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Decision theory describes the rules and standards that are used to make some specific form of decision or judgment. With respect to data analysis, decision theory describes the rules and procedures that should be used to interpret the results of the findings in the data. Such rules include hypothesis testing, qualitative data interpretation, and other types of inferential procedures. Probability theory is used in quantitative data analysis and provides the basis for interpretation of data using statistical procedures. Probability theory relates to the understanding of how frequent a particular result or observation is as well as how often the result could occur by chance alone. Probability theory is very important in determining the relevance of any findings; in particular if the findings are significant (meaningful) or if the results are more likely due to chance or random effects. Inference is the process of taking the data and deducing…
LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2006). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Nunnally, J.C. & Bernstein, I.H. (1994). Psychometric theory (Third Edition). New York:
Public Television: A Baby Step To Education And Services-Based Economy
In overcoming their internal constraints as defined in the case study, Nik and his management team must put educational television in the context of a broader strategy of creating vocational schools that will give Kavaians the opportunity to learn trades and skills necessary to the education, healthcare, finance, and tourism services industries. Using public television to provide the baseline series of skills needed by island residents to continue into vocational skills is an example of a strategy that seeks a reciprocal approach to Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) over time (Jansen, 2008). The use of public television to fuel the development of vocational schools could also serve as the catalyst for Nik and his management team to create joint ventures with other learning institutions and enrich Kava's citizens who will need these skills to earn a living in the future. Of…
Jansen, I.. (2008). (Higher) Education for Sustainable Development. Global Watch, 3(3), 47-66.
David Cruise Malloy, James Agarwal. (2003). Factors influencing ethical climate in a nonprofit organisation: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(3), 224-250.
Permani, R. (2009). The Role of Education in Economic Growth in East Asia: a survey. Asian - Pacific Economic Literature, 23(1), 1-20.
Gunther Rehme (2007). Education, Economic Growth and Measured Income Inequality. Economica, 74(295), 493.
I tend to be risk-neutral, as much as possible, but like most people I can be a little bit risk averse. The situations in which I am most risk averse are those when taking the risk does not have a payoff that makes the risk worthwhile. This is probably closest to the minimax approach.
For me, risk is very much situational. There are a few variables that I take into consideration. The first is information. How much information I have will govern the amount of risk I'm willing to take in a situation. Even where I have strong motivation to take a risk, I feel that if I don't know enough, that I should be conservative. If the risk involves something with which I'm quite knowledgeable, I am far more likely to take the risk.
The second variable is how extreme the risk is – the…
Decision-making is an important activity for top management in any enterprise. Strategic thinking is required for making useful decisions. For example, business executives plan strategies to access market share, to deal with employees, to react to competition and to decide on career growth. Decision Sciences is a discipline on its own that provides techniques and methods to take decisions in any practical situations. In this paper, a list of journals and websites that provides information on Decision Sciences is provided. This list is expected to be useful to top management. (America's Investment in the Future: Decision Sciences-How the Game Is being played)
Decision Sciences" is a quarterly, professional journal published by Decision Sciences Institute. This journal utilizes the current methods of mathematics and statistics along with computer technology and behavior science. This journal is read by business professionals and teaching professionals. From 2003, Blackwell Publishing is publishing this…
America's Investment in the Future: Decision Sciences-How the Game Is being played" Retrieved at http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/decision/decisionsx2.htm . Accessed on 21 February 2005
Asia Pacific Decision Sciences Institute: Theme - Collaborative Decision Making in the Internet Era" retrieved at http://www.calpoly.edu/~eli/apdsi/apdsi2005/ . Accessed on 22 February 2005
Decision Analysis Society" Retrieved at http://faculty.fuqua.duke.edu/daweb/ . Accessed on 22 February 2005
Decision Line" (October 2004) Volume 35(5) retrieved at http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol35/35_5/index.htm . Accessed on 21 February 2005
Anderson Children's Hospital (ACH) is an internationally known and recognized pediatric hospital that provides the full range of services from primary to critical care units, located in San Francisco, CA with affiliated care centers throughout the Bay Area. The board of directors at ACH would like to create a mobile-crisis program to be piloted in the City of San Francisco and eventually grow to service the entire Bay Area. The following sections present the process through which the Board of Directors is trying to navigate towards its final decision.
At the core of the following proposal is this 2-part question: Should ACH create a mobile crisis program to be piloted in the City of San Francisco for (up to) one year with the intent of expanding its funding, personnel, and service area over the next 3-5 years throughout the entire Bay Area and if…
Liese, Friedrich and Miescke, Klaus-J. (2008). Statistical Decision Theory: Estimation, Testing, and Selection. Springer.
Bernardo, JE & Smith, Adrian (2000). Bayesian theory. New York: Wiley.
Ahrens, J., & Dieter, U. (1982). Computer Generation of Poisson Deviates. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software 8 (2): 163 -- 179.
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Best of all, any initiative in these areas, priced fairly for the island natives, delivers significant social value, or economic good for the nation and abodes by Mr. Morale's belief that in the long run, economics drives everything needs to be added to that by doing these core processes well, his company is doing good. The social conscience of Mr. Morales is also clear, and the ability to take the company's respected process-centric approach to problem-solving and apply it to the needs of Kava while at the same time earning a profit is a win/win for both the company and the nation. The concentration on healthcare especially and the development of a pediatrics clinic, potentially even underwritten by the local government for the citizens would also be significant in its contribution and revenue potential.
What Alex and Nik need to do is find broken processes in key areas and set…
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997). "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering." MIT Sloan School Working Papers available on the Internet, accessed on February 5, 2007:
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1995). "Why Not One Big Database? Principles for Data Ownership." Decision Support Systems 15.4 (1995): 267-284.
