Death With Dignity Act Essays (Examples)

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Death With Dignity

Words: 1074 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37478350

Death With Dignity: A ight or Not?

The issue of "euthanasia" is a matter of great controversy today. It is often difficult to judge who the "right" to die under the influence of euthanasia without the "power of attorney" should be afforded. eligiously, one cannot predict the "miracle" of God in daily life. For a patient to live through feeding-tube for the rest of his/her life in the hospital or nursing home does not show any dignity to our beloved ones. This paper will examine the issue of death and dignity from the perspective that all patients deserve to die with dignity, but face many obstacles in doing so.

One of the more frequent arguments against voluntary active euthanasia in the media and in literature is that "the push for a legalized right to die with medical assistance is a radical movement" carrying with it "alarming implications" for society (Ballis…… [Read More]

References:

Bachman, J.G. (1996). "Attitudes of Michigan physicians and the public toward legalizing physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia." New England Journal of Medicine, (334) [HIDDEN]

Ballis, P.H. & Magnusson, R.S. (1999). "The response of health care workers to AIDS

patients' requests for euthanasia." Journal of Sociology, 35(3):312

Datlof, S.B. "Beyond Washington v. Glucksberg: Oregon's death with dignity act analyzed from medical and constitutional perspectives." Journal of Law and Health, 14(1):23
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Death With Dignity Is a

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81160923

Both doctors feel physician-assisted suicide is a compassionate alternative to living the remainder of life filled with pain and suffering. Many others agree, and there are even published documents instructing loved ones and physicians how to go about assisting in a death with dignity suicide. In fact, many physicians feel that physician-assisted suicide could help keep health care costs in check as the baby-boomer generation ages. Unfortunately, statistics are lacking in the area of terminally ill patients and how many would end their lives if given the choice. Statistics do show, however, that many physicians receive requests for medications that will hasten death, or requests for lethal injections, and that a small number to comply in some cases.

Many physicians oppose the practice because they feel it goes against the oath they took to always save lives, while some do sympathize with terminally ill patients. here are also similar considerations…… [Read More]

Two of the most well-known advocates of physician-assisted suicide are Dr. Jack Kevorkian and Dr. Timothy Quill. Moral conservatives oppose euthanasia because they believe it is morally wrong, and is the same as ending life-sustaining treatment. Both doctors feel physician-assisted suicide is a compassionate alternative to living the remainder of life filled with pain and suffering. Many others agree, and there are even published documents instructing loved ones and physicians how to go about assisting in a death with dignity suicide. In fact, many physicians feel that physician-assisted suicide could help keep health care costs in check as the baby-boomer generation ages. Unfortunately, statistics are lacking in the area of terminally ill patients and how many would end their lives if given the choice. Statistics do show, however, that many physicians receive requests for medications that will hasten death, or requests for lethal injections, and that a small number to comply in some cases.

Many physicians oppose the practice because they feel it goes against the oath they took to always save lives, while some do sympathize with terminally ill patients. There are also similar considerations for nurses and pharmacists who might be involved in the assisted suicide. The most famous proponent of physician-assisted suicide is Dr. Jack Kevorkian, now serving a prison sentence for the practice in Michigan.

The Supreme Court has upheld Oregon's right to die act, while striking down other rulings in other states. Their latest decision recognizes this is a state issue, rather than a federal one. The Oregon Act originated in 1994, and was finally passed in 1997. Since then, it has undergone several legal challenges, but continues to be upheld in the courts. It is interesting to note that in an Oregon study, not everyone who requests a lethal dosage of medication actually ingests the medication and dies. Some choose to keep their lethal dosage, and some die before they can use it. The numbers of requests for lethal doses each year have remained stable, as well.
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Oregon Death Dignity Act Enacted

Words: 420 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57358647

What the physician must take into account when approving the lethal medication is more than just the patient's state of mind and medical condition. The patient's family can and should be taken into consideration. Any patient whose family strongly and vocally opposes the physician-assisted suicide might have a more difficult time convincing a physician that the choice to euthanize is the right one.

In addition to supporting the rights of the patient and his or her family and also protecting the doctor from being persecuted for a physician-assisted suicide, an important parameter of the act is education. The Act demands that statistics and data be gathered as part of an ongoing research initiative. The Oregon state government and any interested think tank, university, or public policy organization to learn from the statistics gathered as a requisite part of the Death with Dignity Act. One of the main objectives of the…… [Read More]

References

Death with Dignity Act National Center. Retrieved July 25, 2008 at http://www.deathwithdignity.org/

State of Oregon (nd). Death with Dignity Act. Retrieved July 25, 2008 at  http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/pas
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Death Unnaturally Euthanasia Suicide Capital Punishment

Words: 2931 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74469083

death: suicide, euthanasia and the death penalty. Looking at certain aspects of each and discussing the issues concerning society. Also providing a sociological out look and economic basis for the arguments.

Death: Three Chances

Suicide is not a new phenomenon it has been around as long as mankind. The causes of suicide have been discussed on many occasions, and different theories have merged regarding the reason for which someone would commit suicide. There have been many studies undertaken in order to understand the phenomena in greater detail. Certain social factors were identified as being causal or contributing to this phenomenon, and suicides was broken down into different types, with different causes.

Henslin just as Durkheim before has looked at suicide, which Durkheim defined as any action which, leads subsequently to the death of the individual, either through positive action, such as hanging oneself or shooting oneself, or by way of…… [Read More]

References

Conwell Yeates, MD; Caine Eric D., MD 'Rational Suicide and the Right to Die: Reality and Myth' (1991 Oct 10); The New England Journal of Medicine, pp 1100-1103

Callahan J 'The ethics of assisted suicide' (1994 November);Health and Social Work, Vol. 19, PP. 234-244.

Donchin, Anne Autonomy, interdependence, and assisted suicide: Respecting boundaries/crossing lines. Bioethics. 2000 Jul; Vol 14(3): 187-204.

Haralambos and Holborn, (2000), Sociology; Themes and Perspectives, London, Collins.
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Oregon Dignity Oregon's Death With

Words: 420 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93638853

But as it currently stands, the practice is pervasively regarded by United States law as manslaughter, with its perpetrators subject to prosecution to the fullest extent thereof. This is why at present, the American court system "goes beyond attempting to have assisted suicide legalized. Instead, it seeks to have hastened death constitutionalized." (Marker, 6).

This speaks to one perspective on the capacity of this legislation to alleviate personal pain and suffering for those contained within Oregon's public healthcare system. The terms of the 1994 legislation are quite specific in their delineation of preconditions required for the administering of a lethal injection using a legally controlled substance. These include multiple levels of physician and witness approval concerning the patient's physical and emotional state as well as a mandatory waiting period during which the patient is enabled to reflect on the decision before reaching a final resolution. The helps to shape its…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Oregon. (1994). Death With Dignity Act. The Oregon State Website. Ret. 12/29/06   http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/pas /docs/statute.pdf .
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Dying With Dignity

Words: 1240 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11463124

Dying with dignity is a controversy argued in two perspectives by death scholars. Some scholars argue that dying with dignity is expiring without unnecessary physical pain while others argue that it is dying in the socially accepted ways. eaching these arguments was in light of changing health care demands and diverse customary practices. This controversy dated back to the ancient civilizations when many Greeks believed that taking one's life was better than experiencing endless suffering. This made physicians give poison to the terminally ill patients. However, with the advent of Christianity, the Hippocratic School that was against giving deadly drugs to patients acquired considerable acceptance. Therefore, euthanasia, as called in the fifteenth century was suicide and thus immoral. As time passed, reintroduction of the use of euthanasia continued, and it has even been largely accepted in various medical institutions.

In the perspective of dying with dignity as dying without any…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of biomedical ethics (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gentzler, J. (2003). What is a death with dignity? The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 28(4), 461 -- 487.

Poroch, N.C. (2012). Kurunpa: Keeping spirit on country. Health Sociology Review, 2i (4), 383-395.
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Death and Sustainable Happiness in

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81000162

Grief or loss can cause change -- force evolution, if you will, into the human ability for personal growth and self-actualization. Certainly grief is a human emotion; as much a part of us (Kubler-Ross, 2009). Psychologically, grief is a response to loss -- conventionally emotional, but also having physical, cognitive, social, philosophical, and even behavioral dimensions.

There are numerous theories about grief, some popularized, some scholarly, but all try to explain the "process" humans engender when dealing with loss. Even one of the more popularized, yet useful, theories, Kubler-Ross, though, states that the grief stages, "have evolved since their introduction, and they have been very misunderstood over the past three decades. They were never meant to tuck messy emotions into neat packages. They are responses to loss that many people have, but there is not a typical response to loss. There is no typical loss. Our grief is as individual…… [Read More]

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Death Penalty and Mental Illness

Words: 2519 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15774261

Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.

However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a…… [Read More]

References

Bonnie, R. (2007). Panetti v. Quarterman: mental illness, the death penalty, and human dignity. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 257-283.

Fentiman, L. (1986). Whose right is it anyway? Rethinking competency to stand trial in light of the synthetically sane insanity defense. University of Miami Law Review, 40, 1109-1127.

Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).

Panetti v. Quarterman, 127 S. Ct. 2842 (2007).
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Death Penalty Anti Historically Much

Words: 5884 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76641365

A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.

hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "ACLU Praises Supreme Court Refusal of 'Sleeping Lawyer' Case as 'Acknowledgment and Reminder' of Death Penalty Problems." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10466prs20020603.html.

American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "DNA testing and the death penalty." Retrieved Oct. 1, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/innocence/10392pub20020626.html.

Amnesty International (2006). "Death penalty." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/index.do.

Antonio, Michael E. (2006). "Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision." Behavioral Sciences & the Law. March 2006.Vol.24, Iss. 2.
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ACA Assisted Suicide

Words: 1518 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34616216

Laws and Health Care

The health care industry has undergone massive overhaul in recent times and the impact of the laws and regulations that accompany this change have deep and resounding effects on the way professionals approach their industry. The purpose of this essay is to explain the role of governmental regulatory agencies and their effect on the health care industry.

This essay will first provide two examples of laws and regulations that have empirically demonstrated a noticeable and impactful transformation of the system. The next section of this essay is how these laws have personally affected me and my environment in Samaritan Hospital and how these regulations both serve and detract from our overall objectives of patient quality and healing those who seek our help.

Example 1: Affordable Care Act

Laws and regulations are present at many different levels within the health care industry. Private practices surely have their…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, A. (2014). The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Health Care Workforce. The Heritage Foundation, 18 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/03/the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-the-health-care-workforce

Emanuel, E.J., Daniels, E.R., Fairclough, D.L., & Clarridge, B.R. (1996). Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: attitudes and experiences of oncology patients, oncologists, and the public. The Lancet, 347(9018), 1805-1810.

