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Thus the choice is not "save money by allowing patients to die." The choice is, rather, "allow patients to die rather than taking heroic measures, and redeploy these scarce resources to improve overall healthcare, quality of life and lifespan."
Nurses are required, as one of the 9 conditions of their oath, to triage and rationalize the giving of healthcare. If an ER nurse, for example, has a series of patients with whom she can only deal one at a time, he/she must make the 'triage' decision to focus on the patient who can benefit from his/her care the most.
That means that not all patients can receive the same level of care.
Lost in the debate about Oregon's "right to die" legislation is that the State of Oregon also embarked on a thoroughgoing analysis of healthcare rationing. The state disallowed a number of categories of medical treatment, and cut back…
Crisci, M. (2001). Attitudes towards death and dying in a representative sample of the Italian population. Palliative Medicine, 372-378.
EIU. (2007). World Economic Glossary 2008. London: Economist.
Journal. (1981). Our Changing Attitude towards Death. The Journal of Popular Culture, 741-743.
Klein, E. (2007). The Health of Nations: How Europe, Canada, and our own VA do health care better. The American Prospect, n.p.
A patient can rescind a request at any time and in any manner. The attending physician will also offer the patient an opportunity to rescind his/her request at the end of the 15-day waiting period following the initial request to participate. (Oregon "Death With Dignity" FAQ)
Additionally, there are reporting requirements, on the part of the physician. The state has consciously set about to track the utilization of the law and make adjustments accordingly. "Physicians must report all prescriptions for lethal medications to the Department of Human Services, Vital ecords. As of 1999, pharmacists must be informed of the prescribed medication's ultimate use." (Oregon "Death With Dignity" FAQ)
The individual, physician and witnesses must contest that the patient must not appear to be suffering from any psychological disorder that would impair his or her judgment or decision making processes. The criteria that an individual must meet to participate in the…
Alemayehu, B., and K.E. Warner, (2004) "The Lifetime Distribution of Health Care Costs," Health Services Research 39: 627-42.
Botterman, M., Anderson, R.H., Van Binst, P., Cave, J., Libicki, M., Ligtvoet, a., et al. (2003). Enabling the Information Society by Stimulating the Creation of a Broadband Environment in Europe: Analyses of Evolution Scenarios for Future Networking Technologies and Networks in Europe / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Definitions for 127.800 s.1.01. Oregon Department of Human Services. Retrieved October 2, 2006 at http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/pas /ors.shtml.
Foss, N.J. (2005). Strategy, Economic Organization, and the Knowledge Economy: The Coordination of Firms and Resources. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Both doctors feel physician-assisted suicide is a compassionate alternative to living the remainder of life filled with pain and suffering. Many others agree, and there are even published documents instructing loved ones and physicians how to go about assisting in a death with dignity suicide. In fact, many physicians feel that physician-assisted suicide could help keep health care costs in check as the baby-boomer generation ages. Unfortunately, statistics are lacking in the area of terminally ill patients and how many would end their lives if given the choice. Statistics do show, however, that many physicians receive requests for medications that will hasten death, or requests for lethal injections, and that a small number to comply in some cases.
Many physicians oppose the practice because they feel it goes against the oath they took to always save lives, while some do sympathize with terminally ill patients. here are also similar considerations…
Two of the most well-known advocates of physician-assisted suicide are Dr. Jack Kevorkian and Dr. Timothy Quill. Moral conservatives oppose euthanasia because they believe it is morally wrong, and is the same as ending life-sustaining treatment. Both doctors feel physician-assisted suicide is a compassionate alternative to living the remainder of life filled with pain and suffering. Many others agree, and there are even published documents instructing loved ones and physicians how to go about assisting in a death with dignity suicide. In fact, many physicians feel that physician-assisted suicide could help keep health care costs in check as the baby-boomer generation ages. Unfortunately, statistics are lacking in the area of terminally ill patients and how many would end their lives if given the choice. Statistics do show, however, that many physicians receive requests for medications that will hasten death, or requests for lethal injections, and that a small number to comply in some cases.
Many physicians oppose the practice because they feel it goes against the oath they took to always save lives, while some do sympathize with terminally ill patients. There are also similar considerations for nurses and pharmacists who might be involved in the assisted suicide. The most famous proponent of physician-assisted suicide is Dr. Jack Kevorkian, now serving a prison sentence for the practice in Michigan.
The Supreme Court has upheld Oregon's right to die act, while striking down other rulings in other states. Their latest decision recognizes this is a state issue, rather than a federal one. The Oregon Act originated in 1994, and was finally passed in 1997. Since then, it has undergone several legal challenges, but continues to be upheld in the courts. It is interesting to note that in an Oregon study, not everyone who requests a lethal dosage of medication actually ingests the medication and dies. Some choose to keep their lethal dosage, and some die before they can use it. The numbers of requests for lethal doses each year have remained stable, as well.
What the physician must take into account when approving the lethal medication is more than just the patient's state of mind and medical condition. The patient's family can and should be taken into consideration. Any patient whose family strongly and vocally opposes the physician-assisted suicide might have a more difficult time convincing a physician that the choice to euthanize is the right one.
In addition to supporting the rights of the patient and his or her family and also protecting the doctor from being persecuted for a physician-assisted suicide, an important parameter of the act is education. The Act demands that statistics and data be gathered as part of an ongoing research initiative. The Oregon state government and any interested think tank, university, or public policy organization to learn from the statistics gathered as a requisite part of the Death with Dignity Act. One of the main objectives of the…
Death with Dignity Act National Center. Retrieved July 25, 2008 at http://www.deathwithdignity.org/
State of Oregon (nd). Death with Dignity Act. Retrieved July 25, 2008 at http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/pas
death: suicide, euthanasia and the death penalty. Looking at certain aspects of each and discussing the issues concerning society. Also providing a sociological out look and economic basis for the arguments.
Death: Three Chances
Suicide is not a new phenomenon it has been around as long as mankind. The causes of suicide have been discussed on many occasions, and different theories have merged regarding the reason for which someone would commit suicide. There have been many studies undertaken in order to understand the phenomena in greater detail. Certain social factors were identified as being causal or contributing to this phenomenon, and suicides was broken down into different types, with different causes.
Henslin just as Durkheim before has looked at suicide, which Durkheim defined as any action which, leads subsequently to the death of the individual, either through positive action, such as hanging oneself or shooting oneself, or by way of…
Conwell Yeates, MD; Caine Eric D., MD 'Rational Suicide and the Right to Die: Reality and Myth' (1991 Oct 10); The New England Journal of Medicine, pp 1100-1103
Callahan J 'The ethics of assisted suicide' (1994 November);Health and Social Work, Vol. 19, PP. 234-244.
Donchin, Anne Autonomy, interdependence, and assisted suicide: Respecting boundaries/crossing lines. Bioethics. 2000 Jul; Vol 14(3): 187-204.
Haralambos and Holborn, (2000), Sociology; Themes and Perspectives, London, Collins.
But as it currently stands, the practice is pervasively regarded by United States law as manslaughter, with its perpetrators subject to prosecution to the fullest extent thereof. This is why at present, the American court system "goes beyond attempting to have assisted suicide legalized. Instead, it seeks to have hastened death constitutionalized." (Marker, 6).
This speaks to one perspective on the capacity of this legislation to alleviate personal pain and suffering for those contained within Oregon's public healthcare system. The terms of the 1994 legislation are quite specific in their delineation of preconditions required for the administering of a lethal injection using a legally controlled substance. These include multiple levels of physician and witness approval concerning the patient's physical and emotional state as well as a mandatory waiting period during which the patient is enabled to reflect on the decision before reaching a final resolution. The helps to shape its…
Oregon. (1994). Death With Dignity Act. The Oregon State Website. Ret. 12/29/06 http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/pas /docs/statute.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Dying with dignity is a controversy argued in two perspectives by death scholars. Some scholars argue that dying with dignity is expiring without unnecessary physical pain while others argue that it is dying in the socially accepted ways. eaching these arguments was in light of changing health care demands and diverse customary practices. This controversy dated back to the ancient civilizations when many Greeks believed that taking one's life was better than experiencing endless suffering. This made physicians give poison to the terminally ill patients. However, with the advent of Christianity, the Hippocratic School that was against giving deadly drugs to patients acquired considerable acceptance. Therefore, euthanasia, as called in the fifteenth century was suicide and thus immoral. As time passed, reintroduction of the use of euthanasia continued, and it has even been largely accepted in various medical institutions.
