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Dengue fever is a global health concern. Traditionally, this mosquito-borne disease affects around one-third of the world's population, living in tropical and subtropical areas of the Pacific, Southeast Asia and the Americas (Guzman, et al., 2013). This means that around 2.5 billion people are at risk for an infection, many of them in countries that have inadequate health care facilities. Indeed, there is currently an outbreak in the Solomon Islands, which has led to Australia and New Zealand sending doctors to deal with the outbreak (ANN, 2013).
Dengue infects as many as 100 million people annually, and there are four dengue viruses. All are spread by mosquitoes, and there are no vaccines (CDC, 2013). Dengue emerged as a global health problem in the 1950s, primarily because the mosquito carriers of the viruses prefer urban environments, which were uncommon in the tropics prior to that time. hile incidences in the United…… [Read More]
Tracking Dengue Fever in China
Dengue is a viral disease transmitted from host to host by mosquitoes (Shepherd, 2012, Background). Many tropical and subtropical regions of the world are currently combating this disease, including 112 countries in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Australia. These regions are home to almost 3 billion people, therefore nearly half of the world's population is at risk for becoming infected with dengue. Currently, between 50 and 100 million people become infected with the virus each year.
Unfortunately, the number of reported cases of Dengue fever is increasing in many of these regions, including the Americas, South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific (Shepherd, 2012, Background). This report will review what is understood about this disease, its mode of transmission, ongoing efforts to control its spread, and how public health virologists track outbreaks.
The virus that causes dengue fever is a single-stranded NA virus,…… [Read More]
2 to $44.4 million (NIAID, 2011).
The President's proposed 2013 budget also shifts funding around to effectively increase contributions to the Global Fund to Fight AIDs, Tuberculosis and Malaria by 60%, which should indirectly help dengue vector control programs and improve health system infrastructures in developing countries (ASTMH, 2013). Importantly, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation contributed $1.5 billion dollars to this fund (Gates, 2013) and Germany is contributing another billion Euros (Niebel, 2013).
Other disaster relief organization can help provide the needed financial and personnel resources for a dengue outbreak response. The largest dengue outbreak ever recorded in Africa occurred in October/November 2009 on the island state of Cape Verde (MSF, 2009; IFC, 2009). An estimated 13,187 suspected dengue cases were reported to the Health Ministry between October 1 and November 9. Of these, 93 patients developed hemorrhagic fever and 6 had died. The organizations Doctors without Borders/Medecins Sans…… [Read More]
elatively recent estimates of the per capita costs for vector control have been estimated to be between $0.02 and $3.56 dollars (Beatty et al., 2011), which would translate into $1.1 to $200 million for these three countries (IMF, 2012); however, vector control costs would probably be towards the low end because the climate is naturally hostile towards a. aegypti and dengue is endemic only to limited regions of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. In terms of percent gross domestic product (GDP), a $1 million dollar annual vector control program would represent 1.7x10?6 and 3.0x10?5 of the GDP in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, respectively.
Global Health Policies for Dengue Control
The WHO has identified three goals to be achieved by 2020 for global dengue prevention and control and these are: (1) 50% reduction in mortality, (2) 25% reduction in morbidity, and (3) determine the true burden of the disease (WHO, 2012). The…… [Read More]
healthcare problems facing this nation is that of migrant workers, primarily those from Mexico, who work both legally and illegally on this side of the border. While other immigrant populations are also underinsured and under-treated --most notably Asians -- the Hispanic problem is by the far the most significant because of the shear numbers and the structural poverty which create stagnant population pools too large to ignore.
By allowing this problem to continue, we face the more direct health threat of the Mexican migrant worker population becoming a breeding ground for infectious diseases that can spread quickly into the general population. While humanitarian reasons alone should call for our involvement in solving this problem, we should be aware that the problem is an economic one as well. The Mexican workers, especially since the passage of NAFTA, have become an intergral part of the U.. workforce in that they are performing…… [Read More]
Although I believe that I have critically met the objectives for a master's degree in working in many ways (particularly academically), I can honestly state that the area in which I progressed the most was in dealing with cultural diversity. Prior to entering this program, I had extremely limited experience dealing with cultural diversity, especially in the workplace. Despite working as a nurse for the past 16 years, the most diversity I had ever experienced in my patient population was the occasional Spanish speaking client -- which would require me to utilize the language line for interpreting my directions and interacting with the patient. However, thanks to my involvement in this particular academic program, I am now much more acclimated with cultural diversity and believe that I have significantly improved my prowess in this aspect of my work as a professional nurse.
