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Declaration of Independence
It is obvious, if we look at things today, that Jefferson's revolutionary vision has been achieved in America. Even more so, it has been achieved to a degree that we assume has never been reached elsewhere. On the other hand, we must admit that any such questions can also be answered "yes, to a certain degree" and we must acknowledge that this is the case for America as well. However, we can sustain that this degree of achievement is extremely high and we will examine why in the lines below. In order to do so, we must have a closer look at the three fundamental rights that Jefferson envisioned and evaluate the degree to which they were reached.
The third right seems to be the easiest to defend. Indeed, Jefferson's vision does not actually engage the government to support the pursuit of happiness, but, practically, only to…… [Read More]
Declaration of Independence
The Theory of Government presented in the Declaration
The author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson was greatly influenced by the political thoughts of the 17th century English philosopher John Locke and other thinkers of the European Age of Enlightenment. The theory of government presented in the Declaration is largely based on the political philosophy of Natural Rights that maintains that each individual enters a society with certain basic rights that no government can deny. The Declaration terms these Natural Rights as unalienable rights given to them by God, including the right of "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness."
The document goes on to assert that all men are created equal and in order to acquire and keep these natural rights, they have a right to form a Government that derives its powers only from the consent of the people. It closely reflects John Locke's…… [Read More]
Declaration of independence it was determined that thirteen of the countries were Free states and independent of England.
Initially even under the government of England there were hardly any serious problems for the thirteen colonies. Even though it was England that hired the government holders and other main officials, colonies had very limited representation (U.S. History.Org, 1995)
However England went heavily into debt. This was mainly due to the war with the Indians. The debt was also due to another war that was with the French .A major part of that war took place between the colonies, having England to dispatch its troops. Hence, the British held the colonists responsible and felt that they should bear the brunt of their actions. The British Parliament started working towards making the tax laws more stringent and passing different laws that were a major source of displeasure for the colonist.
In 1774, delegates…… [Read More]
In fact, many of the ideas are taken directly from John Locke's theories, specifically the statement of the right to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
Specifically, the declaration that "it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume...the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature...entitle them..." is a statement of both republicanism and Natural Law.
The preamble states, "when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security." This is a statement of justification of revolution to create self-government.
The statement that people are created "with certain unalienable Rights" is reflective of the natural rights of humans, which evolved into…… [Read More]
" hen that Amendment was put in, the country was very young and it was wild, with Native Americans often hostile (with good reason), with wild animals posing a threat, and with various wars (the French & Indian ar; the Civil ar) taking place. People needed to feel like they were protected, and the new government didn't want to take their personal means of physical protection away from them. The times have changed very dramatically.
I'm not suggesting that guns be taken away from honest hunters, gun collectors, or others who actually need a weapon for protection in proven instances. Today, we have a militia, we have the Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force - and those people are all well armed.
But the number of guns in America is getting totally out of control. Kids get guns and get involved in gangs and start killing people. Criminals buy assault weapons,…… [Read More]
Independence and Constitution
Declaration of Independence to the Constitution
When the American colonies declared their independence from Great Britain the Declaration of Independence stated a number of specific violations of the colonist's rights that British King George III that committed against the colonies. These were stated as the reason behind the American's right to rebel and replace the British government with one of their own. Several years later, after the Americans had won their independence through a long and bitter war, they achieved their goal of forming their own permanent government. After a period of experimentation, the Americans finally formulated a Constitution which would be the basis of the new country. In the Constitution of the United States, the Founding Fathers specifically addressed the abuses of King George III by inserting provisions that would make it impossible for any American government to repeat those abuses. What the Founding Fathers created…… [Read More]
Due to these acts, and because of the many others that followed, the colonies proclaimed their independence. On July 2 the Philadelphia Convention had its motion of independence implemented. The state's representatives wanted to emphasize their decision of breaking from the Mother Country, so they presented the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson was the one who drafted this act. His ideas were not new; he was inspired in his political philosophy by the John Locke and a series of other continental philosophers. He was only responsible for sorting out the philosophy in obvious truths, and made a list of complaints against the king, for this action to be justified before the world (http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration.html).
Its main content was about George III's legislation. In the Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson is saying that England's legislation is null. New settlers were no longer allowed to come to America or take over a Native…… [Read More]
Declaration of Independence which was drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28 in 1776 is one of the most cherished symbols of liberty of the nation as well as the most enduring monument of Jefferson. In unforgettable and exalted phrases, convictions are expressed in the heats and minds of people of America by Jefferson. It was not a new political philosophy of the Declaration, John Locke and Continental philosophers had already expressed its ideal of individual liberty. Whatever was done by Jefferson was to summarize this philosophy in "self-evident truths" hence setting forth grievances against the King so that there was justification to the world over the break of ties between the colony and the mother country.
During the campaign of revising Congressional instructions, most of the Americans expressed their support for separation from Great Britain officially in whatever was state and local declaration of independence. Pauline…… [Read More]
They hoped to create a nation where there was a representative government, and taxation was for the good of the people not the whims of a government that had no motivation to care for all of its people.