The Agenda (2003) - Chapter 4: Put Processes First. The Agenda: What Every Business Must Do to Dominate the Decade. Accessed from Michael Hammer and Company website on February 5, 2007:
46). Likewise, Gillispie suggests that an incremental approach can be used to "test the waters" for even very small companies seeking to project an internationalized presence. In this regard, Gillespie recommends that companies, "Craft a scaleable master design that represents the major aspects of your business worldwide and anticipates the degree of localization that will be required in each market. The degree of localization can have a real impact on budgets and timelines" (2008, p. 45). These are important factors for companies in general where limited resources and a lack of experience may preclude more aggressive internationalization initiatives, and these issues are directly related to a company's internal resources as discussed further below.
The company has a wide range of specialized internal resources which are described in Table 2 below.
Internal resources of BG Limited
BG's Specialist Cleaning division offers a…
Angola. 2011 CIA World Factbook. [online] available: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications / the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.
Black's Law Dictionary. 1999 St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Carthew, A. 2006, September/October 'Spreading the Word.' Communication World, vol. 23,
no. 5, pp. 30-32.
The dominant, goal-oriented person can focus on the ultimate objective, the influence-based person can examine the interpersonal dynamics of the decisions that must be made, the steady person can foster harmony and a positive atmosphere, and the conscientious person can stay on task in a reliable fashion. hile clashing personalities can thwart reaching positive and goal-directed solutions, they can create a better solution and check the excesses of one another, like the selfishness and refusal to consider the human element in the dominant personality, the disorganization of the influence-based person, the risk-adverse views of the steady person, and the rule-bound contentious type. Communication can be facilitated through email and other constant types of technological contact on a daily basis -- this can create better group bonding, although there is always a risk that the brevity and informality of the format can create rather than break down barriers.
Modern decision-making theory,…
DISC: Explanations and preferences. (2005). Changing minds. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
Decisions are an important part of everyday life, organizations, and particular of leadership goals and behaviors. We know that managers and leaders are not the same, and true leadership roles are often expressed by the mastery of being able to overcome some of the basic issues of poor decision making.
Failing to remember goals -- The old maxim of measure for success fits with the idea of goal setting. If one sets goals, keeps monitoring those goals, and then reassesses the goals, one will have an easier chance of success. Goals should always be in place and everyone in the organization should, in theory, have combined tactical goals that fit the organization's strategic goals.
Overconfidence -- There is a fine line between overconfidence and being confident. Overconfidence often implies a degree of arrogance that causes one to be egotistical and self-centered and not listen to others or see the reality…
Howell, J. And Costley, D. (2000). Understanding Behaviors for Effective Leadership.
New York: Prentice Hall.
Knapp, J. (2007). Leaders on Ethics: Real-World Perspectives on Today's Business
Challenges. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
The partnership strategy will bring capital investment to the island in the form of clinics while at the same time creating jobs for graduates. The same model needs to be applied to the banking industry as well. Creating an alliance strategy that will attract banking partners to Kava to create micro-lending programs and open branches will in turn create jobs for the Kava Educational Network. It will also serve as a source of funding to pay for vocational school tuitions as well. Throughout the strategic planning process, the potential to both enrich the island from a socio-economic basis through CS programs (Estes, 2008) while also building out key industries to ensure their profitable growth (ehme, 2007) is key. The strategic plan will need to balance the defining of the educational business as the foundation and the definition of healthcare and banking as the immediate industries of interest.
Evaluating the Ethical…
Estes, P. (2008, September). Value Add for the Community. Mergers and Acquisitions, 43(9), 77.
David Cruise Malloy, James Agarwal. (2003). Factors influencing ethical climate in a nonprofit organisation: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(3), 224-250.
Gunther Rehme (2007). Education, Economic Growth and Measured Income Inequality. Economica, 74(295), 493.
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…
Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management
Executives.18 (4): 108-117.
Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."
Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
In other words, throughout the transition period, Onetech would create efficiencies and would consolidate its position. In the future however, it is recommended that the company moved towards a strategy of diversification, as this would better satisfy customers' needs, attract them and as such create market power for the firm (Markides, 2007).
The decision making process at Onetech
The decision making process at Onetech is quite intricate, revealing both strengths, as well as weaknesses. Decisions are for instance made at the level of the board and are based on the expertise gathered by the various major players in the firm. Still, the decisions are made by the executives, with little emphasis on the input which could be provided by the employees.
In order to better assess the decision making process at Onetech, it is appropriate to analyze it through the lenses of the rational decision making model. This model consists…
Cologon, D.R., Cohen, D.R., 2008, FileMaker Pro 9 Bible, John Wiley and Sons
Hage, M., 2007, A stakeholder concern towards an economix theory on stakeholder governance, Uitgeverij Van Gorcum
Jacobs, P.K., 2000, Minding the muse: the impact of downsizing on corporate creativity, Harvard Business School, http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/1518.html last accessed on November 30, 2011
Markides, C.C., 2007, Diversification, refocusing and economic performance, MIT Press
My taxonomy of decision-making approaches will be based, somewhat loosely, on brain dominance theory combined with what I have seen in my experience. The underlying principle is that people are either analytical or emotional in their decision making. These are the two basic types, but within these there are differences as well. For example, rational decision-making can be purely statistical -- using the numbers to guide the process, or it can be more qualitative-rational. On the emotional side, decision making can be "gut," which is fairly reactive, or it can be based on past performance, so more of a "what has worked before."