In the perspective of dying with dignity as dying without any…
Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of biomedical ethics (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Gentzler, J. (2003). What is a death with dignity? The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 28(4), 461 -- 487.
Poroch, N.C. (2012). Kurunpa: Keeping spirit on country. Health Sociology Review, 2i (4), 383-395.
Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.
However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a…
Bonnie, R. (2007). Panetti v. Quarterman: mental illness, the death penalty, and human dignity. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 257-283.
Fentiman, L. (1986). Whose right is it anyway? Rethinking competency to stand trial in light of the synthetically sane insanity defense. University of Miami Law Review, 40, 1109-1127.
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).
Panetti v. Quarterman, 127 S. Ct. 2842 (2007).
A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.
hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "ACLU Praises Supreme Court Refusal of 'Sleeping Lawyer' Case as 'Acknowledgment and Reminder' of Death Penalty Problems." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10466prs20020603.html .
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "DNA testing and the death penalty." Retrieved Oct. 1, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/innocence/10392pub20020626.html .
Amnesty International (2006). "Death penalty." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/index.do .
Antonio, Michael E. (2006). "Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision." Behavioral Sciences & the Law. March 2006.Vol.24, Iss. 2.
Laws and Health Care
The health care industry has undergone massive overhaul in recent times and the impact of the laws and regulations that accompany this change have deep and resounding effects on the way professionals approach their industry. The purpose of this essay is to explain the role of governmental regulatory agencies and their effect on the health care industry.
This essay will first provide two examples of laws and regulations that have empirically demonstrated a noticeable and impactful transformation of the system. The next section of this essay is how these laws have personally affected me and my environment in Samaritan Hospital and how these regulations both serve and detract from our overall objectives of patient quality and healing those who seek our help.
Example 1: Affordable Care Act
Laws and regulations are present at many different levels within the health care industry. Private practices surely have their…
Anderson, A. (2014). The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Health Care Workforce. The Heritage Foundation, 18 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/03/the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-the-health-care-workforce
Emanuel, E.J., Daniels, E.R., Fairclough, D.L., & Clarridge, B.R. (1996). Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: attitudes and experiences of oncology patients, oncologists, and the public. The Lancet, 347(9018), 1805-1810.
McClanahan, C. (2012). Cliffs Notes Version of the ACA. Forbes, 9 July 2012. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/carolynmcclanahan/2012/07/09/cliffs-notes-version-of-the-affordable-care-act/
Pereira, J. (2012). Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and control. Current Oncology, Apr 2011, 18 (2). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3070710/
Euthanasia comes from the Greek phrase meaning "good death," ("Euthanasia" 112). The various practices that fall under the general rubric of providing a person with the means for a "good death" include physician-assisted death, also referred to as physician-assisted suicide. Until recently, all forms of euthanasia were illegal in the United States and in most other developed countries but within the past generation, these laws have been liberalized so that citizens in democratic societies increasingly have access to a "good death." Physician-assisted suicide occurs under the guidance of an experienced and qualified physician, who is not legally obliged to agree to the practice. Therefore, no coercion takes place. The doctor is not permitted legally or ethically to coerce a patient into dying prematurely and the patient is likewise not ethically or legally allowed to persuade their doctor to intervene on their behalf. hat physician-assisted death laws do allow is for…
"Euthanasia." Chapter 10.
Lee, Richard. "Kant's Four Illustrations." Retrieved online: http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/rlee/iethsu06/oh/k-4egs.html
"State-by-State Guide to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Retrieved online: http://euthanasia.procon.org/view .resource.php?resourceID=000132' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
death penalty has been a highly contentious issue in the United States, especially during the last fifty years or so. The reason for this is that human rights have become, more than ever, the basis of the American culture. The death penalty is a complex issue, relating to the rights of both the victims and the perpetrators of crime. The complexity of the issue becomes clear once again in H.L. Mencken's article, "The Penalty of Death," where the author explains the death penalty in terms of human psychology combined with human rights.
In my view, a murderer takes away the right of the victim to live. This is in the first place not a right granted to anyone, and the perpetrator should be punished in kind. Regardless of all "Christian" values and norms, the katharsis mentioned by Mencken is something that I believe should count among the rights of those…
death toll rises in Iraq and questions are raised regarding the foreign policies practiced by the United States, books like Jack Donnelly's International Human Rights become particularly relevant. American intervention in Iraq has become one of the salient political issues of our time, one that begs a thorough investigation of the need for international human rights policies. In his book, Donnelly presents a thorough overview of the politics of human rights, tracing its role in domestic and foreign policies since the Second orld ar. In fact, the author notes that before the 1940s, international human rights were of little importance. Isolationism and strict respect for national sovereignty guided foreign relations policies and precluded nations, individuals, or organizations from taking action to promote human rights outside of their own communities. Pointing out how the Holocaust moved human rights into the realm of international politics in conjunction with a burgeoning global economic…
Donnelly, Jack. International Human Rights. Boulder: Westview, 1993.
young, most of us do not think about making a conscious decision to die. e look forward to years of long and healthy life, and if death ever seems appealing it is as an antidote to depression. It does not often, if ever, occur to us that there will be a time when we look forward to the "good death" promised by euthanasia.
But it is inevitable that for many of us there will come a time in our lives when suicide may indeed seem appealing because we are fighting a losing battle against a certainly fatal disease that fills our remaining days with pain and despair. In such a position many of us may wish to have our doctors help us die by prescribing for us drugs that when we ourselves take them will prove to be fatal. Or we may wish that other people should have this option…
Callahan, Daniel, "Good Strategies and Bad: Opposing physician-assisted suicide," Commonweal, December 3, 1999, sec1. 7+.
Cassel, Christine K. "AMA Guidelines for Caring for Patients in the Last Phase of Life.," CQ Researcher 7 (1997): 774. ( http://www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/amnews/amn_97/edit0721.htm )
Humphrey, Derek. Euthanasia: Essays and Briefings on the Right to Die. Los Angeles: Hemlock Society, 1991. http://deathwithdignity.org/euth_us2htm .
Orric, Sarah. "House Judiciary Committee Rationale." Congressional Digest 77 (1998); 263-264.
NURSING CRITIQUE ON LAW: LIFE, LIERTY AND THE PURSUIT OF PALLIATION: RE-EVALUATING RONALD LINDSAY'S EVALUATION OF THE OREGON DEATH WITH DIGNITY ACT Y DURANTE (2009)
The objective of this study is to critique the work of Durante (2009) entitled "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Palliation: Re-Evaluating Ronald Lindsay's Evaluation of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act." The Death with Dignity Act was enacted by the state of Oregon on October 27, 1997. This act enables patients who are terminally ill to end their lives by use of self-administration of medications that are lethal in nature and that the physician has prescribed to the patient for this express purpose. The work of Durante (2009) examines the claims of Lindsay on this subject and reports that the evaluation of the experience of Oregon with physician-assisted suicide of Ronald Lindsay is "a much needed counterpart to moral speculation." (p. 28) According to…
Durante, C. (2009) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Palliation: Re-Evaluating Ronald Lindsay's Evaluation of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act. The American Journal of Bioethics. 9(3): 28-45, 2009.
Death with Dignity Act (2014) Oregon. Gov Public Health. Retrieved from: http://public.health.oregon.gov/ProviderPartnerResources/Evaluationresearch/deathwithdignityact/Pages/index.aspx
This is based on the theory, posed by citizens, that certain individuals afflicted with terminal illnesses should have the legal right to hasten their death.