My experience with cultural diversity changed…… [Read More]
Zika, that was identified accidentally in Uganda in 1947 in the midst of insect and primate monitoring, had so far stayed as a hidden virus limited to a slim equatorial belt functioning along Africa and running into Parts of Asia. Not much is known with regards to ZIKV’s release in the US. Phylogenetic studies suggest that the virus originated with the French Polynesian ZIKV force came into Brazil around May and Dec of 2013.
The unparalleled dimension and impact from the ZIKV pandemic within the Americas could be the all-natural consequence of a unique release right into a big populace without having preexisting immune system; Much like the Americas, the communities of Yap Tropical island and French. The seriousness of results in latest breakouts, in comparison with previous findings of moderate illness, has directed a few to hypothesize that this virus seems to have mutated to become much more…… [Read More]
Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.
In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.
The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.
The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.
During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.
It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…… [Read More]
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to review five Harvard Business Review documents from the recent years that relate to the pharmaceutical industry. From this review, the author is asked to summarize and offer several lessons learned from the cases as it relates to the power and limitations of the pharmaceutical market in addressing medical needs of patients. Indeed, there are some obvious lessons that can be cited in the reports. While pharmaceutical markets can solve a lot of problems and cure a lot of ills, the profit motive and the logistics of helping certain people prevent certain people from being assisted in a timely fashion, if at all.
One major challenge of the pharmaceutical industry is getting drugs to market. The process of getting a drug to market is long and arduous. Even when everything goes according to plan, the specter of lawsuits…… [Read More]
(SA AIDS Drugs Company Set for Africa Sales)
The immense market potential for anti-retrovirals will signify a huge bonus for the company and also its shareholders. 8% of the roughly 4 million people in Mozambique are in need of the treatment for HIV / AIDS and were getting it. The fact of the matter is that HIV / AIDS has long been noted for it potential capability for raking in more money and the SA Cabinet some years ago had already stated its strong interest in the lucrative local development of AIDS drugs in the abortive Virodene experiment. The company obtained sanction from the U.S. Federal Drug Administration for certain of its anti-AIDS medicines as was of late given the award for the biggest share of the South African government anti-retroviral drug tenders. This is in greater measure part because it possesses a good BEE profile, assuring the support of…… [Read More]
China's Health Indicators
China has gone through impressive economic development over the past few years, and has experienced a big reduction in poverty along with other positive achievements. Due to improvement in living conditions, nutrition, and healthcare, there have been " ... declines in infant mortality and deaths from infectious diseases," according to The New England Journal of Medicine (He, 2005). But there have also been negatives associated with urbanization and industrialization -- in particular China's stubborn air pollution and its negative impacts on health -- that have increased the risk of " ... chronic disease, including vascular disease and cancer" (He, 1125). This paper reviews the health indicators for China along with other pertinent data and information relating to the well-being of the Chinese people.
China's Demographics and Data on Health Issues
The population of China (based on 2013 data from the orld Health Organization -- HO) is approximately…… [Read More]
Writing a paper about a complex issue such as the Zika virus can be a challenging enterprise, but the model essay presented below provides some useful guidance concerning how to get started, including developing an appropriate thesis, writing an outline and locating relevant content from reliable and legitimate sources. Writing an abstract, introduction and conclusion becomes easier once the preliminary research for the body of the essay is completed.
The Effects of Zika virus on pregnant women
How the Zika virus is spread from country to country
Identifying opportunities to reduce Zika virus infections
Will the Zika virus become a pandemic?
The Epidemiology of the Zika Virus
The Origins and Transmission of the Zika Virus
The Zika Virus: Who is at Risk and What Can be Done?
II. Review and Discussion
A. Background and overview
B. Recent and current trends in…… [Read More]
There is a strong financial incentive to encourage consumers to 'over-consume' drugs. While clearly some patients benefit from taking antidepressants, statins, and even antipsychotics, these drugs have become treatments of first rather than last resort for many people, because of the direct-to-consumer marketing of medications. Behavioral therapy and lifestyle changes, given the side effects of many drugs, might be a better way to treat milder forms of depression, high cholesterol, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD).
Drug companies have a financial incentive in encouraging patients to seek out 'more' treatment for illnesses that disproportionately affect individuals with good health insurance. Additionally, drug companies have an incentive to constantly create and generate interest in new drugs, as patents for existing drugs have a limited shelf life -- although these drugs may not be designed for individuals with the greatest critical health needs. There will always be an ethical problem in the…… [Read More]
Besides the fact that flooding destroys agricultural lands leading to a disruption of food supplies to millions of people, one also has to consider the social impact on areas where there are large population groups. This can lead to forced migration and often to refugee situations, with all the related negative social implications. .
