A) How are the contexts and deceptions different?
In the two articles, "Lying for Love in the Modern Age, Deception in Online Dating" and "Exoneration of Serious rongdoing via Confession to a Lesser Offense," the two authors describe different ways in which people lie to one another in the modern world. The major difference between the two presented categories of deception is the way in which it affects others. "Lying for Love in the Modern Age, Deception in Online Dating" deals with how human beings lie to one another in a romantic context. The online age has made it easier for potential partners to win over another person without having to be honest about anything in their lives. hen a person signs up for an online dating site, or goes into a chat room, they present themselves to the audience in a certain way which can very well have…… [Read More]
If an individual is cognizant of their actions and demonstrate a level of regret directed toward their behavior or its implications, does this suggest the individual is truly aware of their behavior (i.e. The theoretical "information" defined earlier) and therefore incapable of engaging in "self-deception" at this point? This is a deeply philosophical question to answer, one that escapes the confines of what is analyzed here; however in addressing this question at the margins, will impact the level to which "self-deception" is prevalent and influential throughout the literary analysis involving Jack and illie -- the professor and the dutiful student. The individual "plays a role"; engages in acting to create a false paradigm that lends itself to the further creation of a false consciousness. Does Jack do this? One could argue that he does, as will be demonstrated, by transforming himself into a political hatchet man after he is introduced…… [Read More]
Benefits could also be perceived on a more individual level, in that participants receive financial compensation for their involvement in the study.
III. DECEPTION in ESEACH
Laura Stark (2005, p. 2) recognizes that there has been tension in psychology research between the moral abhorrence associated with deception in research, and the perception of its necessity. According to Stark (p. 3), the federal government realized the necessity of regulation in terms of deception in psychological research. This realization brought about the National esearch Act of 1973, according to which certain guidelines and regulations were established to take into account the rights of human subjects in research. In the same year, researchers were also provided with the right to not fully disclose the details of research if this were considered to be necessary.
Stark (p. 10) notes that the main reasons for deception in psychological research during the 1950s and 1960s related…… [Read More]
He quotes the claims that they customarily begin with the demand "If you know what's good for you, you'll confess," and cites various experts in criminal law enforcement who state that police "con" and "bull*****" their suspects, that they use coercion, deception and are not willing to change. He counters this last assertion by claiming that historically, American police have made radical changes in their tactics and must certainly make changes in their questioning techniques. He states that the history of police over the last 100 years is a history of radical change, and that they can continue to better their methods.
Barker, T. And Carter, D. (1990). Fluffing up the evidence and covering your ass: Some conceptual notes on police lying. Deviant Behavior. Vol. 11(1).
Conti, .P. (1999). The psychology of false confessions. The Journal of Credibility Assessment and Witness Psychology. Vol 2(1). Boise State University Department of…… [Read More]
Benedick pretended not to know who Benedick was but he was apparently unsuccessful since Beatrice insulted him by calling him 'the prince's jester' among many other insults. Benedick's conversations with Claudio and Don Pedro indicated that he had been very hurt by Beatrice's comments. This provided another clue to his real feelings for Beatrice and his reasons for trying to hide his true from her identity behind the mask. Meanwhile, Antonio is paired up with Ursula at the same party. She recognized him immediately but Antonio insisted that he was only pretending to be Antonio, suggesting that he may have had feelings for her just as Benedick had for Beatrice (or at least a curiosity to know more about her).
In Othello, deception also led to tragic downfall of the leading female character, Desdemona, as well as of the leading male character, Othello. Iago had slandered Desdemona and had shown…… [Read More]
Deception of the Tobacco Industry
Smoking is a factor, and an important factor, in the production of carcinoma in the lung," wrote Richard Doll and radford Hill some fifty years ago. It was this first study which would initiate all others. It was this first study which would be expanded and eventually establish smoking as a major health risk linking it to problems including everything from heart disease to bronchitis, from indigestion to impotence. And it was this first study which would spark the controversies still surrounding smoking, smokers and the tobacco industry.
For over fifty years the tobacco industry has repeatedly demonstrated a callous and irresponsible demeanor. Throughout the years the industry has lied to the public about the harmful effects of cigarettes and they have consciously marketed their product toward youth, minorities, and the poor. The following pages will look closely at issues surrounding cigarettes, smoking, and the…… [Read More]
The video provided is a documentary of the men who came to be called The Norfolk Four, and who were accused of the rape and murder of a woman none of them actually knew. The largest problem with this case and the documentary regarding it was not even that the men were wrongly accused, because that can happen to anyone. The issue is the lengths to which the police and prosecutors went in order to make sure they got convictions for these men, even though the way they went about getting these convictions -- and the confessions that started them down that path -- were so flawed that they should have been thrown out immediately. The idea that the confessions were not thrown out is shocking, frightening, and honestly, a little bit nauseating. It seems as though it could happen to any innocent person, all because he or…… [Read More]
" This approach would also help protect computer systems from unauthorized access by insiders as well, he says (3).
