices Reduce Juvenile Recidivism: Can State Government Effectively Promote Implementation Among Probation Departments? American Journal of Community Psychology, 138-140.

Journey Into the Deaf-World This Book Looks
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Journey into the Deaf-World

his book looks at the Deaf-World culture in depth. In the process, the authors consider many practical, legal, educational, medical and social issues facing those in the Deaf-World. While the book covers many technical issues in detail, the underpinning for all of it is that the Deaf-World is its own unique culture with its own unique language, and is every bit as much of a subculture as it is to be African-American or some branch of Hispanic.

he authors work hard to establish the Deaf-World as a legitimate subculture. hey point out that although most minority groups can point to a geographic location they're from, the Deaf-World is bound by language and experience but not geography. So while Mexican-Americans can point to Mexico on the map, those of the Deaf-World cannot do that.

hroughout the course of the book, the authors demonstrate that often the beliefs…

The people of the Deaf-World recognize that their own culture is rich and vibrant with meaning. They recognize sign language, specifically ASL, as the fabric binding them together. They also know, both from personal experience and from looking at the research, that sign language from an early age will give their children their best chance to learn well and to be successful educationally. Rather than having the educational system try to force their deaf children to function as if they were not deaf, the great majority of the Deaf-World want to be accepted as they are. They don't want their deafness viewed as something requiring medical intervention, and they want to see educational and other institutions work with them to help them be the best they can be as they are, instead of trying to change them to conform to the standards set by non-deaf society.

Harlan, Hoffmeister, and Bahan have written a detailed report of the philosophy, society and needs of the Deaf-World, including pertinent research to support important points. While their book presents a specific view and doesn't pretend to present a balanced view of both sides of important issues, they do explain the other side as perceived by the Deaf-World, and put forth persuasive arguments for their opinions. Every professional and specialist who works with the Deaf-World population in any way should read this eye-opening book.

Lane, Harlan, Hoffmeister, Robert, and Bahan, Ben. A Journey into the Deaf-World. San Diego: DawnSignPress. 1996.

Curtiss-Wright Symbolic Communication and Deaf-Blindness
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, & Sternberg, L. (1994). Communication and language development. In L.

Sternberg (Ed.), Individuals with profound disabilities (pp. 192-229). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Bennett, K., Griffin, H., Powers, J., Williford, K., Young, C., Jensema, C., Kane, K., & Jones, C. (1995). Delivering effective instruction to students with deaf-blindness and/or other severe disabilities. aleigh: North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction.

Bixler, E., Calvecchio, S., & Cohan, A. (1997). Enabling and supporting independence through communication. In The individual in a changing society: The proceedings of the National Conference on Deafblindness, June 6-9 (pp. 77-86). eno, NV: Hilton Perkins Program in cooperation with the Conrad Hilton Foundation.

Bloom, Y. (1990). Object symbols: A communication option. North ocks, NSW: North ocks Press.

Bruce, S.M. (2005). The impact of congenital deafblindness on the struggle to symbolism. International Journal of Disability, Development, & Education, 52(3), 233-251.

Bruce, S.M., Mann, A., Jones, C., & Gavin, M. (2007).…


Alvares, R., & Sternberg, L. (1994). Communication and language development. In L.

Sternberg (Ed.), Individuals with profound disabilities (pp. 192-229). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Bennett, K., Griffin, H., Powers, J., Williford, K., Young, C., Jensema, C., Kane, K., & Jones, C. (1995). Delivering effective instruction to students with deaf-blindness and/or other severe disabilities. Raleigh: North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction.

Bixler, E., Calvecchio, S., & Cohan, A. (1997). Enabling and supporting independence through communication. In The individual in a changing society: The proceedings of the National Conference on Deafblindness, June 6-9 (pp. 77-86). Reno, NV: Hilton Perkins Program in cooperation with the Conrad Hilton Foundation.

Technology for the Deaf His
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Three years later, the company improved its picture clarity and introduced the "emotional intonation" feature, considered important components of visual language. ut at present, only 10% of the deaf and hard-of-hearing know about VRS. The Internal Revenue Service refuses to accept VRS calls. And VRS can be performed only with high-speed internet access. ut companies, like Sorenson, provide videophones for free. Those who have no high-speed internet access or a videophone may use IPP relay. It is similar to the outdated TTY but performs faster and more smoothly. The deaf user types his message on a computer.