McClanahan, C. (2012). Cliffs Notes Version of the ACA. Forbes, 9 July 2012. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/carolynmcclanahan/2012/07/09/cliffs-notes-version-of-the-affordable-care-act/

Pereira, J. (2012). Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and control. Current Oncology, Apr 2011, 18 (2). Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3070710/
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ethics euthanasia physician assisted death

Words: 1635 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62607163

Euthanasia comes from the Greek phrase meaning "good death," ("Euthanasia" 112). The various practices that fall under the general rubric of providing a person with the means for a "good death" include physician-assisted death, also referred to as physician-assisted suicide. Until recently, all forms of euthanasia were illegal in the United States and in most other developed countries but within the past generation, these laws have been liberalized so that citizens in democratic societies increasingly have access to a "good death." Physician-assisted suicide occurs under the guidance of an experienced and qualified physician, who is not legally obliged to agree to the practice. Therefore, no coercion takes place. The doctor is not permitted legally or ethically to coerce a patient into dying prematurely and the patient is likewise not ethically or legally allowed to persuade their doctor to intervene on their behalf. hat physician-assisted death laws do allow is for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Euthanasia." Chapter 10.

Lee, Richard. "Kant's Four Illustrations." Retrieved online: http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/rlee/iethsu06/oh/k-4egs.html

"State-by-State Guide to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Retrieved online: http://euthanasia.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000132

Warren, Mary Anne. "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion."
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Death Penalty Has Been a Highly Contentious

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46088776

death penalty has been a highly contentious issue in the United States, especially during the last fifty years or so. The reason for this is that human rights have become, more than ever, the basis of the American culture. The death penalty is a complex issue, relating to the rights of both the victims and the perpetrators of crime. The complexity of the issue becomes clear once again in H.L. Mencken's article, "The Penalty of Death," where the author explains the death penalty in terms of human psychology combined with human rights.

In my view, a murderer takes away the right of the victim to live. This is in the first place not a right granted to anyone, and the perpetrator should be punished in kind. Regardless of all "Christian" values and norms, the katharsis mentioned by Mencken is something that I believe should count among the rights of those…… [Read More]

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Death Toll Rises in Iraq and Questions

Words: 2677 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7659334

death toll rises in Iraq and questions are raised regarding the foreign policies practiced by the United States, books like Jack Donnelly's International Human Rights become particularly relevant. American intervention in Iraq has become one of the salient political issues of our time, one that begs a thorough investigation of the need for international human rights policies. In his book, Donnelly presents a thorough overview of the politics of human rights, tracing its role in domestic and foreign policies since the Second orld ar. In fact, the author notes that before the 1940s, international human rights were of little importance. Isolationism and strict respect for national sovereignty guided foreign relations policies and precluded nations, individuals, or organizations from taking action to promote human rights outside of their own communities. Pointing out how the Holocaust moved human rights into the realm of international politics in conjunction with a burgeoning global economic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Donnelly, Jack. International Human Rights. Boulder: Westview, 1993.
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Young Most of Us Do Not Think

Words: 2216 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13981506

young, most of us do not think about making a conscious decision to die. e look forward to years of long and healthy life, and if death ever seems appealing it is as an antidote to depression. It does not often, if ever, occur to us that there will be a time when we look forward to the "good death" promised by euthanasia.

But it is inevitable that for many of us there will come a time in our lives when suicide may indeed seem appealing because we are fighting a losing battle against a certainly fatal disease that fills our remaining days with pain and despair. In such a position many of us may wish to have our doctors help us die by prescribing for us drugs that when we ourselves take them will prove to be fatal. Or we may wish that other people should have this option…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callahan, Daniel, "Good Strategies and Bad: Opposing physician-assisted suicide," Commonweal, December 3, 1999, sec1. 7+.

Cassel, Christine K. "AMA Guidelines for Caring for Patients in the Last Phase of Life.," CQ Researcher 7 (1997): 774. (http://www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/amnews/amn_97/edit0721.htm)

Humphrey, Derek. Euthanasia: Essays and Briefings on the Right to Die. Los Angeles: Hemlock Society, 1991. http://deathwithdignity.org/euth_us2htm.

Orric, Sarah. "House Judiciary Committee Rationale." Congressional Digest 77 (1998); 263-264.
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Nursing Critique on Law LIFE Liberty and

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40027987

NURSING CRITIQUE ON LAW: LIFE, LIERTY AND THE PURSUIT OF PALLIATION: RE-EVALUATING RONALD LINDSAY'S EVALUATION OF THE OREGON DEATH WITH DIGNITY ACT Y DURANTE (2009)

The objective of this study is to critique the work of Durante (2009) entitled "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Palliation: Re-Evaluating Ronald Lindsay's Evaluation of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act." The Death with Dignity Act was enacted by the state of Oregon on October 27, 1997. This act enables patients who are terminally ill to end their lives by use of self-administration of medications that are lethal in nature and that the physician has prescribed to the patient for this express purpose. The work of Durante (2009) examines the claims of Lindsay on this subject and reports that the evaluation of the experience of Oregon with physician-assisted suicide of Ronald Lindsay is "a much needed counterpart to moral speculation." (p. 28) According to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Durante, C. (2009) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Palliation: Re-Evaluating Ronald Lindsay's Evaluation of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act. The American Journal of Bioethics. 9(3): 28-45, 2009.

Death with Dignity Act (2014) Oregon. Gov Public Health. Retrieved from:  http://public.health.oregon.gov/ProviderPartnerResources/Evaluationresearch/deathwithdignityact/Pages/index.aspx
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Social Work Policy Analysis the

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62291573

This is based on the theory, posed by citizens, that certain individuals afflicted with terminal illnesses should have the legal right to hasten their death.

As a result, individuals that acquire these disabilities often view death as an extremely viable solution.

The target population that the Oregon Death with Dignity statute involves are those that are terminally ill. There are both long and short-term effects of the statute on the rest of the population, as well as the target population. Oregon has the fourth highest rate of elder suicide in the United States, and the statute appears to be a short-term solution to a long-term problem. The statute gives physicians the long-term power to judge whether a particular suicide is rational, based on the physician's evaluation of the individual's quality of life. The short-term effect of the statute is that federal resources previously used to care for the elderly and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gil, D. (1976). A Framework and Synthesis of Social Policies. Unraveling Social Policy:

Theory, Analysis, Political Actions towards Social Equality. Cambridge, MA: 31-56.

Gil, D. (1992). Unraveling Social Policy. (5th Ed.) Rochester, VT: Schenkman.
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Euthanasia Against in North America Most People

Words: 1892 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85154634

Euthanasia (against)

In North America most people die that can be called a bad death. A study found that "More often than not, patients died in pain, their desires concerning treatment neglected, after spending 10 days or more in an intensive care unit" (Horgan, 1996).

The term Euthanasia has originated from the Greek language: eu meaning "good" and thanatos meaning "death." However, according to the Netherlands State Commission, another meaning given to the word is "the intentional termination of life by another at the explicit request of the person who dies" (Netherlands State Commission).

Thus, the word euthanasia generally means that the person who wishes to commit suicide must commence the action. However, according to some people definition, euthanasia comprises both voluntary as well as involuntary execution of life. According to the moral, religious, ethical terms, the word "euthanasia" has many meanings, resulting in mass confusion. Therefore, it is vital…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Horgan, John. Right to Die. Scientific American, May 1996.

Netherlands State Commission on Euthanasia. Definition of Euthanasia.

DeathNet. Oregon Death With Dignity Act. http://www.rights.org/~deathnet/ergo_orlaw.html

Matas, Robert. Oregon Reconsiders Death-With-Dignity Law. The Globe and Mail Newspaper, Toronto ON, Nov 3, 1997 (p. A1)
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Euthanasia - The Right to

Words: 1637 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63975840

A person should always have the opportunity to die with dignity and perhaps even "discover the meaning of one's life" as pointed out by Pythia Peay.

At the very least, those that hold contrasting opinions on euthanasia should be able to come to an agreement that medical treatment must never be superseded by moral treatment. Even though the science of medicine is often highly specialized, it must never go against the moral ideals of the terminally-ill patient. Undoubtedly, there are many risks associated with euthanasia, but in the end, it should be the patient who decides. But in cases where the patient cannot respond nor make decisions, a living will appears to be the best solution, for this document clearly states the wants and desires of the person in case their lives turn for the worse and if they end up connected to a machine in order to stay alive,…… [Read More]

References

Athanaselis, Sotiris. (2002). "Asphyxial Death by Ether Inhalation and Plastic Bag Suffocation Instructed by the Press and the Internet." Internet. Vol. 4. Issue 3. Article e18. Journal of Medical Internet Research. Accessed May 1, 2005.  http://www.jmir.org/ 

2002/3/e18.

Brock, Dan W. (2002). "Physician-Assisted Suicide is Sometimes Morally Justified." Physician-Assisted Suicide. Ed. Gail N. Hawkins. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Euthanasia.com -- Definitions." (2005). Internet. Euthanasia.com. Accessed May 1, 2005.  http://www.euthanasia.com/definitions.html .
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Gonzales vs Oregon Case Analysis

Words: 1338 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62398852

According to eno congress had not intention "to displace the states as the primary regulators of the medical profession and as not to override a states' determination of that which "constitutes legitimate medical practice in the absence of a prohibitive federal law.

In November of 2001 Attorney-General Ashcroft "issued an interpretive rule, known as the Ashcroft Directive that reversed his predecessor's legal analysis of the conflict between the DWDA and the CSA." (Pew Forum on eligion & Public Life, 2005) The Ashcroft Directive "asserts the authority of the attorney general to identify and establish a uniform national definition of 'legitimate medical purpose' as used in the CSA and its implementing regulations" (Pew Forum on eligion & Public Life, 2005)

That very same year the Supreme Court made a decision in the case United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Coop. (2001) which gives weight to the Directive. Furthermore, the Office of…… [Read More]

References

Stevens, Kenneth R., Jr. M.D. (2005) Community Conversation Panel: Assisted Suicide v. Death with Dignity. University of Oregon Online available at http:.//wwww.pccef.org/articles/art42UofO.htm.

Supreme Court Considers Challenge to Oregon's Death with Dignity Act: Gonzales v. Oregon and the Right to Die (2005) The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. September 2005.

Hamilton, N. Gregory et al. (2005) Competing Paradigms of Response to Assisted Suicide Requests in Oregon. Physicians for Compassionate Care Educational Foundation Online available at  http://www.pccef.org/articles/art39.htm .