In the spirit of "fight fire with fire," Rowe says that because computer hackers typically use deceptive practices (e.g., impersonation, viruses/worms, and denial of service attacks), it just makes good sense to turn the tables on the hackers by using honeypots and honeynets to collect the kinds of information required to do so. Citing examples from nature, Rowe points out that deception is a common defensive tactic, but it can also be used in a more offensive way by deceiving hackers into staying in the system as long as possible; in some cases, though, the author emphasizes that security considerations would require that the hacker simply be disconnected rather than tricked into staying in the system as long as possible. By keeping the system responses as realistic as possible during these…… [Read More]
In that regard, the future applications of Ekman's principles and techniques for identifying concealment of emotions and deception of intentions may improve the accuracy, efficiency, and speed of facial analysis. In general, computer applications are much more capable of analyzing such information accurately than even the best-trained human beings (Ekman, 2003). Deliberate attempts to employ anti-detection techniques to counter the methods of detection introduced by Ekman may indeed be possible with respect to human beings, however, the increased precision with which computers perform the same fundamental analyses of facial expressions is likely much more difficult to circumvent through deliberate facial manipulations.
First, the highly complex mathematical formulae through which computer facial scanning software perform the same analyses of facial expressions use much more precise objective data than those capable of being considered by human beings (Safir,
2003). Second, whereas human detection relies almost exclusively on the examination of each individual…… [Read More]
Conversely, guilty callers generally try to conceal their criminal involvement by requesting help for themselves, providing extraneous irrelevant information, and tend to be somewhat uncooperative while maintaining a calm and collected demeanor (Addams & Harpster, 2008).
During other phases of investigation such as interviews, investigators are trained to detect subtle choices of words that often correspond to intentional deception.
Specifically, individuals attempting to lie to investigators do not lie directly as often as indirectly, such as by omitting information instead of making affirmative statements that are untrue (Sandoval, 2008; Schafer, 2008). Examples of passive attempts to misrepresent information during criminal investigators and sworn testimony tend to employ text bridges in the form of words and phrases like "and then" or "later on" where their criminal conduct took place during the period of time corresponding to those text bridges (Schafer, 2008).
Similarly, guilty individuals attempting to conceal or minimize their connection…… [Read More]
Crisis Negotiation and Deception
Crisis negotiation entails law enforcement communication and interaction with people threatening to cause actual bodily harm or property destruction. This may include hostage takers, suicidal individuals, stalkers, and barricaded subjects (McMains & Mullins, 2010). As can be exemplified by James Harvey's case, the distress characterizing such incidents coupled with lack of full control over the situation may tempt law enforcers to engage in deceptive tactics aimed at diffusing tensions (Frances, 1995; Lakhani, 2007). In 1988, Harvey held hostage a group of children in a class. After lengthy negotiations, Harvey was offered videotaped pardon from the Governor in return for a public press opportunity where he would air his grievances. As a result, Harvey surrendered his weapon after which he was wrestled to the ground and arrested (Frances, 1995). The promises offered were never fulfilled. In a similar case - State vs. Sands - the immunity offered…… [Read More]
Ethics and Investigation: The Use of Deception
The following study identifies the ethical codes of conduct required in any form of service especially in the government and ways it can be breached. The particular situations under which such codes are violated include during criminal investigations and interrogations. This is discussed alongside the debate on whether it is ethically correct to use deception and lies during investigations. Finally, the paper gives a judgment on whether the investigators are justified to breach the code of ethics during investigative missions. A definition of two contrasting schools of thought known as the ontological ethics and deontological ethics is also given at the introduction section.
Criminal investigation is one very complex field of administration globally. Ideally, the subject being dealt with touches on some of the most serious offences punishable according to the laws of any jurisdiction. As a result, culprits will likely prefer…… [Read More]
509). Likewise, in a conventional military context, Davis and Shapiro describe anti-access and area denial as being "cost-imposing strategies," a description these authors suggest is particularly useful in the counterterrorism context. In addition, game theory can help avoid military confrontations altogether, thereby avoiding unnecessary friendly casualties. In this regard, Schofield (1999) emphasizes that, "The inevitability of armed conflict in the classical sense is not a foregone conclusion in a terrorist incident, but hinges on many variables" (p. 8). Finally, as Davis and Shapiro (2003) point out, "Projecting and sustaining power in distant antiaccess and area-denial environments is now one of the Department of Defense's key operational goals of the military transformation" (p. 42). In this environment, identifying more effective approaches to the management of these battlefield scenarios has assumed new relevance and importance.
Scope of Study
The scope of the proposed study will extend to an analysis of relevant resources…… [Read More]
The court ruled that the police impaired her free choice by going beyond the evidence connecting her to the crime and introducing a completely extrinsic consideration in the form of an empty but plausible threat to take away something to which she and her children would otherwise be entitled." (DiPietro, 1)
It is conceivable that this could be drawn on as a cause for inadmissibility of evidence yielded by the extrinsic threat of a death penalty which is an 'empty but plausible threat.' In essence, this was an act which diluted the defendant's conceptions of his own rights. That he was a minor at the time of this exchange implies further that he was particularly vulnerable to this type of distortion.
