Decision Theory Essays (Examples)

View Full Essay

Decision Sciences

Words: 1403 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15077045

Decision Sciences

Decision-making is an important activity for top management in any enterprise. Strategic thinking is required for making useful decisions. For example, business executives plan strategies to access market share, to deal with employees, to react to competition and to decide on career growth. Decision Sciences is a discipline on its own that provides techniques and methods to take decisions in any practical situations. In this paper, a list of journals and websites that provides information on Decision Sciences is provided. This list is expected to be useful to top management. (America's Investment in the Future: Decision Sciences-How the Game Is being played)

Decision Sciences" is a quarterly, professional journal published by Decision Sciences Institute. This journal utilizes the current methods of mathematics and statistics along with computer technology and behavior science. This journal is read by business professionals and teaching professionals. From 2003, Blackwell Publishing is publishing this journal. (Decision Sciences Journal: (www.decisionsciences.org/dsj/)A list of publications from Decision Sciences Institute is given in the web site: http://www.decisionsciences.org/dsj/archives.htm

Decision Line" is a news publication of Decision Sciences Institute. This is published five times a year. Each issue is about 48 pages and contains information on international studies, academic research,…… [Read More]

References

America's Investment in the Future: Decision Sciences-How the Game Is being played" Retrieved at  http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/decision/decisionsx2.htm . Accessed on 21 February 2005

Asia Pacific Decision Sciences Institute: Theme - Collaborative Decision Making in the Internet Era" retrieved at http://www.calpoly.edu/~eli/apdsi/apdsi2005/. Accessed on 22 February 2005

Decision Analysis Society" Retrieved at http://faculty.fuqua.duke.edu/daweb/. Accessed on 22 February 2005

Decision Line" (October 2004) Volume 35(5) retrieved at http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol35/35_5/index.htm. Accessed on 21 February 2005
View Full Essay

Decision Making Decision-Making Scenario Anderson Children's Hospital

Words: 1171 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34289468

Decision Making

Decision-making

Scenario

Anderson Children's Hospital (ACH) is an internationally known and recognized pediatric hospital that provides the full range of services from primary to critical care units, located in San Francisco, CA with affiliated care centers throughout the Bay Area. The board of directors at ACH would like to create a mobile-crisis program to be piloted in the City of San Francisco and eventually grow to service the entire Bay Area. The following sections present the process through which the Board of Directors is trying to navigate towards its final decision.

Core question

At the core of the following proposal is this 2-part question: Should ACH create a mobile crisis program to be piloted in the City of San Francisco for (up to) one year with the intent of expanding its funding, personnel, and service area over the next 3-5 years throughout the entire Bay Area and if so, what does the process look like?

Within this core question arise several questions to be addressed by the decision-making process, and those questions are listed as follows:

(1) What services will be offered by this program? Who will benefit from its services? Who will be involved with the provision…… [Read More]

References

Liese, Friedrich and Miescke, Klaus-J. (2008). Statistical Decision Theory: Estimation, Testing, and Selection. Springer.

Bernardo, JE & Smith, Adrian (2000). Bayesian theory. New York: Wiley.

Ahrens, J., & Dieter, U. (1982). Computer Generation of Poisson Deviates. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software 8 (2): 163 -- 179.
View Full Essay

Decision Making and Accounting Theories Business Owners

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84061437

Decision Making and Accounting Theories

Business owners find that they always have to put on business hats when they are starting up or managing their businesses. However in business it is not the owners who are meant to make decisions only, decisions can also be made by employees. When classification of business decisions is done it is on the basis of how predictable that particular decision is. Programmed decisions are those that are straightforward, routine and repetitive. They can easily be dealt with by the creation of procedures and routines. On the other hand there are decisions that are unstructured and valid which do not require systems that are clear cut so as to be made. Those in business are often faced with various decisions which they have to make some of which are particularly important when it comes to the profitable existence of any business. Decisions result to success there is no successes that can be realized until a decision is made (Wicks, 2013).

People in business make so many decisions each day which include financial decisions, structure, strategic decisions, manpower decisions, operational decisions and many more. However, it is only once in a while that a leader makes…… [Read More]

References

Kaipa, P. & Radjou, N. (2013). 7 Business Decisions That Looked Bad but Turned Good. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from http://www.cnbc.com/id/100634625

Wicks, D. (2013). Top 5 Biggest Decisions Business Owners Make. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/top-5-biggest-decisions-business-owners-make-10131.html 

Krippendorff, K. (2013). The Greatest Business Decisions of All Time. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from http://www.fastcompany.com/3001870/greatest-business-decisions-all-time

Kruse, K. (2013). The Top 5 Business Decisions of All Time. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/05/22/business-decisions/
View Full Essay

Theory vs Creativity in Design Leaders Have

Words: 2363 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 863919

Theory vs. Creativity in Design

Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.

How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates

Integrity and honesty: Organizations must always reconsider the use of theories to keep up with the realities of the business environment. The management must be prepared for change and handle changes appropriately in the rapidly evolving world. Some of the relevant theories include situational, relationship, participative and transactional. Organizations have varied goals…… [Read More]

References

American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from  http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51 

Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.

Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.

DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
View Full Essay

Decision Support System Executive Presentation Paper for

Words: 2856 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50589443

Decision Support System

Executive Presentation Paper for Decision Support System (DSS)

Communication remains a crucial element for the success of any organization, relationship or industry. The factor that makes it so crucial is the aspect of decision making in the practice. Communication and decision-making are simply inseparable. It is impossible to make a conclusive and quality design that concerns and affects more than one person. This is especially so for the business and corporate organizations in the world those operate in the lines of consultations and collective decision-making. A conclusive and active model and methodology of making a decision in such organization is the use of effective decision-making system. A decision-making system should facilitate proper and intensive analysis of the information available to make a decision for the future.

Executive summery

The decision support systems are a class of the computerized systems of information that support the business and organizational process of decision-making (Burstein & Holsapple, 2008). A decision support system that has the proper design is an interactive software; that intends to help the makers of the decisions in organizations to compile information that is useful; from the raw data, personal knowledge, business models and other documents to identify…… [Read More]

References

Burstein, F., & Holsapple, C.W. (2008). Handbook on decision support systems. Berlin:

Springer.

Berner, E.S. (2007). Clinical decision support systems: Theory and practice. New York:

Springer.
View Full Essay

Decisions in Paradise Given the

Words: 1305 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17978691

Best of all, any initiative in these areas, priced fairly for the island natives, delivers significant social value, or economic good for the nation and abodes by Mr. Morale's belief that in the long run, economics drives everything needs to be added to that by doing these core processes well, his company is doing good. The social conscience of Mr. Morales is also clear, and the ability to take the company's respected process-centric approach to problem-solving and apply it to the needs of Kava while at the same time earning a profit is a win/win for both the company and the nation. The concentration on healthcare especially and the development of a pediatrics clinic, potentially even underwritten by the local government for the citizens would also be significant in its contribution and revenue potential.