New Court Mulling Assisted-Suicide Law (2005) Catholic Sentinel 6 October 2005 Online available at http://www.sentinel.org/articles/2005-40/14227.html.
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Physician-Assisted Suicide Physician-Assisted Suicide Is

Words: 2037 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57955550

Because so many other countries in the world look toward the Netherlands and their assisted suicide policies, medical officials there continually review and revise (if necessary) the guidelines to keep stringent watch over physicians and patients. Many other countries that are considering their own assisted suicide laws keep track of what happens in the Netherlands, and alter their own legislation accordingly.

The Netherlands policies are not perfect, but they indicate that a terminally ill patient who wants to die with dignity has the right to do so, and that practices regulating the system can work, and work effectively. Other countries, such as Columbia, have legalized physician-assisted suicide for terminally ill patients, and the Northwest Territories in Australia briefly legalized it, and then banned it again. Many Australians are working to legalize it again.

Here in America, many people believe physician-assisted suicide is a viable option for the terminally ill. A…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Robert N., and Betty L. Smith. "Deaths: Leading Causes for 2002." CDC.gov. 2002. 25 March 2005.  http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr53/nvsr53_17.pdf 

Braddock, Clarence H. III, MD, MPH and Mark R. Tonelli, MD, MA. "Physician-assisted Suicide: Ethical Topic in Medicine." University of Washington. Oct. 2001. 25 March 2005. http://eduserv.hscer.washington.edu/bioethics/topics/pas.html

Gorsuch, Neil M. "The Right to Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 23.3 (2000): 599.

Palmer, Larry I. Endings and Beginnings: Law, Medicine, and Society in Assisted Life and Death. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000.
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Voluntary Euthanasia Be Legal

Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42326286

euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide on ReligiousTolerance.org, most people in North America die "a bad death," one characterized by pain, being unable to participate in their medical treatment program, or after spending over ten days in intensive care. A prevailing belief that any sign of life is preferable to death fuels arguments against the practice of voluntary euthanasia, distinguished from involuntary euthanasia in that the suicide is requested directly by the person in question. Euthanasia is one of the most controversial subjects in medial ethics today. On one side of the argument, organizations like the Hemlock Society have pushed for legislation that permits physician-assisted suicide (PAS). These efforts have met with a degree of success in the United States; in 1994 Oregon passed the Death with Dignity Act allowing PAS. However, there is even a distinction between voluntary euthanasia and PAS: with PAS, the physician simply provides the means with which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Introduction." Religious Tolerance.org. http://www.religioustolerance.org/euth1.htm.

Gula, Richard. "Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring?" Christian Century. 5 May 1999. Online at Find Articles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1058/14_116/54588537/p1/article.jhtml?term=euthanasia.

Leutwyler, Kristen. "In Cases of Euthanasia, Men Most Often Kill Women." Scientific American. 24 Sept 2001. Online at http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000B5030-819D-1C61-B882809EC588ED9F&catID=1.
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Euthanasia Pros and Cons Euthanasia

Words: 2504 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84172354

As palliative care specialist Dr. Gilbert puts it, "Despite this close involvement with the very patients for whom euthanasia is advocated we do not encounter any persistent rational demand" [Southern Cross ioethics Institute]. The very point of 'Advanced Directives' is in itself confounding issue as frequently it is the patient's imaginary fears about loss of body functions and pain that drives them to such conclusions.

So it is cleanly obvious that in palliative care settings it is not uncommon for patients to succumb to momentary pain and wish for euthanasia but very rarely such requests are persistent. Instead of legalizing euthanasia, efforts must therefore be concentrated on improving the palliative care. This could take the form of improving pain control measures and providing loving and caring service to patients.

Legalizing Euthanasia (Implications)

Very few nations in the world have legalized euthanasia. Holland was the first country to do so and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eric Gargett, "Changing the Law in South Australia," World Right-to-Die

Newsletter, May 2001, p. 3. (a World Federation of Right to Die Societies

Publication)

Richard a. Epstein, "Voluntary Euthanasia," Accessed on November 29th 2004, http://www.lse.ac.uk/clubs/hayek/Ama- gi/Volume1/number1/voluntary_euthanasia.htm http://www.lse.ac.uk/clubs/hayek/Ama- gi/Volume1/number1/voluntary_euthanasia.htm
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Ethics and Euthanasia the First

Words: 2170 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1934237

"

The question of death ceases to be a personal experience, a family experience, and becomes a societal decision. It suggests that the values that one inherits through the experience of dying and dearth are without merit, and do not serve to better humanity. It reduces the human body that holds life to a commodity, and the decision of whether or not the body's continued living is profitable to the bottom line.

There are many questions that arise when we talk about death in terms of being better for society as a whole. Questions such as to what extent would a solider feel compelled to fight for the lives of his fellow countrymen if the society in which he lives makes decisions about the value of life being measured by wealth? To what extent would a stranger reach out to save the life of another person if economics becomes the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gibbs, David and DeMoss, Bob. Fighting for Dear Life: The Untold Story of Terri

Schiavo and What it Means for All of Us. 2008. New York, Bethany House.

Print.

Humphry, Derek. Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted Suicide
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Opposition To The Death Penalty

Words: 2123 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38616480



3.0 Conclusion

After exploring both sides of the death penalty argument, it's important to remember that neither side supports executions based on racial or financial bias. And, all want to see the defendant having competent defense and receiving the correct verdict. These issues are related to the application of the death penalty rather than the death penalty itself and they can be fixed. The two real differences between those supporting and opposing the death penalty are whether it actually deters crime and whether it is appropriate punishment. There doesn't appear to be a clear answer regarding crime deterrence to put a stake in the ground for one side or the other. The remaining issue, cruel and unusual punishment is entirely subjective based on personal beliefs. Perhaps adequate alternatives to capital punishment such as life without parole would make the abolition of the death penalty more acceptable to some. However, there…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carmical, Casey. "The Death Penalty: Morally Defensible?" Available:

   http://www.carmical.net/articles/deathpenalty.html   

Cases of Innocence 1973 - Present." 8 Oct. 2004. Death Penalty Information Center. Available:

http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?scid=6&did=109
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The Pros and Cons of Physician Assisted Suicide

Words: 13401 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77432452

Physician Assisted Suicide in Patients With Unbearable Suffering or the Terminally Ill

One of the most hotly debated issues today is physician-assisted suicide. ecently, California became the fifth state to legalize physician-assisted suicide, and there is an increasing likelihood that other states will follow suit in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study is to determine if the factors chosen have any bearing on those who choose to end their life with physician assisted suicide. In support of this purpose, the objectives of this study were as follows: (a) to research scholarly articles regarding physician-assisted suicide and gather pertinent information into a comprehensive profile; (b) to research whether unbearable suffering is the dominant motive to request physician-assisted suicide; (c) to research whether the race and level of education of the patient are contributing factors when physician-assisted suicide is requested; and, (d) to research whether the type of terminal illness…… [Read More]

References

Bauer-Maglin, N. & Perry, D. (2010). Final acts: Death, dying, and the choices we make. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Biller-Adorno, N. (2013, April 11). Physician-assisted suicide should be permitted. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(15), 1451.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.

Boudreau, J. D. & Somerville, M. A. (2013,April 11). Physician-assisted suicide. The New England Journal of Medicine, 385, 15.
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Against Euthanasia

Words: 3770 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6685658

Against Euthanasia

Death has always been shrouded in mystery, the constant litanies of myth, science, curiosity, magic, fear, and of course, religion. Just as myths have always wound down to the pragmatic, the real, and core accurate factual reporting - summarily losing the romantic, whimsical, and magical elements - so has the inevitability of human death.

Death is the central theme to life, vitality, order of society, and even powers - through the use of fossil fuels - our industry! When one, therefore, examines death objectively, he or she finds that death is a catalytic contract propelling the core beliefs and motivations of a group of people.

This evaluation seeks to isolate one aspect of death - euthanasia and a person's right to choose the time, place, and circumstance of their death without interference from legal, moral, religious, family, or other groups of social or punitive nature - and defend…… [Read More]

1974 The Euthanasia Society in New York renamed the Society for the Right to Die. The first hospice American hospice opens in New Haven, Conn.

1975 Deeply religious Van Dusens commit suicide. Henry P. Van Dusen, 77, and his wife, Elizabeth, 80, leaders of the Christian ecumenical movement, choose to die rather than suffer from disabling conditions. Their note reads, "We still feel this is the best way and the right way to go."

1975 Dutch Voluntary Euthanasia Society (NVVE) launches its Members' Aid Service to give advice
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Active Euthanasia With Parental Consent

Words: 1184 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13795643

e. The exceptions made for impairment and age would open a Pandora's Box of legal precedence. The Death with Dignity Act and any other forthcoming active euthanasia laws will likely continue to follow the same line of reasoning, i.e. that it is the unimpaired individual who must shoulder the full responsibility of the decisions he or she is making regarding the end of his or her life. That is in fact the point of the law, that a physician's responsibility as well as the responsibility of anyone who is active in the act of euthanasia is relinquished entirely to the will of the dying individual. In the case of a child this decision cannot be made by a proxy, nor can this decision be made for an individual who is mentally impaired, by his or her guardians or care takers. Though the parents in this case have fundamentally compelling arguments…… [Read More]

References

Gilmore, J. (2005, April 4). Court-Ordered Euthanasia: Euthanasia Advocates Claim It Is Not a Crime to Kill as Long as the Victims Cannot Speak for Themselves. The New American, 21, 27.

Kamisar, Y. (1998). Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Problems Presented by the Compelling, Heartwrenching Case. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 88(3), 1121-1146.
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Linda Villarosa Addresses the Issue

Words: 1969 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27354067

McClellan's assertion that the Government promotes a "culture of life" could be seen as a contradiction when considering what sort of life it is promoting. For terminally ill patients, life could mean imprisonment in a body filled with never ending pain. The Constitution guarantees not only freedom, but also the pursuit of happiness. urely there is no happiness in constant suffering.

ome would argue that life is sacred and that we should seek to save and prolong it at all costs. Of course this is true, but once again one might return to the issue of quality. We have no problem with helping animals to die peacefully when they are terminally ill or in pain. I believe that human beings are all the more deserving of such a service. It is also not fair to expect family members to witness the prolonged suffering and degeneration of a loved one. If…… [Read More]

Sources

Greenhouse, Linda. "Assisted suicide gets a boost." In Deseret News. Salt Lake City, Jan 18, 2006. Database:

www.findarticles.com

Villarosa, Linda. "What have they done for us lately?" In Essence, May 1990. Database:

www.findarticles.com
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DNR Between Life and Death

Words: 2558 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97786970



A recently enacted policy, however, enforces the use of a dogmatic and uncompromising ideological speech as a standard replacement of informed consent (Minkoff & Marshall, 2009). The policy requires a list of statements, considered "facts," which discuss risks, benefits and alternatives. These focus largely on risks, misinformation and implied government disapproval. The use of this script compels the physician to commit an ethical and professional wrong, deceive his patient with false information and withhold genuine evidence-based data. These clearly amount to a violation of the physician's First Amendment rights to protection for scientific speech and information in the informed consent process. The lack of protection for doctors by the appellate courts has produced situations of direct collision between medical ethics and the law (Minkoff & Marshall).