The dream of the founding fathers was also to establish a nation where the individuals of America could and would be able to protect themselves from tyrannous government. In the Declaration of Independence they state that people in America will no longer bow to the oppressions of a government that can take their homes, demand services (including military service for colonial power that does not benefit the people), and demand taxation without democratic representation. They hoped -- and encouraged -- a nation of people to be vigilant for such abuses and to not stand for it. In all, the dream of the founding father was for the American people to be the…… [Read More]
Sign the Declaration of Independence
I am a loyal Englishman, like my father before me; all the way back to the time of William the Conqueror. The King is the King and deserves my loyalty for no other reason that he is the King. Those who complain about the taxes being imposed upon the Colonies should remember that we pay less here that than the average person back home. And the violent reaction to reasonable taxation only deepens my fear that our land may become a place of mob rule. While the government's reaction to the recent Tea Act trouble was reasonable and proper for the incitement caused. We, who enjoy the protection of the British Empire, owe our loyalty to it's King. And as a loyal Englishman, I cannot act in a manner that is treasonous to our King, George III. I cannot sign the Declaration of Independence
In…… [Read More]
The Declaration of Independence was a product of Enlightenment philosophy and specifically of the theories of John Locke. Underlying assumptions of the Declaration include that government is a social contract, only valid with the explicit approval of the people who are governed but not lorded or ruled over. Jefferson recognized also that historical changes enable the emergence of new systems of governance and political culture: “in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another.” Grounded in reason and rational thought, the Declaration also lists reasons for “the separation” of the former colonies from the Crown. Locke’s writings demonstrate an “anti-authoritarian” streak, one that allowed him and other Enlightenment philosophers—and also the Founding Fathers—to take the great leap towards self-governance (Uzgalis, 2017, p. 1). John Locke’s affirmation of liberty, freedom, and equality continue to resonate in the…… [Read More]
All these cruel behaviors of the King forced these thirteen colonies to declare Independence from the King in order to get their basic rights like liberty and happiness. Hence, in June 1776, Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence of these 13 colonies from the British King. As a token of approval, the representatives of these states signed this declaration.
Declaration of Independence" National Archives Experience. etrieved at http://www.archives.gov/national_archives_experience/charters/declaration.html. Accessed on 12 February 2005
The Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies" Indiana University School of Law. etrieved at http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html. Accessed on 12 February 2005
In Congress, July 4, 1776: The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen United States of America" retrieved at http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/. Accessed on 12 February 2005
Declaration of Independence" National Archives Experience. etrieved at http://www.archives.gov/national_archives_experience/charters/declaration.html. Accessed on 12 February 2005
The Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies" Indiana University School of Law. etrieved at http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html. Accessed on…… [Read More]
Still the voice is based out of a solid religious belief of a Creator.
Assessment, Culture and Institutions general assessment of American Declaration regarding this selection is simple. It outlines clearly the intentions and plans for a free governing state created by its people for its people. The Declaration shouts, "e are here to stay!" It implores people if these intentions are fulfilled, happiness will result. This is a bold statement for its time. The culture of this document is very much engrained in the concept of a Creator or God. This is inherent of the time. America's creation is based out of religious freedom because of persecution elsewhere. This makes this document not only social but also deeply personal. A person's view of God or the Creator is an emotional connection and personal decision. By putting this in the foundation of government, the Founding Fathers were hoping to gain…… [Read More]
Language of the Declaration of Independence
We are so familiar with the language of the Declaration of Independence that it comes as something of a surprise to us to examine its previous incarnations. Of course on the one hand we should not be surprised that the first draft should have required some revisions - although as our readings note it is in fact astonishing how polished and complete Thomas Jefferson's original draft is. One should hardly expect that such an important document should spring forth - like Athena - ready made. However, what is striking about the three versions of the Declaration of Independence that we have read for this assignment is how the differences in these three drafts help to illuminate the political and philosophical differences amongst those who were leading the colonies to independence.
It is all too easy for us, looking back over more than two centuries,…… [Read More]
Declaration of Independence was written and put into effect in the late 1700's. That is a bit of time ago but the work of Plato and Aristotle came a long, long time before that. Even with the major time disparities involved, there are some common themes and ideas that exist among both of the philosophers and the author of the Declaration of Independence. Even while keeping the focus on the Declaration of Independence very narrow, there are some obvious commonalities between the Declaration and the two classic philosophers. While many ideas and viewpoints change and shift over time, there are others that are much more enduring and prone to remain strong and many of those ideas are seen in the works analyzed within this report.
Much of what Plato had to say was very much in line with the Declaration of Independence. It is stated in The epublic that…… [Read More]
This, to the perception of the Declaration, would be an ironically close
approximation to British monarchy.