As a result, individuals that acquire these disabilities often view death as an extremely viable solution.
The target population that the Oregon Death with Dignity statute involves are those that are terminally ill. There are both long and short-term effects of the statute on the rest of the population, as well as the target population. Oregon has the fourth highest rate of elder suicide in the United States, and the statute appears to be a short-term solution to a long-term problem. The statute gives physicians the long-term power to judge whether a particular suicide is rational, based on the physician's evaluation of the individual's quality of life. The short-term effect of the statute is that federal resources previously used to care for the elderly and…
Gil, D. (1976). A Framework and Synthesis of Social Policies. Unraveling Social Policy:
Theory, Analysis, Political Actions towards Social Equality. Cambridge, MA: 31-56.
Gil, D. (1992). Unraveling Social Policy. (5th Ed.) Rochester, VT: Schenkman.
In North America most people die that can be called a bad death. A study found that "More often than not, patients died in pain, their desires concerning treatment neglected, after spending 10 days or more in an intensive care unit" (Horgan, 1996).
The term Euthanasia has originated from the Greek language: eu meaning "good" and thanatos meaning "death." However, according to the Netherlands State Commission, another meaning given to the word is "the intentional termination of life by another at the explicit request of the person who dies" (Netherlands State Commission).
Thus, the word euthanasia generally means that the person who wishes to commit suicide must commence the action. However, according to some people definition, euthanasia comprises both voluntary as well as involuntary execution of life. According to the moral, religious, ethical terms, the word "euthanasia" has many meanings, resulting in mass confusion. Therefore, it is vital…
Horgan, John. Right to Die. Scientific American, May 1996.
Netherlands State Commission on Euthanasia. Definition of Euthanasia.
DeathNet. Oregon Death With Dignity Act. http://www.rights.org/~deathnet/ergo_orlaw.html
Matas, Robert. Oregon Reconsiders Death-With-Dignity Law. The Globe and Mail Newspaper, Toronto ON, Nov 3, 1997 (p. A1)
A person should always have the opportunity to die with dignity and perhaps even "discover the meaning of one's life" as pointed out by Pythia Peay.
At the very least, those that hold contrasting opinions on euthanasia should be able to come to an agreement that medical treatment must never be superseded by moral treatment. Even though the science of medicine is often highly specialized, it must never go against the moral ideals of the terminally-ill patient. Undoubtedly, there are many risks associated with euthanasia, but in the end, it should be the patient who decides. But in cases where the patient cannot respond nor make decisions, a living will appears to be the best solution, for this document clearly states the wants and desires of the person in case their lives turn for the worse and if they end up connected to a machine in order to stay alive,…
Athanaselis, Sotiris. (2002). "Asphyxial Death by Ether Inhalation and Plastic Bag Suffocation Instructed by the Press and the Internet." Internet. Vol. 4. Issue 3. Article e18. Journal of Medical Internet Research. Accessed May 1, 2005. http://www.jmir.org/
Brock, Dan W. (2002). "Physician-Assisted Suicide is Sometimes Morally Justified." Physician-Assisted Suicide. Ed. Gail N. Hawkins. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Euthanasia.com -- Definitions." (2005). Internet. Euthanasia.com. Accessed May 1, 2005. http://www.euthanasia.com/definitions.html .
According to eno congress had not intention "to displace the states as the primary regulators of the medical profession and as not to override a states' determination of that which "constitutes legitimate medical practice in the absence of a prohibitive federal law.
In November of 2001 Attorney-General Ashcroft "issued an interpretive rule, known as the Ashcroft Directive that reversed his predecessor's legal analysis of the conflict between the DWDA and the CSA." (Pew Forum on eligion & Public Life, 2005) The Ashcroft Directive "asserts the authority of the attorney general to identify and establish a uniform national definition of 'legitimate medical purpose' as used in the CSA and its implementing regulations" (Pew Forum on eligion & Public Life, 2005)
That very same year the Supreme Court made a decision in the case United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Coop. (2001) which gives weight to the Directive. Furthermore, the Office of…
Stevens, Kenneth R., Jr. M.D. (2005) Community Conversation Panel: Assisted Suicide v. Death with Dignity. University of Oregon Online available at http:.//wwww.pccef.org/articles/art42UofO.htm.
Supreme Court Considers Challenge to Oregon's Death with Dignity Act: Gonzales v. Oregon and the Right to Die (2005) The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. September 2005.
Hamilton, N. Gregory et al. (2005) Competing Paradigms of Response to Assisted Suicide Requests in Oregon. Physicians for Compassionate Care Educational Foundation Online available at http://www.pccef.org/articles/art39.htm .
New Court Mulling Assisted-Suicide Law (2005) Catholic Sentinel 6 October 2005 Online available at http://www.sentinel.org/articles/2005-40/14227.html .
euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide on ReligiousTolerance.org, most people in North America die "a bad death," one characterized by pain, being unable to participate in their medical treatment program, or after spending over ten days in intensive care. A prevailing belief that any sign of life is preferable to death fuels arguments against the practice of voluntary euthanasia, distinguished from involuntary euthanasia in that the suicide is requested directly by the person in question. Euthanasia is one of the most controversial subjects in medial ethics today. On one side of the argument, organizations like the Hemlock Society have pushed for legislation that permits physician-assisted suicide (PAS). These efforts have met with a degree of success in the United States; in 1994 Oregon passed the Death with Dignity Act allowing PAS. However, there is even a distinction between voluntary euthanasia and PAS: with PAS, the physician simply provides the means with which…
Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Introduction." Religious Tolerance.org. http://www.religioustolerance.org/euth1.htm .
Gula, Richard. "Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring?" Christian Century. 5 May 1999. Online at Find Articles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1058/14_116/54588537/p1/article.jhtml?term=euthanasia .
Leutwyler, Kristen. "In Cases of Euthanasia, Men Most Often Kill Women." Scientific American. 24 Sept 2001. Online at http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000B5030-819D-1C61-B882809EC588ED9F&catID=1 .
As palliative care specialist Dr. Gilbert puts it, "Despite this close involvement with the very patients for whom euthanasia is advocated we do not encounter any persistent rational demand" [Southern Cross ioethics Institute]. The very point of 'Advanced Directives' is in itself confounding issue as frequently it is the patient's imaginary fears about loss of body functions and pain that drives them to such conclusions.
So it is cleanly obvious that in palliative care settings it is not uncommon for patients to succumb to momentary pain and wish for euthanasia but very rarely such requests are persistent. Instead of legalizing euthanasia, efforts must therefore be concentrated on improving the palliative care. This could take the form of improving pain control measures and providing loving and caring service to patients.
Legalizing Euthanasia (Implications)
Very few nations in the world have legalized euthanasia. Holland was the first country to do so and…
Eric Gargett, "Changing the Law in South Australia," World Right-to-Die
Newsletter, May 2001, p. 3. (a World Federation of Right to Die Societies
Richard a. Epstein, "Voluntary Euthanasia," Accessed on November 29th 2004, http://www.lse.ac.uk/clubs/hayek/Ama - gi/Volume1/number1/voluntary_euthanasia.htm
The question of death ceases to be a personal experience, a family experience, and becomes a societal decision. It suggests that the values that one inherits through the experience of dying and dearth are without merit, and do not serve to better humanity. It reduces the human body that holds life to a commodity, and the decision of whether or not the body's continued living is profitable to the bottom line.
There are many questions that arise when we talk about death in terms of being better for society as a whole. Questions such as to what extent would a solider feel compelled to fight for the lives of his fellow countrymen if the society in which he lives makes decisions about the value of life being measured by wealth? To what extent would a stranger reach out to save the life of another person if economics becomes the…
Gibbs, David and DeMoss, Bob. Fighting for Dear Life: The Untold Story of Terri
Schiavo and What it Means for All of Us. 2008. New York, Bethany House.