In the middle is a hybrid, which relies on a heavy amount of analysis, before the final decision is based more on feel. There might not be a much academic support for this one, but I do it myself all the time. The use of gut…
Decision making is a term that can be described as the process of choosing between alternatives and entails identification, development, and selection. Based on academic literature decision making and analysis can be widely divided into two schools of thoughts i.e. analytic and experiential or incremental decision making processes (Sipp & Carayannis, 2013, p.18). The analytic school of thought on decision making and analysis primarily focuses on problem definition and identification, assessment and selection of alternatives. In this school of thought, implementation in the decision making process basically entails simple execution of the cautiously selected alternative. On the contrary, even though experiential or incremental school of thought incorporates the two major steps in decision making just like the other school of thought, it focuses more on the execution of the alternative. This school of thought on decision making also utilize feedback to make necessary adjustments to the selected alternative in order…
Barnard, M. & Stoll, N. (2010, October). Organizational Change Management: A Rapid Literature Review. Retrieved from Bristol Institute of Public Affairs website: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/cubec/migrated/documents/pr1.pdf
Choi, M. & Ruona, W.E.A. (2011, March). Individual Readiness for Organizational Change and Its Implications for Human Resource and Organization Development. Human Resource Development Review, 10(1), 46-73.
Manuela, P.V. & Clara, M.F. (n.d.). Resistance to Change: A Literature Review and Empirical Study. Retrieved from University of Valencia website: http://www.uv.es/~pardoman/resistencias.PDF
Mykkanen, M. & Vos, M. (2015). The Contribution of Public Relations to Organizational Decision Making: Insights from the Literature. Public Relations Journal, 9(2), 1-17.
" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009).
Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup and the Bank of America needed second rounds of capital infusions, and federal guarantees against losses totaling tens of billions more -- while Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, warned that more capital injections might be needed to further stabilize the financial system. On Jan. 16, the Senate voted 52-42 to release the second round of funds (Gerth, 2009).
THE GEITHNER PLANS -on Feb. 10, Mr. Geither presented the rough outlines of the Obama administration's plan. A central piece of the proposal would create one or more so-called bad banks that would rely on taxpayer and private money to purchase and hold banks' bad assets. Another centerpiece of the plan would stretch the last $350 billion that the Treasury has…
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
Planning Decision Making
Planning and decision making are two main and fundamental processes of an organization. Planning is one of the main factors with the help of which an organization can determine where it wants to be in the future. It is planning with the help of which an organization can determine as to what can be done in order to accomplish the mission and aims that an organization has. One of the basics that are followed during planning includes achievement of the objectives that the organization has. In order to have better planning, there are four main facts that are needed to be kept in mind by the planners in the organizations. These include mission, values, resources, as well as the environment of the organization as these are the four main facts that help in having better planning within the organization.
Decision making is the second important foundation of…
Beecher, J.A. (1996). Avoided cost: an essential concept for integrated resource planning. Water resources update (104).
Boutilier, C., Dean, T., and Hanks, S. (1999). Decision-Theoretic Planning: Structural Assumption and Computational Leverage. Journal of Articial Intelligence Research 11 (1999)1-94.
Dreu, D., Carsten K.W., and West, M.A. (2001). Minority dissent and team innovation: the importance of participation in decision making. Journal of applied psychology, 86 (6), pp. 1191-1201.
Kiker, G.A., Bridges, T.S., Varghese, A., Seager, T.P., and Linkovj, I. (2005). Application of Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Environmental Decision Making. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 1, pp. 95 -- 108.
Theories on How Companies Deal With Debt and Financial Distress
Companies can use two popular theories to conceptualize their capital structure. Pecking Order (POT) and Trade-Off (TOT) are always used interchangeably when proving organizations are seeking to ease their way of making capital structure decisions. The following study elucidates the differences between the two theories.
The Pecking Order vs. Trade-Off
The Trade-Off Theory refers to the concept that a company chooses how much equity finance and how much debt finance to use through balancing the benefits and costs (Agarwal, 2013). This theory explains that organizations are often financed partly with equity and partly with debt. Pecking Order Theory argues that the cost of financing increases with asymmetric data. There are three sources of financing for a company: internal funds, new and debt equity. Firms prioritize their financing sources. First, they prefer preferring internal financing, and then debt, lastly equity is…
2010 annual report of estJet and discusses their information and measurement approaches on financial reporting.
The following items from the annual report follow the measurement perspective on decision usefulness: Frequent Guest Program FGP), financial instruments and compensation plan. estJet has "a frequent guest program that allows guests to accumulate credits that entitle them to a choice of various rewards, primarily discounted travel. Revenue received in relation to credits issued is deferred as a liability at fair value until a reward is ultimately utilized, at which time it is recognized as guest revenue. Fair value is management's estimate of the expected awards for which the credit will be redeemed and is reduced by the proportion of credits that have been redeemed relative to the total number expected to be redeemed" (estJet 67).
Also included in the FGP is estJet's co-branded MasterCard " with the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC). RBC issues…
"WestJet Annual Report 2010." WestJet. 2011: 1-96.
The Garbage Can Model in Greater Detail
In theory, the GCM views the entire universe of organizational problems and solutions to those problems as a garbage can in which all problems and all possible solutions are tossed (Daft, 2005). The GCM also views the garbage can as containing solutions to some problems that might not have even manifested themselves yet in the organization but which might become useful in connection with some of those problems that materialize after solutions have already been devised generally (Daft, 2005).
There are four principal parameters that Cohen and March described in relation to the organizational problems encountered in anarchistic situations are: (1) Problems, defined as issues requiring change to the existing situation; (2) Solutions, defined as ideas proposed to address problems; (3) Participants, defined as employees who may come and go from the organization; and (4) Choice Opportunities, defined as situations requiring decisions (Daft,…
Daft, R. (2005) Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Locke's Theory Of Punishment
John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and understanding, theory of mind and several other concepts regarding political philosophy and ethics. orn in 1632 and died in 1704, Locke is unanimously termed as the Father of Classical Liberalism since during the enlightenment era; he was amongst the most influential and widely followed scholars. Many of his works regarding liberalism and republicanism have been included into the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution, due to their authenticity and practicality in real terms.