In line with Jefferson's ideals, Thomas Paine's Common Sense is a
compelling political document from the time, as in its grievances against
the tyranny of the British throne, it seems almost to anticipate the
implications of an empowered American governance. He deduces that "society
is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former
promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections, the latter
negatively by restraining our voices. The one encourages intercourse, the
other creates distinctions." (Hoffman et al, 2001) Quite to the point,
even before America's freedom from imperial oversight, Paine demonstrates
an awareness of the forces that will ultimately come to intervene with the
premise of the Declaration. For the disenfranchised groups that direct our
gaze in this discussion, there is an inherency to the idea that America's
government,…… [Read More]
5. Because he wanted to impose his power over the colonies regardless of the circumstances that his actions would have, "King George III has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us." (Jefferson)
Because they want to avoid having to make important changes in society, "mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed." (Jefferson)
Because the British had been more interested in gaining profits from the colonies rather than insure the well-being of the colonists, "they too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity." (Jefferson)
6. In spite of the fact that the Declaration of Independence has been written in a serious manner, the readers can observe the strong emotions experienced by Jefferson while writing the document. Jefferson does not only mention that the…… [Read More]
Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence
Of all the men known as the Founding Fathers of the United States, perhaps the man most discussed is Thomas Jefferson. He was instrumental in the creation of the country through his participation with the First and Second Continental Congress and in ensuring the successful beginning of the nation following the American Revolution. Besides being Vice President to John Adams, and then the third President of the country, he was also a member of the initial Congresses, and in the formation of the Articles of Confederation and the subsequent Constitution when the Articles proved an abysmal failure although he was in Paris at the time and thus not directly involved. He was further an ambassador, scholar, and historian, and of course arguably of most importance is the fact that Jefferson is famous for his involvement in writing the Declaration of Independence. Had he…… [Read More]
Pennsylvania Farmer -- Declaration of Independence
hat objections did the "Pennsylvania Farmer" have regarding the content of the Declaration of Independence? hat did the Pennsylvania Farmer agree with, philosophically, and fundamentally, regarding the wording of the Declaration of Independence? These questions will be addressed in this paper.
The Declaration of Independence and the Pennsylvania Farmer
Essayist Charles Kromkowski asserts that prior to 1774, few colonists had "openly advocated" independence (Kromkowski, 2010, p. 45). However, leading up to the 1770s there were influential propaganda-themed documents published and distributed throughout the colonies that vigorously opposed the fact that the British Parliament acted arbitrarily in taxing the colonies without the consent of the colonists and that the British Parliament unilaterally suspended the New York legislature, among other egregious acts. One of the most influential writers of propaganda in the late 1760s was the "Pennsylvania Farmer," whose name was John Dickinson and who actually…… [Read More]
The Nature of Freedom in the 18th and 19th Centuries
The evidence shows that the nature of freedom in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was considered a natural right in some cases and a divine right in others. For example, when it was useful, people appealed to the idea of a Creator endowing people with certain “unalienable rights” and when nature was viewed as the source of life, the rights of man were considered something that just was.
Three passages from the different primary source texts that provide evidence for my claim are:
1. “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights… hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights”—from the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
2. “We hold these truths to…… [Read More]
Declarations of Human ights
In 1776, the American Declaration of Independence, the document that started it all, became the first official written document to suggest that human beings had inalienable rights. The Founding Fathers stated, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable ights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" (Declaration of Independence, 1776). Of course, this document was a great start in the pursuit of human rights, but one must understand it in its historical context. The document literally meant that men were created equal; women were not considered to have those same rights, and would not even get the right to vote for almost 150 years after the document. Moreover, the document did not mean that all men were created equal; the United States would have legalized slavery…… [Read More]
esides defining what the basic role of government should be, the declaration gives citizens the ability to hold government liable for its actions. Article 6 gives all citizens the right to participate in the lawmaking process, either directly or through their representatives. Citizens are also given the right to keep public officials held accountable for the actions of their administration as stated in Article 15. Much of the declaration's principles express the importance that must be shown towards maintaining the rights of individuals.
The value of the declaration during the time it was written is that it was meant to challenge the then existing political system in France. Prior to the revolution, the principle employed to maintain the rule of aristocracy was the one stating that governing was the divine right of kings.
This form of government ensured that members of the aristocracy maintained their status and wealth in society…… [Read More]
The independence committee presumably inspired parts of their paper from other documents written at the time.
hile most Americans presently consider the Declaration of Independence to signify their principles and democracy in general, the document is much more important, as it can be regarded as the first document of such a magnitude in the history of mankind. Its impact has been seen from the very first years of its issuing and it continues to have a strong influence around the world. Apparently, even Thomas Jefferson had been aware of the international effects that the Declaration of Independence will have.