Humphry, Derek. Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted Suicide
After exploring both sides of the death penalty argument, it's important to remember that neither side supports executions based on racial or financial bias. And, all want to see the defendant having competent defense and receiving the correct verdict. These issues are related to the application of the death penalty rather than the death penalty itself and they can be fixed. The two real differences between those supporting and opposing the death penalty are whether it actually deters crime and whether it is appropriate punishment. There doesn't appear to be a clear answer regarding crime deterrence to put a stake in the ground for one side or the other. The remaining issue, cruel and unusual punishment is entirely subjective based on personal beliefs. Perhaps adequate alternatives to capital punishment such as life without parole would make the abolition of the death penalty more acceptable to some. However, there…
Carmical, Casey. "The Death Penalty: Morally Defensible?" Available:
Cases of Innocence 1973 - Present." 8 Oct. 2004. Death Penalty Information Center. Available:
Physician Assisted Suicide in Patients With Unbearable Suffering or the Terminally Ill
One of the most hotly debated issues today is physician-assisted suicide. ecently, California became the fifth state to legalize physician-assisted suicide, and there is an increasing likelihood that other states will follow suit in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study is to determine if the factors chosen have any bearing on those who choose to end their life with physician assisted suicide. In support of this purpose, the objectives of this study were as follows: (a) to research scholarly articles regarding physician-assisted suicide and gather pertinent information into a comprehensive profile; (b) to research whether unbearable suffering is the dominant motive to request physician-assisted suicide; (c) to research whether the race and level of education of the patient are contributing factors when physician-assisted suicide is requested; and, (d) to research whether the type of terminal illness…
Bauer-Maglin, N. & Perry, D. (2010). Final acts: Death, dying, and the choices we make. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Biller-Adorno, N. (2013, April 11). Physician-assisted suicide should be permitted. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(15), 1451.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Boudreau, J. D. & Somerville, M. A. (2013,April 11). Physician-assisted suicide. The New England Journal of Medicine, 385, 15.
Death has always been shrouded in mystery, the constant litanies of myth, science, curiosity, magic, fear, and of course, religion. Just as myths have always wound down to the pragmatic, the real, and core accurate factual reporting - summarily losing the romantic, whimsical, and magical elements - so has the inevitability of human death.
Death is the central theme to life, vitality, order of society, and even powers - through the use of fossil fuels - our industry! When one, therefore, examines death objectively, he or she finds that death is a catalytic contract propelling the core beliefs and motivations of a group of people.
This evaluation seeks to isolate one aspect of death - euthanasia and a person's right to choose the time, place, and circumstance of their death without interference from legal, moral, religious, family, or other groups of social or punitive nature - and defend…
1974 The Euthanasia Society in New York renamed the Society for the Right to Die. The first hospice American hospice opens in New Haven, Conn.
1975 Deeply religious Van Dusens commit suicide. Henry P. Van Dusen, 77, and his wife, Elizabeth, 80, leaders of the Christian ecumenical movement, choose to die rather than suffer from disabling conditions. Their note reads, "We still feel this is the best way and the right way to go."
1975 Dutch Voluntary Euthanasia Society (NVVE) launches its Members' Aid Service to give advice
e. The exceptions made for impairment and age would open a Pandora's Box of legal precedence. The Death with Dignity Act and any other forthcoming active euthanasia laws will likely continue to follow the same line of reasoning, i.e. that it is the unimpaired individual who must shoulder the full responsibility of the decisions he or she is making regarding the end of his or her life. That is in fact the point of the law, that a physician's responsibility as well as the responsibility of anyone who is active in the act of euthanasia is relinquished entirely to the will of the dying individual. In the case of a child this decision cannot be made by a proxy, nor can this decision be made for an individual who is mentally impaired, by his or her guardians or care takers. Though the parents in this case have fundamentally compelling arguments…
Gilmore, J. (2005, April 4). Court-Ordered Euthanasia: Euthanasia Advocates Claim It Is Not a Crime to Kill as Long as the Victims Cannot Speak for Themselves. The New American, 21, 27.
Kamisar, Y. (1998). Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Problems Presented by the Compelling, Heartwrenching Case. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 88(3), 1121-1146.
Physician-assisted suicide, or physician-assisted death, refers to “the process that allows terminally ill adults to request from their physician, receive from their pharmacist, and take a lethal dose of medication to end their life,” (Death with Dignity, n.d.). Although seemingly similar to euthanasia, physician-assisted death is different in that it tends to refer to situations where the patient does not act with autonomy. Physician-assisted death is still controversial and is illegal in most states. However, Oregon, Washington, Vermont, California, and Colorado have legalized physician-assisted death, and several other states have pending legislation to do so as of 2018 (Quill & Sussman, 2018). The medical community itself is divided on the practice of physician-assisted death. Arguments for physician-assisted death include the rights of patients to self-determination. Arguments against physician-assisted death include the obligation of the physician to heal, not kill, the potential for ambiguous situations where there is some risk…
McClellan's assertion that the Government promotes a "culture of life" could be seen as a contradiction when considering what sort of life it is promoting. For terminally ill patients, life could mean imprisonment in a body filled with never ending pain. The Constitution guarantees not only freedom, but also the pursuit of happiness. urely there is no happiness in constant suffering.
ome would argue that life is sacred and that we should seek to save and prolong it at all costs. Of course this is true, but once again one might return to the issue of quality. We have no problem with helping animals to die peacefully when they are terminally ill or in pain. I believe that human beings are all the more deserving of such a service. It is also not fair to expect family members to witness the prolonged suffering and degeneration of a loved one. If…
Greenhouse, Linda. "Assisted suicide gets a boost." In Deseret News. Salt Lake City, Jan 18, 2006. Database:
Villarosa, Linda. "What have they done for us lately?" In Essence, May 1990. Database:
Bringing Capital Punishment Down to Practicalities
While there are probably as many arguments for and against capital punishment as there are people on earth, historically there are two main philosophical viewpoints on which most arguments are based. These are the utilitarian viewpoint and the retributive viewpoint. Either one can be used to argue for or against capital punishment.
For example, the utilitarian argument holds that, "capital punishment is justified if it (1) prevents the criminal from repeating his crime; or (2) deters crime by discouraging would-be offenders," writes James Feiser in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Feiser also writes that, "The retributive notion of punishment in general is that a) as a foundational matter of justice, criminals deserve punishment, and (b) punishment should be equal to the harm done." He subdivides this philosophical basis for capital punishment into lex talionis retribution, which he describes as "an eye for an eye,"…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2003. OJP Freedom of Information Act page. 9 May 2003. www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
Feiser, James. University of Tennessee at Martin. 2001. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 8 May 2003. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/c/capitalp.htm
McAdams, John. Title page. 1998. Pro-Death Penalty.com. 8 May 2003. http://www.prodeathpenalty.com
Old and New Leadership Styles
Max Weber was correct that in modern society, the power of the bureaucracy increased exponentially with urbanization and industrialization, particularly when it was called upon to deal increasingly with social and economic problems. Such organizations were hardly designed to enable others to act within a democratic or participatory system, but to act on their behalf and direct them from above in a very hierarchical system. For example, during the Progressive Era and New Deal in the United States, the civil service was expanded to regulate capitalism in a variety of ways, to administer large parts of the economy and the growing social welfare state. Of course, with the growth in the power and influence of the civil service, opportunities for bribery, corruption, authoritarian behavior and catering to special interests instead of the public interest became far more common as well. Building public trust and confidence…
Adrian, C. (2006). Political Democracy, Trust and Social Justice. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.
Coles, R. (2001). Lives of Moral Leadership: Men and Women Who Have Made a Difference. Random House.
DePree, M. (1992). Leadership Jazz. Dell Trade Paperbacks.
Dobel, P. (1998). "Political Prudence and the Ethics of Leadership." Public Administration Review, 58, 74 -- 81.
Wrongful Executions Are Likely
There have been cases where people are convicted and sentenced to death although they were innocent and committed no crime. "In the United States not only do countless men and women get arrested for murders they did not commit -- they get convicted and often sentenced to death as well. Occasionally they are even executed" (obert M. Baird, et al., p.141). When such executions are likely and they do occur then death penalty should be abolished. Advocates of death penalty would surely not take the responsibility of any such faulty convictions.