Those things said, it remains inherently problematic that the confession came outside the context of a coercive or inappropriate interrogation. The voluntary nature of the confession and the fact…… [Read More]
Psychology is one of those fields that often butts heads with religion. It does this in the sense that sometimes conclusions and outcomes from research can run counter to the religious beliefs that the psychologist holds near and dear. Christianity is certainly one of the religions that encounters a lot of discord with psychology given the ubiquity of both psychology and Christianity in the modern era of the United States, Europe and other fully modern countries. In a modern context, it would seem to be increasingly more likely for psychology and Christianity to butt heads. Just one example would be the fact that many Christians cite the Holy Bible verses that seemingly deride homosexuality as inherently sinful and wrong. Psychology held the perspective for quite a long time that homosexuality was the sign of a mentally ill or mentally defective human being rather than being a product of genetics.…… [Read More]
Shaping up to Fit in"
This is a paper on the image of beauty produced by the mass media. 4 references are given.
In the 20th century the mass media has played a major role in advocating and propagating an ideology of female beauty. For the past few decades' fashion has passionately endorsed thinness to the point of emaciation to be the manifestation of true beauty and the mass media has been the tool used for disseminating this view. Dr. Allison Field, of Brigham and Women's Hospital is a strong advocate of the opinion that media influences are causing an increase in unhealthy practices including eating disorders amongst young women. One such example is that of Marne Greenberg, a victim of propaganda who fought with bulimia all through her teens. In her search for a new self-image Greenberg said, "It doesn't matter who you are, you always want to…… [Read More]
The internet has provided many new experiences and adventures since its arrival nearly two decades ago. As with any new piece of technology, there are opportunities to utilize this tool in many different ways and with many different purposes. The internet is in essence neutral. Anyone from anywhere may post and contribute to the community, with very little cost or resources.
America is a nation known to be addicted to warfare and violence. Nearly every day of the 20th and 21st century, the United States has been mired in some sort of violent struggle or another. Americans are bloodthirsty, violent and embrace the death and destruction of others as represented in their culture. Peace and cooperation are not ideals that are well thought of within the vengeful borders of America.
The purpose of this essay is to describe how America uses internet technology to push their fascist and…… [Read More]
Deliberately deceptive language manipulates the audience. This is as true for the use of propaganda for nefarious political purposes, such as voter manipulation, as it is for good old-fashioned maintenance of prejudices via the proliferation of stereotypes. Advertising is replete with manipulative language constructed to sell products and services. Language can be used to distract, impress, persuade, and achieve goals other than the direct communication of thoughts and ideas. Specific techniques such as vicious abstraction, weasel words, and suppressed quantification used to manipulate and deceive for the purposes of social control.
Some specific techniques of manipulative language are used so often, that they seem like a natural part of human discourse. Becoming aware of deceptive language can be summarily difficult. Suppressed quantification is one deliberately deceptive use of language that is common enough in everyday discourse that it can go unnoticed. As Harris (2000) points out, "Suppressed quantification occurs…… [Read More]
Volkswagen Got Away With Diesel Deception
Identify and discuss the main problems or concerns mentioned in this Organization
The main problem mentioned in the Volkswagen scandal is the admission that approximately 11 million of its manufactured vehicles were fitted with software aimed to obfuscate emission tests. In particular, the equipped software detected when the car was being tested and then the software triggered apparatus that reduced emissions. The other malcontent is that in times of regular driving, the software turned down the apparatus, which in turn gave rise to an increase in emissions that were excessively beyond the legal limits. This was most probably with the intent to have fuel savings or to improve the torque and acceleration of the car (Gates et al., 2017). The company admitted guilty to multiple criminal charges in the United States and has allocated more than $20 billion for penalties and compensation associated with…… [Read More]
detecting deception and analyzing truthfulness. In a world where most average people find it quite difficult to distinguish truths from lies, law enforcement officials must train themselves to better detect the psychological and physical clues associated with lying. This ultimately means using combined strategies to find red flags and then drill suspects on issues that may signify deception. elying solely on tests may not be as reliable as taking a more holistic approach to detecting deception.