For the working deaf who need to use the telephone, Able Planet launched the wireless device. This is a telephone and a hands-free set for a cell phone to address these difficulties in the use of a telephone. The technology enables wireless communication with a telecoil in hearing aids. At the same time,…


Associated Press. Hearing Impaired Get Help with Wireless Device. Deseret News:

Deseret News Publishing, 2003. Retrieved on October11, 2009 from;col1 

Bergstein, Brian. IBM Develops Virtual Deaf Interpreter. Oakland Tribune: ANG

Newspapers, 2007. Retrieved on October 11, 2009 from;col1

Thirteen Categories and Its Importance in Special Education
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - An ANALYSIS

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), U.S. states are in charge of meeting special educational requirements of students with disabilities. For ascertaining which children are entitled to services under the Act, students should first be individually and comprehensively evaluated, for free. The evaluation serves two purposes: • seeing whether the child is disabled or not, within the framework of the Act; and • acquiring a detailed understanding of the special educational services needed by the child (NICHCY, 2012). States have the authority to segregate some disabilities, among the thirteen stipulated by IDEA, into distinct categories; but determining qualification in individual categories necessitates performing of a thorough, appropriate evaluation, employing various stipulated strategies and tools for assessment. IDEA declares that children's developmental, academic, and functional information has to be obtained for aiding eligibility determination (IDEA, 2004). The best interventions for children…


Hocutt, A. M. (1996). Effectiveness of Special Education: Is Placement the Critical Factor? The Future of Children.

IDEA. (2004). Federal Special Education Disability Categories. Individuals for Disabilities Education.

Klein, J. I. (n.d.). Special Education Services. Office of Special Education Initiatives.

(n.d.). Learning Differences and Special Education .

Special Education Instruction Options
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Technology & Education

There has been a fundamental change in almost all aspects of our life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.

Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can…


Boonmoh, A. (2012). E-dictionary Use under the Spotlight: Students' Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries for Writing. Lexikos, 22 (1). 

Chen, N. & Hwang, G. (2014). Transforming the classrooms: innovative digital game-based learning designs and applications. Education Tech Research Dev, 62 (2), 125-128. 

Davis, H. (2012). Technology in the Classroom: A Deweyan Perspective. Kentucky Journal Of Higher Education Policy And Practice, Vol. 1(2), 10-12.

Floyd, K. (2011). Book and Software Review: Assistive Technology: Access for All Students. Journal Of Special Education Technology, 26 (4), 64-65.

Impact of Technology in the Present Education Times
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advances are made in technology, an increasing number of different forms of technologies, new uses and changes are being made in integrating new technologies into special education so as to benefit learners with disabilities. Research has made tremendous contributions in developing new technologies. Policymakers, too, have enabled the faster adoption of new technologies in special education so as to help learners with different kinds of behavioral and academic challenges. For instance, as early as 1994, James Kulik utilized meta-analysis to collect and analyze the results of over 500 different studies on computer-based learning. Technology-based learning, particularly through the use of computers, individualizes the learning process, so as to accommodate inclinations, knowledge systems, styles of learning, interests and needs of learners. Different forms of computer-based education software have been developed for such purposes, for instance, the Integrated Learning Systems. James Kulik made several conclusions upon the completion of the meta-analysis: that…


Best, S. J., Heller, K. W., & Bigge, J. L. (2005). Teaching individuals with physical or multiple disabilities (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson

Browder, D.M., Spooner, F., Wakeman, S., Trela, K., & Baker, J.N. (2006). Aligning instruction with academic content standards: Finding the link. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(4), 309-321

Butler-Kisber, L. (2013). Teaching and Learning in the Digital World: Possibilities and Challenges. Learning Landscapes.

Clercq, C. K. (2015). Digitally Enhanced Classrooms: Understanding the Effect of Individualized Technology on Language Arts Instruction in Elementary Schools. University Honors Theses .