IS the DEATH PENALTY JUST?
When the system is infected with diseases like discrimination then death penalty is definitely not just. Moreover with wrongful executions taking place the whole idea of death sentences should be abolished. There are many aspects to death sentences which should be taken into consideration before one can come to…
1) Peter Black. "Do Circumstances Ever Justify Capital Punishment?" Theological Studies 60.2 (1999): 338.
2) Jennifer C. Honeyman and James R.P. Ogloff. "Capital Punishment: Arguments for Life and Death." [Online website] Available at http://www.cpa.ca/ogloff.htm [Accessed on: 11/11/2007]
3) Anonymous. "Pro Death Penalty Webpage." [Online website] Available at http://www.wesleylowe.com/cp.html [Accessed on: 11/11/2007]
4) Hugo Adam Bedau and Paul G. Cassell. "Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment? The Experts on Both Sides Make Their Best Case." New York: Oxford University Press, 2004: 52.
imposition, abolition or return of the death penalty has been an unsettling issue among the world's peace-loving nations over the years in the universal desire to control criminality and promote maximum peace and security in human society. Although strictly imposed in ancient times, capital punishment has been, in recent years, openly and indignantly questioned and condemned by certain organizations and abolished in some countries for certain reasons. These reasons we will consider and attempt to reconcile, as far as possible, with those that favor it.
Those that oppose the death penalty contend that it is racist, anti-poor, condemns even innocent prisoners to death, does not deter serious crimes, and a cruel and unusual punishment. They maintain that more than 75% of those in the federal death row are non-whites (Campaign to End the Death Penalty 2002) and statistics conclusively show that the death penalty makes being lack a crime. More…
1. Haag, Ernest van den. The Ultimate Punishment: a Defense.
Harvard Law Review, Association, 1986
2. Hood, Roger. The Death Penalty: a Worldwide Perspective, a revised edition.
Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1996
Speech Is a Carefully Crafted Act of hetoric
Introduction and Biographical Background
An effective speech is a carefully crafted act of rhetoric. The most artless speechless are quite often those that in reality are the most studied in their preparation. We can ourselves come to understand the reasons underlying the effectiveness -- or lack of efficacy - of a speech by studying its structure through careful rhetorical analysis. That is the purpose of this paper, to provide just such an analysis of Hillary odham Clinton' speech, "Women's ights are Human ights."
Clinton's speech can be seen as belonging to a line of similar speeches in American history, include speeches urging women's enfranchisement given by Frederick Douglass and Susan B. Anthony. She relies heavily on the idea of enfranchisement, which lies at the heart of democracy - so much so that we tend to use the word as synonymous with empowerment.…
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
Final Project / Dissertation
Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized
Specialization: Constitutional Law
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.
Table of Contents
Elements of Human Trafficking
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000
Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation
New York State's Human Trafficking Law…
1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf
2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.
3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights
4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D
Kenneth Schemmer in his thorough, thought provoking book brings to life the controversial subject of the life support issue. For years, many all over the country have pondered, "What if a person were in some kind of an accident and the physicians told them that they were not going to make it?" And all that he or she could do is just lie there in extreme pain waiting for their life to the end. Or even worse case scenario what if they happened to end up completely brain dead? These debated questions are taken on by Dr. Schemmer in making his point that life support decisions may not necessarily be the decision of the family, the doctor or the patient but by a higher being that gives life and takes life. Schemmer uses these controversial questions in his…
Court backs right to die | terminally ill have right to refuse medical life support. (1984, Dec 28). The San Diego Union, pp. A.1-1.
Ackerman, T. (2005, Mar 27). Life support battle shifts / A decade ago, patients families had to press for 'right to die. Houston Chronicle, pp. 1-B.1.
Allen, P. (2000, Oct 07). Right to die upheld despite new euro law, doctors can end life support rules judge. Daily Mail, pp. 33-33.
Dolan, M. (2001, Aug 10). Justices deal setback to right-to-die movement; health: State court bans removal of life support from conscious patients whose wishes are not clear. Los Angeles Times, pp. A.1-A.1.
In addition to racism, political and philosophical ideologies, and abortion, euthanasia is one of the foremost issues that divide people in the United States and the rest of the world. Some deem euthanasia as mercy killing. Others simply call it, killing. It is the taking of one's own life when a medical condition or illness becomes unbearable in terms of physical or emotional manifestations. Euthanasia is also called Physician's Assisted Suicide. The political mongering and the role of the religions cloud the whole issue of euthanasia. The Hippocratic Oath also becomes a football that is tossed around with abandon. How literally can, "(Physicians) First, Do No Harm" be taken. (Miles, 2004) In fact, does prolonging pain serve the Oath to its original intent? This essay will discuss these manifestly arguable issues.
Dr Kevorkian is known as Dr. Death. (Vonnegut, 1999) This benevolent, unassuming medic made it his lifelong ambition…
Betterhhumans.org. (2003). No Good Arguments against Euthanasia: Report. Betterhumans.org. Retrieved August 20, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.betterhumans.com/Errors/index.aspx?aspxerrorpath=/searchEngineLink.article.2003-02-21-3.aspx
Biblegateway.com. (2003). Bible. Biblegateway.com. Retrieved August 20, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible
Griffiths, J., Bood, A., & Weyers, H. (1998). Euthanasia and law in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Hare, R. (1971). Personality and Science: an interdisciplinary discussion. Edinburgh: CIBA Foundation.
The final two arguments aim at establishing whether suicide can even be considered as the rational solution. The avoidance of harm refers to the commonly accepted view that hurting oneself is irrational because life is the most precious possession we own. Nonetheless, this argument seems to weaken if we consider the fact that in case of terminal illnesses, suicide can become harm-avoiding since it ends the pain and humiliation which prevent the patient from truly enjoying any aspect of life. From this perspective, we must identify the "greater evil" between death and suffering, thus establishing whether or not suicide is rational (Werth 19). The accordance with fundamental interests means that one's decisions must be in accordance with one's fundamental values (Williams, 1976, in Werth 19). This argument makes suicide seem like the irrational solution in any given case because it brings about the end of life which in turn, precludes…
James L. Werth. Contemporary Perspectives on Rational Suicide. Psychology Press, 1998
Brock, Dan W. "A Critique of Three Objections to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Ethics 109. 3 (1999): 519-547.
Foot, Philippa. "Euthanasia." Philosophy and Public Affairs 6.2 (1977): 85-112.
Velleman, J. David. "A Right of Self-Termination?" Ethics 109.3 (1999): 606-628.
One solution of this issue can be that the closest most guardians is given the permission and right to take the decision about the life of the patient who is not able to communicate or express his wish. The guardian who should be responsible to take this decision should be the one who will be having direct impact of the death of the patient.
Community & Health Care esolution
Different communities have varied opinions in regard to right to die for geriatric. Although few of the countries have legalized this matter and have given the right to patient to decide whether he wanted to live more or not, but still there are campaigns in those countries that do not support the way patients should be given death and is also considered another way of committing suicide. Communities think if the right is legalized it will give doctors the right do…
Gastmans C. & Lemiengre. J. (2007). Development and communication of written ethics policies on euthanasia in Catholic hospitals and nursing homes in Belgium (Flanders), Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. Vol 63, Issue 1. pp 188 to 195, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=06716113-81ca-4db0-a772-51ae3b6dd9ca%40sessionmgr15&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2009306329
Kenny, R.W. (2007). An effect of communication on medical decision making: answerability, and the medically induced death of Paul Mills., Department of Public Relations, Mount Saint Vincent University. Vol 22, issue 1, pp. 69 -- 78, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=c57afac0-3522-4bc8-8c8e-a0a7732261ee%40sessionmgr15&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2009640106
Lemiengre K. (2008). How do hospitals deal with euthanasia requests in Flanders (Belgium)? A content analysis of policy documents. Health Promotion/Education, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=37d04412-5a09-4727-92f0-398ccb54533a%40sessionmgr13&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2009908744
Levett, C. (2011). Dying with dignity -- the case for end of life choices, Australian Nursing Journal, vol. 18, issue 8, pp. 48, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=078d26de-de1f-4206-80ba-d37b9a51f264%40sessionmgr14&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2010954963
Hamlet, however, is full of hesitation. He does not experience the type of confidence Antigone does and suffers because of it. These characters are not abnormal; they are exaggerated or comical in a way audiences cannot relate to them. They are uniquely human and that is why they are still popular today -- because they are real enough that audience members feel as though they have known these types of personalities before. Through these characters, the playwrights show the audience how important it is to be true to self above all else. From Creon, who loses his sense of self when he sells out to power to Hamlet, who loses his sense of self when he falls into depression, to Antigone, who gladly gives her life for what she believes, we see the power of the sense of self and the importance of how it should be respected.