A multitude of people benefited consequent to learning about the concepts present in the declaration. Revolutions broke out across the world because of individuals wanting to express their identity. It did not matter whether people had been Spanish, German, or French, as they all found a link to the American Declaration…… [Read More]
Declaration of Rights of Man" (1789) and the "Declaration of Independence" (1776)
The Declaration of Independence" by 13 ritish North American colonies in 1776 and the "Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens" passed by the National Assembly of France in 1789 are two of the most important documents ever written in the history of Western Civilization. oth the documents were greatly influenced by the Age of Enlightenment and the thoughts of philosophers such as the 17th century Englishman John Locke and the leading French philosopher of the time, Jean Jacques Rousseau. This essay is a comparison of the two documents.
Although The Declaration of Independence (1776) was basically a proclamation of freedom by American colonists from ritish rule, it was also a statement of principle about the natural and inalienable rights of men and contained a list of grievances against the ritish monarch of the time, King George III.…… [Read More]
As for Kosovo, its legal status is not the only problem that it has to face. The country's economic situation is still significantly bad and important investments are needed in order to improve the situation on the ground. Despite Serbia no longer being a threat, Kosovo is not necessarily a place where the investors are likely to put their money soon until the political and institutional situation improves.
1. David inder. 1 November 1987. "In Yugoslavia, Rising Ethnic Strife rings Fears of Worse Civil Conflict," the New York Times. Late City Final Edition
2. Rogel, Carole. (September 2003). Kosovo: Where it All egan. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 17, No. 1
3. Larry Minear, Ted van aarda, Marc Sommers (2000). "NATO and Humanitarian Action in the Kosovo Crisis. rown University.
4. U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR), April 2000, Reversal of Fortune: Yugoslavia's Refugees Crisis Since the…… [Read More]
Declaration of Independence
Overview of Excerpt from Declaration
The excerpt chosen for this paper is one of the most powerful passages in the Declaration of Independence. It packs a punch equal to "e hold these truths to be self-evident…" because it actually states what the Colonies intended to do, and why they fully intended to do it. "…henever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these [life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness] ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to affect their Safety and Happiness…" (Baylor / Declaration of Independence). Thomas Jefferson could have been very succinct and just gone with this passage in his text, and it would have conveyed the sympathies of the signers; that said,…… [Read More]
However, Jefferson's "Declaration of Independence" also amounted to a declaration of war. He was well aware that the British government would not simply let the colonists pull away from England and declare themselves their own country or countries. England made huge profits from the American colonies and were not about to just roll over and let them cut themselves free simply because they didn't like a few laws the Parliament had passed.
In contrast to this is King's speech. While he lists the inequalities involved with being Black in a White-dominated America, he called for people to come together. He said, "I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood." He knew it was a dream and not a reality, as did…… [Read More]
How can we trust physicians to weigh pros and cons of so many health decisions, but impose judicial authority upon them on end-of-life issues?
Of course, opponents argue that this will be a slippery slope to allowing rampant assisted suicide. However, with any freedom, there are always some limitations. Giving individuals freedom of speech has not created a 'slippery slope' where individuals can be slandered. Even regarding First Amendment free speech, there are limits upon citizens in terms of revealing state secrets or using speech as a weapon -- the example of calling 'fire' in a crowded theater comes to mind. There could be limits upon the circumstances to ensure physicians could not assist severely depressed or mentally incompetent individuals to commit suicide, for example.
There are also practical considerations which the court does take into consideration when deciding many issues of social policy, as it did in Brown v.…… [Read More]
Because the country was essentially thirteen colonies fighting separately, the British had to deal with battles throughout the country, with people who were fighting for their homes and towns. The American forces knew their surroundings better, and they were motivated to fight well to protect their loved ones and neighbors.
The Declaration of Independence, written in July 1776, indicates how resolved most of the population was to independence from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson, author of the document, wrote that the British government had become "destructive," and people believed they must assert their independence and be free of the country, or their lives would never be free from oppression. He wrote, "That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the ight of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in…… [Read More]
The Story of Mexico:
Comparing Two Views on the Meaning of Mexican Independence
Modern Mexico is a collection of charming traditions, a still-burgeoning culture, a very rich history, an ever-flourishing social strata and a growing political and economic influence in the Americas. In other words, modern Mexico is a country on the verge of many successes. Yet, just as any other nation on its way to becoming a world power, Mexico has, still, many obstacles to overcome. These range from aiding the poor thorough networks of social services and thereby minimizing income inequalities, quelling drug-related violence in its northern provinces, quenching corruption throughout the nation, and implementing other related reforms for the future benefit of the country. hile it is true that Mexico has numerous challenges to undertake, the country has always been successful at overcoming even the harshest tests. This paper will undertake a discussion of how…… [Read More]
The way it worked is the Executive branch had the ability to enforce various laws and control of the military. However, in order to receive any kind of funding for its activities it had to work with the Legislative branch. This is when Congress had the power to review these actions and determine if they wanted to continue providing the President with funding for a host of different activities. If there was a conflict one had the power to check the other through different actions they could take (i.e. Congress refusing to fund a particular program that is favored by the President). At the same time, Congress had the authority to pass various laws that would determine how the country was governed. While, the President has the power to check that of Congress by vetoing it and sending it back to them for further review. The courts have the authority…… [Read More]
1. Alexander Pope assumes an authoritative voice in “An Essay on Man.” These lines, beginning with “All nature is but art,” and ending with “whatever is, is right” are declarative statements in keeping with the general tone and theme of the poem. In “An Essay on Man,” Pope seeks to situate humankind in the natural order of the universe. Pope shows the potential and the limitations of human beings, encouraging an attitude of humility.