The complex nature of understanding truthfulness and deception has to be broken down into smaller concepts, so that law enforcement officials can effectively use their skills to detect deception. There is no single, fool proof way to catch some one in a lie. In fact, every person has their own different cues and idiosyncrasies they do when they lie. It is the job of law enforcement officials to understand the most common cues and…… [Read More]
Deception is an integral part of the police arsenal during interrogation. The tactics and techniques of deception have been finely honed, and continue to improve to allow for effective interrogation and information retrieval. Within the framework of judicious police interrogation, the techniques and tactics can be employed effectively, efficiently, and ethically. A few, like the eid Technique, have been criticized for their misuses and for their tendency to create false confessions (McKee, 2014). Other tactics and techniques do deserve to remain part of the overall law enforcement strategy, especially when the tactics and techniques preserve the integrity of the investigation. One of the most commonly used deceptive interrogation tactics is minimization. Minimization is used to engender trust and establish a bond of communication with the suspect. The law enforcement officer basically bluffs throughout the interview, downplaying the severity of the crime itself, feigning sympathy with the suspect's point-of-view, and…… [Read More]
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…… [Read More]
), [he knows] that media companies are responsive to pressure when it is sustained, sophisticated and well executed," he fails to offer any concrete examples of this kind of pressure or how it might actually be applied (Schechter, 2003, p. 242). He does propose "a Media and Democracy Act, an omnibus bill that could be a way of showing how all of these issues are connected," but he does not provide any details of what might actually be included in this all-encompassing piece of hypothetical legislation (p. 242). Rather, he simply asserts that this potential legislation (that, if it actually included regulations to effectively combat the problems with American journalism would almost certainly never have passed at the time of his writing and would still be extremely unlikely now) could magically "create one easy to market and explain package of proposals that can forge a coalition with many stakeholders and…… [Read More]
These are the systems in which people are eager to utilize all of their capabilities for their jobs and carry out their task effectively. (Lancioni, 2002) These Workshop engage all the participants rapidly in the simulations. Throughout these simulations participants agree upon the fact that everyone -- every individual -- at different times, experience being on the Top, or sometimes in the Middle, sometimes in the Bottom, we are sometimes Customer and sometimes Supplier -- and our position changes a lot of times even in one day. The Organizational Workshops are highly effective in increasing knowledge and giving insight of systemic conditions that are present in an organization and how everyone react individually towards such conditions. They provide an opportunity to learn latest leadership and other related strategies to handle these systemic conditions as soon they take place. These workshops teach how to improve team collaboration, job performance every day…… [Read More]
Another form of deception involves the use of imaginary witnesses that the suspect is told already explained the entire story to police. This is done in the hopes that the suspect will believe he or she is already caught so they tell the truth and confess.
It is acceptable to use such deceptions in interrogations because of the person being interrogated didn't commit the crime they will not know many of the details.
Even if they try to provide a false confession the details will be sketchy which will rule them out as the perpetrator. If they have all of the unpublicized details they are most likely the person who committed the crime.
Because most deception is employed only after the suspect executes a valid waiver of Miranda rights, Miranda offers suspects little protection from deceptive interrogation techniques (Magid, 2001)."
Deception during interrogations is a necessary tool that…… [Read More]
Although he says his book is not an attack on feminists, feminists become the villains in his book. In Robertson's view, feminists are a monolithic ideological block. He speaks about feminists in broad, sweeping terms: "Feminist advocates of the working mother model of social organization claimed that the quantity of time," was irrelevant to the child's upbringing, he sneers (30). To say that quality rather than quantity time is important when discussing childrearing practices, however, is far different than saying that quantity is irrelevant, or that working mothers have no concern for the amount of hours they spend away from young children. Feminists surely have a wide variety of views on the matter, and some feminists support flexible work time arrangements as well as day care.
Robertson shows his ideological again orientation when he says: "the media elites will not take on feminists," despite the fact that numerous media exposes…… [Read More]
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…… [Read More]
Moral philosophy also can take on a nonconsequentialist perspective, which is more "binding with moral rules or duties and consequences" (Smith, Kimmel, & Allan 19). As such, the moral action would have been to tell the truth; yet, Discover deliberately misled customers, avoided discussing fees, and sped through sales pitches in order to confuse potential buyers. Discover should have clearly notified all buyers of fees at the very beginning of the conversation. Finally, there is a third philosophy which would critique Discover's actions. From a Didactic tradition, it is important for a moral person to teach and express their morality in order to help inspire similar moral actions in others. Socrates was one of the most infamous teachers who aimed to help expand and model the examined life. His criticism here would be clearly based on the fact that Discover held a high respect within the banking industry. If it…… [Read More]
J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.
A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.
4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…… [Read More]
risk-free because an experiment exposes its participants to a number of variables that can impact psychological or physical well-being. To determine if a given study is worth performing, scientists frequently conduct analyses to determine the risk/benefit ratio of a given area of research. Potential risks of research include exposure of the subjects to harmful substances or dangerous situations. For example, when testing a new drug, pharmaceutical researchers will be subjecting their test subjects to chemicals with potential side effects. In extreme cases, the detrimental effects of the chemical may be fatal, such as when a subject has unknown allergies to a given substance. Such issues will be taken into account when making a risk/benefit assessment. In other cases, the participants may be at risk for psychological harm from being exposed to highly stressful situations. For example, in a study on nightmares or on anger, the participants may experience high levels…… [Read More]
John Rawls' philosophical theme centers on the topic of "justice as fairness." It's hard not to relate this to one of the growing topics of discussion, namely the importance of digital deception which might well include the idea of airbrushing photos and images. Technology has the capacity today to provide us all with a Veil of Ignorance (Freeman, 2009) that even Rawls did not see coming and one that has the capacity of wiping away the honest elements of rationality and reason that he believes is necessary for people to be able to work together toward a balanced and honest society that works well for everyone.