Blits, Jan. Introduction to Deadly Thought: 'Hamlet' and the Human Soul, pp. 3-21. Lanham:
Lexington Books, 2001. Information Retrieved July 01, 2010.
Sophocles. Antigone. Three Theban Plays: Antigone, Oedipus the King, Oedipus and Colonus.
Robert Fagles, trans. New York: Penguin Books. 1980.
An adult do not need to make all decisions in advance, but educating oneself is a vital first step. (Death with Dignity: Planning Ahead for End-of-Life Care) few guidelines for signing a DN order are given here. A Do Not esuscitate Order - DN is a physician's order to not to employ cardiopulmonary resuscitation - CP in case of cardiac or pulmonary arrest. Competent adult patients may relinquish CP for medical or non-medical reasons. The patient may make such requests verbally irrespective of whether or not he/she is fatally ill. An appeal to relinquish CP may also be part of an Advance Directive. When it has been determined that the patient is short of decision-making capacity, the suitable substitute decision-maker should be recognized to make treatment decisions, including decisions to relinquish CP, if no such person has been appointed by an Advance Directive. If the patient is out of action,…
Care of the Sick and Dying. Roman Catholic Bishops of Maryland. Retrieved at http://www.mdcathcon.org/Care.htm . Accessed on 17th March 2005
Collins, Tony. Dealers of Death. Retrieved at http://www.envoymagazine.com/planetenvoy/Update-TCollins-TerriS-Jan04-Full.htm . Accessed on 17th March 2005
Dealers of Death. 30 November, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.catholicexchange.com/vm/index.asp?vm_id=2&art_id=26177Accessed on 17th March 2005
Do not Resuscitate- DNR Orders. 1 January, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/housestaff/policy-manual/dnr.cfmAccessed on 17th March 2005
There are a number of really wonderful employers in the United States; companies that are consistently known for their excellent treatment of their employees. Fortune Magazine identifies the top 100 companies to work for each year and gives various details about each company. The company I would like to work for is Methodist Hospital System, Houston. It has consistently been identified as one of the best employers in the country, with a reputation for treating its employees fairly and establishing a great atmosphere. Moreover, this career would be in the healthcare industry, which is projected to be a growth area for the foreseeable future, so it is an excellent field.
Create a brief job description for a position within the company you research that you would like to fill.
The job that I would like is Senior Marketing Specialist. Marketing specialists with the Methodist Hospital System have a unique…
Amalraj, S., Starkweather, C., Nguyen, C. & Naeim, A. (2009). Health literacy, communication, and treatment decision-making in older cancer patients. Oncology 23(4).
Retrieved February 6, 2012 from Psychiatric Times website: http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/depression/content/article/10165/1401317?pageNumber=1
Beehr, T.A., Bowling, N.A., Bennett, M.M. (2010). Occupational stress and failures of social support: When helping hurts. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(1), 45-59. doi: 10.1037/a0018234
Meyer, J.P., Becker, T.E., Vandenberghe, C. (2004). Employee commitment and motivation: A
Euthanasia, Should Terminally Ill Patients Be Allowed to End Their Lives Via Assisted Suicide
TEMINALLY ILL PATIENTS BE ALLOWED TO END THEI LIVES VIA ASSISTED SUICIDE
Euthanasia, notably called assisted killing or mercy killing, is perhaps one of the medical prescriptions that have always raised varied and multifaceted arguments, most of which have never reached any solid conclusion. Clinicians are prone to take every necessary step necessary to keep the health of a patient at stable conditions. Nonetheless, there come a time when the patient knows, together with the clinician, that there is a lesser chance of survival. In such situations, health professionals are stuck between assisting the patient to die, notably by using an external means, or letting him or her to fight for life until death, something that might be painful, both to the clinicians, the patients, and even the loved ones. Assisting a patient to die, with…
Weber, W. (2000). Dutch Proposal for Children's Right To Euthanasia Withdrawn. Lancet, 356(9226), 322.
This is, in a way, a type of situational irony, however it occurs on a scale that implies fate is involved; the ironic incident is caused by an "act of god" not by something the character set into motion. The author of a piece of literature may distinguish irony of fate from situational irony by blatantly stating that the work is about inescapable fate.
Many instances of verbal irony can be traced throughout Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. The very basic plot line is full of rather obvious cases of irony Romeo falls in love with Juliet while he is mourning the unrequited love he felt for another woman. Juliet falls in love with Romeo despite the fact that she was taught to hate him by her family. Romeo and Juliet get married to one another so that they can spend their lives together, but they are separated almost immediately upon…
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
rise of advanced technologies in the medical field, especially those that sustains life, has brought issues in the ethics and morality of those involved in the field of medicine. Most significant to these issues is the practice of Euthanasia on patients diagnosed to have no chance of surviving and regaining life after any treatment has been implemented. In view of the issues on Euthanasia, this paper aims to present a discussion of this medical practice by analyzing the stands and views of Ned Cassem, James Rachel, Sidney Hook, and Leon R. Kass. This paper also aims to explain the meaning of "good death" as mentioned by Ned Cassem.
On many medical books and dictionaries, "euthanasia" or "mercy-killing" is defined as ending a life of a terminally ill patient by ways such as removing life support machines or stopping treatments that somehow prolongs life. The basic reason why euthanasia is performed…
Chung, Ken. On James Rachels and "Active and Passive Euthanasia."
Publish.Uwo.Ca. 28 Dec. 2002. http://publish.uwo.ca/~kchung23/rachels.htm
Hook, Sidney. "In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia.."
The New York Times (1 Mar. 1987).
State Elder ights and Legal Assistance Development Program were also included in Title VII of the Act. In 2006, the phrase "assisted living facility" was added to the definition of "long-term care facility" (Ombudsman Program Provisions in the Older Americans Act, 2010). All these provisions were aimed at better care for the elderly in the United States.
Effective communication is a vital element of all human relationships (Winbow, 2002). It is an element that is stressed in all counselling work with families, whether these families include parents and children, brothers and sisters, spouses, or other relationships. Communication is particularly vital where one of the parties have not yet had an experience that can help him or her relate to the other's experiences. This is also true of the end-of-life experience. This experience is in everybody's future, so it is important to cultivate an understanding of how to handle the…
Ombudsman Provisions in the Older Americans Act (2010). Retrieved from: www.aoa.gov/...Programs/.../Ombudsman/.../Ombudsman_Provisions_OAA.doc
Walker, R.M. (2001). Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Legal Slippery Slope. Cancer Control; JMCC 8(1):25-30. Retrieved from: http://www.chninternational.com/physician.htm
Winbow, A. (2002). The Importance of Effective Communication. International Seminar on Maritime English. Retrieved from: http://www.imo.org/includes/blastDataOnly.asp/data_id%3D18000/InternationalSeminar.pdf
The Terri chiavo case was an unusual incident where a person who should have been removed from life support long ago was sustained due to federal and public intervention. The case instigates moral and ethical questions of decision to end life as well as the limits of autonomy in surrogate decision making. Torke et al. (2008) argue that guardian judgment is often used as decision-making when a patient lacks the cognitive abilities to decide treatment for herself. urrogate decision-making, however, has its own flaws and should be replaced by something more rational. Using the Terri chiavo case as base, the following essay argues that the decision whether or not to prolong a patient's life (or indeed any decision revolving on an incumbent or cognitively disabled patient) should focus on the patient's dignity and individuality rather than on his or her autonomy.
