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Cyber Terrorism Incidence: The Estonian Denial of Service Attacks of 2007
There are different forms of cybercrimes including data theft, system compromises and DoS (denial of service) attacks. The motivations behind such internet attacks are varied. Some of the motivations include: economic sabotage, extortion and harmless fun particularly against pornography and gambling websites. Frustrations and retaliation are seemingly the main drive behind attacks on gaming networks, where player against player cyber-attacks happen relatively frequently. Contrary to popular opinion, politically motivated attacks appear to happen far more rarely than to attacks on gaming networks. The magnitude and type of internet attacks launched against a system or a network depends on the skills, motivations and capabilities of the attackers (Nazario, 2009). In April 2007, the Eastern European state of Estonia experienced what was to be the first wave of denial of service attacks. The attacks were accompanied by physical protests on the…
Anderson, N. (2007, May 14). Massive DDoS attacks target Estonia; Russia accused. Retrieved from Ars Technica: http://arstechnica.com/security/2007/05/massive-ddos-attacks-target-estonia-russia-accused/
Blomfield, A. (2007, May 17). Russia accused over Estonian 'cyber-terrorism'. Retrieved from The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1551850/Russia-accused-over-Estonian-cyber-terrorism.html
Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. (2009, June 9). U.S. Relations With Estonia. Retrieved from The U.S. State Department: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5377.htm
Deceth. (2012, October 5). The Cyber-Attacks in Estonia, August 2007. Retrieved from Software Engineer Training: http://software-engineer-training.com/the-cyber-attacks-in-estonia-august-2007/
The majority of communities in Alaska are separated by vast distances and the distance from many communities to the nearest medical facility is equivalent to the distance from New York to Chicago (Indian Health Service Alaska Area Services, 2011).
A study funded by AOA examined issues affecting access to home- and community-based long-term-care services among AI/ANS. Study results indicated that home healthcare was one of the most frequently needed services among AI/ANS. Further, 88% of the services sometimes, rarely, or never met the need, and 36% of services were rarely to never available (Jervis, Jackson & Manson, 2002). Only twelve tribally operated nursing homes exist in the U.S., and these rely predominantly on funding from Medicaid and tribal subsidies. Many tribes would like to have nursing homes but are blocked by state certificate-of-need requirements, Medicaid licensing requirements, and lack of commercial financing. The lack of alternate medical resources, whether private…
Alaska Area Indian Health Service. (2011). Indian Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.
Goins, R.T. & Spencer, S.M. (2005). Public health issues among older American Indians and Alaska natives. Generations, 29(2), 30-33.
Indian Health Service Alaska area services. (2011). Indian Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.ihs.gov/FacilitiesServices/areaOffices/alaska/dpehs/documents/area.pdf .
Eric Jones and declare under the penalty of perjury that the following is true and correct to the best of my knowledge.
Honorable field office director of The United States Citizenship and mmigration Services; my name is Eric Jones am a very close friend of Mr. Sam -, despite his busy schedule Sam and speak or see each other at least three times a week. was born in Tucson Arizona and am currently employed as a project engineer with Raytheon Missile Systems, have been employed with this company for eleven years. am writing this letter in support of Mr. Sam's appeal regarding the denial of his efforts to become a United States Citizen. am compelled to write this letter not only because Sam is a true and great friend but also to help alleviate the sense of devastation that he felt upon learning his petition to become a naturalized U.S.…
I first met Sam in 1992 at Pueblo High School which is located in Tucson Arizona. Even as a young teenager Sam exhibited all the exceptional qualities that are the essential components of having a good moral character. Even as a sophomore in high school Sam was very mature, honest and kind. He treated everyone with respect and compassion regardless of their race, social class or physical traits. He was always there to help out anyone who needed it without expecting compensation or rewards. He truly was back then, and still is now a selfless man, always looking out for the welfare of others instead of thinking of himself. All the positives in his character that attracted me towards his friendship in those days still remain in Sam's person. A have never known Sam to lie or be dishonest about anything, not even the smallest detail.