By stating, “All nature is but art,” Pope affirms the ineffable beauty of nature: which is one thing that humankind certainly does not create. As much as human beings can interfere with nature or adjust nature for functional or aesthetic purposes, nature is “art” on another level: a creative, perhaps divine level. Pope then refers to “all chance, direction, which thou canst not see,” which reiterates the meaning of the previous line about nature being naught…… [Read More]
American Independence, National Unity
rief thematic history of the U.S. from 1760 to 1815
In describing U.S. history from 1760 to 1815, I would have to title it as "The United States: The Formative Years." From the ritish indifference to her New World colonies, and the War for Independence; to the events before the Civil War, the United States formative years were ones of triumph, struggle and unity.
During 1763, up until 1775, the United States and ritain feuded over 'taxation without representation'. Like a child, the colonies had to break free from the mother country and find themselves and their independence, which they did in 1776 (U.S. History Timeline).
Thomas Payne said in his political pamphlet 'Common Sense' that "There is something exceedingly ridiculous in the composition of monarchy; it first excludes a man from the means of information, yet empowers him to act in cases where the highest…… [Read More]
Ho Chi Minh was highly educated and attended various universities around the world according to the literature from numerous sources including the Eastern Worker's University and Lenin School in Moscow. He was trained in Moscow involving revolutionary tactics (Columbia Encyclopedia 2008).
Minh had a strong desire to make Vietnam an independent country and spent his whole life in pursuit of this dream. In southern China, Minh trained the exiles in techniques involving revolutionary tactics. According to by 1925 he had organized the exiles into the Viet Nam Thanh Nien Cach Menh Dong Chi Hoi (Revolutionary Youth League) and the inner group within the Revolutionary League, the Thanh Nien Cong San Doan, or Communist Youth League (CYL) (Wars and Battles 2010 the Revolutionary). Years of oppression and hardship drove the Vietnamese people to join Minh in his ideals. The seemingly ordinary man was highly educated according to all sources referred and…… [Read More]
Book Review: Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia
Holton’s (1999) book Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia makes the case that the Founding Fathers of the U.S.A. were not really motivated by the laundry list of grievances identified in the Declaration of Independence. Rather, their individual experiences in the country taught them that, on a practical level, it would be easier for them to obtain what they wanted by operating independently of the England than through England. The main argument that Holton (1999) makes is this—the tyranny of the Crown was not the real issue or driver of the push for independence; the real drivers were contentions over land, in-fighting among the colonists, a dislike of paying taxes, and the desire of the separate colonies to arrange affairs with foreign countries on…… [Read More]
American Revolution happened between 1775 and 1783 and to others it is known as the U.S. War of Independence while others call it the American Revolutionary War. It was not until the Seven Years' of War ended in 1783 that few colonists in the Northern Part of America gave objections to their position in the ritish Empire. The imperial system of the ritish people saw it reap many benefits and the costs linked to the system were few. Indeed, the American colonies had been left alone all along but in the early 1760s, the eruption of the Seven Years' War changed everything. Many Americans referred to this War as the War between the French and Indians, and the winning team was ritain, which had come at a great cost since the Empire had a staggering war debt that influenced many of its policies over the decade. The Americans tried to…… [Read More]
...[p. 41] Reasons may be given, why an Act ought to be repeal'd, and yet obedience must be yielded to it till that repeal takes place.
The intent of most colonists, was to create change through the proper channels, as has been described by the Philadelphia congress, as having occurred over the ten years bridging the two previous declarations.
A consummate expert on the War of Independence, writing in the early twentieth century, Van Tyne, stresses that the development of the ideal of democratic representation, was seeded in the ideals of Puritan politics which were spurned by the exposure of ministers to the ideas of John Locke and John Milton, who demonstratively effected the ideas of the American colonists as well as many others all over the colonial world. The idea of a fierce fight against tyranny and unchecked despotism was an essential standard of the day and at some…… [Read More]
The political event in consideration is the Balfour Declaration. In the course of World War I, the Middle East was under British Imperialism. In 1915, the British government through Sir Henry McMahon, who was Egypt's British High Commissioner, assured Hussein, who was Sharif of Mecca at the time, that Britain would give backing to the independence of the Arab kingdom if they took part in an Arab revolt in opposition of the Ottoman Empire. However, two years later, Britain through Lord Arthur Balfour issued the Balfour Declaration with the proclamation of guaranteeing the establishment of a home for the Jews in Palestine.[footnoteRef:1] The Balfour Declaration as a political event had both supporters who thought it was a good and fitting idea but at the same time also faced major criticism. On one hand, the Balfour Declaration was given support by the British government and the Zionism movement. On…… [Read More]
He was appointed by the convention one of a committee of nine to consider the ways and means to put the province in the best state of defense (McDermott 28).