The Terri chiavo Case: background
The Terri chiavo…
Ditto, PH (2006) What would Terri want? On the psychological challenges of surrogate decision making. Death Studies, 30: 135 -- 148,
Lazzaerini, Z et al. (2006) Legal and policy lessons from the Schiavo case: Is our right to choose the medical care we want seriously at risk? Palliative & Supportive Care, 4, 145-153
Mathes, P (2005) Terri Schiavo and End-of-Life Decisions: Can Law Help Us Out? MEDSURG Nursing, 14 Issue 3, p200
Torke, AM et al. (2008) Substituted Judgment: The Limitations of Autonomy in Surrogate Decision Making J. Gen Intern Med. 23(9):1514-7.
The foremost contentious concern lately has been the issue of granting legal status to the right to die with dignity, or euthanasia. Similar to the issue of death sentence or suicide, euthanasia is contentious as it entails killing an individual through a conscious decision. (The right to a dignified death - need for debate) "Euthanasia" derived from the Greek term implying "good death" is some activity we perform or otherwise which results in, or is planned to result in death, to liberate a person from pain. This is occasionally known as "mercy killing." (Reflections on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide) Giving a legal sanction to euthanasia is a vital referendum upon the social standing of those incapacitated in America nowadays. (Euthanasia: The Disability Perspective on the Right to Die Movement) Euthanasia can be attained either though an intentional process, or by refraining to take an action intentionally. In any one…
Abergavenny, Roger Dobson. (22 February, 2003) "Society should accept that euthanasia is a personal decision, report says." British Medical Journal. 326:416. Retrieved from http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/326/7386/416/d Accessed on 4 May, 2005
"Arguments against Euthanasia: Euthanasia is against the word and will of God." Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/sanctity_life/euthagod.shtml Accessed on 3 May, 2005
"Arguments against Euthanasia" Retrieved from http://www.euthanasia.com/argumentsagainsteuthanasia.html Accessed on 3 May, 2005
'Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia" Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=cmed.section.17469 Accessed on 3 May, 2005
right to die. The writer uses analytical skills to dissect and argue several right to die cases that have been presented in court in America. The writer discusses the ethics of the practice as well as presents ideas about the future "right to die" arguments and cases. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
Through the advances of medical science people are living longer than ever before. Those who are chronically ill are being helped in the quest to alleviate symptoms and those who might have become ill in the past are being cured. The medical science advances have also allowed those who would have died in the past from head injuries, car crashes, gun shots wounds and other accidents to live. All of the advances that have been made have worked in favor for millions of people who otherwise would have died. The advances are also providing…
Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Legal Slippery Slope (accessed 1-19-2003) from Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Cases in history (accessed 1-19-2003)
" This action according to Humphrey allows personal responsibility for family decision making to be broadened to a reasonable level.
Humphrey also lays strong claims for the medical responsibilities of euthanasia because of the overemphasis on life-support to prolong human suffering rather than allow certain and peaceful death. Humphrey's believes that the medical community needs be an example to individuals by stopping making decisions for the family based on technological progress of aggressive treatments. "People dread having their loved ones put on such equipment if it means they are never likely to be removed if that proves later to be the mores sensible coarse." (155) in short, Humphries contends that passive euthanasia is a personal and private responsibility and that the medical responsibility lies in stepping back and allowing individuals to make such decisions without fear of reprisal.
Ledermans's more personal account is of herself having to make decisions for…
On February 25, 1990, Terri Schiavo suffered from severe brain injury. She could no longer do anything for herself and was without an attorney. Her husband named Michael Schiavo was her legal guardian. Due to brain damage, Ms. Schiavo did not have the ability to swallow and was feed through a feeding tube. During that same year, she entered into a persistent vegetative state (PVS). As years passed, Mr. Schiavo, along with physical therapists, attempted to rehabilitate Ms. Schiavo but was unsuccessful. Tired of seeing his wife in such a condition, Mr. Schiavo thought that it would be in everyone's best interest, including his wife's, to unplug all life support devices and let her die. The parents of Ms. Schiavo disagreed with Mr. Schiavo's proposal; this created much hostility that was viewed by the public (Perry, Churchill, & Kirshner, 2005). This case has been the focus of medical controversy…
Dresser, R., & Kirby, D.N. (2005). Schiavo Legacy: The Need for an Objective Standard.
Hasting Center Report, 35(4), 225-29.
Erban, J., Sullivan, W.J., Ney, P.G., & Weijer, C. (2006). Terri Shiavo: Rest in peace.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 175, 621-622.
He argues that if society were to allow the terminally ill to commit suicide, then it would be a small step to allow other members of society -- like the handicapped -- to do so as well. This is not a completely trivial argument for two reasons: first, it is the point-of-view held by the majority of the Christian right -- a powerful political force in the Untied States; and second, if we accept his principle that life is intrinsically valuable, regardless of individual's rights over their own bodies, then we should be inclined to believe that active euthanasia is always wrong. Yet, Otremba is willing to concede that passive euthanasia may, sometimes, be permissible; this, however, only under the conditions of extreme suffering and impending death.
Fundamentally, it is a precarious moral position to contend that each and every human life demands society's active preservation. Otremba, and many others,…
Callahan, Daniel. (1992). "When Self-Determination Runs Amok." Hastings Center Report, March/April.
Dworkin et al. (2003). "Assisted Suicide: the Philosophers' Brief." Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine: Sixth Edition. London: McGraw-Hill. Pages, 382-393.
Emanuel, Ezekiel J. (1994). "The History of Euthanasia Debates in the United States and Britain." History of Medicine, Vol. 121, Issue 10.
International Anti-Euthanasia Task Force. (2000). "Arguments for Euthanasia are Unconvincing." Euthanasia: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
A major factor underlying whether active or passive euthanasia is legal is whether the doctor intends to kill the patient or not (Lewis, 2009, p. 126). Rachels hits on the intent piece in one of his constructed examples, "Rather, the other factors - the murderer's motive of personal gain, for example, contrasted with the doctor's humanitarian motivation -account for different reactions to the different cases." The Colombian Constitutional Court actually ruled doctors are negligent if they ignore a terminally ill, competent patient's request for active euthanasia, a position which actually moves closer to Rachels' side of the debate (Michlowski, 2009, p. 192). The Canadian Medical Association's inquiry into Belgian euthanasia included asking about the doctors' "explicit intention of hastening the end of life or of enabling the patient to end his or her own life" (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. 896). This intent underlies the principle of "double effect,"…
Nor do professional associations provide a clear consensus to anyone outside their membership, because they often contradict each other. Many of them disagree with the AMA position Rachels frames his argument in terms of. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) asserts "Most would choose to live if they had full confidence that the care system would serve them well," and so justifies continued prohibition of voluntary assisted suicide and monetary compensation for the practice thereof, using most of the criteria discussed in my research. On the other hand, the American Psychological Association's assertion that the cognition behind the terminally ill patient's decision to die differs from the logic employed by the clinically depressed in deciding to commit suicide is echoed by the American Public Health Association, the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, and the American College of Legal Medicine, who justify their recommendation against the negative associations between suicide and what they describe as "the principles of personal autonomy and free will" on grounds of material difference long recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court (Tucker & Steele, 2007, p. 325).