He is the ideal candidate to receive the esteemed title of United States Citizen. Sam exemplifies all the values that this country was built upon. He is selfless, hardworking, dedicated, and patriotic. He holds freedom and liberty in the highest of regards. Sam is an exceptional member of his community and also a great father and supportive husband to his wife. His whole life is dedicated to ensuring their prosperity and well being. Sam loves his kids and is intent on providing the best life possible for them, which is one of the main reasons he wants to become a naturalized United States citizen. Sam did one of the most thoughtful and kind acts a man can make, he adopted a young feeble and desperate child. He did this for no other purposes than to help a child in need, and to enrich the life of his family. In the state of Arizona in order to adopt a child a candidate must pass a thorough and extensive process that validates the good character and proper legal standing of the candidate. The state of Arizona and the authoritative agencies responsible for adoptions procedures have deemed Sam to be of good moral character. I ask you to please reconsider his case and approve his petition to become a citizen of this great nation. He is a man that strictly follows all rules, regulations and laws as a lawful permanent resident, and I am sure that his efforts to be an outstanding member of his community will double if he is bestowed the honor of citizenship. He understands the honor and privileges that come with being a U.S. citizen and would never do anything to jeopardize them. Please carefully reconsider your decision and allow Sam who is a worthy citizenship candidate to become a full fledge member of this beautiful and great nation. Thank you.
The Challenge of Improving Upon Exemplary Customer Service: Apple, Inc.
For the purposes of this task, the organisation of focus will be the international giant, Apple, Inc. Apple is an organisation and a brand with international fame conjuring instant recognition and respect from global consumers for nearly four decades. Apple has an exceptional reputation for many aspects of their business practices such as product quality, product variety, and for the paper's purposes, customer service. As the paper will demonstrate and cite, this organisation has an outstanding reputation for customer service. Apple's customer service is ranked high both nationally (domestically) and internationally. Why choose an organisation that is so far ahead of most others? It is a formidable challenge to constantly and effectively improve upon excellence; this is the task that Apple puts before itself each year, and it is the same perspective from which the paper aligns itself.
Ghobadian, A., Speller, S., & Jones, M. 1994. Service Quality -- Concepts and Models. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 11(9), 43 -- 66.
Hallowell, R. 1995. The relationships of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and profitability: an empirical study. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 7(4), 27 -- 42.
Lengnick-Hall, C.A. 1996. Customer contributions to quality: A Different View of the Customer-oriented Firm. Academy of Management: The Academy of Management Review, 2(3), 791 -- 824.
Meyer, C., & Schwager, A. 2007. Understanding Customer Experience. Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business School Publishing: Cambridge.
Human Service Programs
In the ongoing attempt to recover human service programs, policymakers, funders, and service providers are progressively acknowledging the position of difficult program evaluations. They want to distinguish what the programs achieve, what they cost, and how they should be functioned to achieve supreme cost-effectiveness. They want to identify which programs work for which areas, and they want suppositions based on proof, rather than impassioned pleas and testimonials. With that said, it is important to understand what are the strengths and weaknesses in the Human Service Programs.
What is Human Services?
Human services are provide assistance aid to citizens that need help in getting or upholding basic human essentials, such as shelter, health and food," to name a few." Social programs also delivers human services, such as psychological requirements, help in distributing with trauma from abuse or sickness as well as complications of disasters, such as climate provoked…
Boessenkool, K. (1997). Back to work: Learning from the Alberta welfare experiment. Commentary - C.D.Howe Institute, (91), 1-1.
Hays, Sharon (2004). Flat broke with children. New York: Oxford University Press.
Holl, J., Kristen, S.S., & Amy, B.S. (2005). Welfare reform and health insurance: Consequences for parents. American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 279-85.
Vozoris, N., & Tarasuk, V. (2004). The health of Canadians on welfare. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 115-20.
Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed in the Colonial Era to 1860
Urban infrastructure and connected services had a massive impact in the development of the colonies, all the way up to the end of the 19th century. In just a few decades, the quaint colonial townships which had once existed were no longer around, but had manifested into bustling metropolitan centers. This paper will demonstrate how much of that evolution was as a result of the values of Puritanism which guided and helped the colonies to evolve and develop into the modern era. The values of Puritanism spurred people to work and to thrive, causing the towns to work and to thrive into cities.
Pennsylvania is a shining example of how urban infrastructure and such related factors were able to modernize and urbanize such a colony. Philadelphia largely offers a clear example of how both privatism and a rejection of…
Anbinder, T. (2001). Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City . New York: Penguin Group.
Kang, N. (2009, December). Puritanism and Its Impact upon American Values . Retrieved from ccsenet.org: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/res/article/viewFile/4585/3924
Warner, S. (1968). The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods. Phhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
Managing Complaints: Improving Service in a 15-Bed Emergency Room
As chief operating officer, you are responsible for a 15-bed Emergency Room (ER), which has received many complaints within the last year regarding inadequate patient care, poor ER management, long wait times, and patients being sent away due to lack of space, staff or physicians to provide appropriate care.