What Alex and Nik need to do is find broken processes in key areas and set about to find strategies that their company can excel in while delivering excellent service. This is the basis of Business Process Re-engineering. Business Process Re-engineering is described Michael Hammer in his many books on this topic including the Agenda (2003) illustrate through examples, financial analysis, and intensive analysis of how…… [Read More]

References

Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997). "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering." MIT Sloan School Working Papers available on the Internet, accessed on February 5, 2007:

 http://ccs.mit.edu/papers/CCSWP189/ccswp189.html 

Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1995). "Why Not One Big Database? Principles for Data Ownership." Decision Support Systems 15.4 (1995): 267-284.

The Agenda (2003) - Chapter 4: Put Processes First. The Agenda: What Every Business Must Do to Dominate the Decade. Accessed from Michael Hammer and Company website on February 5, 2007:
View Full Essay

Decision Whether to Internationalize or

Words: 6941 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98517610

46). Likewise, Gillispie suggests that an incremental approach can be used to "test the waters" for even very small companies seeking to project an internationalized presence. In this regard, Gillespie recommends that companies, "Craft a scaleable master design that represents the major aspects of your business worldwide and anticipates the degree of localization that will be required in each market. The degree of localization can have a real impact on budgets and timelines" (2008, p. 45). These are important factors for companies in general where limited resources and a lack of experience may preclude more aggressive internationalization initiatives, and these issues are directly related to a company's internal resources as discussed further below.

Internal resources

The company has a wide range of specialized internal resources which are described in Table 2 below.

Table 2

Internal resources of RBG Limited

Business Unit

Description

Specialist Cleaning

RBG's Specialist Cleaning division offers a comprehensive range of services designed to restore production processes to optimal operating conditions. RBG is fully equipped to provide safe, effective and environmentally friendly solutions for a wide range of specialist cleaning applications.

Fabric Maintenance

RBG is a recognised market leader in the provision of fabric maintenance services, typically supplied…… [Read More]

References

Angola. 2011 CIA World Factbook. [online] available: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications / the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.

Black's Law Dictionary. 1999 St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Carthew, A. 2006, September/October 'Spreading the Word.' Communication World, vol. 23,

no. 5, pp. 30-32.
View Full Essay

Decision-Making What Are the Newest

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96315243

The dominant, goal-oriented person can focus on the ultimate objective, the influence-based person can examine the interpersonal dynamics of the decisions that must be made, the steady person can foster harmony and a positive atmosphere, and the conscientious person can stay on task in a reliable fashion. While clashing personalities can thwart reaching positive and goal-directed solutions, they can create a better solution and check the excesses of one another, like the selfishness and refusal to consider the human element in the dominant personality, the disorganization of the influence-based person, the risk-adverse views of the steady person, and the rule-bound contentious type. Communication can be facilitated through email and other constant types of technological contact on a daily basis -- this can create better group bonding, although there is always a risk that the brevity and informality of the format can create rather than break down barriers.

Modern decision-making theory, faced with a newly globalized world with multifaceted components that are still interdependent upon one another, stresses a participative management approach, an approach that acknowledges a subordinate may have just as much of an ability to arrive at a solution about a knotty organizational problem as someone with an official…… [Read More]

Works Cited

DISC: Explanations and preferences. (2005). Changing minds. Retrieved August 20, 2009.

 http://changingminds.org/explanations/preferences/disc.htm
View Full Essay

Decisions in Paradise Implementation and

Words: 1991 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55003124

The partnership strategy will bring capital investment to the island in the form of clinics while at the same time creating jobs for graduates. The same model needs to be applied to the banking industry as well. Creating an alliance strategy that will attract banking partners to Kava to create micro-lending programs and open branches will in turn create jobs for the Kava Educational Network. It will also serve as a source of funding to pay for vocational school tuitions as well. Throughout the strategic planning process, the potential to both enrich the island from a socio-economic basis through CSR programs (Estes, 2008) while also building out key industries to ensure their profitable growth (Rehme, 2007) is key. The strategic plan will need to balance the defining of the educational business as the foundation and the definition of healthcare and banking as the immediate industries of interest.

Evaluating the Ethical Considerations

As this business model concentrates on CSR-based programs including the development of public television courseware to enrich all Kava residents, and seeks to fund trade schools in addition to these activities, it is critical Nik and his teams have a Governance, Risk & Compliance (GRC) board of directors created.…… [Read More]

References

Estes, P. (2008, September). Value Add for the Community. Mergers and Acquisitions, 43(9), 77.

David Cruise Malloy, James Agarwal. (2003). Factors influencing ethical climate in a nonprofit organisation: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(3), 224-250.

Gunther Rehme (2007). Education, Economic Growth and Measured Income Inequality. Economica, 74(295), 493.
View Full Essay

Decisions Are an Important Part of Everyday

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28357555

Decisions are an important part of everyday life, organizations, and particular of leadership goals and behaviors. We know that managers and leaders are not the same, and true leadership roles are often expressed by the mastery of being able to overcome some of the basic issues of poor decision making.

Failing to remember goals -- The old maxim of measure for success fits with the idea of goal setting. If one sets goals, keeps monitoring those goals, and then reassesses the goals, one will have an easier chance of success. Goals should always be in place and everyone in the organization should, in theory, have combined tactical goals that fit the organization's strategic goals.

Overconfidence -- There is a fine line between overconfidence and being confident. Overconfidence often implies a degree of arrogance that causes one to be egotistical and self-centered and not listen to others or see the reality of the project. Fearlessness is a far cry from being confident on one's ability to overcome adversity. Overconfidence is an exaggeration of confidence and usually manifests itself in inflexibility and poor planning.

Complexity of the Issues -- Oftentimes there are so many multiple horizontal priorities that it is seemingly impossible…… [Read More]

Sources:

Howell, J. And Costley, D. (2000). Understanding Behaviors for Effective Leadership.

New York: Prentice Hall.

Knapp, J. (2007). Leaders on Ethics: Real-World Perspectives on Today's Business

Challenges. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
View Full Essay

Theory Z Is a Paradigm

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48392064



Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z

Consensual Decision Making -- When employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.

Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.

Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly ROI. This encourages employees and managers to think strategically and anticipate the market rather than simply react to it.

Research as to the efficacy of Theory Z has mixed results. The processes involved can be time consuming, and certain types of organizations resistant to such change (e.g. large, multi-generational factory…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management

Executives.18 (4): 108-117.

Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."

Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
View Full Essay

Decision Making in Business Recommendations

Words: 2592 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9306311



In other words, throughout the transition period, Onetech would create efficiencies and would consolidate its position. In the future however, it is recommended that the company moved towards a strategy of diversification, as this would better satisfy customers' needs, attract them and as such create market power for the firm (Markides, 2007).