Another important aspect is the increase in serious diseases as a result of global warming. Scientists warn that an increase in temperature also means that infectious diseases could become more widespread. Infectious diseases carried by insects and rodents may also appear in new areas and regions where the population may be unprepared to deal with them. This has already been seen in cases of serious insect -- borne disease, such as Dengue fever, Malaria, West Nile virus, and Yellow Fever.
One also has or bear in mind that in order to understand the devastating effects of…… [Read More]
" Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .
Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Guillemin, J. "Germ arfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BT Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kellman, B. "Bioviolence: A Growing Threat." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 25-30. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Littlewood, J. "Biological eapons: Much Ado and Little Action." Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning & Policy 45(2) Apr 2007: p. 191-203. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of…… [Read More]
There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)
This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.
Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)
2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions
Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…… [Read More]
Expatriate Education for Thailand
Access your site's tools and features through your member area. You can login any time by going to http://thailand-intranet.50megs.com/cgi-bin/login and using the username and password below. Check back often for ideas, updates, and new features.
Developing an Effective International SBU Intranet-based Employee Manual Outline and Intranet Listing for Thailand
The average cost of sending an employee and his or her family on an overseas assignment is between three and five times the employee's predeparture salary; consequently, it is important for these expatriate employees to be prepared for their assignment to the maximum extent possible (Sims, 2002). While there are a number of strategic approaches available to assist in the planning and management of international human resources, an intranet would be a particularly useful vehicle to assist XYZ Import and Export Company's ("XYZ") expatriate employees become familiar with their new country of assignment, in this case Thailand…… [Read More]
Yellow fever is a tropical disease that is spread to humans by infected mosquitoes, and although most infections are mild, the disease can be severe and life threatening (Yellow pp). Found in Africa and South America, yellow fever is preventable by immunization and travelers to those countries are advised to get the vaccine (Yellow pp). In South America sporadic infections occur mostly in forestry and agricultural workers from occupational exposure in or near forests (Yellow-1 pp).
There are two kinds of yellow fever which are spread by two different cycles of infection (Yellow pp). Jungle yellow fever is mainly a disease of monkeys that is spread from infected mosquitoes to monkeys in the tropical rain forest (Yellow pp). It is then spread to people who are bitten by mosquitoes that have been infected by monkeys (Yellow pp). Jungle yellow fever is rare and usually occurs in persons who work in…… [Read More]
The first level of the NHS - health centers and health costs produce a considerable part of the total volume of health services in the nation and comprise the first and only point of contact with the health system for the major part of the Mozambican population. The present approach while delivering primary level health services in Mozambique has been very successful. (Expenditure Tracking and Service Delivery Survey: The Basic Concept) iv) Profitability: Prices of medicines often has no relation to costs, as included in the cost of research and development -- &D and production, are added a portion of the mixture of marketing costs, profit margins, subsidies, tariffs, and tax requirements that vary across nations. The outcome is great price variations both between and within the nations. Since the patent for lamivudine/zidovudine taken on 1996 is valid for 20 years and low cost generic copies cannot be sold prior…… [Read More]
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]
Healthcare in the United States and India
The healthcare systems in the United States and India have starkly different origins: the former arose out of employer based insurance coverage while the latter began through government funding. As Sai Ma and Neeraj Sood document in a report on India's healthcare challenges, the Indian government faced the challenge of redesigning their healthcare infrastructure after their independence in 1947 (2008). The Bhore Committee, assembled by the central government, established that unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, inadequate health education and a lack of prevention must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life for India's population. To meet these needs, the central government established a three-tiered system consisting of primary health centers (PHCs) to meet basic health needs, subcenters (SCs) for public health concerns, and community health centers (CHCs) for more specialized care. Doctors employed at these facilities received training at publically funded…… [Read More]
est Nile Virus is form of encephalitis only found in the United States within the last three years. It is spread by mosquitoes. The mosquito bites an infected animal, often a bird, and then bites a human being, infecting that person with the virus. The first case of est Nile Virus was reported in New York City in 1999, but by the end of last summer had reached virtually all but a few western states (Gorman, 2002).
est Nile Virus has infected far more people than has been reported in the media because most people have either very mild symptoms or none at all. About 20% have headache and fever without any further severe illness or complications (CDC, 2002). Only one in 150 people who contract the disease become sick enough to have the blood tests necessary for accurate diagnosis (Mechcatie, 2001). Most people who become seriously ill with est…… [Read More]
Professional Nursing Organization Comparison
Choose two professional organizations. These can be organizations you are a member of or that are known in the nursing profession.
Create a table comparing the two organizations.
American Nurses Association
The organization has roughly 490 chapters throughout 85 countries.
American Nurses Association was established in 1896 as the Nurses Associated Alumnae and was renamed the American Nurses Association in 1911.