On September 12, 1775, the citizens of Anne Arundel County and the city of Annapolis appointed a Committee of Observation for the town and county of which Carroll was a member. At this meeting, he was elected one of the deputies to represent the county in the State Convention for 1 year, and he was selected with six others to license suits in the county for the same period. The Colonial Convention on October 13 appointed Charles Carroll chairman of a committee of five to devise ways and means to promote the manufacture of saltpetre. On January 11, 1776, the Maryland Convention instructed the Maryland delegates to the Continental Congress to disavow all design in the colonies for independence. This…… [Read More]
Ironically, the single most important thing a university could do might be to suspend all forms of grading by the traditional test methods. Even without cheating, the focus on grades only encourages studying to perform on test instead of learning for the sake of learning. It might not be practical for large classes, but one-on-one oral exams between students and professors or TAs might be more difficult to cheat on and provide more accurate indications of what students have actually learned than traditional testing methods. If the university cannot suspend traditional grading and testing, the single most important thing might be to provide a mandatory ethics course to freshman in conjunction with employing a very strict one-strike policy for cheating.
8. Do you agree or disagree with Professor Couser, author of the "Dear Plagiarist" article? Why? What are two main points he is trying to communicate to students in this…… [Read More]
The Fourth of July is the most significant day in United States. In this day in 1776, the country was able to do away with their former colonizers and acquire independence. It is the respect for this day, which forms the main reason as to why the American people celebrate the day annually. In celebration of this day, there are significant historic documents that have consequently been produced. The Declaration of Independence is perhaps the most influential document in the history of the country. The evidence for this declaration was by 13 states that confirmed the end of colonial rule. However, Frederick Douglas' document was another key turning point in the history of the United States and mostly to the black people. "What to the slave is the Fourth of July" provides the chance for the American people to reflect on this day? As much as Douglas appreciates…… [Read More]
Founding Documents-Declaration & Constitution
The Declaration of Independence lays out the fundamental propositions which underlie the Constitution and American political culture, and as Abraham Lincoln once famously stated, the Constitution is the "frame of silver" which surrounds the Declaration's "apple of gold." That is, Lincoln believed the Constitution creates the institutions and processes through which American government realizes the principles natural rights found in the Declaration's preamble. The purpose of the Declaration was not only to create a document proclaiming the colonies' separation from Great Britain, but it was also both a list of grievances and a statement of colonial constitutional theory. Jefferson stated toward the end of his life that the political philosophy espoused in the Declaration was simply a statement of the "American mind."
The Constitution can properly be said to embody these principles in part due to the failure of the Articles of Confederation -- as the…… [Read More]
" By commerce, one should read the relationship between master and slave in general. Here, Jefferson speaks as a true man of the Enlightenment who cannot accept the degrading submission of a human being.
On the other hand, some of his arguments against slavery are related to manners. Manners should probably be here less regarded as the social conventions of the time, but rather as some sort of collective conscience that should oppose the idea of enslaving another individual. More so, the people's morale, as well as the respect for people tolerating slavery, will be broken by perpetuating slavery.
3. The Sally Hemings Case
The controversy surrounding Sally Hemings is well-known, although it has never been fully proven. Sally Hemings was owned by Jefferson's father-in-law and rumors appeared that Jefferson had fathered five children with Sally Hemings. At that moment, the controversy started as a political quarrel in fact, in…… [Read More]
Rousseau offers a mix of philosophical notions of liberty with advice and opinions on how to structure a government that promotes equality and liberty, but not excessively so, that the will of the majority or strong overcomes the will or the rights of the minority. as, unlike the founders of America, Rousseau was not concerned with a real, live, specific historical situation he could to some extent afford to be more theoretical in his orientation. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was even more concerned with the philosophical notions of liberty, but he detached them from their functioning in government and instead was concerned about human being's innate liberty to do morally good or evil actions. Kant saw morality as existing not as something that could be constructed at will by human beings, but as something that existed for all time, and to be commensurate with the categorical imperative, people must act…… [Read More]
After Jefferson incorporated the committee's revisions into a second draft. The committee edited that draft and presented a "fair copy" of this document to Congress, which made more revisions of its own. After printing the document eventually approved by Congress, the printer, Dunlap, probably threw that draft away. (It makes one wonder what the printer was thinking. "Oh, this is just a draft of some nonimportant paper that these guys are writing up. I'm sure they have another one floating around.")