Diagnoses: Root Causes of Clinic Complaints
The complaints at hand in viewing the lack of success in the ER at hand can be largely traced back to poor internal management within the ER. Employees operating within the ER have long been confused about the standards and protocols that the hospital has implemented which poorly effects the running of the ER from the time a new patient enters the facility. Many of the complaints lodged toward the ER make mention of an incompetent and insensitive ER staff who have led patients…
Carrus, B., Corbett, S., and Khandelwal, D. (2010). "A hospital-wide strategy for fixing emergency department overcrowding." McKinsey Quarterly. Web. Retrieved
from: http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/A_hospital-wide_strategy_for_fixing_ED_overcrowding_2505 [Accessed on 2 December
Louisiana State University. (2012). "Good Samaritan Laws." LSU. Web. Retrieved from:
arfare & Terrorism
The proliferation of cyberattacks -- aptly referred to as cyberterrorism -- carried out by criminal miscreants with grudges, shadowy techies with political motives, and other anti-social individuals, represent the new digital wars that threatened personal and state security worldwide. This is not a problem that will go away any time soon, and cyber security officials it seems will always be one or two steps behind the offenders causing the digital carnage. The cyberattacks that are reviewed in this paper include: Russia's denial-of-service attacks on Estonia in 2007 and Georgia in 2008, and the cyberattacks against U.S. State Department computers in 2006. Denial of service refers to strategies that "…block access of legitimate users" through the "…relentless transmission of irrelevant information" -- called "flood attacks" -- which restrains computer servers (Richards, 2010).
Russia's cyberterrorism against Estonia -- 2007
An article in the International Affairs Review indicates that the…
Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defense
Review, 11(1), 4-40.
Associated Press. (2006). Computer Hackers Attack State Department. The New York Times.
Retrieved January 19, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
An oveview of seveal honeypots and thei espective applications, thei level of involvement, and demonstated value to date ae povided in Table 1 below.
Types of honeypots by level of involvement.
BOF (as it is commonly called) is a vey simple but highly useful honeypot developed by Macus Ranum et al. At NFR. It is an excellent example of a low involvement honeypot. BOF is a pogam that uns on most window-based opeating systems. All it can do is emulate some basic sevices, such as http, ftp, telnet, mail, o Back Oifice. Wheneve someone attempts to connect to one of these pots, BOF is listening and will then log the attempt. BOF also has the option of "faking eplies," which gives the attacke something to connect to.
Specte is a commecial poduct and what I would call anothe 'low involvement' poduction honeypot.…
references and deter computer crime. Yale Law Journal, 112(6), 1577-1578.
An analysis of IT policy transformation
The aim of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of information security policy in the context of an organization, OSI Systems, Inc. With presence in Africa, Australia, Canada, England, Malaysia and the United States, OSI Systems, Inc. is a worldwide company based in California that develops and markets security and inspection systems such as airport security X-ray machines and metal detectors, medical monitoring anesthesia systems, and optoelectronic devices. The company is also represented by three subsidiary divisions in offices and plants dedicated to the brands, apiscan Systems, OSI Optoelectronics and SpaceLabs Healthcare.
In 2010, OSI, Inc. had sales of $595 million with net income of over $25 million. As of June 2010, the company was comprised of 2,460 personnel globally. The parent company provides oversight and fiscal control to the different divisions, and is connected through its virtual network world-wide intranet system;…
Allen, J. (2005). Governing for Security: Project Stakeholders Interests. News at SEI. Retrieved on 5SEPT10 from http://www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/news-at-sei/securitymatters20054.cfm
Computer Misuse Law, 2006. Parliament UK. Retrieved from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmhansrd/cm090916/text/90916w0015.htm#09091614000131
Diver, S. (2006). Information Security Policy -- A Development Guide for Large and Small Companies. SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room. Retrieved on 30 Sept 10 from http://www.sans.org /reading_room/whitepapers/policyissues/information-security-policy-development-guide-large-small-companies_1331
Global IT Policy (2009) OSI, Inc.
Malware Attacks the Democratic Process
Once upon a time, a candidate had to excel at kissing babies and stump speeches. These were the major ways in which the candidate got his -- or much less frequently her -- image out to voters. All that the candidate's staff had to do as to ensure that reporters and photographers showed up at the right time to capture the choreographed images. The world of politicking today has been entirely transformed by the use of virtual communication, both websites and social media. Thus not only do campaign staffs have to be ever-vigilant for the unscripted moment on the trail in which the candidate is caught with the rabbit-in-the-headlights look. They also have to be constantly on the look-out for attacks on websites that will either distort the candidate's message or shut down the ability of the candidate to get that message out. This paper…
College of New Jersey security guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.tcnj.edu/~it/security/passwords.html .