Locke also performed as a government official who was authorized to collect information regarding to trade with the entire colonies. This experience allowed him to be in close contact with the political activities and eventually led him to write upon the authorization and legislation customs for the…
Locke, J. (1924). Of civil government: Two treatises. London: J.M. Dent & Sons.
In ode to get beyond such shallow viewpoints, they need to meely use such diffeences as the stating point fo thei conception of people fom othe ethnicities, and actually get beyond that bing about an impovement in inteacial elations.
As such, it is extemely inteesting to note how sociological concepts of standpoint theoy and systems of pivilege typify many of the esponses that Chistenson had to opinions and statements voiced by othe men in the video. Fo the most pat, Chistenson's esponses eithe contained an element of ignoance o outight disbelief to many of the social baies and misconceptions that the men of colo spoke about. These poclivities of Chistenson can widely be ationalized via standpoint theoy, which poses the notion that people's system of beliefs is geatly affected by the social goup they ae a pat of. Moeove, this theoem places a fai amount of emphasis on hegemony, a…
references within this article, he explains how people tend to follow those who are in authority, and also display the tendency to not desire to deviate from the norm. Doing so within the social context of interracial relations, for instance, would require regarding people with less power and privilege in a manner in which there is social equality -- which is a character trait that is not generally part of human nature, which tends to follow an established tradition. Meyer's article implies that nice people would rather go along and do what everybody else is doing, adhering to any authority figures along the way, that deviate and actually think for themselves and treat people differently as a result. This article denotes all the more reason why it is important to merely use the differences in various ethnic groups as a starting point for the nature of interracial relations.
In summary, there is a plentiful amount of evidence that denotes that there are pronounced differences afforded to people of different social standings. Privilege theory and standpoint theory indicate that these differences can account for the bulk of the way that people view and, ultimately, treat other people. Johnson's first two chapters in his manuscript confirm the degree of privilege afforded to those of historical majority groups in the U.S. Meyers' indicates that people will tend to conform to such unfair treatment of others -- unless they make a conscious decision to only use ethnic differences as a starting point, not ending point, for the basis of treatment between races.
Therefore, decision makers evaluate only a reasonable number of alternatives and choose the best one from their comparisons (Kantrow, 1987).
A made a similar decision based on the rational decision making model. When recently, I decided to buy a car, I knew that I had a problem, since without using car it was taking many hours from work to the home. Therefore, I was able to identify the problem. In next step, I needed to decide which car to buy at an affordable price range. In this step, I evaluated several cars, along with their comfort level, rating, and price range. Though evaluating all of these cars took a long amount of time for me, as it required me to research the performance of several cars within the affordable price range. Finally, based on these evaluations, I was able to pick a car that I thought was the best on…
Anonymous (2004). Theories of Decision Making the Rational Comprehensive Model. Adapted from commed.atu.edu/EAM3003/READING4.pdf
Huber, G.P. (1991). Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and the Literatures. Organization Science, 2(1), 88-115.
Kantrow, a.M. (1987). The Constraints of Corporate Traditions. New York: Harper & Row.
The advantages of network use are apparent enough and from such an obvious position, it is interesting that there is an inadequacy in the understanding of the processes by which networks function. Thus, the article focuses on the role of network governance and its impact on network effectiveness.
The authors demonstrate that network effectiveness while not entirely illusive is a difficult prospect. This phenomenon is multifaceted and multi-tiered and consequently the solutions that are engaged to create network effectiveness must align themselves with this particular reality. The problems of explicating effectiveness begin at the level of conceptualization and measurement. They note that despite these theoretical impediments effectiveness requires a measure of articulation.
The authors contrast organizational as opposed to network governance and suggests that most of the literature on the subject of governance does not specifically address the issues of the role of networks in the governance dynamic. The establishment…
Dwyer, P.D. And Minnegal, M. (2006). The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Risk, Uncertainty and Decision-Making by Victorian Fishers. Journal of Political Ecology 13:1-23
Emerson, R. (1962). Power-Dependence relations. American sociological review 27 (1):31-41.
Newcomer, K.E. (2007). Measuring Government Performance. International Journal of Public
Administration, 30: 307 -- 329.
decision to purchase, use or consume the product of a particular brand is not simply a utilitarian decision that focuses on what goods a consumer wants, it is also a matter of the consumer's self-image. The customer asks himself, perhaps subconsciously, is he "the type of person" who eats at McDonald's, or uses Bayer aspirin? From there, the customer makes a decision to use, or not use, the product. However, the answers to these questions are less than simple. They are intricately and intrinsically connected to brand image and perception. Consumers are willing to put more money and resources into things that make them feel good about themselves. Companies want to leave their customers feeling good about their purchasing decision, with a raised self-image. However, what makes a person feel good about herself changes as values and society change. More than any other industry, this may be true about food…
Adamson, R. 3 May 2002. "Fast Food Nation." Salon Magazine. Accessed 23 February, 2011
Design Woo. (5 October 2010) McDonald's Redesign: a New Era for Fast-Food Restaurants. Design Woo. Accessed 23 February 2011
Gino F, Norton, MI, & Ariely D. (2010). The counterfeit self: The deceptive costs of faking it. Psychological Science, 21(5), 712-20
HEHER, A. 6 October 2009. Burger King plans "edgy, futuristic" remodel of restaurants. The Huffington Post. Accessed 23 February 2011
theory counseling exist, giving a background fit views personality. My views: Life experiences play a vital role's life. These experiences negatively positively effect future. Our life choice, decide destiny.
In today's mental health services, almost anyone either with a university degree or by paying some fees upon following specific courses, can call himself a therapist or a counselor. That professional training is not required when practicing psychotherapy is either something to be worrying us a lot or something we should be thankful for. In the first case, people may be misleading themselves into thinking they can treat patients with mental health issues simply because they've been accredited by nonaccredited training programs. When information is poor and experience is less, we must consider that patients' situation can either not improve or even worsen. On the other hand, there may be a lot of individuals out there with prolific abilities into treating…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
May, R. (1950). The meaning of anxiety. New York, N.Y.: The Ronald Press Company.