The decision making process at Onetech

The decision making process at Onetech is quite intricate, revealing both strengths, as well as weaknesses. Decisions are for instance made at the level of the board and are based on the expertise gathered by the various major players in the firm. Still, the decisions are made by the executives, with little emphasis on the input which could be provided by the employees.

In order to better assess the decision making process at Onetech, it is appropriate to analyze it through the lenses of the rational decision making model. This model consists of a series of stages which have to be undertaken in order to achieve the proper decision. These steps refer to the following:

The identification of the problem or the opportunity

The collection of information relevant to the problem or opportunity

The analysis of the situation

The development of options…… [Read More]

References:

Cologon, D.R., Cohen, D.R., 2008, FileMaker Pro 9 Bible, John Wiley and Sons

Hage, M., 2007, A stakeholder concern towards an economix theory on stakeholder governance, Uitgeverij Van Gorcum

Jacobs, P.K., 2000, Minding the muse: the impact of downsizing on corporate creativity, Harvard Business School, http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/1518.html last accessed on November 30, 2011

Markides, C.C., 2007, Diversification, refocusing and economic performance, MIT Press
View Full Essay

Decision-Making Methodologies

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81273721

Decision-Making

My taxonomy of decision-making approaches will be based, somewhat loosely, on brain dominance theory combined with what I have seen in my experience. The underlying principle is that people are either analytical or emotional in their decision making. These are the two basic types, but within these there are differences as well. For example, rational decision-making can be purely statistical -- using the numbers to guide the process, or it can be more qualitative-rational. On the emotional side, decision making can be "gut," which is fairly reactive, or it can be based on past performance, so more of a "what has worked before."

In the middle is a hybrid, which relies on a heavy amount of analysis, before the final decision is based more on feel. There might not be a much academic support for this one, but I do it myself all the time. The use of gut is really to break analysis paralysis, to which some analytical/rational decision-makers are prone. There is also a moderating influence on decision-making, which is the degree of consultation. Many decisions are made by an individual. Even in a situation that is nominally collective decision-making, there is usually somebody pushing and politicking…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Decision Making and Organizational Change and Development

Words: 2237 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69286277

Decision making is a term that can be described as the process of choosing between alternatives and entails identification, development, and selection. Based on academic literature decision making and analysis can be widely divided into two schools of thoughts i.e. analytic and experiential or incremental decision making processes (Sipp & Carayannis, 2013, p.18). The analytic school of thought on decision making and analysis primarily focuses on problem definition and identification, assessment and selection of alternatives. In this school of thought, implementation in the decision making process basically entails simple execution of the cautiously selected alternative. On the contrary, even though experiential or incremental school of thought incorporates the two major steps in decision making just like the other school of thought, it focuses more on the execution of the alternative. This school of thought on decision making also utilize feedback to make necessary adjustments to the selected alternative in order to enhance the effectiveness of the decision or alternative.

Generally, while there are two major perspectives or schools of thought regarding decision making and analysis, academic literature on this issue demonstrates that the decision making process is based on three major steps. These steps include the definition of the problem…… [Read More]

References

Barnard, M. & Stoll, N. (2010, October). Organizational Change Management: A Rapid Literature Review. Retrieved from Bristol Institute of Public Affairs website: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/cubec/migrated/documents/pr1.pdf

Choi, M. & Ruona, W.E.A. (2011, March). Individual Readiness for Organizational Change and Its Implications for Human Resource and Organization Development. Human Resource Development Review, 10(1), 46-73.

Manuela, P.V. & Clara, M.F. (n.d.). Resistance to Change: A Literature Review and Empirical Study. Retrieved from University of Valencia website: http://www.uv.es/~pardoman/resistencias.PDF

Mykkanen, M. & Vos, M. (2015). The Contribution of Public Relations to Organizational Decision Making: Insights from the Literature. Public Relations Journal, 9(2), 1-17.
View Full Essay

Decision-Making Is One of the

Words: 4930 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7272903

" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009).

Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup and the Bank of America needed second rounds of capital infusions, and federal guarantees against losses totaling tens of billions more -- while Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, warned that more capital injections might be needed to further stabilize the financial system. On Jan. 16, the Senate voted 52-42 to release the second round of funds (Gerth, 2009).

THE GEITHNER PLANS -on Feb. 10, Mr. Geither presented the rough outlines of the Obama administration's plan. A central piece of the proposal would create one or more so-called bad banks that would rely on taxpayer and private money to purchase and hold banks' bad assets. Another centerpiece of the plan would stretch the last $350 billion that the Treasury has for the bailout by relying on the Federal Reserve's ability to create money, in effect, out of thin air. The Fed's money will enable the government to become involved in the management of markets and banks in ways not seen since the Great Depression. In the credit markets, for instance,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Management and Decision Sciences From

Words: 25680 Length: 90 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55501983

76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker, 1974, p. 88).

In a well-known statement, Drucker added that assigns to managers the primary role not only for creating the enterprise but also for creating its markets: "There is only one valid definition of business purpose: to create a customer. Markets are not created by God, nature or economic…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Planning Decision Making Planning and Decision Making

Words: 2591 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42952579

Planning Decision Making

Planning and decision making are two main and fundamental processes of an organization. Planning is one of the main factors with the help of which an organization can determine where it wants to be in the future. It is planning with the help of which an organization can determine as to what can be done in order to accomplish the mission and aims that an organization has. One of the basics that are followed during planning includes achievement of the objectives that the organization has. In order to have better planning, there are four main facts that are needed to be kept in mind by the planners in the organizations. These include mission, values, resources, as well as the environment of the organization as these are the four main facts that help in having better planning within the organization.

Decision making is the second important foundation of success for an organization. Previously it was thought that planning was the only fundamental part involved in the success of an organization. In the case of decision making, it was thought that it was just related to the managerial functions being run in the organizations. However, these days, when the…… [Read More]

References

Beecher, J.A. (1996). Avoided cost: an essential concept for integrated resource planning. Water resources update (104).

Boutilier, C., Dean, T., and Hanks, S. (1999). Decision-Theoretic Planning: Structural Assumption and Computational Leverage. Journal of Articial Intelligence Research 11 (1999)1-94.

Dreu, D., Carsten K.W., and West, M.A. (2001). Minority dissent and team innovation: the importance of participation in decision making. Journal of applied psychology, 86 (6), pp. 1191-1201.

Kiker, G.A., Bridges, T.S., Varghese, A., Seager, T.P., and Linkovj, I. (2005). Application of Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Environmental Decision Making. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 1, pp. 95 -- 108.
View Full Essay

Game Theory Is a Separate

Words: 1953 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80796955



An infinite number of Nash equilibria exist. Given any request, the corresponding strategy of the equilibrium pair simply requests the remainder of the cake. If the first person did not request the entire cake for him or herself, there is a strict Nash equilibrium. If the first player did request the whole cake, the equilibrium is not a strict Nash equilibrium. However, if player 2 makes any nonzero demand, he or she will still receive the same amount, nothing, because any nonzero demand will push the total sum of demands greater than the amount of cake available. If both players act to maximize expected utility, each should demand half. Intuitively, this appears not only as the rational thing to do but also as the "fair" thing to do.