Medical Futility

A doctor judges a case as medical futile when care is unlikely to produce benefits for the patient (Eskildsen, 2010). However, determining…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Curtis, J.R. And Burt, R.A. (2007). The ethics of unilateral "do not resuscitate" orders:

the role of "informed assent." Vol 132 # 3: 748-751 Chest: The American College

of Chest Physicians. Retrieved on April 18, 2010 from http://chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/132/3/748.full

Eskildsen M.A. (2010). Medical futility: ethical, legal and policy issues. Vol 18 issue 3
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Bringing Capital Punishment Down to Practicalities While

Words: 1437 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35848833

Bringing Capital Punishment Down to Practicalities

While there are probably as many arguments for and against capital punishment as there are people on earth, historically there are two main philosophical viewpoints on which most arguments are based. These are the utilitarian viewpoint and the retributive viewpoint. Either one can be used to argue for or against capital punishment.

For example, the utilitarian argument holds that, "capital punishment is justified if it (1) prevents the criminal from repeating his crime; or (2) deters crime by discouraging would-be offenders," writes James Feiser in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Feiser also writes that, "The retributive notion of punishment in general is that a) as a foundational matter of justice, criminals deserve punishment, and (b) punishment should be equal to the harm done." He subdivides this philosophical basis for capital punishment into lex talionis retribution, which he describes as "an eye for an eye,"…… [Read More]

Sources Cited

Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2003. OJP Freedom of Information Act page. 9 May 2003. www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/

Feiser, James. University of Tennessee at Martin. 2001. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 8 May 2003. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/c/capitalp.htm

McAdams, John. Title page. 1998. Pro-Death Penalty.com. 8 May 2003.  http://www.prodeathpenalty.com
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Enabling Others to Act

Words: 2813 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61072196

Old and New Leadership Styles

Max Weber was correct that in modern society, the power of the bureaucracy increased exponentially with urbanization and industrialization, particularly when it was called upon to deal increasingly with social and economic problems. Such organizations were hardly designed to enable others to act within a democratic or participatory system, but to act on their behalf and direct them from above in a very hierarchical system. For example, during the Progressive Era and New Deal in the United States, the civil service was expanded to regulate capitalism in a variety of ways, to administer large parts of the economy and the growing social welfare state. Of course, with the growth in the power and influence of the civil service, opportunities for bribery, corruption, authoritarian behavior and catering to special interests instead of the public interest became far more common as well. Building public trust and confidence…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Adrian, C. (2006). Political Democracy, Trust and Social Justice. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.

Coles, R. (2001). Lives of Moral Leadership: Men and Women Who Have Made a Difference. Random House.

DePree, M. (1992). Leadership Jazz. Dell Trade Paperbacks.

Dobel, P. (1998). "Political Prudence and the Ethics of Leadership." Public Administration Review, 58, 74 -- 81.
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Against Capital Punishment

Words: 2901 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35305463

Tabak).

Wrongful Executions Are Likely

There have been cases where people are convicted and sentenced to death although they were innocent and committed no crime. "In the United States not only do countless men and women get arrested for murders they did not commit -- they get convicted and often sentenced to death as well. Occasionally they are even executed" (obert M. Baird, et al., p.141). When such executions are likely and they do occur then death penalty should be abolished. Advocates of death penalty would surely not take the responsibility of any such faulty convictions.

IS the DEATH PENALTY JUST?

When the system is infected with diseases like discrimination then death penalty is definitely not just. Moreover with wrongful executions taking place the whole idea of death sentences should be abolished. There are many aspects to death sentences which should be taken into consideration before one can come to…… [Read More]

References

1) Peter Black. "Do Circumstances Ever Justify Capital Punishment?" Theological Studies 60.2 (1999): 338.

2) Jennifer C. Honeyman and James R.P. Ogloff. "Capital Punishment: Arguments for Life and Death." [Online website] Available at  http://www.cpa.ca/ogloff.htm [Accessed on: 11/11/2007]

3) Anonymous. "Pro Death Penalty Webpage." [Online website] Available at  http://www.wesleylowe.com/cp.html [Accessed on: 11/11/2007]

4) Hugo Adam Bedau and Paul G. Cassell. "Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment? The Experts on Both Sides Make Their Best Case." New York: Oxford University Press, 2004: 52.
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Imposition Abolition or Return of the Death

Words: 1549 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57969027

imposition, abolition or return of the death penalty has been an unsettling issue among the world's peace-loving nations over the years in the universal desire to control criminality and promote maximum peace and security in human society. Although strictly imposed in ancient times, capital punishment has been, in recent years, openly and indignantly questioned and condemned by certain organizations and abolished in some countries for certain reasons. These reasons we will consider and attempt to reconcile, as far as possible, with those that favor it.

Those that oppose the death penalty contend that it is racist, anti-poor, condemns even innocent prisoners to death, does not deter serious crimes, and a cruel and unusual punishment. They maintain that more than 75% of those in the federal death row are non-whites (Campaign to End the Death Penalty 2002) and statistics conclusively show that the death penalty makes being lack a crime. More…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Haag, Ernest van den. The Ultimate Punishment: a Defense.

Harvard Law Review, Association, 1986

2. Hood, Roger. The Death Penalty: a Worldwide Perspective, a revised edition.

Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1996
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Speech Is a Carefully Crafted Act of

Words: 2112 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99991130

Speech Is a Carefully Crafted Act of hetoric

Introduction and Biographical Background

An effective speech is a carefully crafted act of rhetoric. The most artless speechless are quite often those that in reality are the most studied in their preparation. We can ourselves come to understand the reasons underlying the effectiveness -- or lack of efficacy - of a speech by studying its structure through careful rhetorical analysis. That is the purpose of this paper, to provide just such an analysis of Hillary odham Clinton' speech, "Women's ights are Human ights."

Clinton's speech can be seen as belonging to a line of similar speeches in American history, include speeches urging women's enfranchisement given by Frederick Douglass and Susan B. Anthony. She relies heavily on the idea of enfranchisement, which lies at the heart of democracy - so much so that we tend to use the word as synonymous with empowerment.…… [Read More]

References

http://douglass.speech.nwu.edu/clin_a64.htm

http://www.suffragist.com/docs.htm

http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/hc42.html
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Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

Words: 11509 Length: 42 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 356695

Government

The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act

Final Project / Dissertation

Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized

Major:

Specialization: Constitutional Law

Full Address:

The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act

This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.

Table of Contents

Introduction

eview

Elements of Human Trafficking

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000

TVPA (2008)

Mann Act

Travel Act

Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation

United States

New York State's Human Trafficking Law…… [Read More]

References

1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf

2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.

3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights

4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
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Ethics Project

Words: 4363 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61479708

Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D

Kenneth Schemmer in his thorough, thought provoking book brings to life the controversial subject of the life support issue. For years, many all over the country have pondered, "What if a person were in some kind of an accident and the physicians told them that they were not going to make it?" And all that he or she could do is just lie there in extreme pain waiting for their life to the end. Or even worse case scenario what if they happened to end up completely brain dead? These debated questions are taken on by Dr. Schemmer in making his point that life support decisions may not necessarily be the decision of the family, the doctor or the patient but by a higher being that gives life and takes life. Schemmer uses these controversial questions in his…… [Read More]

References:

Court backs right to die | terminally ill have right to refuse medical life support. (1984, Dec 28). The San Diego Union, pp. A.1-1.

Ackerman, T. (2005, Mar 27). Life support battle shifts / A decade ago, patients families had to press for 'right to die. Houston Chronicle, pp. 1-B.1.

Allen, P. (2000, Oct 07). Right to die upheld despite new euro law, doctors can end life support rules judge. Daily Mail, pp. 33-33.

Dolan, M. (2001, Aug 10). Justices deal setback to right-to-die movement; health: State court bans removal of life support from conscious patients whose wishes are not clear. Los Angeles Times, pp. A.1-A.1.
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Euthanasia

Words: 1494 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88332800

Euthanasia

In addition to racism, political and philosophical ideologies, and abortion, euthanasia is one of the foremost issues that divide people in the United States and the rest of the world. Some deem euthanasia as mercy killing. Others simply call it, killing. It is the taking of one's own life when a medical condition or illness becomes unbearable in terms of physical or emotional manifestations. Euthanasia is also called Physician's Assisted Suicide. The political mongering and the role of the religions cloud the whole issue of euthanasia. The Hippocratic Oath also becomes a football that is tossed around with abandon. How literally can, "(Physicians) First, Do No Harm" be taken. (Miles, 2004) In fact, does prolonging pain serve the Oath to its original intent? This essay will discuss these manifestly arguable issues.

Dr Kevorkian is known as Dr. Death. (Vonnegut, 1999) This benevolent, unassuming medic made it his lifelong ambition…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Betterhhumans.org. (2003). No Good Arguments against Euthanasia: Report. Betterhumans.org. Retrieved August 20, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.betterhumans.com/Errors/index.aspx?aspxerrorpath=/searchEngineLink.article.2003-02-21-3.aspx

Biblegateway.com. (2003). Bible. Biblegateway.com. Retrieved August 20, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible

Griffiths, J., Bood, A., & Weyers, H. (1998). Euthanasia and law in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Hare, R. (1971). Personality and Science: an interdisciplinary discussion. Edinburgh: CIBA Foundation.
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Deontological Response to Euthanasia Has

Words: 1426 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21521796



The final two arguments aim at establishing whether suicide can even be considered as the rational solution. The avoidance of harm refers to the commonly accepted view that hurting oneself is irrational because life is the most precious possession we own. Nonetheless, this argument seems to weaken if we consider the fact that in case of terminal illnesses, suicide can become harm-avoiding since it ends the pain and humiliation which prevent the patient from truly enjoying any aspect of life. From this perspective, we must identify the "greater evil" between death and suffering, thus establishing whether or not suicide is rational (Werth 19). The accordance with fundamental interests means that one's decisions must be in accordance with one's fundamental values (Williams, 1976, in Werth 19). This argument makes suicide seem like the irrational solution in any given case because it brings about the end of life which in turn, precludes…… [Read More]

Sources:

James L. Werth. Contemporary Perspectives on Rational Suicide. Psychology Press, 1998

Brock, Dan W. "A Critique of Three Objections to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Ethics 109. 3 (1999): 519-547.