Stewart, I. (1992). Eric Berne. London, California, New Delhi: SAGE Publications Inc.
One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The…
Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bedside-manner
Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).
Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.
McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/40081/68872_1.pdf;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today
Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive.…
Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:
Hinde, Robert A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 17, 1-19. Retrieved from:
Theory vs. Practice
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within…
According to Halpern (1996, p. 197), arguments that utilize irrelevant reasons are fairly common: "The Latin word for this sort of fallacy is non-sequitur, which literally translates to 'it doesn't follow.' In other words, the reason or premise is unrelated to the conclusion." Since relevant premises are a key criteria for building sound arguments, it follows that critical thinkers must learn to recognize and avoid such fallacies.
However, in the real world this is perhaps easier said than done since the use of force often tends to sway decisions in favor of the person who is making the threat, implied or otherwise. An example that comes readily to mind is the manner in which advertisers have coerced sports bodies to disallow ambush marketing: "It is important that any sports body has the right to control what is being brought into their events...to protect the millions of pounds of investment that…
Blair, J.A., Grootendorst, R.F., Henkemans, F.S., Johnson, R.H., Krabbe, E.C.W., Plantin,
C.H., Van Eemeren, F.H., Walton, D.N., Willard, C.A., Woods, J.A., Zarefsky, D.F. (1996). Fundamentals of Argumentation Theory: A Handbook of Historical Backgrounds and Contemporary Developments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cohen, E. (2004, January). Arthur Anderson refugees reflect on what went wrong. Notre Dame Magazine. Retrieved Nov. 23, 2004: http://www.nd.edu/~ndmag/w0304/ander.html
Halpern, D.F. (1996). Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking.
Behavior Management Theories and Applications
The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of easoned Action
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of easoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects…
Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.
Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.
Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
Work and Management
The objective of this study is to compare House's Path-Goal theory of leadership with the Situational Leadership model. This study will make provision of an example or application of the two theories utilizing the writer's work situation.
This study will describe the leadership styled utilized by the writer's boss or other CEO or high level personnel in the work organization. For part two of this study examined is how causes of conflict can be found in the organizational and personal characteristics of those involved in the conflict.
This study will answer as to the similar organizational and personal factors and provide examples using the organization the writer is most familiar with.
For part three of this study, Chapter 17 on Career Management will be examined and the following questions answered: (1) What aspects of9 the New vs. Old Career Paradigms can you relate to your…
Free Personality Test (2014) 16 Personalities. Retrieved from: http://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test Basu, C. (2014) Difference Between Situational Leadership & Path Leadership Theories. Small Business Chronicle. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-situational-leadership-path-leadership-theories-33446.html
Chapter 17: Career Management (pp. 278-0) Career Management: Chapter Objectives, 2007 Cengage Learning Inc.
Failure to Lead
Leaders who lead with ambition but fail by making a faulty choice are often the more condemned leaders but there is another group that is even less competent or at least unlucky, that being leaders who react tepidly or refuse to make a firm choice or take blame for the same. Such leaders are too tentative and are not assertive enough and this lead to a leader not being taken seriously as an executive or even a figurehead because there is cogent and strong voice dictating what is to be done and why. It is clear that trying one's best as a lead and with fervor will always stand as a better way to try and fail than to not make a decision and/or not make it quickly enough thus almost certainly leading to failure or less success.
The traits of good leaders are tossed around…
Better leadership is crucial to Detroit's future. (2013). Crain's Detroit Business, 29(28).
Fibuch, E.E. (2011). Failure of Senior Leadership -- Is This a Problem in Your Hospital?.
Physician Executive, 37(2), 46-50.
overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…
ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army, http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014).
Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).
Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014),
Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328 / (accessed 23 July, 2014
For the 21st century, I feel that the Theory of Community Empowerment is a model that will work well. When we consider the challenges of health care in the 21st century, we realize that technology advancements and new drugs are doing a lot of the technical work on physical healing, but these are the sorts of remedies that come about only after someone gets sick. Ultimately, medical procedures and drugs are not a pathway to sustainable health. As I understand the Theory of Community Empowerment, one of the most important roles of the nurse is to work with people, connect with them, and then help them to help themselves. We, as a community, are responsible for our own health, for making the right choices that can help us avoid having health problems in the first place.
This theory has been expounded upon at length in nursing literature. To…
Fawcett, S., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V., Schultz, J., Richter, K., Williams, E., Lewis, R., Harris, K., Berkley, J., Fisher, J., Lopez, C. (1995). Using empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 23 (5) 677-697.
Persily, C. & Hildebrandt, E. (2008). Theory of Community Empowerment, excerpt from Middle Range Nursing Theories. Springer.
Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory of community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 15 (2) 121-148.
S. involvement in World War II.
Is it possible to have a general theory of war?
Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, eid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of…
Clausewitz, C.V. (1976) on War. Princeton, NJ.
Gray, C.S. (1999) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
-. The 21st Century Security Environment and the Future of War. Parameters, 38(4): 14-9.
Lichbach, M.I. (1989) "An evaluation of 'does economic inequality breed political conflict?'
International relations theory refers to the study of the theoretical perspective of international relations. It provides a framework which is conceptual upon which analysis of international relations is done. International relations theories can also act like pairs of colored sunglasses which only allows the person wearing it to see what’s relevant to the theory. There are three most prominent theories available - constructivism, liberalism and realism. International relations theories are divided into rationalist and reflectivist theories. Rationalist theories are those that focus on analysis that is principally of state level. Reflectivist theories incorporate the meanings of security in an expanded manner from post-colonial security, gender to class.