Lastly, a game can be devised where there is cooperation with incomplete information. This entails considering how different players should compromise and how a single player should compromise between the goals of his or her true type and the goals of his or her other possible types, to maintain an inscrutable facade in negotiations.

The above noted the actual examples of types of games. A more important question is how they can…… [Read More]

References Cited

Kuhn, H.W. (1997) Classics in Game Theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Myerson, R.B. (1991) Game Theory.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.

McCain, R.A. (2003) Game Theory: A Non-technical Introduction to Analysis of Strategy. Website retrieved 19 October, 2005.
View Full Essay

Nursing Process Clinical Decision Making Definition of

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 545757

Nursing Process Clinical Decision Making

Definition of Clinical Decision Making

Clinical decision-making is defined in the work of Higuchi and Donald (2002) entitled "Thinking Processes Used by Nurses in Clinical Decision Making" to be "a problem-solving activity that focuses on defining patient problems and selecting appropriate treatment interventions." (p.145) Clinical decision marking is stated to be that which "forms the basis of expert clinical practice." (Higuchi and Donald, 2002, p.145) The nurse works in clinical practice settings as a member of a health care team and this requires that the nurse communicate decisions to other team members "to ensure the continuity and coordination of patient care." (Higuchi and Donald, 2002, p.145) The nurse is further required to document clinical decisions in the patient's charts and plans for care. Clinical decision-making, according to Higuchi and Donald has been "studied using the theoretical perspectives of decision theory and information processing. Higuchi and Donald state that the major thinking processes include those as follows:

(1) Description -- the delineation or definition of a situation or the form of a thing;

(2) Representation -- Depiction or portrayal through enactive, iconic, or symbolic means.

(3) Inference -- Act of process of drawing conclusions from premises…… [Read More]

References

Critical Thinking, Ethical Decision Making and the Nursing Process. Chapter 3, Retrieved from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/25823599/MS-CH03-Critical-Thinking-Ethical-Decision-Making-And-the-Nursing-Process

Higuchi, Kathryn A. Smith and Donald, Janet G. (nd) Thinking Processes Used by Nurses in Clinical Decision Making. Journal of Nursing Education. Retrieved from: http://www.journalofnursingeducation.com/showFree.asp?thing=35421

Potter, Patricia, et al. (2004) Mapping the Nursing Process: A New Approach for Understanding the Work of Nursing. Journal of Nursing Administration. Lippincott Nursing Center. February 2004. Vol. 34, No.2. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/library/JournalArticle.asp?Article_ID=483336

Saver, Cynthia (2009) Novice to Expert: Through the Stages to Success in Nursing. 2 Dec 2009. Retrieved from:  http://www.clsdevelopment.com/images/Novice_to_Expert_CE556.pdf
View Full Essay

Information Perspective and Measurement Perspective on Financial Reporting and Decision Usefulness

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82226963

2010 annual report of WestJet and discusses their information and measurement approaches on financial reporting.

The following items from the annual report follow the measurement perspective on decision usefulness: Frequent Guest Program FGP), financial instruments and compensation plan. WestJet has "a frequent guest program that allows guests to accumulate credits that entitle them to a choice of various rewards, primarily discounted travel. Revenue received in relation to credits issued is deferred as a liability at fair value until a reward is ultimately utilized, at which time it is recognized as guest revenue. Fair value is management's estimate of the expected awards for which the credit will be redeemed and is reduced by the proportion of credits that have been redeemed relative to the total number expected to be redeemed" (WestJet 67).

Also included in the FGP is WestJet's co-branded MasterCard " with the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC). RBC issues FGP credits to cardholders as a percentage of their total retail spend. The fair value of these credits is deferred and recognized on redemption as described above. Ancillary revenue from the issuance of FGP credits on the credit card is measured as the difference between the cash received and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"WestJet Annual Report 2010." WestJet. 2011: 1-96.
View Full Essay

Garbage Can Management Theory the

Words: 525 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2293870



The Garbage Can Model in Greater Detail

In theory, the GCM views the entire universe of organizational problems and solutions to those problems as a garbage can in which all problems and all possible solutions are tossed (Daft, 2005). The GCM also views the garbage can as containing solutions to some problems that might not have even manifested themselves yet in the organization but which might become useful in connection with some of those problems that materialize after solutions have already been devised generally (Daft, 2005).

There are four principal parameters that Cohen and March described in relation to the organizational problems encountered in anarchistic situations are: (1) Problems, defined as issues requiring change to the existing situation; (2) Solutions, defined as ideas proposed to address problems; (3) Participants, defined as employees who may come and go from the organization; and (4) Choice Opportunities, defined as situations requiring decisions (Daft, 2005).

In principle, the main value of the GCM approach to organizational decision-making is that it conceives of problems and their solutions as separate in the sense that solutions may come in many different forms from various sources (Daft, 2005). In the classic approach to organizational decision-making, problems and solutions…… [Read More]

References

Daft, R. (2005) Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
View Full Essay

Theory Help You to Make Sense of

Words: 3357 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34639519

Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?

Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.

But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study but are always socially imbedded, economically engaged and politically disputable" (Letiche, 2006). The reason for this is that growth is also development, and development involves change. An organization of a manager cannot stay the same or the product they are concerned with will falter. But, there is hope for the…… [Read More]

References

Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.

Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.

Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.

Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
View Full Essay

Theory Whether Formal Every Group

Words: 4055 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74699701



While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).

Evidence

Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for this semester focuses on introducing healthy food to people; Energy Service Subsidies, with an expressed target to educate 2,000 individuals with the knowledge of proper use of energy; Hunger and Homelessness, includes a variety of events of food donations to directly solving the issue; United for Green, which is looking…… [Read More]

References

Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.

Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.

Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.

-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
View Full Essay

Theory of Punishment

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88007145

Locke's Theory Of Punishment

John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and understanding, theory of mind and several other concepts regarding political philosophy and ethics. Born in 1632 and died in 1704, Locke is unanimously termed as the Father of Classical Liberalism since during the enlightenment era; he was amongst the most influential and widely followed scholars. Many of his works regarding liberalism and republicanism have been included into the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution, due to their authenticity and practicality in real terms.

Locke also performed as a government official who was authorized to collect information regarding to trade with the entire colonies. This experience allowed him to be in close contact with the political activities and eventually led him to write upon the authorization and legislation customs for the government. His famous political works include "The Two Treatises of Government" which were published in 1689. In the first treatise, Locke pointed out and criticized several those principles and basis of the government set by Sir Robert Filmer, which were immensely against the nature of a good and legitimate government…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Locke, J. (1924). Of civil government: Two treatises. London: J.M. Dent & Sons.
View Full Essay

Theory the History of Race

Words: 1302 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35319170

In order to get beyond such shallow viewpoints, they need to merely use such differences as the starting point for their conception of people from other ethnicities, and actually get beyond that bring about an improvement in interracial relations.