Murphy, S. (18 April 2010). Revere candidate target of cyber attack:AG Coakley investigating offensive posts. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/news/local/Massachusetts/articles/2010/04/18/revere_candidate_target_of_cyber_attack/
Poremba, S.M. (24 April 2008). Presidential campaign cyber-attacks are here to stay. Retrieved from http://www.scmagazineus.com/presidential-campaign-cyberattacks-appear-here-to-stay/article/109412/
The diffused infrared configuration however, uses a transmitter that fills a given office space with signals. The signal receiver can then be located anywhere in the office area in order to successfully receive the I signal.
The Spread spectrum LANs
This form of arrangement utilizes the multiple-cell configuration. Each of the cells are appropriately assigned a unique center frequency that lies within a specific band in order to avoid signal interference. This transmission technique makes use of two methods; frequency hopping as well as direct sequence modulation
The Frequency hopping method uses signals that jumps from a given frequency to the other within a specific bandwidth. The transmission unit then "listens" to a give channel and if successfully detects any idle time (a time when no signal is transmitted),then transmits the packet via the full channel bandwidth .In case a channel is deemed "full," the transmitter then "hops" to the…
Bruce, WR (2002).Wireless LANs End to End, Ron Gilster (ed.), John Wiley & Sons.
Burell, J (2002) 'Wireless Local Area Networking: Security Assessment and Countermeasures: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks', Dec. 2002, retrieved 22 March
2011, < http://telecom.gmu.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Jim-Burrell-December-2002.pdf>
Cisco (n.d)"Cisco HWIC-AP WLAN Module for Cisco 1800 (Modular), 2800 and 3800."
Finance and Accounting Application that provides finance and accounting operations require all the possible computer security measures to be adopted. In this case, two patterns call for an incident response plan:
The company's computer networks and systems are at a higher risk to threats like intrusions, computer viruses and exposures
Computers are widespread through the company; the company depends heavily on computers and cannot afford service denial
Therefore, the following security incidents will be an essential:
A computer virus might be copied to a LAN server; within seconds, thousands of other computers will be infected. This will require the efforts of different people and several days to achieve recovery.
Back-ups can be infected with viruses resulting in re-infection of other systems; recovery will require more expenses and time
System intruders could copy passwords and distribute them across large networks
Outbreaks of system or virus penetrations will cause embarrassment and possible…
Taylor, L.P. (2013). FISMA compliance handbook. Burlington: Elsevier Science.
McCarthy, N.K. (2012). The computer incident response planning handbook: Executable plans for protecting information at risk. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Vacca, J.R., & Rudolph, K. (2010). System forensics, investigation, and response. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
This occurs when a server happens to receive more connection requests that are incomplete and that it cannot possibly handle. This kind of attack's source code were released in 2006 by 2600 and Phracks two well-known underground hacker magazines. The second threat is IP Spoofing which is an attack which involves the impersonation of a legitimate host user at the IP layer. The third one is sequence number attack. The third one is TCP session hijacking. The third threat is denial of service attacks Security strategies to address various threats that are addressed by IPSec that users who use unsecured TCP/IP face
In order to ensure that users of unsecured TCP/IP don't fall victims to the threats outlined above, the following strategies must be employed;
Countering SYN Flooding:
The ISPs that are responsible for the IP packets must block the non-internal addresses that are responsible for the flooding. The attacker…
CEEnet (2000)Applications of IPSec
Ferguson, B Poulton, D and Barrett, D (2004). MCSA/MCSE 70-299 Exam Cram 2:
Implementing and Administering Security in a Windows 2003 Network
Metrics, Implementation, and Enforcement (Security Governance)
How can you determine whether there has been a malware outbreak?
The threat situation today has become more dangerous than in the past. Security and safety threats have been increasing in an alarming rate; there are more than 70,000 brand new bits of malware recognized daily. Well-funded cybercriminals have been currently making advanced malware that has been made to bypass present security options by launching prior to the operating-system and then evading antivirus defence (Mitre, 2012). Consequently, danger vulnerability has hit unprecedented degrees that need a brand new method of security and safety. With built-in security and safety options from McAfee as well as Intel, one might gain an additional layer of safety that is effective aside from the operating-system to avoid attacks instantly whilst successfully managing security over to a system of endpoints. These revolutionary options gather world-class processor chip technologies from Intel…
McAfee Labs (Q1 2012).
Intel IT Centre. (2012). Planning Guide: Preventing Stealthy Threats with Next-Generation Endpoint Security -- A Proactive Approach from Intel and McAfee. Intel IT and McAfee.