International relations theories have a big role in helping policy-makers produce solutions that are effective instead of being regarded as being too abstract. In policy organizations that are foreign, people are not selected by their theories’ quality but by their quality of…
Theory Checklist" as a guide.
Analyze at least one assumption in your assigned article.
Assessment of Article B
According to alph De Laossa's article "Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research," the use of grounded theory in the social science of family research is particularly valuable. Unlike other forms of qualitative research that merely describe a particular phenomenon or chronicle a 'case study' of a relatively obscure group of people, grounded theory does purport to create some useful and generalizable theory. Qualitative research is distinct from quantitative research, given that the latter tests a hypothesis and is based upon deductive principles. Qualitative research is inductive -- it collects data and formulates a theory from the accumulated information. After assessing verbal data, when using a grounded theory approach, the researcher then codes the data to come to a conclusion based upon the information.
The article details the core principles and the…
LaRossa, R. (2005). Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research. Journal of Marriage and Family,837-857.
In the article "Employee alignment with strategic change: A study of strategy-supportive behavior among blue-collar employees," the article was quantitative because the article placed the theory as the framework for the entire study (Creswell, 2009). The article has a deductive base with an objective to test or verify a theory by questioning the theory and hypotheses, defining the theory through a construct, and reflecting the results as positive or negative through scoring derived from the construct. In the study, the researchers introduced the theory at the beginning of the study and the theory and hypotheses was clearly stated and gave identification on the type of study the
Culture Care Universality and Diversity
Leininger conceptualized the theory of care was developed in the 1950s and provided a way to bridge a culture and nursing care. "Leininger theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality" (Garmon 2011 p 1) is derived from the understanding the fields of culture and anthropology and is credited for her contribution to the nursing theory by establishing the transcultural concept in the nursing care. Typically, culture care is a holistic method of understanding, interpreting, explaining, and predicting care for the nursing practice. According to Leininger, culturally congruent care had been missing in the nursing practice and knowledge. Thus, a creative process of reformulation and integration of cultural practice is very critical for the development of nursing practice and knowledge. Leininger holds that a cultural care provides the most important and broadest means to explain, study and predict the nursing care practice. To discover patterns, and…
Department of Commerce (2010). U.S. Census 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Fitzpatrick, J.J & Kazer, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research, Third Edition. Springer Publishing Company.
Garmon B. S. (2011). Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. In J. Fitzpatrick, Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Leininger, M. (1988). Leininger's Theory of Nursing: Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Nurs Sci Q.1 (4): 152-160
Administrative model is defined as "a decision-making model that describes how managers actually make decisions in situations characterized by nonprogrammed decisions, uncertainty, and ambiguity" (Daft 1999, p. 284). This approach to decision-making recognizes that not all decisions are able to be considered and judged based on quantitative methods. While it may be preferred that decisions be made by a process where the outcomes are known and can be compared, it is not always possible to know the outcomes. For these types of decisions, a new kind of model is needed that takes into account the uncertainty. This model is the administrative model.
Herbert A. Simon is the founder of the administrative model. He considered the economic model of decision-making and noted that one major element was missing. This element was the human element. Taking the human element into consideration, Simon rejected the idea that people make decisions based on rational…
Daft, R.L. (1999). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
Simon, H.A. (1979). Rational decision making in business organizations. American Economic Review, 69, 493-513.
Nursing: Theory and Nursing Practice Issues
Theory and Nursing Practice Issues: Nursing
The modern-day staff nurse faces a variety of challenges in the work environment. These include inadequate staffing, the authority gradient, and issues related to changing models of care. The nurse leader has a duty to aid staff nurses working under him in addressing the challenges posed by these, and other issues facing the nursing profession. Leadership theories provide effective guidelines by which nurse leaders can address issues inherent in the nursing profession. In so doing, they accord staff nurses adequate opportunities to make meaning out of their lives. Leadership theories such as the situational leadership theory, the transformational leadership theory, role theory, and path-goal theory provides crucial insights from which nurse leaders could draw reference when seeking solutions for problems facing subordinate staff nurses. This text explores how leadership theory can be applied to nursing practice issues, and…
Barker, A. (1992). Transformational Nursing Leadership: A Vision for the Future. New York NY: Jones & Bartlett Company.
Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Addressing New Challenges Facing Nursing Education. The Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hrsa.gov/advisorycommittees/bhpradvisory/nacnep/reports/eighthreport.pdf
Early, G. (2005). Leadership Expectations: How Executive Expectations are Created and Used in a Non-Profit Setting. London, UK: OCMS Publishers.
Edmonson, C. (2010). Moral Courage and the Nurse Leader. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(3), Manuscript 5.
Path Goal Theory
THEOY AND PACITCE: PATH GOAL THEOY
DEFINITION OF PATH GOAL THEOY
Path Goal theory is reported to be about "how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals." (Northhouse, 2010, p.125) Path Goal theory is reported to have first been written early in the decade of the 1970s "in the work of Evans (1970), House (1971), House and Deasler (1974) and House and Mitchell (1974)." (Northhouse, 2010, p. 125) The goal of this theory of leadership is reported to enhance of performance and satisfaction of employees through a focus on motivation of employees. (Northhouse, 2010, paraphrased) eported as the basis for Path Goal theory is that which is gained from "expectancy theory, which suggests that subordinates will be motivated if they think they are capable of performing their work, if they believe their efforts will result in a certain outcome, and if they believe that the payoffs for…
Northouse, P.G.(2010) Leadership Theory and Practice, 5th edition, Sage Publication. Read the chapter 7 on Goal Path theory.
The final decision the issue of organizational stakeholders and the impact of these stakeholders on the organization were of vital importance. In this context, I chose to protect the organization, even though others would have made a different choice. Thus, the wide range of decisions made in the simulation indicates that the ethical frameworks employed will be influenced by the specific issues involved in decision making.