As such, it is extremely interesting to note how sociological concepts of standpoint theory and systems of privilege typify many of the responses that Christenson had to opinions and statements voiced by other men in the video. For the most part, Christenson's responses either contained an element of ignorance or outright disbelief to many of the social barriers and misconceptions that the men of color spoke about. These proclivities of Christenson can widely be rationalized via standpoint theory, which poses the notion that people's system of beliefs is greatly affected by the social group they are a part of. Moreover, this theorem places a fair amount of emphasis on hegemony, a term that refers to power existent between groups of people and which provides a degree of authority and social prominence between those groups. Due to the social position Christenson occupies, that of a white male in a society in which white males represent the historical majority, this position greatly influences…… [Read More]

references within this article, he explains how people tend to follow those who are in authority, and also display the tendency to not desire to deviate from the norm. Doing so within the social context of interracial relations, for instance, would require regarding people with less power and privilege in a manner in which there is social equality -- which is a character trait that is not generally part of human nature, which tends to follow an established tradition. Meyer's article implies that nice people would rather go along and do what everybody else is doing, adhering to any authority figures along the way, that deviate and actually think for themselves and treat people differently as a result. This article denotes all the more reason why it is important to merely use the differences in various ethnic groups as a starting point for the nature of interracial relations.

In summary, there is a plentiful amount of evidence that denotes that there are pronounced differences afforded to people of different social standings. Privilege theory and standpoint theory indicate that these differences can account for the bulk of the way that people view and, ultimately, treat other people. Johnson's first two chapters in his manuscript confirm the degree of privilege afforded to those of historical majority groups in the U.S. Meyers' indicates that people will tend to conform to such unfair treatment of others -- unless they make a conscious decision to only use ethnic differences as a starting point, not ending point, for the basis of treatment between races.
View Full Essay

Decision Making Model Called as

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38538514

Therefore, decision makers evaluate only a reasonable number of alternatives and choose the best one from their comparisons (Kantrow, 1987).

A made a similar decision based on the rational decision making model. When recently, I decided to buy a car, I knew that I had a problem, since without using car it was taking many hours from work to the home. Therefore, I was able to identify the problem. In next step, I needed to decide which car to buy at an affordable price range. In this step, I evaluated several cars, along with their comfort level, rating, and price range. Though evaluating all of these cars took a long amount of time for me, as it required me to research the performance of several cars within the affordable price range. Finally, based on these evaluations, I was able to pick a car that I thought was the best on my price range.

As obvious from the rational decision making model, it is clear that I did not evaluate all of existing cars for their performance, comforts, and performance. I only evaluated a few number of cars, because of the time, and resources constraints. Only by evaluating this small number…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous (2004). Theories of Decision Making the Rational Comprehensive Model. Adapted from commed.atu.edu/EAM3003/READING4.pdf

Huber, G.P. (1991). Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and the Literatures. Organization Science, 2(1), 88-115.

Kantrow, a.M. (1987). The Constraints of Corporate Traditions. New York: Harper & Row.
View Full Essay

Theory in Unearthing the Mechanism

Words: 1674 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89362240

The advantages of network use are apparent enough and from such an obvious position, it is interesting that there is an inadequacy in the understanding of the processes by which networks function. Thus, the article focuses on the role of network governance and its impact on network effectiveness.

The authors demonstrate that network effectiveness while not entirely illusive is a difficult prospect. This phenomenon is multifaceted and multi-tiered and consequently the solutions that are engaged to create network effectiveness must align themselves with this particular reality. The problems of explicating effectiveness begin at the level of conceptualization and measurement. They note that despite these theoretical impediments effectiveness requires a measure of articulation.

The authors contrast organizational as opposed to network governance and suggests that most of the literature on the subject of governance does not specifically address the issues of the role of networks in the governance dynamic. The establishment of several propositions based on their theoretical assessment allows them to test the basic. Because of the inherent limitations with network analysis theory, primarily its failure to assess networks themselves but rather the nodes and other components. The researchers choose to use a theory of networks as a form of…… [Read More]

References

Dwyer, P.D. And Minnegal, M. (2006). The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Risk, Uncertainty and Decision-Making by Victorian Fishers. Journal of Political Ecology 13:1-23

Emerson, R. (1962). Power-Dependence relations. American sociological review 27 (1):31-41.

Newcomer, K.E. (2007). Measuring Government Performance. International Journal of Public

Administration, 30: 307 -- 329.
View Full Essay

Decision to Purchase Use or Consume the

Words: 2869 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47197822

decision to purchase, use or consume the product of a particular brand is not simply a utilitarian decision that focuses on what goods a consumer wants, it is also a matter of the consumer's self-image. The customer asks himself, perhaps subconsciously, is he "the type of person" who eats at McDonald's, or uses Bayer aspirin? From there, the customer makes a decision to use, or not use, the product. However, the answers to these questions are less than simple. They are intricately and intrinsically connected to brand image and perception. Consumers are willing to put more money and resources into things that make them feel good about themselves. Companies want to leave their customers feeling good about their purchasing decision, with a raised self-image. However, what makes a person feel good about herself changes as values and society change. More than any other industry, this may be true about food -- English speakers even have an expression for it -- "you are what you eat."

For the last few years -- since at least 2003 - fast food providers have been in a process of trying to change consumer imagery of their brand. These brands -- McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's,…… [Read More]

References

Adamson, R. 3 May 2002. "Fast Food Nation." Salon Magazine. Accessed 23 February, 2011

Design Woo. (5 October 2010) McDonald's Redesign: a New Era for Fast-Food Restaurants. Design Woo. Accessed 23 February 2011

Gino F, Norton, MI, & Ariely D. (2010). The counterfeit self: The deceptive costs of faking it. Psychological Science, 21(5), 712-20

HEHER, A. 6 October 2009. Burger King plans "edgy, futuristic" remodel of restaurants. The Huffington Post. Accessed 23 February 2011
View Full Essay

Theory Counseling Exist Giving a Background Fit

Words: 1063 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24351985

theory counseling exist, giving a background fit views personality. My views: Life experiences play a vital role's life. These experiences negatively positively effect future. Our life choice, decide destiny.

In today's mental health services, almost anyone either with a university degree or by paying some fees upon following specific courses, can call himself a therapist or a counselor. That professional training is not required when practicing psychotherapy is either something to be worrying us a lot or something we should be thankful for. In the first case, people may be misleading themselves into thinking they can treat patients with mental health issues simply because they've been accredited by nonaccredited training programs. When information is poor and experience is less, we must consider that patients' situation can either not improve or even worsen. On the other hand, there may be a lot of individuals out there with prolific abilities into treating people: alcohol counselors, nurses with a relevant master's degree, etc. What is relevant here is that, in any of these cases, therapists can incorporate some previous either academic or life experience into the way they conduct therapies. A counselor who experienced addictive behavior himself can now empathize with his patients…… [Read More]

Reference List

Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

May, R. (1950). The meaning of anxiety. New York, N.Y.: The Ronald Press Company.