Mitre. (2012). Standardizing Cyber Threat Intelligence Information with the Structured Threat Information eXpression (STIX). Mitre Corporation.
Jones, D.R. (2011). Managing Cyber Threats Risk Management & Insurance Solutions. Roach Smith and Howard Burton.
Accounting and Intrusion Detection
In a report issued by Paladin Technologies, Inc., entitled: "Security Metrics: Providing Cost Justification for Security Projects," 273 organizations were surveyed on the topic of security. The report illustrates in quantifiable terms the depth and reach of intrusion detection on the financial viability of the organization. The combined reported losses from the firms surveyed totaled $265.6 million in 1999. The highest loss categories were reported as follows:
Type of Loss
Estimated Dollar Value
Number of espondents
Theft of intellectual capital
The average annual financial loss of firms surveyed was estimated at $40 million. Forty three percent of respondents were able to quantify financial losses, and seventy four percent were able to acknowledge financial loss. Ninety percent detected cyber attacks within the most recent twelve-month period and seventy percent reported serious breaches other than viruses, laptop theft, and employee abuse of…
Risk Assessment risk assessment involves estimating the likelihood and severity of an occurrence, the relative impact of risk on the facility, information handler, processing, support, and the mission of the organization. Assessing the likelihood means determining the probability that existing controls will be skirted. Pfleeger has identified a series of steps for examining the likelihood of adverse occurrences:
Calculate the probability that the risk may happen, found in the observed data for the specific system.
Estimate the likely number occurrences in a given time period. The analyst gives a rating based on several different risk analysis methodologies, and then creates a table to hold and compare the ratings.
The Delphi approach: several raters individually estimate the probable likelihood of an event, combine their estimates, and choose the best one.
CYBE CIME AND COPOATE SECUITYAbstractIn the past, various businesses have lost huge sums of money to cybercriminals, while others have experienced severe service disruptions. This has been the case as cyber criminals execute schemes meant to advance certain agendas. For this reason, cybercrime is increasingly being seen as one of the most serious challenges that business enterprises (as well as government agencies) face today. Various surveys conducted in the past indicate that the problem could be worsening. The problem is aided by the emergence of what could be deemed as cybercrime facilitating factors such as crypto currencies. The dynamic nature of cybercrime, i.e. in relation to variations in the methodology and conduct of attacks, also makes it difficult for this particular challenge to be effectively dealt with. It is with this in mind that various interventions have been floated in the past to reign in this particular challenge. However, to…
ReferencesAlexopoulou, S. & Pavli, A. (2021). Beneath This Mask There is More Than Flesh, Beneath This Mask There is an Idea: Anonymous as the (Super) heroes of the Internet? International Journal for the Semiotics Law, 34, 237-264. Connolly, L.Y. & Wall, D.S. (2019). The rise of crypto-ransomware in a changing cybercrime landscape: Taxonomising countermeasures. Computer & Security, 87, 14-16. Dolezel, D. & McLeod, A. (2019). Cyber-Analytics: Identifying Discriminants of Data Breaches. Perspectives Health Inf. Manag., 16(1a), 55-59. Faruki, P., Bharmal, A., Laxmi, V., Ganmoor, V., Gaur, M.S., Conti, M. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Android security: A survey of issues, malware penetration, and defenses. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 17(2), 998-1022.Galeano-Brajones, J., Carmona-Murillo, J., Valenzuela-Valdes, J.F. and Luna-Valero, F. (2020). Detection and Mitigation of DoS and DDoS Attacks in IoT-Based Stateful SDN: An Experimental Approach. Sensors, 20(3), 8-16. Kumar, G. (2016). Denial of service attacks an updated perspective. Systems Science & Control Engineering, 4(1), 285-294. Monteith, S., Bauer, M., Alda, M., Geddes, J., Whybrow, P.C. & Glenn, T. (2021). Increasing Cybercrime Since the Pandemic: Concerns for Psychiatry. Curr Psychiatry Rep., 23(4), 18. Moon, B., Blurton, D. & McCluskey, J.D. (2007). General Strain Theory and Delinquency: Focusing on the Influences of Key Strain Characteristics on Delinquency. Crime and Delinquency, 54(4), 582-613. Khan, N., Yaqoob, I., Hashem, I.A., Inayat, Z., Ali, W.K., Alam, M., Shiraz, M. & Gani, A. (2014). Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges. Scientific World Journal, 24(6), 66-71. Reshmi, T.R. (2021). Information security breaches due to ransomware attacks - a systematic literature review. International Journal of Information Management Data Insights, 1(2), 211-218. Romanosky, S. (2016). Examining the costs and causes of cyber incidents. Journal of Cybersecurity 2(2), 121-135. Sorell, T. (2015). Human Rights and Hacktivism: The Cases of Wikileaks and Anonymous. Journal of Human Rights Practice, 7(3), 391-410. Soderberg, J. & Maxigas (2021). The Three Pillars of Functional Autonomy of Hackers. NanoEthics, 15, 43-56. Willing, M., Dresen, C., Gerlitz, E., Haering, M., Smith, M., Binnewies, C., Guess, T., Heverkamp, U. & Schinzel, S. (2021). Behavioral responses to a cyber-attack in a hospital environment. Scientific Reports, 11(9), 78-83.