Heather Whitestone The First Miss
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Unfortunately, I could not hear any sound from my right ear even with the help of hearing aid. For this reason, I used my right ear for the cochlear implant. My right ear had been sleeping for 28 years until the cochlear implant woke it up on September 19th, 2002" ("FAQ," Heather hitestone ebpage, 2010). Heather writes on her webpage that she strongly supports implants for children and decided to have one as an adult so she could hear the voices of her two young sons.

hitestone was not only "the first deaf Miss America; in fact, she was the first Miss America with a physical disability of any kind" ("Heather hitestone," Alabama, 2003). She and continues to come fire because of her public and vocal support of acoupedics and orally-based deaf education. Today, hitestone lives in Alabama, raising her children. hitestone married a hearing man, John McCallum, an aide…

Works Cited

"FAQ." Heather Whitestone. Official Webpage. February 23, 2010. 

"Heather Whitestone." Alabama. 2003. February 23, 2010.

Phonological Awareness
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Phonological Awareness and Literacy

It appears that in the last ten years that there has been a growing consensus on the range of skills that have been serving as the basis for reading and writing ability in the 3- to 5-year-old age group (Diamond K., 2014). In order to become a skilled reader before kindergarten, children need a language that is rich and they need something with conceptual knowledge base, and to be able to understand messages that are communicated through print. It is also important that children also must be able to develop the notion that spoken words are made up of smaller substances of speech (phonological awareness) before they enter kindergarten. (Gallagher, 2015)

Nonetheless to attain a high level of skill, the 3- to 5-year-old group need chances to change these strands, not in isolation, but then again interactively. Making the point, not sounds or letters, encourages the…


Baroody, A.E. (2015). Associations Among Name Writing and Alphabetic Skills in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children At Risk of School Failure. Journal of Early Intervention, 35, 20-39.

Diamond, K. (2014). Links Among Home Literacy Environment, Literacy Interest, and Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschoolers At Risk for Reading Difficulties. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 32(2), 78-87.

Diamond, K.E. (2013). Implementation Fidelity of a Coaching-Based Professional Development Program for Improving Head Start Teachers' Literacy and Language Instruction. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(7), 102-128.

Gallagher, P.A. (n.d.). Progress in Language and Literacy Skills Among Children With Disabilities in Inclusive Early Reading First Classrooms. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education February, 33(12), 249-259.

Marketing Plan for California Marketing
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e are no longer content with merely providing quality instruction. e will judge ourselves henceforth on the quality of student learning we produce" (O'Banion, 2007). Professional development and personal enrichment thus now go hand-in-hand, in terms of the way the university views its process of operation.

Descriptive synopsis of the marketing situation

The university presents itself as an ideal university for an individual seeking a flexible university plan in a diverse community of students. The educational opportunities are vast and wide-ranging, spanning from everything from preparation for future teachers in deaf education, to a comprehensive background in the film industry, or grounding Pan African regional studies. Its one weakness to its user-friendly promotional and informative website is that international students might find inadequate information about fees, aid, and also living on campus.

orks Cited

About Cal State Northridge." Official ebsite. 2007. 10 Nov 2007.

Academic Programs." Official ebsite. 2007.…

Works Cited

About Cal State Northridge." Official Website. 2007. 10 Nov 2007. 

Academic Programs." Official Website. 2007. 10 Nov 2007. 

Costs of Attendance." Official Website. 2007. 10 Nov 2007.  

Strategy for Building a Community
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The primary aspect of Billy's scenario is that he has the propensity to be disruptive. I believe that this tendency of his is due to the fact that he is able to complete his work relatively quickly, the work is easy for him to accomplish, and then he becomes bored. The larger issue involved here is the fact that he evidently needs to be on an advanced track for learning, and is involved in a school in which homogenous learning occurs.