Stewart, I. (1992). Eric Berne. London, California, New Delhi: SAGE Publications Inc.
View Full Essay

Theory of Nursing

Words: 2135 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88861122

Nursing Theory

One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The health status, compliance and satisfaction of a patient are greatly impacted by the bedside manner of the provider and how that manner is perceived by the patient. In order to provide effective patient care it is very important for the Advanced Practice Nurses (APN) to have an effective bedside manner.…… [Read More]

References

Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bedside-manner

Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).

Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.

McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from  http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/40081/68872_1.pdf;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
View Full Essay

Theory Its Usefulness in the Workplace Today

Words: 1362 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59285246

theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today

Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive. The child's future personality development becomes unfulfilling: avoidant and resistant personality types either passively or actively show hostility toward the parent while anxious types are overly dependant upon external parental reinforcement and praise (Attachment theory, 2002, Great ideas). On a macro scale, a general parenting style adopted by a culture,…… [Read More]

References

Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:

 http://www.personalityresearch.org/attachment.html 

Hinde, Robert A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 17, 1-19. Retrieved from:

http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/Hinde_describing_relationships.pd0f
View Full Essay

Decision Making Is Contingent on

Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26716497

According to Halpern (1996, p. 197), arguments that utilize irrelevant reasons are fairly common: "The Latin word for this sort of fallacy is non-sequitur, which literally translates to 'it doesn't follow.' In other words, the reason or premise is unrelated to the conclusion." Since relevant premises are a key criteria for building sound arguments, it follows that critical thinkers must learn to recognize and avoid such fallacies.

However, in the real world this is perhaps easier said than done since the use of force often tends to sway decisions in favor of the person who is making the threat, implied or otherwise. An example that comes readily to mind is the manner in which advertisers have coerced sports bodies to disallow ambush marketing: "It is important that any sports body has the right to control what is being brought into their events...to protect the millions of pounds of investment that sport's commercial partners make...." (PTI, 2004)

The Straw Man Fallacy straw person is weak and easy to knock down. This is exactly what happens in a straw man argument where a weak form of the opponent's argument is set up and then knocked down. This technique is used when an…… [Read More]

References

Blair, J.A., Grootendorst, R.F., Henkemans, F.S., Johnson, R.H., Krabbe, E.C.W., Plantin,

C.H., Van Eemeren, F.H., Walton, D.N., Willard, C.A., Woods, J.A., Zarefsky, D.F. (1996). Fundamentals of Argumentation Theory: A Handbook of Historical Backgrounds and Contemporary Developments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cohen, E. (2004, January). Arthur Anderson refugees reflect on what went wrong. Notre Dame Magazine. Retrieved Nov. 23, 2004: http://www.nd.edu/~ndmag/w0304/ander.html

Halpern, D.F. (1996). Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking.
View Full Essay

Theory of Planned Behavior and Theory of Reasoned Action

Words: 2175 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19468067

Management Theories

Behavior Management Theories and Applications

The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of Reasoned Action

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of Reasoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects as influencing intention (and behavior); perceived behavioral management. This is the perceived difficulty or ease with which the person will be able to execute or bring out the behavior, and is very just like thoughts of self-efficacy.

The TPB is designed for forecasting behavior and retrospective evaluation of behavior. It…… [Read More]

References

Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.

Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.

Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.

Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
View Full Essay

Theory on Work and Management

Words: 1415 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68822701

Work and Management

AND Management

The objective of this study is to compare House's Path-Goal theory of leadership with the Situational Leadership model. This study will make provision of an example or application of the two theories utilizing the writer's work situation.

This study will describe the leadership styled utilized by the writer's boss or other CEO or high level personnel in the work organization. For part two of this study examined is how causes of conflict can be found in the organizational and personal characteristics of those involved in the conflict.

This study will answer as to the similar organizational and personal factors and provide examples using the organization the writer is most familiar with.

For part three of this study, Chapter 17 on Career Management will be examined and the following questions answered: (1) What aspects of9 the New vs. Old Career Paradigms can you relate to your work place or any organization you are most familiar with.; (2) Based on Holland's Typology, which occupational typology match your personality as per your MBTI (Myers Briggs); and (3) Identify factors that contribute to a successful career. How can you relate these factors to success in your own career stage…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Free Personality Test (2014) 16 Personalities. Retrieved from: http://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test Basu, C. (2014) Difference Between Situational Leadership & Path Leadership Theories. Small Business Chronicle. Retrieved from:  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-situational-leadership-path-leadership-theories-33446.html 

Chapter 17: Career Management (pp. 278-0) Career Management: Chapter Objectives, 2007 Cengage Learning Inc.
View Full Essay

Theories on Why Leaders Fail to Act

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10264786

Failure to Lead

Leaders who lead with ambition but fail by making a faulty choice are often the more condemned leaders but there is another group that is even less competent or at least unlucky, that being leaders who react tepidly or refuse to make a firm choice or take blame for the same. Such leaders are too tentative and are not assertive enough and this lead to a leader not being taken seriously as an executive or even a figurehead because there is cogent and strong voice dictating what is to be done and why. It is clear that trying one's best as a lead and with fervor will always stand as a better way to try and fail than to not make a decision and/or not make it quickly enough thus almost certainly leading to failure or less success.

Research

The traits of good leaders are tossed around perhaps a bit too much but most of them ring true. The facets and dimensions of a good leader are many but the most important one, to be fair, is the ability to make informed yet timely decisions and to stand behind those decisions regardless of the results. If things…… [Read More]

References

Better leadership is crucial to Detroit's future. (2013). Crain's Detroit Business, 29(28).

1.

Fibuch, E.E. (2011). Failure of Senior Leadership -- Is This a Problem in Your Hospital?.

Physician Executive, 37(2), 46-50.
View Full Essay

Theory Analysis Why We'll Keep Going to War

Words: 1814 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1771271

overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the gains of globalization, it will continue to incubate terrorists and drug lords, and exporting its pain to the Core in the form of instability. [1: Thomas Barnett, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War,"…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army, http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014).

Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).

Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army,  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf  (accessed 23 July 2014),

Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328 / (accessed 23 July, 2014
View Full Essay

Theory of Community Empowerment

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14512275

Nursing Theory

For the 21st century, I feel that the Theory of Community Empowerment is a model that will work well. When we consider the challenges of health care in the 21st century, we realize that technology advancements and new drugs are doing a lot of the technical work on physical healing, but these are the sorts of remedies that come about only after someone gets sick. Ultimately, medical procedures and drugs are not a pathway to sustainable health. As I understand the Theory of Community Empowerment, one of the most important roles of the nurse is to work with people, connect with them, and then help them to help themselves. We, as a community, are responsible for our own health, for making the right choices that can help us avoid having health problems in the first place.