The issue of airbrushing models or maybe the basic characteristics of those we admire or who are the attention of a public event can mean nothing more than making pictures prettier. This as we know can mean relatively little, or it can lead…… [Read More]
Otter -- Crockett -- cook
s William Otter's a History of My Own Time a rags-to-riches success story? To what extent does it conform to the themes associated with the Cult of the Self-Made Man and to what extent does it deviate?
William Otter's autobiographical work A History of My Own Time (1835) is truly what one would call a "rags-to-riches" tale, yet it can also be viewed as being quite the opposite. Otter started out in several professions -- a shoemaker with John Paxton in New York City, the venetian blind-making business with William Howard, a carpenter with Gausman, and finally, the bricklaying and plastering business with Kenweth King. Following these flings as an apprentice, Otter then decided to attend school with a "liberal attention to classic lore," but Otter's involvement with heavy drinking at the taverns and his association with many of New York's toughest street gangs severely…… [Read More]
Nothingness reflects a relation with being (Sartre 309-328). As such, the human mind holds the only responsibility of drawing a conclusion of nothingness due to lack of it relative to being.
The attendant responsibility of the human mind lies in the ability to discern and differentiate on the aspects of existence and lack of existence. The ability to identify being correct proves a crucial step towards the identification of nothingness, due to the relation between the two. Therefore, the radical freedom at the disposals of the human mind enhances the undertaking of the responsibility of identification, analysis and differentiating between being and nothingness.
The rise of bad faith arises in the acceptance of nothingness at the expense of being. Sartre defines self-deception as a situation where the mind, by its freedom, chooses to deliver a situation of not being in place of being itself (Sartre, 328-348). it, therefore, allows the…… [Read More]
Bringing up the aspects of personhood that help create identity can help start a dialogue and encourage critical and creative thinking in the class. Teachers can raise issues related to race, class, gender, religion, and power in a sensitive, culturally competent manner and then perhaps create lessons that encourage students to explore their own backgrounds and identities. However, when individual students or a group of students are unaware of some aspects of their identity, teachers have a tougher job.
In many cases, those aspects of a student's identity that he or she does not recognize will not be related to race, class, gender, or power. They may be personality traits or biases. In other cases, students might echo the prejudicial beliefs of their parents. Teachers have a responsibility to expose prejudice and bias for what they are, but in a way that does not offend students. As students mature and…… [Read More]
On the other hand, like Sophocles' Oedipus the King, Shakespeare also used the concept of uncertain vision as a major theme in Othello; but unlike Sophocles, the source of this uncertain vision did not come from some unearthly source, but from the machinations of an evil character. It is deception and outright lies, told by Iago, which create the conditions for certain characters to become suspicious and sustain erroneous beliefs that ultimately leads to tragedy. In the second scene of the very first act, Iago demonstrates his power of deception and manipulation by provoking Branbanzio into becoming enraged at the idea of his daughter, Desdemona, sexually involved with the African, Othello. Shakespeare cleverly used a common slang term for intercourse by stating "…your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs." (Shakespeare, I, i) and it is Branbanzio's own racism that clouds his vision and brings…… [Read More]
For Peter Mazur, the two creation myths of the origins of the individual gods Apollo and Hermes represented two polar forces in the universe of man, two necessary ways the gods were a presence in the fate of human creation, as a tricking and deceitful force but also as a force of indomitable strength.
For example, night may be either a kindly protection for a hero under attack, or a dangerous cloud leading one astray from a path to glory states Mazur, although Apollo sees Hermes as having the potential to embody both. Apollo also recognizes Hermes as his brother, for Apollo too understands and uses trickery, as well as strums upon his lyre. By showing Hermes through the eyes of Apollo, the author of the hymn has a greater perspicacity, that trickery and the light of the mind are both godly forces and trickery itself, when practiced by the…… [Read More]
eturn of Martin Guerre by Natalie Zamon Davis [...] life of the peasant during the Middle Ages. This book is a fascinating account of a true case that happened during the 16th century in France. The book is also an excellent example of how the peasants lived in the Middle Ages, from what they ate, to how they traveled and what their family lives were like.
This book shows that life in the Middle Ages was difficult and demanding, but it seems a little bit peaceful and serene, too. The main occupations were farming and raising sheep or goats, and there were tradesman in the villages who worked for a living, such as a shoemaker, a blacksmith, and such. Martin Guerre and his family were tile makers, but they also farmed and raised sheep to become relatively prosperous in their small village (Davis 14). The peasants were uneducated, (the Guerre's…… [Read More]
The groom's efforts to win the heart of the bride borders on pathetic. For example, when the bride asks or money for a phone card so she can make her calls privately he gives her ten times more than enough money to do this. She claims the amount is not sufficient and refuses to take it. hen he refuses to give her more she takes his office and car keys and ultimately he has to call the police to get them back. To add insult to injury she tells him of her many boyfriends back home, that she was not a virgin when they met, and the only reason she came here was to show herself to him and now that he has seen her she wants him to buy her a ticket home. And he does. She tells him that because she won't be receiving any more…… [Read More]
For example, in his adventures in the Surprise Valley and Deception Pass Bern Venters learns to care for a woman, Bess, and proves himself to be tender as well as an accomplished rider and herder of cattle. Venters gains a deeper appreciation for the land, as the land and Bess become one: "As he laid the girl down in the shallow hollow of the little ridge with her white face upturned, she opened her eyes. ide, staring black, at once like both the night and the stars, they made her face seem still whiter" (Gray 1912). The beauty of the woman helps him appreciate the beauty of the land, and vice versa.