Foot, Philippa. "Euthanasia." Philosophy and Public Affairs 6.2 (1977): 85-112.

Velleman, J. David. "A Right of Self-Termination?" Ethics 109.3 (1999): 606-628.
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Geriatric Right to Die the

Words: 2635 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10740441



One solution of this issue can be that the closest most guardians is given the permission and right to take the decision about the life of the patient who is not able to communicate or express his wish. The guardian who should be responsible to take this decision should be the one who will be having direct impact of the death of the patient.

Community & Health Care esolution

Different communities have varied opinions in regard to right to die for geriatric. Although few of the countries have legalized this matter and have given the right to patient to decide whether he wanted to live more or not, but still there are campaigns in those countries that do not support the way patients should be given death and is also considered another way of committing suicide. Communities think if the right is legalized it will give doctors the right do…… [Read More]

Reference

Gastmans C. & Lemiengre. J. (2007). Development and communication of written ethics policies on euthanasia in Catholic hospitals and nursing homes in Belgium (Flanders), Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. Vol 63, Issue 1. pp 188 to 195, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=06716113-81ca-4db0-a772-51ae3b6dd9ca%40sessionmgr15&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2009306329

Kenny, R.W. (2007). An effect of communication on medical decision making: answerability, and the medically induced death of Paul Mills., Department of Public Relations, Mount Saint Vincent University. Vol 22, issue 1, pp. 69 -- 78, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=c57afac0-3522-4bc8-8c8e-a0a7732261ee%40sessionmgr15&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2009640106

Lemiengre K. (2008). How do hospitals deal with euthanasia requests in Flanders (Belgium)? A content analysis of policy documents. Health Promotion/Education, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=37d04412-5a09-4727-92f0-398ccb54533a%40sessionmgr13&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2009908744

Levett, C. (2011). Dying with dignity -- the case for end of life choices, Australian Nursing Journal, vol. 18, issue 8, pp. 48, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=078d26de-de1f-4206-80ba-d37b9a51f264%40sessionmgr14&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2010954963
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Self in Antigone and Hamlet

Words: 1715 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11276099

Hamlet, however, is full of hesitation. He does not experience the type of confidence Antigone does and suffers because of it. These characters are not abnormal; they are exaggerated or comical in a way audiences cannot relate to them. They are uniquely human and that is why they are still popular today -- because they are real enough that audience members feel as though they have known these types of personalities before. Through these characters, the playwrights show the audience how important it is to be true to self above all else. From Creon, who loses his sense of self when he sells out to power to Hamlet, who loses his sense of self when he falls into depression, to Antigone, who gladly gives her life for what she believes, we see the power of the sense of self and the importance of how it should be respected.

ork Cited…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Blits, Jan. Introduction to Deadly Thought: 'Hamlet' and the Human Soul, pp. 3-21. Lanham:

Lexington Books, 2001. Information Retrieved July 01, 2010.

Sophocles. Antigone. Three Theban Plays: Antigone, Oedipus the King, Oedipus and Colonus.

Robert Fagles, trans. New York: Penguin Books. 1980.
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Adults Sign a Do Not

Words: 2037 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69861765

An adult do not need to make all decisions in advance, but educating oneself is a vital first step. (Death with Dignity: Planning Ahead for End-of-Life Care) few guidelines for signing a DN order are given here. A Do Not esuscitate Order - DN is a physician's order to not to employ cardiopulmonary resuscitation - CP in case of cardiac or pulmonary arrest. Competent adult patients may relinquish CP for medical or non-medical reasons. The patient may make such requests verbally irrespective of whether or not he/she is fatally ill. An appeal to relinquish CP may also be part of an Advance Directive. When it has been determined that the patient is short of decision-making capacity, the suitable substitute decision-maker should be recognized to make treatment decisions, including decisions to relinquish CP, if no such person has been appointed by an Advance Directive. If the patient is out of action,…… [Read More]

References

Care of the Sick and Dying. Roman Catholic Bishops of Maryland. Retrieved at http://www.mdcathcon.org/Care.htm. Accessed on 17th March 2005

Collins, Tony. Dealers of Death. Retrieved at http://www.envoymagazine.com/planetenvoy/Update-TCollins-TerriS-Jan04-Full.htm. Accessed on 17th March 2005

Dealers of Death. 30 November, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.catholicexchange.com/vm/index.asp?vm_id=2&art_id=26177Accessed on 17th March 2005

Do not Resuscitate- DNR Orders. 1 January, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/housestaff/policy-manual/dnr.cfmAccessed on 17th March 2005
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Job There Are a Number of Really

Words: 2106 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47222522

Job

There are a number of really wonderful employers in the United States; companies that are consistently known for their excellent treatment of their employees. Fortune Magazine identifies the top 100 companies to work for each year and gives various details about each company. The company I would like to work for is Methodist Hospital System, Houston. It has consistently been identified as one of the best employers in the country, with a reputation for treating its employees fairly and establishing a great atmosphere. Moreover, this career would be in the healthcare industry, which is projected to be a growth area for the foreseeable future, so it is an excellent field.

Create a brief job description for a position within the company you research that you would like to fill.

The job that I would like is Senior Marketing Specialist. Marketing specialists with the Methodist Hospital System have a unique…… [Read More]

References

Amalraj, S., Starkweather, C., Nguyen, C. & Naeim, A. (2009). Health literacy, communication, and treatment decision-making in older cancer patients. Oncology 23(4).

Retrieved February 6, 2012 from Psychiatric Times website: http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/depression/content/article/10165/1401317?pageNumber=1

Beehr, T.A., Bowling, N.A., Bennett, M.M. (2010). Occupational stress and failures of social support: When helping hurts. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(1), 45-59. doi: 10.1037/a0018234

Meyer, J.P., Becker, T.E., Vandenberghe, C. (2004). Employee commitment and motivation: A
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Contraception and Christianity Pope Paul

Words: 2181 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26889870

The morality of their behavior does not depend on mere sincere intention and motives only. They need to consider external criteria, which involve the person and his acts, which must include mutual self-giving. Human procreation must remain within the context of true love. This would be possible only within the confines of married chastity with sincerity of heart. Periodic continence or non-performance of the sexual act can regulate conception the natural way. It is based on self-observation and the use of infertile periods. These conform to the objective criteria of morality and allowed by the Church for married Christian couples. They respect the bodies of the spouses, encourage warmth and tenderness for each other and enhance authentic freedom. In contrast, every act in anticipation of the conjugal act or of its accomplishment, which is the development of its natural consequences, whether as an end or as a means, to making…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bruce, Iaian S. AIDS and Condoms: the Issue Splitting the Roman Catholic Church. The Sunday Herald: Newsquest Media Group, May 7, 2006

Feuerherd, Joe. Roman Catholic Church's Position on Contraception. National Catholic Reporter, November 21, 2003

Mueller, Steven P., ed. Called to Believe, Teach and Confess. English Standard Version. Crossway Bible, 2001

Reference and Education. Bishops Move to Tighten Adherence to Church Teaching Against Contraception and Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Unions. Christian Century: The Christian Century Foundation, November 23, 2003
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Pros and Cons of Euthanasia

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56216886

Euthanasia, Should Terminally Ill Patients Be Allowed to End Their Lives Via Assisted Suicide

TEMINALLY ILL PATIENTS BE ALLOWED TO END THEI LIVES VIA ASSISTED SUICIDE

Euthanasia, notably called assisted killing or mercy killing, is perhaps one of the medical prescriptions that have always raised varied and multifaceted arguments, most of which have never reached any solid conclusion. Clinicians are prone to take every necessary step necessary to keep the health of a patient at stable conditions. Nonetheless, there come a time when the patient knows, together with the clinician, that there is a lesser chance of survival. In such situations, health professionals are stuck between assisting the patient to die, notably by using an external means, or letting him or her to fight for life until death, something that might be painful, both to the clinicians, the patients, and even the loved ones. Assisting a patient to die, with…… [Read More]

Reference

Weber, W. (2000). Dutch Proposal for Children's Right To Euthanasia Withdrawn. Lancet, 356(9226), 322.
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Irony and Romeo and Juliet

Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40475706

This is, in a way, a type of situational irony, however it occurs on a scale that implies fate is involved; the ironic incident is caused by an "act of god" not by something the character set into motion. The author of a piece of literature may distinguish irony of fate from situational irony by blatantly stating that the work is about inescapable fate.

Many instances of verbal irony can be traced throughout Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. The very basic plot line is full of rather obvious cases of irony Romeo falls in love with Juliet while he is mourning the unrequited love he felt for another woman. Juliet falls in love with Romeo despite the fact that she was taught to hate him by her family. Romeo and Juliet get married to one another so that they can spend their lives together, but they are separated almost immediately upon…… [Read More]

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Euthanasia Is Illegal Euthanasia Otherwise Known as

Words: 1997 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38325739

Euthanasia Is Illegal

Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117

Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.

Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.

Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
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Rise of Advanced Technologies in the Medical

Words: 1474 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44926912

rise of advanced technologies in the medical field, especially those that sustains life, has brought issues in the ethics and morality of those involved in the field of medicine. Most significant to these issues is the practice of Euthanasia on patients diagnosed to have no chance of surviving and regaining life after any treatment has been implemented. In view of the issues on Euthanasia, this paper aims to present a discussion of this medical practice by analyzing the stands and views of Ned Cassem, James Rachel, Sidney Hook, and Leon R. Kass. This paper also aims to explain the meaning of "good death" as mentioned by Ned Cassem.

On many medical books and dictionaries, "euthanasia" or "mercy-killing" is defined as ending a life of a terminally ill patient by ways such as removing life support machines or stopping treatments that somehow prolongs life. The basic reason why euthanasia is performed…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chung, Ken. On James Rachels and "Active and Passive Euthanasia."

Publish.Uwo.Ca. 28 Dec. 2002. http://publish.uwo.ca/~kchung23/rachels.htm

Hook, Sidney. "In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia.."

The New York Times (1 Mar. 1987).
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CPT Code for Domiciliatory Care

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31132840

State Elder ights and Legal Assistance Development Program were also included in Title VII of the Act. In 2006, the phrase "assisted living facility" was added to the definition of "long-term care facility" (Ombudsman Program Provisions in the Older Americans Act, 2010). All these provisions were aimed at better care for the elderly in the United States.