This theory has been expounded upon at length in nursing literature. To reduce disease and ailment, we must begin by empowering patients to take more responsibility and make better choices. Many people become disempowered, for a wide range of reasons, and the result is that they are forced to look for intervention at a stage when outcomes may be less optimal. As…… [Read More]

References

Fawcett, S., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V., Schultz, J., Richter, K., Williams, E., Lewis, R., Harris, K., Berkley, J., Fisher, J., Lopez, C. (1995). Using empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 23 (5) 677-697.

Persily, C. & Hildebrandt, E. (2008). Theory of Community Empowerment, excerpt from Middle Range Nursing Theories. Springer.

Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory of community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 15 (2) 121-148.
View Full Essay

Theory According to Your View

Words: 2190 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70258648

S. involvement in World War II.

Is it possible to have a general theory of war?

Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, Reid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of war. Clausewitz was the thinker who pursued this quest most successfully" (p. 414).

Even Clausewitz, though, recognized the limitations of any general theory of war. In this regard, Lebow (2003) notes that, "The central intellectual problem with which [Clausewitz] grappled was how to construct a scientific and general theory of…… [Read More]

References

Clausewitz, C.V. (1976) on War. Princeton, NJ.

Gray, C.S. (1999) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

-. The 21st Century Security Environment and the Future of War. Parameters, 38(4): 14-9.

Lichbach, M.I. (1989) "An evaluation of 'does economic inequality breed political conflict?'
View Full Essay

Theory Checklist as a Guide Analyze at

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56066966

Theory Checklist" as a guide.

Analyze at least one assumption in your assigned article.

Assessment of Article B

According to Ralph De LaRossa's article "Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research," the use of grounded theory in the social science of family research is particularly valuable. Unlike other forms of qualitative research that merely describe a particular phenomenon or chronicle a 'case study' of a relatively obscure group of people, grounded theory does purport to create some useful and generalizable theory. Qualitative research is distinct from quantitative research, given that the latter tests a hypothesis and is based upon deductive principles. Qualitative research is inductive -- it collects data and formulates a theory from the accumulated information. After assessing verbal data, when using a grounded theory approach, the researcher then codes the data to come to a conclusion based upon the information.

The article details the core principles and the history of grounded theory. To some extent, grounded theory forms a bridge between the principles of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, because through coding, responses can be analyzed in a somewhat objective format. Rather than purely inductive, grounded theory has been called a blend of "induction, deduction, and verification" (LaRosa 2005:…… [Read More]

Reference

LaRossa, R. (2005). Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research. Journal of Marriage and Family,837-857.

First Response:

In the article "Employee alignment with strategic change: A study of strategy-supportive behavior among blue-collar employees," the article was quantitative because the article placed the theory as the framework for the entire study (Creswell, 2009). The article has a deductive base with an objective to test or verify a theory by questioning the theory and hypotheses, defining the theory through a construct, and reflecting the results as positive or negative through scoring derived from the construct. In the study, the researchers introduced the theory at the beginning of the study and the theory and hypotheses was clearly stated and gave identification on the type of study the
View Full Essay

Decision-Making Model Analysis

Words: 1077 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81860950

Administrative model is defined as "a decision-making model that describes how managers actually make decisions in situations characterized by nonprogrammed decisions, uncertainty, and ambiguity" (Daft 1999, p. 284). This approach to decision-making recognizes that not all decisions are able to be considered and judged based on quantitative methods. While it may be preferred that decisions be made by a process where the outcomes are known and can be compared, it is not always possible to know the outcomes. For these types of decisions, a new kind of model is needed that takes into account the uncertainty. This model is the administrative model.

Herbert A. Simon is the founder of the administrative model. He considered the economic model of decision-making and noted that one major element was missing. This element was the human element. Taking the human element into consideration, Simon rejected the idea that people make decisions based on rational choices. Instead, he argued that people are limited in their knowledge and in their ability to think rationally. He describes this in his paper titled "Rational Decision Making in Business Organizations" where he argues that people are not capable of making decisions based on perfect rationality. As he states,

"…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Daft, R.L. (1999). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.

Simon, H.A. (1979). Rational decision making in business organizations. American Economic Review, 69, 493-513.
View Full Essay

Theory and Nursing Practice Issues Nursing

Words: 3046 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55997361

Nursing: Theory and Nursing Practice Issues

Theory and Nursing Practice Issues: Nursing

The modern-day staff nurse faces a variety of challenges in the work environment. These include inadequate staffing, the authority gradient, and issues related to changing models of care. The nurse leader has a duty to aid staff nurses working under him in addressing the challenges posed by these, and other issues facing the nursing profession. Leadership theories provide effective guidelines by which nurse leaders can address issues inherent in the nursing profession. In so doing, they accord staff nurses adequate opportunities to make meaning out of their lives. Leadership theories such as the situational leadership theory, the transformational leadership theory, role theory, and path-goal theory provides crucial insights from which nurse leaders could draw reference when seeking solutions for problems facing subordinate staff nurses. This text explores how leadership theory can be applied to nursing practice issues, and the implications of such application on the work attitudes and morale of staff nurses.

Applying Leadership Theory to Nursing Practice Issues

Nurse leaders empower themselves and others to aid in the realization of organizational goals. They are in key positions to participate in decision-making that has an effect on client…… [Read More]

References

Barker, A. (1992). Transformational Nursing Leadership: A Vision for the Future. New York NY: Jones & Bartlett Company.

Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Addressing New Challenges Facing Nursing Education. The Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hrsa.gov/advisorycommittees/bhpradvisory/nacnep/reports/eighthreport.pdf

Early, G. (2005). Leadership Expectations: How Executive Expectations are Created and Used in a Non-Profit Setting. London, UK: OCMS Publishers.

Edmonson, C. (2010). Moral Courage and the Nurse Leader. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(3), Manuscript 5.
View Full Essay

Theory of Path Goal Leadership

Words: 966 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80211968

Path Goal Theory

THEORY AND PRACITCE: PATH GOAL THEORY

DEFINITION OF PATH GOAL THEORY

Path Goal theory is reported to be about "how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals." (Northhouse, 2010, p.125) Path Goal theory is reported to have first been written early in the decade of the 1970s "in the work of Evans (1970), House (1971), House and Deasler (1974) and House and Mitchell (1974)." (Northhouse, 2010, p. 125) The goal of this theory of leadership is reported to enhance of performance and satisfaction of employees through a focus on motivation of employees. (Northhouse, 2010, paraphrased) Reported as the basis for Path Goal theory is that which is gained from "expectancy theory, which suggests that subordinates will be motivated if they think they are capable of performing their work, if they believe their efforts will result in a certain outcome, and if they believe that the payoffs for doing their work are worthwhile." (Northhouse, 2010, p. 125) The leader must choose the style of leadership that is the best match for the needs of the subordinates in order to motivate them and this is accomplished by the choice of behaviors "that complement or supplement what is missing in…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Northouse, P.G.(2010) Leadership Theory and Practice, 5th edition, Sage Publication. Read the chapter 7 on Goal Path theory.
View Full Essay

Theory of Constraints

Words: 8470 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49169861

Constraints

What is the Theory of Constraints?