Caring for Bess in the Deception Pass also teaches Venters how to place the needs others before his own needs. "That done, he spilled the contents of his saddle-bags upon the grass and took stock. His outfit consisted…… [Read More]
If Freud, in his Psychoanalysis Theory, believes that each person - from infancy - represses impulses or desires, which its parents reject - and shuts these unwanted impulses out into the unconscious. These are what he calls repressed thoughts. He suggests that, since this process happens throughout life, that infant grows into adulthood, doing things out of the command of those repressed impulses and desires in the unconscious mind. He concludes that the only way a person with overwhelming repressed material can be cured is for an expert therapist to access his unconscious and bring these repressed material to his conscious awareness. And because it is not conscious, and therefore not within the conscious control of the person, he cannot be responsible for what he does from the irresistible command of his unconscious. This makes Freud a determinist in that he believes that human nature, rather than reason, determines…… [Read More]
To the extent the totality of circumstances suggest that possibility, even acceptance of the most nominal gratuities (i.e. A cup of coffee) is ethically inappropriate.
Similarly, even where the gratuity involved is of nominal value and there is no potential misunderstanding on the part of the individual proffering an otherwise appropriate gratuity, there is the issue of creating the appearance or inference of an improper relationship from the perspective of others observing the exchange. For example, while the proffer and acceptance of a single cup of coffee is excusable within the framework of ordinary positive community relations, the conspicuous regular transfer of even nominal gratuities in the presence of third parties can create an apparent inference of inappropriate influence regardless of whether or not that inference is necessarily accurate.
The SOI is intended to ensure that police officers do not misuse their duly authorized latitude to take different degrees…… [Read More]
He is serving a twenty-five-year sentence for his conviction.
The reason Ebbers was found guilty of criminal fraud, despite being in a business, is because his actions met the above referenced elements of fraud. For example, his filing of false statement was an intentional act that contained an untrue representation of an important fact: WorldCom's accounting. Further, this untrue statement was believed by the company's investors, or in this case, the victims. Further, the investors relied upon Ebbers' statement as being true and thus acted on it in terms of their investment decisions. Finally, as a result of the investor's reliance and action upon Ebbers' false statements, they lost a significant amount of money. Thus, because Ebbers' actions satisfy the elements for criminal fraud, it does not matter whether or not he was acting within a business capacity.
Associated Press (2005): "Former WorldCom Chief Signs Agreement Over Fraud Charges."…… [Read More]
The fact that a novel in the sentimental and seduction genre attained such heights of popularity is, in the first instance, evidence its impact and effect on the psyche and minds of the female readers of the novel. As one critic cogently notes:
hy a book which barely climbs above the lower limits of literacy, and which handles, without psychological acuteness or dramatic power, a handful of stereotyped characters in a situation already hopelessly banal by 1790, should have had more than two hundred editions and have survived among certain readers for a hundred and fifty years is a question that cannot be ignored.
The initial question that obviously arises therefore is what made this book so popular and in what way does this novel speak to the feelings and aspirations of the readers to make it such a perennial favorite. As Fudge ( 1996) notes,
It is…… [Read More]
fathers are taking an increasing part in the role of caring for children and bringing them up, particularly so since women have entered the workforce en flux, social research has increasingly focused on the part that father's play in raising their young children. The current opinion today as regards parenting is that shared parenting is the ideal situation particularly for mothers who are compelled to act as both breadwinners and fully available and concerned parents in a supportive and nourishing environment. Data shows that although the father often attempts to assume the nurturing role, the working mother often still remains the primary responsible caretaker in the family.
Questions that this study attempted to answer, consequently, were the following: Firstly, how do father and children form an attachment relationship in the first few years of life? In which sort of contexts do they do so, given that mothers remain responsible for…… [Read More]
Dow is not the most ethical company to begin with, given their production and distribution of toxic chemicals. The products Dow produces can destroy the environment and potentially threatens the health of their employees as well as their consumers. However, as Greg Miller points out in his article, "Fired by Big Brother: Fearing Sexual Harassment Lawsuits, Dow Chemical Co. In Michigan Fired Workers who Forwarded Lewd E-Mail. Could Your Company Do the Same?" Dow might be guilty of violating further ethical codes, those that pertain to employee relations and basic human rights. A number of Dow employees, a disproportionate number of which were union members, were fired without warning due to their forwarding lewd e-mails. The terminated employees suffered considerable hardships as a result of being fired. Some of them had worked at the company for decades and lost their pensions along with their dignity; many could barely…… [Read More]
Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016
Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health esearch with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99086817
Lewis, D. (1960). Quantitative Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9395983
Newman, I., & Benz, C.. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative esearch Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006987353
Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.… [Read More]
Gender, Sexuality, and Identity -- Question 2 "So, is the category bisexuality less or more threatening to the status quo than is homosexuality?"