Apparently Dunlap was right, if he actually did think this. Jefferson saved the second draft, that indicated some revisions by Ben Franklin and Adams in their own handwriting, and the changest that Congress made later. This is the document now on display. Jefferson also made six annotated longhand copies of the official congressional draft explaining the ways in which his draft had been "mutilated." (The editor burned by a…… [Read More]
accusation made against King George III in the Declaration of Independence: "This history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpation, all having, in direct object, the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States." King George comes up in the Declaration of Independence because he (along with Parliament) was adamant about controlling the colonies and making sure they stayed under England's thumb. King George is the one who actually first called the colonists "rebels," and so, he became the target of the American evolution.
In February of 1775, King George III spoke before Parliament and said that America was in a "state of rebellion." This led to several states declaring their own independent resolutions and dissolving their association with Great Britain. One of these declarations was the Mecklenburg resolutions, created by the citizens of Mecklenburg County in North Carolina. Historian Sydney George…… [Read More]
War can be seen as a pillar of te American tradition. We are a nation born of war - our Revolution - and defined by war - our Civil War.
Tere were a number of circumstances tat led to te colonists' rebellion against England and te monarcy. Tensions began to rise wen King George III issued te Proclamation of 1763, banning Englis settlements west of te Appalacian mountains and ordering anyone in tose regions to return east.
In 1764, te Sugar Act was passed, increasing duties on imported good, and establised a court to deal wit custom matters.
Te Currency Act proibited colonists from issuing paper money as legal tender, tus, destabilizing te colonial economy, and colonists called for a boycott of Britis luxury goods.
Te Stamp Act of 1865 ordered colonists to pay tax directly to England and te Quartering Act ordered colonists to ouse and feed Britis troops.…… [Read More]
Nature.... General Will
The ideas to create just and liberal society go all the way back to ancient times. The first examples of civil society were proposed by Plato and Aristotle, who saw the ideal state to be a republic ruled by the wise men and aristocrats as "first among equal." They didn't go in depth to explain its structure, functions of government in details, etc. These were the first discourses about the state where the harmony and equality established by the laws of nature will be preserved and developed. But the history shows that Greek republic failed under the pressure of power-gaining ome and Greek democracy was forgotten for centuries, but some of its principles preserved and where later developed by the philosophers of Enlightenment.
Enlightenment or renaissance of political thought and birth of civil political teachings was represented by a new idea of state, where the power was…… [Read More]
God Given Rights:
Understanding America's Equality and Freedom
The poem "On Being Brought to America" by Phillis Wheatley and The Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson share similarities on the ideals that America possesses. Each of these writings argues for their God given rights, claiming every person is equal. Each must start new: One as a Christian, the others as a government. It is the bravery and the challenge in these writings that fascinate readers and help them understand America's growth process into the country it now proudly is.
Wheatley writes a poem discussing the introduction to both America and the Christian faith. The author feels as though she was brought to America out of kindness, and is thankful for the introduction to Christianity. She continues on to discuss the social factors, asking why her race is good enough for God, but not for the other Americans. When asking,…… [Read More]
A little over a year later, on June 7th, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia introduced a resolution that the Congress officially declared independence from England. This prompted the creation of a committee to draft the declaration which consisted of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, enjamin Franklin and Roger Sherman.
They brought the declaration to the floor of Congress and it was officially accepted on July 4th, 1776. Five long years later, efforts by the Minutemen and the regular Continental army secured a victory for the colonists and their independence.
utler, Allen. "The Declaration of Independence: Herald of the American Revolution." 20 Jan. 2006. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/16964/the_declaration_of_independence_herald.html
Who Were the Minutemen? http://www.ushistory.org/brandywine/special/art01.htm
utler, Allen. "The Declaration of Independence: Herald of the American Revolution." 20 Jan. 2006. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/16964/the_declaration_of_independence_herald.html… [Read More]
Major Issues Leading to the American Revolution
The early 1700s brought an influx of immigrants into the New World. The majority of inhabitants were English, but there were also large numbers of German, Irish, Scots, and Spanish. The colonists who had left Britain were beginning to attain their own economic independence from the motherland. Since the first settlements were established, the colonists had managed to establish their own industries in agriculture, wool production, milling, iron work and many other industries. With this economic independence came an independence of ideals as well. The British monarch still viewed himself as a "father" to this fledgling country. As such he demanded loyalty and economic support from his "children." The colonists no longer viewed themselves a subjects of the King and began to assert their newly found independence.
The British monarch expected the colonists to supply Britain with raw materials, and buy…… [Read More]
King did not stray from the moral imperative of ahimsa, doing no harm.
Moreover, King knew that his civil rights campaign was grounded in the same philosophies that kick-started the union. Locke noted, "All men may be restrained from invading others rights, and from doing hurt to one another,' (Chapter 2, section 7). So long as no harm is done, each individual has the right to act as he or she pleases. King was trying to point out that "all men may be restrained from" harming African-Americans. Discrimination had become part of the American experience. Depriving African-Americans of their rights to vote, to have access to social, political, and economic resources: these are acts that are directly harming human beings. Alluding to the Declaration of Independence, King echoed the passage, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator…… [Read More]
S. Constitution, and Susan B. Anthony was very upset at that.
For one thing, the women's suffrage movement had vigorously supported the abolition of slavery well prior to (and, of course, during the Civil War); and now that blacks were free, and were given the right to vote (although many blacks in America didn't really get to vote until the Voting ights Act of 1965 guaranteed their right to cast votes) prior to the women in American having the right to vote.