3

Effective communication is a vital element of all human relationships (Winbow, 2002). It is an element that is stressed in all counselling work with families, whether these families include parents and children, brothers and sisters, spouses, or other relationships. Communication is particularly vital where one of the parties have not yet had an experience that can help him or her relate to the other's experiences. This is also true of the end-of-life experience. This experience is in everybody's future, so it is important to cultivate an understanding of how to handle the…… [Read More]

References

Ombudsman Provisions in the Older Americans Act (2010). Retrieved from: www.aoa.gov/...Programs/.../Ombudsman/.../Ombudsman_Provisions_OAA.doc

Walker, R.M. (2001). Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Legal Slippery Slope. Cancer Control; JMCC 8(1):25-30. Retrieved from:    http://www.chninternational.com/physician.htm   

Winbow, A. (2002). The Importance of Effective Communication. International Seminar on Maritime English. Retrieved from: http://www.imo.org/includes/blastDataOnly.asp/data_id%3D18000/InternationalSeminar.pdf
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Individual Case Analysis Terri Schiavo

Words: 1880 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14967734

Ethics

The Terri chiavo case was an unusual incident where a person who should have been removed from life support long ago was sustained due to federal and public intervention. The case instigates moral and ethical questions of decision to end life as well as the limits of autonomy in surrogate decision making. Torke et al. (2008) argue that guardian judgment is often used as decision-making when a patient lacks the cognitive abilities to decide treatment for herself. urrogate decision-making, however, has its own flaws and should be replaced by something more rational. Using the Terri chiavo case as base, the following essay argues that the decision whether or not to prolong a patient's life (or indeed any decision revolving on an incumbent or cognitively disabled patient) should focus on the patient's dignity and individuality rather than on his or her autonomy.

The Terri chiavo Case: background

The Terri chiavo…… [Read More]

Sources

Ditto, PH (2006) What would Terri want? On the psychological challenges of surrogate decision making. Death Studies, 30: 135 -- 148,

Lazzaerini, Z et al. (2006) Legal and policy lessons from the Schiavo case: Is our right to choose the medical care we want seriously at risk? Palliative & Supportive Care, 4, 145-153

Mathes, P (2005) Terri Schiavo and End-of-Life Decisions: Can Law Help Us Out? MEDSURG Nursing, 14 Issue 3, p200

Torke, AM et al. (2008) Substituted Judgment: The Limitations of Autonomy in Surrogate Decision Making J. Gen Intern Med. 23(9):1514-7.
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Euthanasia the Foremost Contentious Concern Lately Has

Words: 4959 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97241063

Euthanasia

The foremost contentious concern lately has been the issue of granting legal status to the right to die with dignity, or euthanasia. Similar to the issue of death sentence or suicide, euthanasia is contentious as it entails killing an individual through a conscious decision. (The right to a dignified death - need for debate) "Euthanasia" derived from the Greek term implying "good death" is some activity we perform or otherwise which results in, or is planned to result in death, to liberate a person from pain. This is occasionally known as "mercy killing." (Reflections on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide) Giving a legal sanction to euthanasia is a vital referendum upon the social standing of those incapacitated in America nowadays. (Euthanasia: The Disability Perspective on the Right to Die Movement) Euthanasia can be attained either though an intentional process, or by refraining to take an action intentionally. In any one…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abergavenny, Roger Dobson. (22 February, 2003) "Society should accept that euthanasia is a personal decision, report says." British Medical Journal. 326:416. Retrieved from http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/326/7386/416/d Accessed on 4 May, 2005

"Arguments against Euthanasia: Euthanasia is against the word and will of God." Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/sanctity_life/euthagod.shtml Accessed on 3 May, 2005

"Arguments against Euthanasia" Retrieved from  http://www.euthanasia.com/argumentsagainsteuthanasia.html  Accessed on 3 May, 2005

'Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia" Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=cmed.section.17469 Accessed on 3 May, 2005
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Right to Die

Words: 4327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85813109

right to die. The writer uses analytical skills to dissect and argue several right to die cases that have been presented in court in America. The writer discusses the ethics of the practice as well as presents ideas about the future "right to die" arguments and cases. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.

Through the advances of medical science people are living longer than ever before. Those who are chronically ill are being helped in the quest to alleviate symptoms and those who might have become ill in the past are being cured. The medical science advances have also allowed those who would have died in the past from head injuries, car crashes, gun shots wounds and other accidents to live. All of the advances that have been made have worked in favor for millions of people who otherwise would have died. The advances are also providing…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Legal Slippery Slope (accessed 1-19-2003) from Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/409026_7

Cases in history (accessed 1-19-2003)

http://www.euthanasia.org/cases.html
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Euthanasia in All Its Forms

Words: 1090 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33925598

" This action according to Humphrey allows personal responsibility for family decision making to be broadened to a reasonable level.

Humphrey also lays strong claims for the medical responsibilities of euthanasia because of the overemphasis on life-support to prolong human suffering rather than allow certain and peaceful death. Humphrey's believes that the medical community needs be an example to individuals by stopping making decisions for the family based on technological progress of aggressive treatments. "People dread having their loved ones put on such equipment if it means they are never likely to be removed if that proves later to be the mores sensible coarse." (155) in short, Humphries contends that passive euthanasia is a personal and private responsibility and that the medical responsibility lies in stepping back and allowing individuals to make such decisions without fear of reprisal.

Ledermans's more personal account is of herself having to make decisions for…… [Read More]

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Terri on February 25 1990 Terri Schiavo

Words: 2064 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36952009

Terri

On February 25, 1990, Terri Schiavo suffered from severe brain injury. She could no longer do anything for herself and was without an attorney. Her husband named Michael Schiavo was her legal guardian. Due to brain damage, Ms. Schiavo did not have the ability to swallow and was feed through a feeding tube. During that same year, she entered into a persistent vegetative state (PVS). As years passed, Mr. Schiavo, along with physical therapists, attempted to rehabilitate Ms. Schiavo but was unsuccessful. Tired of seeing his wife in such a condition, Mr. Schiavo thought that it would be in everyone's best interest, including his wife's, to unplug all life support devices and let her die. The parents of Ms. Schiavo disagreed with Mr. Schiavo's proposal; this created much hostility that was viewed by the public (Perry, Churchill, & Kirshner, 2005). This case has been the focus of medical controversy…… [Read More]

References

Dresser, R., & Kirby, D.N. (2005). Schiavo Legacy: The Need for an Objective Standard.

Hasting Center Report, 35(4), 225-29.

Erban, J., Sullivan, W.J., Ney, P.G., & Weijer, C. (2006). Terri Shiavo: Rest in peace.

Canadian Medical Association Journal, 175, 621-622.
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Euthanasia Pro Debates Regarding the

Words: 3344 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2927528

He argues that if society were to allow the terminally ill to commit suicide, then it would be a small step to allow other members of society -- like the handicapped -- to do so as well. This is not a completely trivial argument for two reasons: first, it is the point-of-view held by the majority of the Christian right -- a powerful political force in the Untied States; and second, if we accept his principle that life is intrinsically valuable, regardless of individual's rights over their own bodies, then we should be inclined to believe that active euthanasia is always wrong. Yet, Otremba is willing to concede that passive euthanasia may, sometimes, be permissible; this, however, only under the conditions of extreme suffering and impending death.

Fundamentally, it is a precarious moral position to contend that each and every human life demands society's active preservation. Otremba, and many others,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Callahan, Daniel. (1992). "When Self-Determination Runs Amok." Hastings Center Report, March/April.

Dworkin et al. (2003). "Assisted Suicide: the Philosophers' Brief." Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine: Sixth Edition. London: McGraw-Hill. Pages, 382-393.

Emanuel, Ezekiel J. (1994). "The History of Euthanasia Debates in the United States and Britain." History of Medicine, Vol. 121, Issue 10.

International Anti-Euthanasia Task Force. (2000). "Arguments for Euthanasia are Unconvincing." Euthanasia: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
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Active and Passive Euthanasia in

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47727719

136).

A major factor underlying whether active or passive euthanasia is legal is whether the doctor intends to kill the patient or not (Lewis, 2009, p. 126). Rachels hits on the intent piece in one of his constructed examples, "Rather, the other factors - the murderer's motive of personal gain, for example, contrasted with the doctor's humanitarian motivation -account for different reactions to the different cases." The Colombian Constitutional Court actually ruled doctors are negligent if they ignore a terminally ill, competent patient's request for active euthanasia, a position which actually moves closer to Rachels' side of the debate (Michlowski, 2009, p. 192). The Canadian Medical Association's inquiry into Belgian euthanasia included asking about the doctors' "explicit intention of hastening the end of life or of enabling the patient to end his or her own life" (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. 896). This intent underlies the principle of "double effect,"…… [Read More]

Nor do professional associations provide a clear consensus to anyone outside their membership, because they often contradict each other. Many of them disagree with the AMA position Rachels frames his argument in terms of. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) asserts "Most would choose to live if they had full confidence that the care system would serve them well," and so justifies continued prohibition of voluntary assisted suicide and monetary compensation for the practice thereof, using most of the criteria discussed in my research. On the other hand, the American Psychological Association's assertion that the cognition behind the terminally ill patient's decision to die differs from the logic employed by the clinically depressed in deciding to commit suicide is echoed by the American Public Health Association, the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, and the American College of Legal Medicine, who justify their recommendation against the negative associations between suicide and what they describe as "the principles of personal autonomy and free will" on grounds of material difference long recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court (Tucker & Steele, 2007, p. 325).

A fourth commonality that runs through the discussion but with much less prominence is a qualification that a patient's decision can be overridden if euthanasia has significant effects on people other than the patient, although those effects are even more rarely, if ever, defined. The Columbian courts qualified their acceptance of personal autonomy as sovereign under the constitution with the competency requirement but also where the exercise of that autonomy carried only " private nonpublic effects" (Michlowski, 2009, p. 192). The petitioner who brought the Columbian complaint claimed in part that non-voluntary euthanasia ("mercy-killing" to the 1973 AMA) left the doctor free to "end the lives of those who are regarded as an obstacle, a nuisance, or whose health raises high costs" (Michlowski, 2009, p. 186), but the court took it upon itself to generalize this even farther. This 'externality' effect rarely appears in such abstract terms, but runs throughout the research and opinion on the ethics of euthanasia in various guises.