Support of Nursing Leadership
STTI provides opportunities for nurses to participate in leadership programs and mentoring opportunities, and take advantage of career development resources.
The ANA provide programs and offerings for nurses, nursing leaders, and all stages of the nursing career trajectory.
Members can ask career-related questions and get responses from STTI volunteer Career Advisors.
More than 900 nurse researchers, students, clinicians and leaders attend the International Nursing esearch Congress to learn from evidence-based research presentations. The theme of the 26th…… [Read More]
World Health Organization
Advocating Universal Access to Primary Care
One major goal of primary health care is better health for all. Furthermore, the major international initiative to foster this goal is from the World Health Organization who has advocated since the late seventies to improve global public health by improving access. The WHO has created a coalition calls for a (WHO, N.d.):
"A new global coalition of more than 500 leading health and development organizations worldwide is urging governments to accelerate reforms that ensure everyone, everywhere, can access quality health services without being forced into poverty. The coalition emphasises the importance of universal access to health services for saving lives, ending extreme poverty, building resilience against the health effects of climate change and ending deadly epidemics such as Ebola."
The statement calls something other than common conceptions of what is referred to as "universal healthcare" in the West. However, "access"…… [Read More]
HPV Case Study
The author of this report has been asked to assess and reflect upon a public health dilemma. In particular, the issue is whether HPV vaccination should be mandated or at least widely encouraged on a wide-spread or targeted basis. Unlike other vaccines such as those for polio, the measles, mumps, rubella and pneumonia, HPV cannot be contracted through casual contact. Indeed, sexual contact is really the only way to get it. At the same time, not being protected against HPV can cause cervical cancer in women. While there are certainly detractors when it comes to vaccines, the efficacy and importance of those vaccines cannot be understated or under sold.
The main dilemma cited is that HPV is not transmittable through anything other than sexual contact. While this may lessen the chances of it being passed from person to person, most everyone will engage in sexual contact at…… [Read More]
Although relatively rare, California encephalitis (CE) can be a highly lethal disease that is caused by the Balamuthia mandrillaris ameba. In fact, of the 10 cases of CE reported to the California Encephalitis Project during the period from 1999 through 2007, all but one patient died. Today, though, the majority of victims of CE survive the condition, but a significant percentage (about 20%) experience long-term complications as a result. To determine the facts about this potentially deadly human pathogen, this paper reviews the literature to provide the history of CE including its first outbreak, how the disease is transmitted, and the epidemiology of CE. In addition, a discussion concerning the search for a vaccine for CE is followed by description of the treatments and public health considerations of CE. Finally, an examination of the concern CE has for public health is followed by a summary of the research…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to summarize and recite the main points of two scholarly offerings that both relate to the Zika virus. One of those is a presentation that was given by Ms. Carter and the other is a scholarly article that pertains to the same. Items that will be covered include where the virus originated from, the type of mosquitos that carry the virus, the number of cases that have been seen in the United States and a few other things. Of course, there will be a good amount of overlap between the presentation's facts and figures and what is seen from the scholarly article. While there is still a lot that is not known about the Zika virus, where it came from and what it can do, what is already known to this point is quite intriguing and scary.
As noted…… [Read More]
Boneset (Eupatorium Perfoliatum ) Herb
Eupatorium perfoliatum comes in various names depending on the geographical regions. Some of the most common names are feverwort, Indian sage, sweating plant, wild Isaac, vegetable antimony among many others. The botanical name is boneset, of the family Asteracea/compositae.
The herb Boneset, as the name suggests, was traditionally meant to relieve bone aches or deep bone pain that was associated with dengue fever. It was first commonly used among the Antive Americans and European settlers especially to manage fevers. By the mid 19th Century, boneset had become common and well used among the settlers in America. It was during this time too that boneset was officially listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia (1820-1916) and later on in the Formulary (1926-1950).
Traditionally, the plant was very famous for its medicinal value among most communities that knew about it. It was used to manage influenza, nasopharyngeal catarrh,…… [Read More]
1. Community Health Concerns
Georgia is predominantly faced with the risk of mosquito related infections due to the numerous viruses that are breed by mosquitos. These viruses are still in circulation in Georgia and they have the potential to cause human and animal diseases (Georgia.Gov, 2017). Here are the most pronounced mosquito viruses that Georgia has had to contend with over the years:
· Eastern equine encephalitis
· West Nile
The mosquito viruses are assessed as being very active during early the Georgia early fall season. The viruses are capable of infecting humans and animals such as horses, birds and other types of animals. According to the Georgia Department of Public Health (GDPH) any reports of infected horses or birds in Georgia or the presence of large mosquito numbers could be an indication of greater risks of getting infected as well (Georgia.Gov, 2017). Georgia residents are advised to…… [Read More]