For another thing, many women were already stretched to the maximum in terms of the patience over their lack of voting rights.
According to an article in www.About.com (Women's History: Susan B. Anthony), "Some of Susan B. Anthony's writings were...quite racist by today's standards." She made the point that "educated white women would be better voters than 'ignorant' black men or immigrant men." In the late 1860s, she…… [Read More]
Heavy rule will always lead to destruction one way or another. Individuals can only take being oppressed for so long. An ideal society is one where the government and the people are happy.
e see the results of oppression when we look at Martin Luther King's ideas and dreams for a better society. A world apart from Machiavelli's time, King captures the plight of the oppressed individual. He knows all too well what people experience when they are held down by a government that encroaches on everyday freedom. He urges his readers to "rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice" (King). He also sees hope in the future and asks people to "make justice a reality for all of God's children" (King). Justice is part of the government's responsibility to the people. Elizabeth Cady Canton also understood the struggle for independence.…… [Read More]
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
The…… [Read More]
Roger Wilkins presents perhaps the most complete picture of the Founding Fathers in his book Jefferson's Pillow: The Founding Fathers and the Dilemma of Black Patriotism. It is Wilkins' argument that Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, James Madison and George Mason were not the idyllic seekers-of-justice and equality that we have been taught, but rather they were wealthy slaveholders with political powers that were not always exercised is an "American" way. In light of this newly presented information, our former ideals need to be reevaluated against the ideas of black patriotism, as well as against our thoughts on patriotism in general. How could all men have been created equal, when African-Americans were not considered to be men at all? Indeed, Americans cannot fully come to understand themselves until they are able to understand who the aforementioned individuals were - no matter what the results.
Slaveholders were great politicians in our nation's…… [Read More]
Henderson the Rain King
Saul Bellow was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976 for, among other things, the ability to give values a place side by side with facts in literature, unlike realism. The import of his work was seen as creating awareness that only the right values can give human kind freedom and responsibility, necessary foundations for building of faith in the future and a desire for action. Bellow's work was also recognized for its unique mixture of philosophy, cultural analysis and deep insights into human consciousness (The Nobel Foundation eb site).
Henderson the Rain King is an archetypical Bellow work bearing all the aforesaid characteristics. Henderson, the novel's principal character sets out on a journey ostensibly to Africa but primarily in search of himself. Bellow's portrayal of the unhappy, discontented middle-aged American millionaire has been widely interpreted as a caricature of Americans in the…… [Read More]
Sandefur, states that liberal originalism is relevant to a historical analysis of the Constitution because it is also relevant today as a method of interpreting the Constitution. Like original-ism in general, the liberal view is incompatible with attempts to use government to accomplish "social justice" or other ends inconsistent with the principles of individual liberty and limited government reflected in the Declaration. (2004) In conclusion it is evident that the two documents go hand in hand, and has been viewed as concurrent documents for quite some time. Therefore, the answer to the question is that the Constitution attempts to fulfill it by giving clarification and support to what the document is saying. This gives added guidance in constructing laws and principles for citizens to live by and guide the law of the land.
Sandefur, T. (2004). Liberal Originalism: A Past for the Future. Harvard Journal of Law…… [Read More]
History of Texas
questions, (2-3 sentences each question), one page.
Explain the Empresario system. hat is it? And what is the purpose of it?
After the successful Mexican ar of Independence liberated Mexico from Spanish rule in 1821, the 1824 Constitution of Mexico joined Texas with the state of Coahuila to form the new state of Tejas y Coahuila. In order to increase the population within this unsettled frontier, and protect it from roving bands of Indians and American encroachment, the fledgling government of the Mexican Republic instituted the Empresario system. This system authorized immigration anglo agents like Stephen F. Austin to relocate large groups of colonist families to the state in exchange for land grants and settlement rights. The Empresario system granted settlers a league of land for only $100, provided the newcomers adopt Mexican citizenship, learn the Spanish language, and convert to Catholicism.
How does the Mexican Secretary…… [Read More]
This is reflected in the document where Jefferson expressly outlines the idea that all men have certain rights and are responsible for their own paths in life (Pilon, 2000). It is a product of its own era, and liberalism was the philosophy that drove much of the political actions in the early United States.
The same can be said of The Federalist. These were a collection of essays regarding the interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. They are also set upon the basic premise that all people are created equal, and that humans have certain unalienable rights that a nation or state needs to respect and honor (Hamilton, et al., 2003). The men who wrote the essays were certainly trying to create a good regime through their own beliefs and values. Their ideas, which later led to the founding of a nation, are key in understanding what they believed a good…… [Read More]