The newer AMA policy statement claims euthanasia "would pose serious societal risks," without elaborating specifically what those may be (1996). Numerous patients have included consideration of their family's emotional pain caused by prolonged terminal illness as a factor leading them to choose euthanasia (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. 897); but fewer overtly discuss the callous topic of monetary expense as a factor in that decision. Tucker and Steele mention that voluntary euthanasia consumers may consider the cost to their estate, but only in passing (2007, p. 322). Campbell (2005, p. 45) claims family concern is justified under some Buddhist and Hindu perspectives if the choice to take life is made out of compassion for
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Right to Die Legal and Ethical Issues Concerning the Withdrawal Withholding of Treatment

Words: 2116 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90932592

Right to Die

For the last few decades, the issue of a person's right to choose the time and method of his or her own death has been one of passionate debate in the United States, with emotions running high on both sides of the controversy as the meanings of liberty and freedom of choice, the morality of taking one's own life, the ethics of people involved in such actions, and the laws related to this issue take center stage in the arguments.

Since civilization began, suicide has existed in one form or another, with varying degrees of acceptance, such as the ancient Greeks who held tribunals for elderly people who requested to die, and if approved, were given hemlock and during the first century B.C. actually held annual banquets where the elderly were allowed to attend and drink poison if they felt they had lived long enough.

Moreover, "traditional…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida." AP Worldstream. November 01, 2003. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1P1:86544618&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=AP+Worldstream&author=VICKIE+CHACHERE%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Judge+appoints+professor+as+guardian+for+brain%2Ddamaged+woman+in+Florida&date=11%2F01%2F2003&query=Terry+Schiavo+and+the+State+of+Florida%2E&maxdoc=30&idx=2&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 12-03-2003)

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).
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Ethics and Morals of Euthanasia

Words: 976 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72593709

Euthanasia

The author of this report has been asked to answer a few brief questions and take a position on the subject of euthanasia. The first question will be a definition and distinction between active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. The question of ethical issues for each type will be raised. The laws in each state regarding euthanasia will be covered. Finally, there will be a position taken by the author of this report and it will be based on scholarly research from roughly four sources. While euthanasia may be controversial to some, there are some situations where people are going to do what they are going to do and allowing them the easier and more dignified path is the way to go.

Analysis

When it comes to the definition of active or passive euthanasia, the difference is pretty clear. Active euthanasia, as defined by the British Broadcast Corporation (BBC) is…… [Read More]

References

Barone, E. (2014). See Which States Allow Assisted Suicide. TIME.com. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  http://time.com/3551560/brittany-maynard-right-to-die-laws/ 

BBC. (2015). BBC - Ethics - Euthanasia: Active and passive euthanasia. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/euthanasia/overview/activepassive_1.shtml 

BBC. (2015). BBC - Ethics - Euthanasia: Religion and euthanasia. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/euthanasia/religion/religion.shtml 

Pew. (2015). America's Changing Religious Landscape. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  http://www.pewforum.org/2015/05/12/americas-changing-religious-landscape/
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Legal Implications of Assisted Suicide

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30108900

This has sparked many debates in social and political arenas in regards to personhood, self-determination and human autonomy.

Any time a person wants to intentionally end his or her life, it is considered suicide. Suicide, in itself is now legal (Manning, 1998), but proponents of euthanasia argue that suicide may not be an option for the terminally ill, the hospitalized or physically disabled. These people may not have the strength or the means to end their lives alone, therefore, they cannot exercise the option of suicide and consequently are being discriminated against (Gifford, 1993).

I personally agree with those on the pro-euthanasia side of the camp, who believe that suicide is not an appropriate term for this issue because suicide is often associated with desperate emotion whereas euthanasia is based on a "cogent and deliberate form of relief from a painful and hopeless disease" (Adams, 1992). As opposed to suicide,…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Adams, Robert. "Physician-Assisted Suicide and the Right to Die With Assistance." Harvard Law Review 105:2021-2040, 1992

Gifford, Edward. "Artres Moriendi: Active Euthanasia and the Art of Dying." UCLA Law Review 40:1545-1583, 1993.

Manning, Michael, MD, Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring? Paulist Press, Mahwah, NJ, 1998

Olen, Jeffery & Barry, Vincent. Applying Ethics: A Text With Readings (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1999.
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Autonomy and Medical Practice What

Words: 1470 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47813173

3). How does a caregiver justify making decisions such as those mentioned above, decisions that are based on the caregiver's values and beliefs? Harris is very clear in this regard that these issues are both moral and philosophical, and the real problem is in how the issues are resolved and based on what standards and morals.

It's not merely about understanding the "natural of moral problems," John Harris explains (p. 4), and it's not just about what is right and what is wrong with reference to medical and human issues. But rather the answers following a decision that is framed in a morally right or wrong context have to be followed up with a good autonomous reason as to "why this is so," Harris continues (p. 4). It is Harris's assertion that a person can only claim that the action they took or the decision they made was based on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beckwith, Francis J. "Absolute Autonomy and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Putting a Bad Idea

Out of Its Misery," in Suicide: A Christian Response: Crucial Considerations for Choosing

Life, Eds. T. Demy ad G. Stewart.

Bickenback, Jerome E. "Disability and Life-Ending Decisions," in Physician-Assisted Suicide:
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Aging Services Aging Is a

Words: 1398 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77464738

The service provider should then be able to assess the specific needs of the elderly person and give advice about the best option for living facilities.

Becoming older and more frail often also means being the victim of not only increasing financial constraints, but also of various types of abuse. Elderly abuse is a concern that has increasingly come to the attention of authorities as an unfortunate by-product of an increasingly aging society. Abuse might be perpetrated by family members or professionals and could be the result of financial or emotional strain, work stress, or more severe conditions such as mental illness. The aging service provider has some particular duties and responsibilities when it comes to elder abuse.

One of these duties is reporting suspected cases of elder abuse. The Elder Abuse and Neglect Act (Illinois Department on Aging, 2012), for example, provides for the ability of any person to…… [Read More]

References

Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Minority Aging. Retrieved from: http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/Aging_Statistics/minority_aging/Index.aspx

Illinois Aging Services (2008). Retrieved from:  http://illinoisagingservices.org/ 

Illinois Department on Aging (2012). Elder Abuse Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.state.il.us/aging/1abuselegal/abuselegal-main.htm

Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks. (7th Ed.). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
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Protective Services for the Elderly

Words: 1441 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1559035

Because so many older people have aged in a healthy way, they remain able bodied and are more than willing to lend their energy and experience to providing better and more effective services. This will create not only a vital resource for older people who are in need of protective services. It will also create an opportunity for aging people to become involved in the health and well-being of their community. This is a vital aspect of aging effectively, since feeling useful is one of the ways in which older people can continue to live happy and healthy lives. Concomitantly, feeling positive and happy about life and providing services has the mutual effect of creating more effective services for older people. Eustis uses the term "civic engagement" to promote this idea. Specifically, she mentions the example of the ALVA Leadership Development program that is actively involved in helping older and…… [Read More]

References

EPA. (2012). Aging Initiative. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/aging/

Eustis, N. (2010, Aug. 31). Thoughts on the Older American Act. Vital Aging Network. Retrieved from:  http://vital-aging-network.org/Story/55/thoughts_on_the_older_american_act.html 

National Council on Aging (2012). Public Policy and Action. Retrieved from: http://www.ncoa.org/public-policy-action/

Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks. (7th Ed.). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
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Loss of Function on the Quality of

Words: 1766 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80286987

Loss of Function on the Quality of life and Independence, and Quality of life for the elderly Population

Although living longer comes with a price, having a good social relationship, support system, social relationships, and residing in their own abode is what could give seniors independence, happiness, and quality of life. Before discussing how a given loss of function influences the quality of life and the independence of an aging person, it is crucial to define some concepts. These concepts are the quality of life, independence, and activities of daily living, as they will be used in this discussion. Quality of life has varying meanings for different individuals particularly to the elderly population. Quality of life could mean good pension or income, family and friends, being active, being independent, good and safe living conditions, opportunity to learn latest concepts, developing new things, religion, and social relationships among others. Quality of…… [Read More]

References

Brunner, L.S., & Day, R.A. (2009). Brunner & Suddarth's textbook of Canadian medical-surgical nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Dawson, D.R., & Stern, B. (2007). Reflections on facilitating older adult's participation in valued occupations. Occupational Therapy Now, 9(5), 3-5. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/229614344?accountid=35812 

Loue, S. (2008). Encyclopedia of aging and public health: With 19 tables. New York, NY: Springer.

Whitbourne, S.K., & Whitbourne, S.B. (2011). Adult development and aging: Biopsychosocial perspectives. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Patient Over Seventy Years of

Words: 873 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88339797



The Argument -- She Could be Given a Transplant

I could not find a prohibition against liver transplants for those 70 or over, but there is a good deal of information in the literature supporting transplants for older people. In the PubMed section of the National Institutes of Health a study of 1,446 "consecutive liver transplant recipients was conducted" and 241 elderly patients (over 60) in that group were compared with younger counterparts. The conclusion: "Low-risk elderly patients fare as well as younger patients after liver transplantation" (Levy, et. al, 2001).

Meanwhile, Dr. Gerald S. Lipshutz, assistant professor of surgery at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California reports the results of the findings at the orld Transplant Congress in 2006. In a study of 62 patients (Group I) between the ages of 70-79 that had received liver transplants -- compared with a group of 864…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Flaman, Paul. "Organ and Tissue Transplants: Some Ethical Issues." St. Joseph's College, the University of Alberta. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.ualberta.ca/-pflaman/organtr.htm. (2001): 1-14.

Kahn, Katherine. "Age Alone Does Not Affect Outcome of Liver Transplant in Elderly."

Medscape Medical News. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http://www.medscape.com. (2006): 1-2.

Levy, Marlon, Somasunder, Ponnandai S., Jennings, Linda W., Jung, Ghap J., Molmenti,
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Models to Promote Health Behavior and Proposed Project Plan

Words: 2184 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74682590

Health Promotion for End-Stage Dementia

End-Stage Dementia Care

Health Promotion Plan for End-Stage Dementia

Health Promotion Plan for End-Stage Dementia

Globally, an estimated 35.6 million adults are living with dementia, a number expected to double by 2030 and triple by 2050 (World Health Organization, 2014). Most patients with dementia in the United States will die in a nursing home (reviewed by Goodman et al., 2010), which means that these patients sometimes live for years within these institutions. The level of dementia care required can sometimes be quite high as the ability for self-care and effective communication is lost (Puurveen, n.d.). These facts and statistics explain why an estimated $157 to $215 billion is spent each year on dementia care in the U.S. And why there is a need for cost effective and humane dementia care globally; however, some care professionals have questioned the efficacy of the traditional medical model and…… [Read More]

References

Brownie, S. & Nancarrow, S. (2013). Effects of person-centered care on residents and staff in aged-care facilities: A systematic review. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 8, 1-10.