That said, Billy is one of the primary candidates to benefit from community-building -- mostly because it will allow him to apply his considerable intellect to some other aspect of academics that he has not already mastered. There are several facets of his character that make him perfect to become involved in perspective taking. He is naturally gregarious, so the essential concept of community-building is already ingrained within him.…


Hardin, C.J. (2012). Building Community. In C.J. Hardin, Effective Classroom Management: Models and Strategies for Today's Classroom (3rd ed., pp. 139-154). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Jankowski, K.A. (2002). "Community building: A positive approach to discipline in schools." Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center. Retrieved from 


McFarland-Piazza, L., Lord, a., Smith, M., Downey, B. (2012). "The role of community-based playgroups in building relationships between pre-service teachers, families and the community." Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. 37 (2): 34-41.

Self-Expression of Identity Literature Review
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Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.

One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…


Adam, B. 2000. "Love and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex

With Men." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4).

Barry, P. (2002). Lesbian and gay criticism. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Culture and Society,

American Sign Language Interpreters the
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This program will be offered in the Leadership Development Seminar in which students are offering challenging experiences as well as the areas of higher-level academic pursuits which includes a historical journey through the history of deafness related individuals.

Merrill Lynch has also developed a program targeting deaf students, which was released in a news announcement earlier this month of March 2005. The Merrill Lynch Entrepreneur Leadership Program is offering a program to prepare those interested in entrepreneurial leadership designed for individuals who are deaf and interested in becoming entrepreneurs. Modern technological online modules for learning will be utilized and will simultaneously deliver the information in both ASL and English.


It is clear that ASL Interpreters in classrooms is much needed for the student who is deaf if they are to experience a normal and successful education in the classroom setting. And as shown the student who is deaf and…


Lawrence, Constance (2001) Using Sign Language in Your Classroom 2001 Apr 19 ED459557.

Belka, Robert W. (2000) 'Is American Sign Language a "Foreign Language" ED339662.

Wallinger, Linda (2000) American Sign Language Instruction: Moving from Protest to Practice ED 449660

Toth, Anne (1999) Improving the Delivery of Sign Language Instruction for Program for Parents of Children Who is Deaf and Receiving Services form a School for the Deaf. ED 437755.

Intervention Minors or Children Under
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On the whole, the Academy calls for the abolition of exemption laws and endorses initiatives to educate the public about the medical needs of children (Committee on ioethics)..

While AAP recognizes the importance of religion to people's lives, it also warns physicians and other health care professionals should put the health and welfare of children over religious considerations (Committee on ioethics 1997). It encourages pediatricians to respect parents' decision but not when their religious convictions interfere with medical care necessary to prevent harm, suffering or death. When this happens, pediatricians should seek the authorization of the court to override parental authority. If the threat to a child's life is imminent, the health care practitioner should intervene over parental objections. Securing court authorization should, however, be the last course of action. The health care practitioner should cooperate with the family in applying appropriate palliative care. Even when the securing of court…


Bender, Denise G. Do Fourteenth Amendment Considerations Outweigh a Potential State

Interest in Mandating Cochlear Implantation for Deaf Children. Journal of Deaf

Studies and Deaf Education: University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 2004

Committee on Bioethics. Religious Objections to Medical Care. Volume 9 number 2

Itinerant Auditory Speech Language Services
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Denise is a 4th-grade student with a bilateral moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss. She uses binaural hearing aids but is refusing to use her personal Hearing Assistive Technology (HAT) system. Denise has Down syndrome and is enrolled in a full-time Life Skills Support classroom. As part of providing itinerant auditory/speech/language services to Denise, it is important to conduct formal and informal assessments to determine progress in the area of auditory, speech, and language skills. It is important to evaluate her auditory skills, speech production skills, and receptive & expressive language skills. Some of the assessment instruments that would help in her case include the Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4), Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS), and Preschool-Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF-P) (Cupples et al., 2018). Parent interview will be used as an informal assessment instrument to determine Denise’s auditory, speech production, and receptive & expressive language skills.
While the assessments are…

Cupples et al. (2018, May). Language and Speech Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss and Additional Disabilities: Identifying the Variables that Influence Performance at 5 Years of Age. International Journal of Audiology, 57(SUP2), S93-S104.
Rose et al. (2008). Resources for Assessment of Students who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Retrieved from College of Education and Human Development – University of Minnesota website: 

Individuals Who Contributed to Special
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Seguin moved to the United States in 1848 and established a number of schools in various cities for the education of mentally handicapped children. His publication, "The Treatment, Hygiene and Education of Idiots and Other Backward Children," is a landmark textbook dealing with the special needs of children with mental disabilities. Maria Montessori, an Italian pediatrician built on Seguin's work in the early 1900's and her work on the education of the mentally disabled became integrated into many schools around the world (Hallahan & Mercer, 2001).