The passage suggests that in fact, rather than presenting patriarchic constructs of identity with less threatening formulation of human sexual identity, bisexuality does the exact opposite -- it presents common social norms with the more threatening notion that human sexuality is not an either/or 'Chinese menu' option of stable choices. The practice of homosexuality, even when it is deemed taboo and beyond the pale of the human sexual order is still a 'comfort' to the heterosexual norm. The construct of homosexuality suggests that human sexuality exists in an either/or dichotomy. So long as one is attracted to the opposite gender one is, in essence, safe from the presumably aberrant, even pathological orientation of homosexuality.
However, bisexuality presents a potentially fluid rendering of human sexual desire, whereby even…… [Read More]
Describe at least three internal and external drivers of change for the organization in this simulation.
Internally, organizational changes are driven by three external pressures, as defined by Lewin's along the three-stage model of unfreezing, changing and refreezing employee behaviors. Motivating people during each of these change stages reinforces the acquired behaviors. Unfreezing involves the motivational factor of persuading people to replace the old behaviors and attitude with the preferred behaviors and attitudes by demonstrating the need for change by infusing employees with the knowledge and the confidence that the new behaviors and attitudes are needed to cope with external pressures. (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). hen, refreezing means the new behavior and attitude become integrated into the normal standard operating procedures of the organization. hen, the external pressures of positive reinforcement, modeling and coaching should be used to encourage the desired behaviors continuance. 'Change and constancy are relative…… [Read More]
Colleen -- but then again, when you're dealing with food services, every day's a long day. As she made her way toward the stairs and away from the brooding purgatory that is the HUB (name of cafeteria), shutting off the lights behind her like a row of fluorescent dominoes, the clock on the wall read "10:45." The sound of the door shutting at the top of the stairwell signaled the end of another day at the HUB.
Actually, perhaps this was not true. Just as the door was shutting above, the lights down below flickered on once again to reveal a ghostly line of customers stretching from the "Pizza Hut" station to the cash register. Near the end of the line, Mohandas Gandhi stood with a cup of tea and a veggie wrap balanced on his tray. Martin Luther King stood next to him, his tray empty except for a…… [Read More]
However, there are often no rules, or weak ones, and that can create an ethical dilemma on the part of marketers. They must decide for themselves what lines they want to cross, and set their own codes of ethics. here rules only provide guidelines, these can be open to interpretation. As we have seen with the area of marketing to children, however, the marketing industry has kept ahead of the regulators in how they approach the issue. The government has barely been able to ban Joe Camel, and has no answer for companies that reach children with child-oriented web content that blends.
In order to create a code of ethics where there are no laws to provide guidance, there are bodies that have taken the lead. A company should begin, for example, with a statement of ethical norms from the American Marketing Association (2012). There are three ethical…… [Read More]
Throughout the text of the Odyssey, Odysseus finds recourse to rely on his inner resource to surmount incredible odds in order to finish his journey home. Indeed, often we think of epic heroes using their enormous physical strength to solve a problem, and certainly, Odysseus does have recourse to physical means on more than one occasion. Nonetheless, it is more often that he uses his cleverness and mental agility to defeat opponents who often have greater or strength or significant enough numbers to overcome whatever strength he has. Indeed, this makes sense in the case of Odysseus, because as we know from the Iliad, it was his suggestion to overcome the Trojans by the use of the Trojan Horse. Here, too, Odysseus proved that he was able to solve a difficult conflict that violence could not solve through the power of his cleverness and vision. Indeed, in The Odyssey,…… [Read More]
Reception, Perception and Deception: The Genesis of Slavery
Progress has a way of making itself known to the world, even in a situation where there exists resistance. Considering Olaudah Equiano's "The Interesting Narrative, the issue of slavery throughout the colonial world was as much about assimilation as it was oppression. The conflict between cultures is shown in the nature of the cultural assumptions each makes concerning the other. The British are caught in a tunnel vision that doesn't allow for any considerations outside the belief that their way of life is superior and assume that the tribal culture will logically want to adapt to fit into the more modern way of life. They cannot accept the natives as equals, even as they verbalize their intention as one of attempting to create a hybrid culture. The Ibo, for their part, assume that the British will recognize and honor the way of…… [Read More]
Telling Patients the Truth
In regards to the permissibility of deception on the part of Sokol, the writer (2006) ultimately argues that "withholding…information from…patients would be ethically permissible and, more generally, that honesty is not always the best policy" (p. 19). Sokol reaches this conclusion by evaluating a real life case study in which a daughter is willing to donate her kidney to an individual whom she believes is her father. However, while medically evaluating the former for compliance with kidney transplant criteria, the doctors determined that the pair cannot be biologically related. The critical determinant in Sokol's conclusion (2006) is that "The testing was not done to establish paternity and, from a medical point-of-view, the findings do not preclude…donating" (p. 19). Essentially, the author utilizes this case study to reason that informing the patients of this situation could provide too many unnecessary complications which could negatively impact the kidney…… [Read More]
Manipulation in Never Let Me Go
Manipulation is a relatively dark part of interpersonal relationships that occurs when the manipulator has certain motivations or inner uncertainties. It generally stems from a feeling of insecurity or other forms of unhappiness. The manipulation process is then used to overcome or overshadow these feelings. According to Handelamn (2009, p. 45), "manipulation is not exactly coercion or persuasion or deception." Instead, according to the author, it lies somewhere inbetween the three mentioned actions. This is why manipulation can occur in so many different forms and manifestations. uth's actions in Never Let me Go, for example, take a particularly aggressive aspect when she constantly bullies Kathy and Tommy to do what she wants. By the end of the novel, however, her actions clearly stem from a deep sense of uncertainty based upon the fact that she is a clone rather than a person in her…… [Read More]
To illustrate this concept, deception is used to protect the security of the people and country that the military branch is responsible for protecting. In this case, deception planning and deception execution are used so that the enemy does not acquire an unexpected advantage. If an enemy acquires an unexpected advantage, then the security of the people and country becomes breached.