assets an organization owns and manages. It will also look at the process and effectiveness of creating organizations' inventory with the main aim of having an effective daily system management and to for security of the organizations' assets. It is imperative that an organization has the records of all of it assets.
One of the most fundamental steps in IT management and IT security understands what physical and virtual IT assets an organization owns and manages. A good inventory provides information that is useful to daily system management, business office asset tracking, and security incident response.
Mark, (2000) 'An information Asset is a definable piece of information, stored in a manner which is recognized as 'valuable' to the organization.' For the case of the IT organization, the Information asset that exist include assets that hold a lot of value to the organization and cannot be easily replaced, without cost, skill,…
Mark, R. (2000) Risk Management; New York: McGraw -- Hill
Wireman, T, (2006) Production Spare Parts: Optimizing the Inventory Asset; New York; Industrial Press
Wireman, T, (2007) Maintenance strategy: Columbia: Industrial Press, Inc.
This is also known as a vulnerability assessment (Shimonski, 2005).
Enlisting senior management support so that security is taking seriously within the organization and so that employee and manager alike understand the value of assets and the seriousness threats that may exist (Shimonski, 2005; Schwartz, 2003).
Establish a security budget so that from year to year an organization has the finances necessary to deal with security threats as they occur but also take measures to prevent security issues (Shimonski, 2005; Garcia, 2000).
Create a task force that can respond successfully and expediently to security emergencies (Shimonski, 2005). Along these lines a security breech plan of action should be developed and all employee informed of the proper steps to take if a security breech occurs.
Establish a recovery plan that will help protect assets. This should include establishing back up so a company has somewhere to go and can restore systems…
Darlington, Y. & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Storms from the field. Crows Nest, Allen & Unwin.
Garcia, M.L. (2000 - Jun). "Truth & Consequences." Security Management, 44(6): 44.
Grassie, R.P. (2000 - Nov). "Are companies properly addressing threats?" Security
Management, 44(11): 146.
The organizations are usually run by a core group, which divides the different responsibilities of an operation (e.g. spamming, web design, data collection) among the members. The members run their own outer networks to fulfill those responsibilities -- rarely even having contact with each other online. The decentralized structure of the internet, as well as the high levels of anonymity it provides makes it difficult for law enforcement agencies to locate cybercriminal groups. A group could have networks in a myriad of different countries, whilst using servers based in numerous different countries and jurisdictions. Furthermore, many national jurisdictions lack the legislative framework required to properly prosecute online crime." (Collins, 2012)
These insights are illustrating how the lack of self-control is creating a situation where more criminals or organizations are turning to cyber crime. What makes the situation worse; is they can work anonymously and be able to conduct these activities…
Casey, E. (2011). Digital Evidence and Computer Crime. London: Academic.
Collins, a. (2012). Contemporary Security Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gregg, M. (2010). Hacker Techniques, Tools and Incident Handling. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Gryzbowski, K. (2012). An Examination of Cyber Crime and Cyber Crime Research. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Arizona State University, Scottsdale.
networking and TCP/IP and internetworking. Also discussed are risk management, network threats, firewalls, and also more special purpose network devices. The paper will provide a better insight on the general aspects of security and also get a better understanding of how to be able to reduce and manage risk personally at the workplace and at home.