Special education in the United States remained marginalized until the early to mid-1900's. Samuel Orton, Marion Monroe and Samuel Kirk were especially instrumental in the development of special education during this time (Hallahan & Mercer, 2001). Orton worked extensively to develop ways of teaching reading to children with reading disabilities. He developed the Orton-Gillingham method for reading education, which consistently proved to increase the…


Cook, B.G., Schirmer, B.R. (2003) What is Special About Special Education?: Overview and Analysis. Journal of Special Education, 37, 3, 200-205.

Copeland, I. (1995). The Establishment of Models of education for disabled children. British Journal of Educational Studies, 43, 2, 179-200.

Hallahan, D.P., Mercer, C.D. (2001). Learning Disabilities: Historical Perspectives. Executive Summary. Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington D.C. Available from: .

Lanska D.J. (2010). Chapter 33: the history of movement disorders. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 95, 501-546.

Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools
Words: 3635 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60588925
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Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools

The connecting theory application in the system of basic education has contributed to the development and establishment of a trans-disciplinary scientific strategized framework. This framework bases on the specified reverence for a considerable orientation in long-term and the engagement of decision makers in the education system on its application. The connecting theory involves work that cuts across education disciplines. This is with the aim of exposing the aspects perceived to be of outdated assumptions in the education system. This happens with their respective enrichment in the technological and social practice. The theory constitutes well-strategized research with knowledge meant for informing a scientific framework designated. This is to enable direct transformation towards the education system future with worldview fit (Fenton-Smith, & Stillwell, 2011).

The concrete developed strategic objectives aim at addressing the advancements with accuracy in understanding the aspect of science. This…


Albrecht, G.L. (2003). Handbook of disability studies. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage.

Dan Goodley & Michele Moore. (2010). Doing Disability Research: Activist lives and the academy. Retrieved from: 

Danforth, S. (2006). Vital questions facing disability studies in education. New York: Lang.

Fenton-Smith, B., & Stillwell, C. (2011). Reading Discussion Groups for Teachers:

American Sign Language and Gallaudet University
Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94701464
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American Sign Language and Gallaudet

Gallaudet University is a college designed for the education of the deaf and hard of hearing. All of the programs are designed for the advancement of the deaf community. The majority of students and faculty are themselves deaf or hard of hearing, although a limited number of students without these disabilities are allowed into the school each year.

The university began in 1857 when the 34th Congress approved the institution of what was then called the Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind. The year before, a wealthy philanthropist and former United States Postmaster General Amos Kendall became aware that there was a large group of young people in the ashington D.C. area who were not receiving proper care because they were disabled. He had the court declare the children his legal wards and donated two acres of his…

Works Cited:

Christiansen, John & Sharon N. Barnartt. (1995). Deaf President Now!: the 1988 Revolution at Gallaudet University. Gallaudet: NY.

Foster, Brooke. (2007). "Sound and the Fury." The Washington Post. Aug. 19.

"Gallaudet." (2010). 

Jordan, I. King. (2007). "Deaf Culture and Gallaudet." The Washington Post. Jan. 22.

Changes Are Made in the
Words: 1404 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11485186
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I liked the study as previously mentioned because of its focus and the participants involved. Deaf persons are a small percentage of society but they still require effective study. To consider those without hearing and their potential for success being hinged on literary as the authors suggested has a direct impact upon human potential. Illiteracy of this group also can influence employability this can in turn affects the quality of day-to-day life. It also signals the commonality of all persons irrespective of their particular impediment. The deaf face similar literacy challenges as other populations and this workforcefully brought home the humanity of all peoples.

Even though I appreciated or liked the study the procedures were somewhat unclear as there was no clear indication of what aspects of the intervention happened at what stage. The consideration of a theoretical framework was somewhat misleading since it is usually a harbinger of quantitative…


Berg, B.L.(2009). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Creswell. J.W. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. London: Sage publications.