3. Considering what I learned from this simulation, it seems reasonable to argue that ethical decision making is a challenging task that provides no real comfort. Even when a person believes that he or she is making the right decision, there is still some concern about whether or not the right framework for reviewing a situation has been used. Because there are so many different "right" ways for exploring a problem, in many instances, is appears as if the individual has no other choice…
Hurley, R.F. (2006). The decision to trust. Harvard Business Review, 84(9), 55-62.
Pont, J. (2005). Doing the right thing to instill business ethics. Workforce Management, 84(4), 26-27.
What is the Theory of Constraints?
There has been a continuous development of management from the time it was realized that it can be studied carefully to form a branch of knowledge and the individuals who had studied it generally performed better as managers than others who never spent time on the matter. The Theory of Constraints or TOC is basically a philosophy of management and improvement. The first person to draw the attention of the world to this was Eliyahu M. Goldratt and he brought it to the notice of others through his famous book, The Goal. The guiding principle behind this theory is that in any organization there exists a weak link, and this acts somewhat like a chain with a weak link. This tops the organization from performing even better than it is performing at any period of time. In short, it is important to remove…
Chaleff, Ira. (October, 1995) "Process Improvement for Knowledge Workers" AFSM International. Vol: 20; No: 3. Retrieved from http://www.ibt-pep.com/default.asp?ObjectID=257 Accessed on 29 May, 2005
'Constraint Management & Supplier Relations" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/supp1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
"Constraint Management & the Market" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/mktg1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
'Critical Chain & Project Management the TOC Way" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/projects.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Criminal Justice System
Crime and the law
Crime, from the perspective of the criminal justice system, may be defined as violations of the law. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order. Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order (Schmalleger 2015: 9). The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order (Schmalleger 2015: 10). For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person…
Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century. (13th
ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA:
Ethics and Morality: The Theories of Ethics and Morality
The subject in this case faces an ethical dilemma, where she has to choose between reporting an ethical concern and just playing along or doing nothing at all. Both choices have serious consequences -- reporting would mean that i) she loses her job and livelihood because of a confidentiality breach, and ii) she stops her organization from producing the environmentally-friendly hovercraft, and consequently, becomes the reason why the world will never enjoy clean unpolluted air. Playing along, on the other hand, would mean that she watches as 200,000 innocent lives are lost as a result of the hovercraft's incompatibility with existing models.
The subject has a duty to uphold confidentiality in all dealings that have to do with the company. Disclosing such information to the press would amount to breach of this duty. However, as a member of a corporate body,…
Fedler, K.D. (2006). Exploring Christian Ethics: Biblical Foundations for Morality. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
Tully, P.A. (2006). Refined Consequentialism: The Moral Theory of Richard A. McCormick. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
Dell Computer Corporation has innovative work practices based on people, with the owner, Michael S. Dell placing people number one on his list of priorities (Byrne, 1999).
The two-factor theory of motivation recognizes that achievement, recognition and responsibility are essential to motivation (Daft, 1997, p. 533). Dell believes in giving responsibility to employees and providing for their development. Employees are rewarded for their hard work not just with a promotion but with job enrichment, where job enrichment incorporates achievement, recognition and other motivators. Job enrichment at Dell means that as employees progress they actually do less tasks, not more, so they can focus more fully on those tasks. The promotion strategy also makes use of the ideas of Maslow's hierarchy of needs (Daft et al., p. 530). orkers begin by having their basic physiological, safety and belongingness needs catered for. As they continue their esteem needs are catered for as…
Byrne, John. (1999, October). The search for the young and the gifted. BusinessWeek.
Daft, Richard. L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth: The Dryden Press.
Thus even the process of reclaiming ones identity is subject to the conditions imposed by colonial oppression.
hile the book certainly touches upon some of the lingering and seemingly intractable problems associated with colonial oppression, there is also glimpses into how human beings are able to transcend these problems and carve out their own identity; even without an adequate understanding of their roots. e see for example, how Lucy misses her life in Antigua, even though it represents and existence that was constantly stifling her and preventing her from reaching her true potential as a woman. As she implies, this is because while Antigua represents a more restrictive existence compared to her experiences in America, the bonds of family which were forged on the island, are not easily broken (Kincaid, 6). Her experiences in the United States, while liberating and interesting, fail to elicit the same deep emotional connections she…
Kincaid, Jamaica. Lucy. Macmillan, 2002. Print.
Tyson, Lois. Critical theory today. CRC Press, 2006. Print.
Paradox: The Art of Political Decision-Making and Social Equity and Public Administration: Origins, Developments, and Applications
It is safe to say that both books have what could be termed "a liberal inclination" in that both Stone and Frederickson see their theories as people-centered, with all their attendant frailties and mistakes. Ironically, Stone makes much the same critique that some conservatives would, in that trust in "rational" decision-making leads to bad decisions, because economics doesn't explain policy. As a result, economics shouldn't dictate policy, because the reality is often very different -- and statistics, as it is often said, consists of lies, damn lies, and statistics.
This reminds me of an article I read in the New York Times, recently about the people who rise to the top in a meritocracy are somewhat righteously arrogant, having achieved a great deal. As Ross Douthat said in the New York Times, "meritocrats &…
Douthat, R. (2011, November 5). Our Reckless Meritocracy. New York Times, p. SR12.
Jones, J.M. (2011, September 12). Record-High 86% Approve of Black-White Marriages. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from Gallup: http://www.gallup.com/poll/149390/Record-High-Approve-Black-White-Marriages.aspx
Noddings, N. (2002). Starting at Home: Caring and Social Policy. Berkeley and Santa Barbara: University of California Press.
Simon, H. (1997). Administrative Behavior (4th Edition ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.