In today's world, the Computer has become a common feature in any organization anywhere in the world. This may be due to the fact that a computer can be accessed by anybody who knows how to handle it and also because it can store a lot of information both confidential and general. A computer is connected through a physical network that allows a person or many persons to share any information necessary. (Conceptual Overview of Network Security) Though network security in Information Technology is an issue that has been discussed endlessly, implementation has definitely…
Bolding, Darren. "Network Security, Filters and Firewalls." Retrieved from ACM Cross Roads Student Magazine, 17 January, 2001 http://www.acm.org/crossroads/xrds2-1/security.html . Accessed on 03/09/2004
Curtin, Matt. "Introduction to Network Security March" 1997. Retrieved at http://www.interhack.net/pubs/network-securityAccessed on 03/09/2004
Home Internet security: Protection against network security attacks" Retrieved at http://www.buildwebsite4u.com/articles/home-internet-security.shtml. Accessed on 03/09/2004
Magalhaes, Ricky M. "Network Security recommendations that will enhance your windows" network" Oct 22, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.windowsecurity.com/articles/Net_Security_Recommendations.html . Accessed on 03/09/2004
Healthcare and the Threat of Cyber-Terrorism
Cyber-Terrorism and Healthcare
Government and military computer networks in the United States have been repeatedly attacked over a period of several years by China, North Korea, and third parties suspected of working for these two states (Gewitz, 2010). Although most of the known attacks by China and North Korea constituted espionage, denial-of-service attacks and network intrusions to assess network vulnerabilities have also occurred. The denial of service attacks are a form of cyber-terrorism. Acts of cyber-terrorism are not limited to governments and can be committed by individuals and groups, either acting alone or in conjunction with a more traditional terrorist organization. In a recent survey of nearly 8,000 American businesses it was revealed that 1.5 million viruses had been detected in 2005 alone (antala, 2005, p. 1), so the scale of the problem is considerable.
HIPAA Security ule
The seriousness of the cyber-terrorism threat…
California Beat. (2011, Aug. 14). Anonymous hackers attack BART, personal information for some riders released. Retrieved Oct. 17, 2011 from http://www.californiabeat.org/2011/08/14/anonymous-hackers-attack-bart-personal-information-for-some-riders-breached
Clem, A., Galwankar, Sagar, and Buck, George. (2005). Health implications of cyber-terrorism. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 18, 272-275.
Gewitz, David. (2010). State-sponsored cyberterrorism. Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International, 16, 8-10.
Rantala, Ramona R. (2008). Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2011 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/cb05.pdf
Executive Leadership Team, Advanced esearch
Hackershield Security Testing Software
Today, security has become an integral part of information technology networks and Advanced esearch is in need of an improved approach to its security precautions. The purpose of this executive proposal is to provide the company's executive leadership team with a description concerning the benefit of testing and identifying vulnerabilities before they are exploited by hackers through the use of Hackershield Security Testing Software, including a description of the application, its purpose and associated benefits in support of its purchase and implementation. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the benefits of Hackershield Security Testing Software together with recommendations for its purchase by Advanced esearch are provided in the executive proposal's conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Description of Hackershield Security Testing Software
This application uses a proactive approach to information technology (IT) security by actively scanning, testing and identifying…
Ethical hacking and countermeasures: Attack phase. (2009). EC-Council: Cengage Learning.
Gao, K. (2013, March). What if your business is hacked. Information Today, 30(3), 13.
Gope, D. C. & Kashem, M. A. (2013, March). Software quality assurance development using Bayesian graphical model and safe growth model. American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal, 5(2), 35-39.
Group debates what's in a name. (2009, January). Security Management, 44(1), 36.
Andrea, Tech. Rep., CIS
Jack, Manager, CIS
Potential Threat to Company IT Systems
Over the past few weeks, it has become increasingly evident to me that our company may be the target of a denial of service attack or other computer virus for which we may be ill-prepared today. In this regard, I have reviewed the company standing operating procedures concerning computer viruses in an attempt to determine what measures should be taken by whom and when. Unfortunately, the company's SOP does not even address denial of service threats and only mentions computer viruses in a tangential way.
To help address this apparent gap in the company's ability to respond to threats to the integrity of its IT systems, I believe we should form a task force immediately to develop appropriate responses in the event of a computer virus infection…
Terrorism has become the most heatedly discussed and debated subject in social and political circles. In fact these days, this one issue has been dominating all other national and international problems. This is because on the one hand, we have just been witness to world's worst and probably the most sophisticated terrorist acts when airplanes were used as missiles to hit the two most powerful buildings in the United States and on the other hand, terrorism is spreading so fast that there appears to be no suitable and permanent solution to this problem.
Terrorism has turned into a national issue because on the one hand it is becoming more effective and lethal and on the other terrorists are now adopting newer and better tactics to meet their goals and objectives. After September 11, "President Bush, Vice President Cheney, and senior administration officials have alerted the public not only…
Joshua Green, The Myth of Cyberterrorism: There Are Many Ways Terrorists Can Kill You-Computers Aren't One of Them. Washington Monthly. Volume: 34. Issue: 11. November 2002. 8+.
John M. Deutch, Terrorism. Foreign Policy. Issue: 108. Fall 1997. 10+.