Neuman W.L. (2000). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Change Motivational Interviewing Rachel Seems to
Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98295191
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Rachel needs to be made aware of the small steps she needs to take to make big changes in her life, like becoming independent. Asking her why she did not avail herself of the internship program, why she does not seek to learn how to do more domestic duties in the hopes of being independent, and how she expects to function without transportation are all important questions to motivate her to take the next step towards her ultimate goal.

Three major goals for next session:

1. Learn how to perform one major life task (such as cooking a meal)

2. Learn to use public transportation

3. Go on one social event with a friend

orks Cited

TTM detailed overview. (1996). Cancer Prevention Research Center (CPRC).

Retrieved May 3, 2009 at

Works Cited

TTM detailed overview. (1996). Cancer Prevention Research Center (CPRC).

Retrieved May 3, 2009 at

Assistive Technology Many Students Who Enter a
Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66014926
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Assistive Technology

Many students who enter a special education program are in need of some type of assistance from technology so that they can interact and learn at a higher level. Generally this technology is most associated with students who have vision, hearing and mobility issues, "but is also true for individuals with limitations in cognition and perception" (Behrman, 1998). The state of Wisconsin is very concerned with ensuring that all students have the ability to learn to the best of their ability. This means that assistive technology must be provided in many cases. A student's Individualized Education Program (IEP) is required to list the assistive technology services that the student needs and how that technology will be used on a day-to-day basis. This paper discusses how the IEP provides instruction in what assistive technology the student needs, when it is required, and provides some examples of assistive technology currently…


Behrman, M. (1998). Assistive technology for young children in special education. Retrieved from 

CESA. (2011). Information regarding CESA #11 services: 2010-2011. Retrieved from 

Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (WDPI). (2011). Division for learning support: Equity and advocacy. Retrieved from

Integration of Technology Into School
Words: 2079 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43090587
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This means that teachers may need additional training which can be delivered in-house or outsourced depending on the localized requirements and levels of computer-based and information resource expertise in the teacher cohort. The full impact of a comprehensive integration of technology in the classroom is characterized by one educator thusly: "The infusion of technology has been a great blessing for the school and will have staying power. Learning has been totally transformed. e expect that this will pay tremendous dividends as the progress of these students is measured through standardized tests and other methods for the remainder of their school career" (Fox 24).

Example No. 3. Technology is ubiquitous, and its use is not only common business practice throughout the known world, its use in educational settings has become commonplace as well. It would be irresponsible for teachers to ignore potential opportunities to improve their delivery of educational services using…

Works Cited

Bowne, Mary and Sue Brokmeier. (2008). "At the Zoo: Kindergartners Reinvent a Dramatic Play

Area." Early Childhood Research & Practice10(2): 37.

Fox, Christine. (2009). "More Than Machines: Comprehensive Technology Integration Programs

Go beyond Laptop Initiatives to Provide Teachers with the Support They Need to Improve Student Engagement and Achievement." THE Journal 36(6): 23-24.

Hamilton Which Hamilton Relay Communication Services Will
Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87822054
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Which Hamilton Relay communication services will you find most beneficial to you in your college career (and how could this service be changed to meet your future needs)?

The transition from high school into college requires adaptation for all students. But for one such as myself, who is hearing impaired or has difficulty speaking in my secondary education, this transition is uniquely challenging. I'm excited to take this next step in my education but I know that in order to achieve my maximum potential. This is why I am applying for the Hamilton Relay Scholarship and why I'm so grateful for the full line of specialized communication services offered by Hamilton Relay. I can say with great certainty that many of these services will be directly beneficial to me as I further my educational career.

Specifically, the Hamilton Web Relay service is one that I anticipate using on a…

Ableism as Every Author We
Words: 572 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77568608
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One of the most important philosophic concepts that should be kept in the forefront of every educator's mind when working with this population of students is the difference between accommodation and modification, and the overall mindset that this distinction implies. Rather than viewing students with different learning needs as somehow needing to be taught differently, it should always be remembered that at many times they will simply require different or greater access to the same activity/instruction method. True inclusion doesn't mean creating similar but different projects and modes of instruction for every student with individual learning needs, but rather consist of enabling every student, whenever possible, to engage in the same activity and develop skills along the same lines of instruction. Modification is also often necessary, but should be secondary to accommodation.