The incident and accident theory is one of the major theories that has been developed in the literature to attempt to provide a model for accident causation. The theory has been defined as something of an addendum to the human factors theory of accident causation. Therefore, to understand the accident/incident theory fully, an overview of the human factors theory will first be provided. The accident/incident theory works to fill in some of the gaps that have prevented a human factors approach from being able to fully explain how many accidents occur. The theory adds several dimensions to the previous model such as consideration of ergonomic traps, the decision to err, and systems failure among others (Duffy, N.d. ).
Incident and accident theory
There are roughly seven different theories of accident causation that are typically cited in the literature. Such theories include the domino theory that focuses on mistakes,…
Duffy, S. (N.d. ). Theories of Accident Causation. Retrieved from Cleveland State University: http://academic.csuohio.edu/duffy_s/Section_03.pdf
Goetsch, D. (2010). Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved from Pearson: http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_goetsch_occupation_7/139/35769/9157107.cw/-/9157132/index.html
students opportunity discuss a key political science concept, show a basic understanding academic research reporting skills.
Define "loose construction" and "strict construction" methods of constitutional interpretation, and describe how each perspective aligns with formal vs. informal methods of change.
The 'strict construction' view of the Constitution has traditionally been aligned with conservatives such as Robert Bork who argue that "a judge interpreting the Constitution" should only consider "the words used in the Constitution [as] would have been understood at the time [of enactment]" (Linder, citing Posner, "Theories"). In contrast, the 'loose construction' view (traditionally aligned with more liberal politics) stresses the need to interpret the Constitution in a manner beyond the letter of the law. There are a number of factors which justices traditionally consider when making constitutional interpretations, including the text itself; likely intentions of the founders; precedents; consequences of the decision in the 'real world;' and so-called 'natural…
Chemerinsky, Erwin. "Conservatives embrace judicial activism in campaign finance ruling."
The L.A. Times. 2010 Jan 22. [2014 Apr 6]
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965). Exploring Constitutional Law. [2014 Apr 6]
Memo on a Ethical Analysis
____ (due date)
Decision making by a Healthcare Leader in case of an Ethical Dilemma
in an interview of my health care administrator of the long care health facility where I work, I asked, "How do you make a wise decision in a situation relating to an ethical dilemma?"
Description of the Answer
It seemed like my question took the administrator by surprise perhaps he did not expect such a question when I requested for an interview. However, he looked composed and amused by my question. Confidently and leaning a little bit forward and supporting his hands on his desk, he responded. He first pointed out the numerous occasions when ethical dilemmas were evident in his health care administration career at the health facility. He said that he learnt over time through many experiences and a little consultation and…
Forester-Miller, H., & Davis, T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. American Counseling Association, 1-5.
Pope, K.S., & Vasquez, M.J. (2010). Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling: A Practical Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
The initial modern clarification of crime is known as "classical hypothesis" (Cullen and Agnew 2011). This hypothesis was produced in response to the malefic, irrational, and barbaric frameworks of criminal equity that existed in Europe in the 1700s. The laws were frequently arbitrary; judges were corrupt; penal awards for the same wrongdoing varied broadly; and disciplines were at times very cruel, causative of extreme physical abuse and often resulting in death. Classical Theorists needed to supplant the framework with one that was more viable and just. They contended that individuals are balanced creatures who seek after their own particular pursuits, endeavoring to amplify their pleasure and minimize their unhappiness. Individuals decide to indulge in wrongdoing when they accept that it will bring more joy than agony, As such, the most ideal approach to control wrongdoing is to guarantee that the torment of penal awards exceeds the…
Cullen, F.T., and Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. Los Angeles: Roxbury. [An overview of the leading theories of crime, with selections from the original works.]
Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.
Differentiating between hypothesis and theory
The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).
The word theory…
Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.
Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.
Theory and Philosophical Orientations
An area of interest for a possible research topic that I consider is organizational performance. My topic of research interest is the effect of employee participation on organizational performance. The philosophical orientation that mirrors my worldview is the interpretivist research paradigm. In-depth inquiry is enabled by interpretivist research, which sees knowledge as subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, knowledge is not generalizable – it is contextual, situational, or circumstantial. This means that different individuals interpret their world differently. To ensure in-depth inquiry, interpretivist research focuses on a small sample and employs qualitative techniques such as in-depth interviews, focus groups, and observations. Such techniques enable the researcher to cultivate a closer relationship with the subjects (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2015). A close relationship gives the researcher an opportunity to understand the perspectives, experiences, and worldviews of the subjects with respect to the research phenomenon (Creswell,…
He understood, "The greatest real way of making a strong intelligence of efficacy is through mastery involvements" (p. 3).
Person Environment Occupation model
The PEO model (Broome, 2009) is a famous and recognized conceptual model and model of exercise inside Canadian occupational therapy. It bids groundwork for managing valuation and interference through all practice surroundings and customer inhabitants. The planned device is able to transport the PEO model to life in the process of a humble and cheap instrument that can bring clinicians a real-world theoretical foundation for their clinical procedure. The circle instrument performs as a vehicle for unfolding what occupational therapy is about, describing the foci, and what the clinician can offer to the client.
Figure 2: Person Environment Occupation model
The PEO model that aims for the best fit to enhance occupational performance can be used to guide the occupational therapy process. This procedure, as…
Alter, K. (2006). Fueling the Engines: A Role For Occupational Therapy in Promoting Healthy Life. Occupational Therapy in Healthcare, 21(3).
Broome, K. (2009). A literature review applying the Pearson Environment Occupation Model. Scandanavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 3(12), 16.
Fisher, G.S. (2008). A Model of Occupational Empowerment for Marginalized Populations. Occupational Therapy in Healthcare, 22(1).
Gupta, J., & Sabata, D. (2010). Maximizing Occupational Performance of Older Workers: Applying the Person-Environment-Occupation Model. AOTA Continuing Education Article, 15(7), 12-15.
Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk
Definition of isk
The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.
This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…
Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s
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Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.
Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.