According to military science, security enhances freedom of action by reducing vulnerability to hostile acts, influence or surprise. This is important to the military force and the enemy because security results from the measures taken by a commander to protect his forces. Knowledge and understanding of enemy strategy, tactics, doctrine, and staff planning improve the detailed planning of adequate security measures (Wikipedia, 2006). The U.S. military has prepared for this by studying the operations management and decision making processes and tactics used at different points in history and by…… [Read More]
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule that prohibits lying, the better rule might be to prohibit only lying for immoral purposes.
In fact, the blind adherence to rules under deontological principles often produces distinctly immoral results: it is difficult to imagine the moral purpose of informing a dying patient that a loved one was also killed in the same accident; nor is there a moral purpose for informing a child who is to young to understand the concept that he was adopted. In Guido's case, the…… [Read More]
The individual believes the lies imposed by society, and sees them for truth. It provides a convenient vehicle for relinquishing the responsibility of freedom. Categories and definitions limit freedom, choice, and the capacity to transcend categorization.
According to rown, it should also be kept in mind that the bad faith concept is somewhat beyond simple self-deception. It is the perpetuation of a "truth" that the individual knows to be in fact false. However, this perpetuation feeds upon itself by the individual's needs for whatever is the result of the deception. For the unhappy worker, for example, bad faith persists as a result of the paycheck, while the unhappy mother would continue in bad faith for the sake of being called a "good" mother, and so on. In Sartre's view then, it appears that there is little that the individual within such a society can do to escape bad faith. Even…… [Read More]
Hamlet does not just put practice his deception on those he views in an adversarial manner, however, but also on his former friends osencrantz and Guildenstern. When they attempt to question him as to what is wrong with him, he seems to be giving them an honest answer when he says "I have of late -- but wherefore I know not -- lost all my mirth" (Shakespeare, 1599). The reader/audience knows that this is a lie; Hamlet has already voiced his suspicions regarding Claudius, but he is unwilling to share them with osencrantz and Guildenstern because he does not trust their feelings towards him. Just the same, Jack deos not trust Gwendolyn's feelings towards him, and so will not reveal that his name is not Ernest. He asks her directly, "But you don't really mean to say that you couldn't love me if my name wasn't Ernest?," which starts an…… [Read More]
The placebo drink smells and tastes like alcohol. Everyone (regardless of condition) believes that they are getting alcohol. He then videotapes each person's communication behavior in a group setting with 10 other people (who are also randomly assigned to the placebo or alcohol condition). Participants sign an informed consent form saying that they are getting alcohol and that they will be participating in a group setting to get to know other people who are also drinking alcohol. They are not told that some of them will think they get alcohol when they are really sober.
There are no ethical issues or problems presented by this case either. Deception was necessary to conduct research in this cases but the type of deception involved in serving placebos instead of alcohol would not present any risk of emotional or other harm to participants. Since the nature of the deception would not cause emotional…… [Read More]
There are three types of stimuli used, which are:
2) Irrelevant; and 3) Probes.
These are used "in the form of words, pictures, or sounds..." which a computer presents for a second or even a partial second. Incoming stimulus, if it is worth noting, results in a P-300, which is an electrical brain response. The P-300 is part of a MERMER or a memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response, which is a larger brain response.
Originally event related potentials (ERP) was the method used for studying brain activity information processing. The limitation of the ERP is that it causes elimination of all patterns that are complex and results in the meaningful signals also being lost. The multifaceted electroencephalographic response analysis or MERA was developed due to the limitation of the ERP. Farwell found that incorporation of this technique resulted in the elicitation of MERMER when the individual…… [Read More]