There has been a continuous development of management from the time it was realized that it can be studied carefully to form a branch of knowledge and the individuals who had studied it generally performed better as managers than others who never spent time on the matter. The Theory of Constraints or TOC is basically a philosophy of management and improvement. The first person to draw the attention of the world to this was Eliyahu M. Goldratt and he brought it to the notice of others through his famous book, The Goal. The guiding principle behind this theory is that in any organization there exists a weak link, and this acts somewhat like a chain with a weak link. This tops the organization from performing even better than it is performing at any period of time. In short, it is important to remove the weak link for the organization to improve its performance. This involves a direct effort to try and find out the piece of weak link, as it must be found before it can be changed. This must be realized and the management must act accordingly. (What is the Theory of…… [Read More]

References

Chaleff, Ira. (October, 1995) "Process Improvement for Knowledge Workers" AFSM International. Vol: 20; No: 3. Retrieved from  http://www.ibt-pep.com/default.asp?ObjectID=257  Accessed on 29 May, 2005

'Constraint Management & Supplier Relations" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/supp1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005

"Constraint Management & the Market" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/mktg1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005

'Critical Chain & Project Management the TOC Way" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/projects.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
View Full Essay

Decisions Made in the Simulation

Words: 706 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28618580

The final decision the issue of organizational stakeholders and the impact of these stakeholders on the organization were of vital importance. In this context, I chose to protect the organization, even though others would have made a different choice. Thus, the wide range of decisions made in the simulation indicates that the ethical frameworks employed will be influenced by the specific issues involved in decision making.

3. Considering what I learned from this simulation, it seems reasonable to argue that ethical decision making is a challenging task that provides no real comfort. Even when a person believes that he or she is making the right decision, there is still some concern about whether or not the right framework for reviewing a situation has been used. Because there are so many different "right" ways for exploring a problem, in many instances, is appears as if the individual has no other choice but to make a decision and hope that the outcomes will be positive. This appears to be the challenge for modern organizations. Even when clear ethical frameworks are employed, there are no right or wrong answers. Scholars note that even when the best ethical frameworks are used, the best outcomes…… [Read More]

References

Hurley, R.F. (2006). The decision to trust. Harvard Business Review, 84(9), 55-62.

Pont, J. (2005). Doing the right thing to instill business ethics. Workforce Management, 84(4), 26-27.
View Full Essay

Theories of Criminal Justice

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73487615

CRIME

Criminal Justice System

Crime and the law

Crime, from the perspective of the criminal justice system, may be defined as violations of the law. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order. Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order (Schmalleger 2015: 9). The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order (Schmalleger 2015: 10). For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person go free because the evidence against him or her was extracted in an illegal fashion to uphold constitutional principles: this is not necessarily moral but it is required to preserve individual liberties.

The American justice system is made up of police, courts, and corrections components (Schmalleger 2015:14). The criminal justice…… [Read More]

References

Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century. (13th

ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA:

Curriculum Technology.
View Full Essay

Theories of Social Control in Schools

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91442014

Structural Theory

What is the chain of command in your organization?

In every school system, the primary individual who interacts with students is the teacher. Teachers can monitor student behavior such as withdrawal from peers, failing to complete assignments, or signs of possible trouble at home. If teachers suspect that students are being abused or are engaged in illicit activity, they have a responsibility to report it to the relevant authorities although automatic notices are sent to parents if students miss more than a specific number of days without an excuse or if student grades drop below a certain margin.

What is the formal authority in the organization?

The formal authority within a school organization is embodied in the principal, although even the principal must abide by the formal laws of the state regarding student attendance and progress.

That is, who has economic, legal, contractual, collegial authority?

Teachers also have a certain amount of collegial influence on one another -- in other words, they wish to uphold standards in the classroom similar to their fellow professionals and lax or rigorous standards can affect one another. Even more of an effect are performance reviews, particularly for teachers who are not yet…… [Read More]

References

Sawchuk, S. (2015). Teacher performance evaluation. EdWeek, 35 (93). Retrieved from:

http://www.edweek.org/ew/section/multimedia/teacher-performance-evaluation-issue-overview.html

Structurational theory. (2010). University of Twente. Retrieved from:

https://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clusters/Organizational%20Communication/Structurational_Theory/
View Full Essay

Theories of Ethics and Morality Ethics and Morality

Words: 942 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7411599

Ethics and Morality: The Theories of Ethics and Morality

The subject in this case faces an ethical dilemma, where she has to choose between reporting an ethical concern and just playing along or doing nothing at all. Both choices have serious consequences -- reporting would mean that i) she loses her job and livelihood because of a confidentiality breach, and ii) she stops her organization from producing the environmentally-friendly hovercraft, and consequently, becomes the reason why the world will never enjoy clean unpolluted air. Playing along, on the other hand, would mean that she watches as 200,000 innocent lives are lost as a result of the hovercraft's incompatibility with existing models.

The subject has a duty to uphold confidentiality in all dealings that have to do with the company. Disclosing such information to the press would amount to breach of this duty. However, as a member of a corporate body, she also has a duty to always look out for the welfare of the community. Utilitarianism requires people to always go for the action that maximizes the best interests of the majority -- in this case, the deontological duty owed to the citizens overrides that owed to the company, which…… [Read More]

References

Fedler, K.D. (2006). Exploring Christian Ethics: Biblical Foundations for Morality. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

Tully, P.A. (2006). Refined Consequentialism: The Moral Theory of Richard A. McCormick. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
View Full Essay

Theories of Work Motivation FR

Words: 339 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14557946

Dell Computer Corporation has innovative work practices based on people, with the owner, Michael S. Dell placing people number one on his list of priorities (Byrne, 1999).

The two-factor theory of motivation recognizes that achievement, recognition and responsibility are essential to motivation (Daft, 1997, p. 533). Dell believes in giving responsibility to employees and providing for their development. Employees are rewarded for their hard work not just with a promotion but with job enrichment, where job enrichment incorporates achievement, recognition and other motivators. Job enrichment at Dell means that as employees progress they actually do less tasks, not more, so they can focus more fully on those tasks. The promotion strategy also makes use of the ideas of Maslow's hierarchy of needs (Daft et al., p. 530). Workers begin by having their basic physiological, safety and belongingness needs catered for. As they continue their esteem needs are catered for as they find themselves achieving at their job. The promotion program then offers them self-actualization, the ability to fulfil themselves.…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Byrne, John. (1999, October). The search for the young and the gifted. BusinessWeek.

Daft, Richard. L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth: The Dryden Press.