A discussion of the philosophical values inherent to both sides of the debate concerning cochlear implants…

R-Questions to Build the Literature
Words: 9245 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 46920430
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Vaughn et al. (2003) report that the identification of LD students has increased upwards of 200% since 1977, with explanations ranging from a likely outcome of the growing knowledge field, to LD as a field serving as a sink for the failures of general education to meet the needs of students of varying abilities. The study investigators find that not only is the heterogeneity of the identified students quite wide, they also find that many students are overrepresented (misidentified) or underrepresented (unidentified). One large problem is the use of IQ tests to identify those students as learning disabled. Using standardized tests fails to accurately identify those students who either have reading difficulties or those students whose first language is not English. More emphasis is needed on response to instruction type models of assessment and intervention to replace ineffective normalized standards for identifying students at risk and properly placing students for…


Aaron, P. (1997). The Impending Demise of the Discrepancy Formula. Review of Educational Research, 461-502.

Abedi, J. (2008). Psychometric Issues in the ELL Assessment and Special Education Eligibility. Teachers College Record, 2282-2303.

Ang, S., Van Dynne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K., Templar, K., Tay, C., et al. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 335-371.

August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 50-57.

Self-Advocacy Steps to Successful Transition
Words: 2911 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38290680
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Still, Mason indicates that the opposite is often true in public education settings, where educators, parents and institutions collectively overlook the implications of research and demands imposed by law. Indeed, "despite the IDEA requirements, research results, teacher perceptions, and strong encouragement from disabilities rights advocate, many youth have been left out of IEP and self-determination activities. For example, 31% of the teaches in a 1998 survey reported that they wrote no self-determination goals, and 41% indicated they did not have sufficient training or information on teaching self-determination." (Mason et al., 442)

This is a troubling finding, and one which implicates the needed paradigm shift discussed already in the research endeavor. Clearly, as the matter is framed by Mason et al., educators and researchers have already acknowledged the value in the strategies addressed here. By contrast, institutional change has been hard won, with schools and administrators balking at making broad-based alterations…

Works Cited:

Beresford, B. (2004). On the Road to Nowhere? Young Disabled People and Transition. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(6).

Department of Education (DOE). (2007). Guide to the Individualized Education Program. United States Department of Education. Online at .

Katsiyannis, A.; deFur, S. & Conderman, G. (1998). Transition Services -- Systems Change for Youth with Disabilities? A Review of State Practices? The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 55-61.

Mason, C.; Field, S. & Sawilowsky, S. (2004). Implementation of self-determination activities and student participation in IEPs. Council for Exceptional Children, 70(4), 441-451.

Circle of Poverty Among the Disabled
Words: 4661 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35972874
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Stigma and Disability

The self-sufficiency of any person or group largely depends on the capacity to maintain a certain level of financial stability. As a group, people with disabilities are among those with the highest poverty rates and lowest educational levels despite typically having some of the highest out-of-pocket expenses of all other groups. Educational level is strongly related to financial status and independence in most of the studies performed on these variables. Despite regulations to attempt to provide an equal and fair education to students identified as having disabilities, the research indicates that the majority of these individuals do not reach the educational levels and financial status of their non-disabled peers. The limitations of a failed system of assistance for these individuals that creates a double-edged sword in the form of stigmatizing these students has resulted in it being next to impossible for this group to obtain even an…


Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279-299

Bjelland, M.J., Burkhauser, R.V., von Schrader, S., & Houtenville, A.J. (2011). 2010 progress report on the economic well-being of working-age people with disabilities. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from  ct&seiredir=1& %26q%3Ddisabilities%2Band%2Bpoverty%26as_sdt%3D0%252C23%26as_ylo%3D20 10%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22disabilities%20poverty%22.

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)"

Burkhauser, R.V. & Houtenville, A.J. (2006). A guide to disability statistics from the current population survey - annual social and economic supplement (March CPS). In Rehabilitation research and training center on disability demographics and statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from