Barbosa, A., Sousa, L., Nolan, M., & Figueiredo, D. (2014). Effects of person-centered care approaches to dementia care on staff: A systematic review. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias, published online ahead of print 20 Jan. 2014, doi: 10.1177/1533317513520213.

Department of Health, Australian Government. (n.d.). About the Community Health Action Pack. Retrieved 13 Feb. 2014 from http://livelonger.health.gov.au/about-the-community-health-action-pack/.

Goodman, C., Evans, C., Wilcock, J., Froggatt, K., Drennan, V., Sampson, E., Blanchard, M., Bissett, M., & Iliffe, S. (2010). End of life care for the community dwelling older people with dementia: An integrated review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25, 329-37.
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Resuscitate DNR as a National

Words: 2548 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87860891

When patients with chronic or acute illness in the setting of a severe chronic illness with a declining functionality so that death is expected within days to weeks, no CP will be initiated.

The keys to the policy are severely chronic illness as represented by the patient's declining functionality; and that death is imminent. It is a policy that advocates the right of a patient to forego life sustaining technology and intervention in what is constituted as legal death when the patient's heart stops and, without CP which could ostensibly revive the patient to life, is final death for the patient. The policy resolves decisions of the healthcare provider and the healthcare staff to act in response to the patient's cessation of life.

Today, unless a DN order is signed by the patient or the patient's family rights designee, then the hospital staff responds to the cessation of patient life…… [Read More]

Reference List

Dubbler, N. And Nimmons, D. (1993). Ethics on Call: Taking Charge of Life and Death

Choices, Harmony Books/Crown Publishers, New York: New York.

Jones, M. And Marks, L. (1999). Disability, Divers-ability, and Legal Change, Martins

and Nighoff Publishers, Kluwer Law International, The Hague, Netherlands.
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Healthcare -- Legal Issues Religion

Words: 2158 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11354839

While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.

Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.

10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.

Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses…… [Read More]

References

Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Caplan, a.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley

Starr, P. (1984) the Social Transformation of American Medicine.

New York: Basic Books
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Healthcare Conflict Resolution Case Scenario

Words: 1763 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36054000

" (King, 1) This means that
interpersonal communication is not simply a process by which we pronounce
and defend our interests, but one by which we attempt to understand the
position of our opponent or relational partner. Using the method of clear
communication and displaying a willingness to step outside of one's
perceptual filters in order to attain some level of empathy for the
opposite party, it should be possible to better field and even satisfy some
of this party's demands.
By incorporating the host of relationships addressed here above into a
unified support system comprised of both healthcare specialists and members
of the patient's personal network, it may be possible to appeal both to the
rational and emotional interests of the patient. Combined, these forces
may have the capacity to assure the patient of his strength to endure a
treatment that could ultimately relieve him of pain and prolong…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

King, D. (2000). Four Principles of interpersonal communication.
Pellissippi State Technical Community College. Online at
http://www.pstcc.edu/facstaff/dking/interpr.htm.

Marcus, L.J.; Dorn, B.C.; Kritek, P.B.; Miller, V.G. & Wyatt, J.B. (1995).
Renegotiating Health Care: Resolving Conflict to Build Collaboration.
Jossey-Bass, 1st Edition.
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Nursing and Ethics the Emotional Debate Over

Words: 2128 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10621242

Nursing and Ethics

The emotional debate over abortion had been mischaracterized in the media, and hence disrupted any positive attempt to make progress in resolving the ethical and medical problems which have been created by the practice. A majority of Americans recognize and desire that abortion should be available when the life of the mother is at risk, or in the cases of rape or incest. However, liberal proponets like to expand this definition under the ubiquitous definition of the 'mothers health' which has been used to justify abortion on demand, for any reason. This latter expanded definition is significantly opposed by a majority of the ameircan population. In the midst of this struggle, comes the person needing medical care, who has neither been properly informed as to the dangers of the paractive, nor adequately counseled as to the options which exist regarding the future of her unborn child. The…… [Read More]

Resources

O'rourke, Kevin. PROXY CONSENT: DECIDING FOR OTHERS October 1980 accessed 23 April 2004. Available from: http://www.op.org/domcentral/study/kor/80100202.htm.

Bernard Lo, (July 2, 1987) "Behind Closed Doors: Promises and Pitfalls of Ethics Committees." NEJM 317;46.

Toward a More Natural Science, (1985) New York: Free Press,; p.211.

Curzer, Howard J. (6/22/1993) Fry's concept of care in nursing ethics. (response to Sara T. Fry, Hypatia, vol. 4, no.2, p.88, 1989) Hypatia.
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Ethics to Practice Analysis of 'End of

Words: 2858 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41901193

Ethics to Practice: Analysis of 'end of life' decision making

The foregoing discussion is an incursion into nursing ethics. Implication(s) to 'omission' of information as a customary practice within our healthcare institution is reviewed in relation to best practices pertaining to 'informed consent,' and hospital policy is not definitive. Directed at the evolution of ethical decision making, the general query to the study focuses on the parameters of informed consent where individual practice is concerned.

In the nation of Canada where I am a nurse the number of situations where patient informed consent decisions might be subject to our national code of nursing ethics is many. e face critical ethical dilemmas every day, as emergency procedures and critical care interventions are standard practice. Complexity in decision making is furthered in the conduct and approaches made by international colleagues on contract in our institution by way of exchange.

The primacy of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bullough, B. ed. The Law and the expanding nursing role. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980.

Callahan, Joan, ed. Ethical Issues in Profesional Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Canadian Medical Protection Association (CMPA), 2010. Web.

Finlay and Fernandez. Failure to report and provide commentary on research ethics board approval and informed consent in medical journals is discussed Journal of Medical Ethics, 34.10 (2008), 761-764. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.023325.
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Alan Zuckerman Over the Last

Words: 1061 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78764032

This needs to be implemented because, the death of patient at the hospital from: the lack of a back up monitoring systems, shows a deficiency of oversight in this area. As a result, the organization needs to create various procedures that can monitor: the different systems and alert staff in the event that there is some kind of malfunction. This will help to prevent a situation like what occurred at the facility not long ago. (Zuckerman, 2006, pp. 3 -- 15) ("Hospital Overview," 2011)

What barriers to implementation could you foresee?

Some of the possible barriers that could stand in the way of any kind of implementation of the plan include: the inability of staff to respond to these changes and a lack of funding for the different initiatives. Whenever you are introducing new programs to a facility, the staff will be resistant to new changes. This is because the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hospital Overview. (2011). Massachusetts General. Retrieved from:   http://www.massgeneral.org/about/overview.aspx  

Kowalczyaki, L. (2010). MGH Spurs Death Review. Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/news/health/articles/2010/02/21/mgh_death_spurs_review_of_patient_monitors/

Zuckerman, a. (2006). Advancing the State of the Art. Frontiers in Health Service Management 23 (2), 3 -- 15.
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Professional Code of Conduct Ethics

Words: 1347 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72109663

A strain on the Medicaid budged as a result of managed care can lead to raised healthcare costs and an increase in Medicaid bills (Shern et al., 2008).

The fair distribution principle in such a case is a difficult issue. On the one hand, patients receiving managed care benefit in terms of their health and keeping their costs low. Society does not benefit in general, and indeed the increase in costs to them can be seen as unfair. On the other hand, the benefit derived from managed care can be seen as fair to certain patients. As mentioned above, caring for some patients and not for others on the grounds of financial issues is not fair, while expecting the community to incur increased costs from managed care is also unfair. Again, a careful balance should be maintained between costs, quality and distribution of care.

One of the most important principles…… [Read More]

References

Baptist Health South Florida. Code of Ethics: A Guide to Ethical Standards. http://www.baptisthealth.net/en/about-baptist-health/Documents/code_of_ethics/104673676CodeofEthics2.pdf

Green, Ben. (2009). Medical Ethics. Medicine Online. Retrieved from  http://priory.com/ethics.htm#Hippocratic 

Shern, David L., Jones, Kristine, Chen, Juey Jen, Jordan, Neil, Ramoni-Perazzi, Josefa, Boothroyd,

oger A. (2008). Medicaid Managed Care and Distribution of Societal Costs for Persons with Severe Mental Illness. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165:254-260. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/165/2/254
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Museums Bid for Bodies

Words: 1758 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49642417

Speech: Museum's Bid For Bodies

Good evening ladies -- and yes, good evening gentleman as well.

Well, where should we begin? Ahhhh yes -- Are any of you aware of what a cadaver parade is? Have any of you ever actually heard of a cadaver parade?

Let me read to you a recent headline that I discovered: "Anatomy of competition: 2 museums bid for bodies -- what is a bid -- it is an offer or a proposal of a price."

What do you think about that? (Pause) My initial thoughts after reading those words were: "This is unbelievable, no, it is downright shocking, shameful, and certainly very offensive.

When was the last time a price was hung on us human beings? You probably already know, that's right -- During the days of Slavery. (Pause) Am I right?

I believe that the practice attaching a price to the human body…… [Read More]

References

I need you to organize this speech - grammar and sentence structure my speech is about provocative questions - please correct the question (grammar)but don't omit them and make some order, that it flows the topic is about body world (and exhibition of cadavers in California-- the web site is www.bodyworlds.com) it's gruesome -- the article is from plain dealer-- the headline is anatomy of competition 2 museums bid for bodies and if you can elaborate little be more by asking questions about the morals of the people who are behind this morbid business, you don't have to add a lot just elaborate on what I have written and organize it more -- note: I need this essay by 3pm today 12/14/04 I want you to use words like
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Argument for in Favor of Keeping Animals in Zoos

Words: 2974 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41647202

Zoo Animals

Human beings have kept animals in zoos for centuries, but only relatively recently have the ethical considerations of this practice been widely considered. At one extreme are those individuals and organizations that see no problem keeping animals in zoos and other attractions, in keeping with the long history of animal confinement in the service of human entertainment, and at the other extreme are those individuals and groups arguing that animals should not be kept in zoos out of ethical considerations. However, this dichotomy has been complicated in recent years as zoos have increasingly become some of the most important centers of animal conservancy efforts, forcing a reevaluation of the ethical status of zoos in regards to the animals they contain, and the potential benefit they provide. Examining the history of zoos, their potential for harm, and the ways they might better consider animal welfare reveals that not only…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bostock, Stephen. Zoos and animal rights: the ethics of keeping animals. London: Routledge,

1993.

Cohn, Jeffrey P. "Do Elephants Belong in Zoos?" Bioscience 56.9 (2006): 714-7.

Cui, Bingbing, and Dezhong Jiang. "The Problems and Countermeasures of Animal Protection in Zoos-Take Shenyang Glacier Zoo for Example." International Journal of Biology 3.1