A fourth commonality that runs through the discussion but with much less prominence is a qualification that a patient's decision can be overridden if euthanasia has significant effects on people other than the patient, although those effects are even more rarely, if ever, defined. The Columbian courts qualified their acceptance of personal autonomy as sovereign under the constitution with the competency requirement but also where the exercise of that autonomy carried only " private nonpublic effects" (Michlowski, 2009, p. 192). The petitioner who brought the Columbian complaint claimed in part that non-voluntary euthanasia ("mercy-killing" to the 1973 AMA) left the doctor free to "end the lives of those who are regarded as an obstacle, a nuisance, or whose health raises high costs" (Michlowski, 2009, p. 186), but the court took it upon itself to generalize this even farther. This 'externality' effect rarely appears in such abstract terms, but runs throughout the research and opinion on the ethics of euthanasia in various guises.
The newer AMA policy statement claims euthanasia "would pose serious societal risks," without elaborating specifically what those may be (1996). Numerous patients have included consideration of their family's emotional pain caused by prolonged terminal illness as a factor leading them to choose euthanasia (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. 897); but fewer overtly discuss the callous topic of monetary expense as a factor in that decision. Tucker and Steele mention that voluntary euthanasia consumers may consider the cost to their estate, but only in passing (2007, p. 322). Campbell (2005, p. 45) claims family concern is justified under some Buddhist and Hindu perspectives if the choice to take life is made out of compassion for
Right to Die
For the last few decades, the issue of a person's right to choose the time and method of his or her own death has been one of passionate debate in the United States, with emotions running high on both sides of the controversy as the meanings of liberty and freedom of choice, the morality of taking one's own life, the ethics of people involved in such actions, and the laws related to this issue take center stage in the arguments.
Since civilization began, suicide has existed in one form or another, with varying degrees of acceptance, such as the ancient Greeks who held tribunals for elderly people who requested to die, and if approved, were given hemlock and during the first century B.C. actually held annual banquets where the elderly were allowed to attend and drink poison if they felt they had lived long enough.
Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html .(accessed 12-03-2003).
Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida." AP Worldstream. November 01, 2003. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1P1:86544618&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=AP+Worldstream&author=VICKIE+CHACHERE%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Judge+appoints+professor+as+guardian+for+brain%2Ddamaged+woman+in+Florida&date=11%2F01%2F2003&query=Terry+Schiavo+and+the+State+of+Florida%2E&maxdoc=30&idx=2&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 12-03-2003)
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)
Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html .(accessed 12-03-2003).
The author of this report has been asked to answer a few brief questions and take a position on the subject of euthanasia. The first question will be a definition and distinction between active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. The question of ethical issues for each type will be raised. The laws in each state regarding euthanasia will be covered. Finally, there will be a position taken by the author of this report and it will be based on scholarly research from roughly four sources. While euthanasia may be controversial to some, there are some situations where people are going to do what they are going to do and allowing them the easier and more dignified path is the way to go.
When it comes to the definition of active or passive euthanasia, the difference is pretty clear. Active euthanasia, as defined by the British Broadcast Corporation (BBC) is…
Barone, E. (2014). See Which States Allow Assisted Suicide. TIME.com. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from http://time.com/3551560/brittany-maynard-right-to-die-laws/
BBC. (2015). BBC - Ethics - Euthanasia: Active and passive euthanasia. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/euthanasia/overview/activepassive_1.shtml
BBC. (2015). BBC - Ethics - Euthanasia: Religion and euthanasia. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/euthanasia/religion/religion.shtml
Pew. (2015). America's Changing Religious Landscape. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from http://www.pewforum.org/2015/05/12/americas-changing-religious-landscape/
This has sparked many debates in social and political arenas in regards to personhood, self-determination and human autonomy.
Any time a person wants to intentionally end his or her life, it is considered suicide. Suicide, in itself is now legal (Manning, 1998), but proponents of euthanasia argue that suicide may not be an option for the terminally ill, the hospitalized or physically disabled. These people may not have the strength or the means to end their lives alone, therefore, they cannot exercise the option of suicide and consequently are being discriminated against (Gifford, 1993).
I personally agree with those on the pro-euthanasia side of the camp, who believe that suicide is not an appropriate term for this issue because suicide is often associated with desperate emotion whereas euthanasia is based on a "cogent and deliberate form of relief from a painful and hopeless disease" (Adams, 1992). As opposed to suicide,…
Adams, Robert. "Physician-Assisted Suicide and the Right to Die With Assistance." Harvard Law Review 105:2021-2040, 1992
Gifford, Edward. "Artres Moriendi: Active Euthanasia and the Art of Dying." UCLA Law Review 40:1545-1583, 1993.
Manning, Michael, MD, Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring? Paulist Press, Mahwah, NJ, 1998
Olen, Jeffery & Barry, Vincent. Applying Ethics: A Text With Readings (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1999.
The service provider should then be able to assess the specific needs of the elderly person and give advice about the best option for living facilities.
Becoming older and more frail often also means being the victim of not only increasing financial constraints, but also of various types of abuse. Elderly abuse is a concern that has increasingly come to the attention of authorities as an unfortunate by-product of an increasingly aging society. Abuse might be perpetrated by family members or professionals and could be the result of financial or emotional strain, work stress, or more severe conditions such as mental illness. The aging service provider has some particular duties and responsibilities when it comes to elder abuse.
One of these duties is reporting suspected cases of elder abuse. The Elder Abuse and Neglect Act (Illinois Department on Aging, 2012), for example, provides for the ability of any person to…
Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Minority Aging. Retrieved from: http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/Aging_Statistics/minority_aging/Index.aspx
Illinois Aging Services (2008). Retrieved from: http://illinoisagingservices.org/
Illinois Department on Aging (2012). Elder Abuse Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.state.il.us/aging/1abuselegal/abuselegal-main.htm
Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks. (7th Ed.). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Loss of Function on the Quality of life and Independence, and Quality of life for the elderly Population
Although living longer comes with a price, having a good social relationship, support system, social relationships, and residing in their own abode is what could give seniors independence, happiness, and quality of life. Before discussing how a given loss of function influences the quality of life and the independence of an aging person, it is crucial to define some concepts. These concepts are the quality of life, independence, and activities of daily living, as they will be used in this discussion. Quality of life has varying meanings for different individuals particularly to the elderly population. Quality of life could mean good pension or income, family and friends, being active, being independent, good and safe living conditions, opportunity to learn latest concepts, developing new things, religion, and social relationships among others. Quality of…
Brunner, L.S., & Day, R.A. (2009). Brunner & Suddarth's textbook of Canadian medical-surgical nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dawson, D.R., & Stern, B. (2007). Reflections on facilitating older adult's participation in valued occupations. Occupational Therapy Now, 9(5), 3-5. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229614344?accountid=35812
Loue, S. (2008). Encyclopedia of aging and public health: With 19 tables. New York, NY: Springer.
Whitbourne, S.K., & Whitbourne, S.B. (2011). Adult development and aging: Biopsychosocial perspectives. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
The Argument -- She Could be Given a Transplant
I could not find a prohibition against liver transplants for those 70 or over, but there is a good deal of information in the literature supporting transplants for older people. In the PubMed section of the National Institutes of Health a study of 1,446 "consecutive liver transplant recipients was conducted" and 241 elderly patients (over 60) in that group were compared with younger counterparts. The conclusion: "Low-risk elderly patients fare as well as younger patients after liver transplantation" (Levy, et. al, 2001).
Meanwhile, Dr. Gerald S. Lipshutz, assistant professor of surgery at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California reports the results of the findings at the orld Transplant Congress in 2006. In a study of 62 patients (Group I) between the ages of 70-79 that had received liver transplants -- compared with a group of 864…
Flaman, Paul. "Organ and Tissue Transplants: Some Ethical Issues." St. Joseph's College, the University of Alberta. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.ualberta.ca/-pflaman/organtr.htm . (2001): 1-14.
Kahn, Katherine. "Age Alone Does Not Affect Outcome of Liver Transplant in Elderly."
Medscape Medical News. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http://www.medscape.com . (2006): 1-2.
Levy, Marlon, Somasunder, Ponnandai S., Jennings, Linda W., Jung, Ghap J., Molmenti,
While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.
Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.
10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.
Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses…
Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Caplan, a.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Starr, P. (1984) the Social Transformation of American Medicine.
New York: Basic Books