Peter Chalk, Grave New World. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy. Volume: 15. Issue: 1. 2000. Page Number: 13.
Giles Trendle, Cyber Threat! Although There Were No Major Catastrophic Cyber Attacks during the War on Iraq, as Some Had Feared an Increase in Hostile Electronic Strikes Was Registered during the Term of the Conflict. The Middle East. June 2003. 38+.
Much work remains to enable a seamless
Integration, for example that can extend IP to support mobile network devices. (Chlamtac, Conti, and Liu, 2003)
4G is stated to begin with the assumption "that future networks will be entirely packet-switched, using protocols evolved from those in use in today's Internet." (Chlamtac, Conti, and Liu, 2003) It is reported that a 4G wireless network that is all IP-based "has intrinsic advantages over its predecessors." (Chlamtac, Conti, and Liu, 2003)
IP is stated to be both compatible with and independent of "the actual radio access technology" meaning that 'the core 4G network can be designed and evolves independently from access networks. Using IP-based core network also means the immediate tapping of the rich protocol suites and services already available, for example, voice and data convergence, can be supported by using readily available VoIP set of protocols such as MEGACOP, MGCP, SIP, H.323, SCTP.…
Macker, J. And Corson, S. (1999) Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations. Network Working Group. Naval Research Laboratory, January 1999. Online available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2501.txt
A Survey on Attacks and Countermeasures in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (2006) Silcon.com
Springer Science+Business Media. 10 May 2006.
Gaertner, Gregor and Cahill, Vinny (2004) Understanding Link Quality in 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 55-60, Jan./Feb. 2004,
IT Security Assessments (Process of matching security policies against the architecture of the system in order to measure compliance
The systems security assessment is the method of creating a security policy that would be complimentary to the architecture of the system and the method would allow for the measure of compliance. Security assessments are activities that belong to the phase of the design cycle, and that is because it is very difficult to assess the risk of a system that is already functioning. Assessing risk alone does not make the process true. The issues of costs, and the types of security architecture and many other necessities that are outside the actual security measures need to be considered because they come into play. (amachandran, 2002) There is also the complexities of the networks itself to consider. Modern internet-based systems have created hybrid network configuration that brings the problems of scalability. One…
Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M; Agha, Khaldoun A; Pujolle, G. (2005) "Mobile and wireless communication networks" Springer.
Chakrabarti, Anirban. (2007) "Grid computing security"
Merkow, Mark S; Breithaupt, Jim. (2005) "Computer security assurance using the common criteria" Thomas Delmar Learning.
Kris Corporation's parent domain (kris.local) and child domain (corp.kris.local) for the organization's AD infrastructure are running on Server 2008. The following are concerns related to AD: (1) Kris Corporation is concerned about running multiple domains, and (2) automobile manufacturers are asking Kris Corporation to use a single identity to procure orders in real time. The company has five locations in Atlanta (GA), Baltimore (MD), Chicago (IL), Seattle (WA) and San Diego (CA). The manufacturing plants are in Atlanta and Seattle. Disaster recovery is a big concern. Physical space for servers is an issue at the Atlanta location. Most of the IT staff is in Atlanta, which is the company's headquarters, but other locations have significant IT personnel as well. Business personnel are similarly distributed across the company's locations. Since all locations are independently connected to the internet, file sharing is difficult among sites.
Kris Corporation needs to migrate from…
Combee, B. (2001). Palm OS web application developer's guide: Developing and delivering PQAs with Web clipping. Rockland, Mass: Syngress.
Desmond, B. (2013). Active directory: Designing, deploying, and running Active Directory. Farnham: O'Reilly.
Edwards, J., Bramante, R., & Martin, A. (2006). Nortel guide to VPN routing for security and Voip. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Pub.
Finn, A., Lownds, P., Luescher, M., & Flynn, D. (2013). Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V Installation and Configuration Guide. New York: Wiley.
Attacks on the system security include password theft, back doors and bugs, social engineering, protocol failures, authentication failures, Denial of Service attacks, active attacks, botnets, exponential attacks including worms and viruses, and information leakage. (Fortify Software Inc., 2008); (Fortify Software, n. d.)
Servers are targets of security attacks due to the fact that servers contain valuable data and services. For instance, if a server contains personal information about employees, it can become a target for stealing identities. All types of servers, which include file, database, web, email and infrastructure management servers are vulnerable to security attacks with the threat coming from both external as well as internal sources.
Some of the server problems that can jeopardize its security include: (i) Weakly encrypted or unencrypted information, especially of a sensitive nature, can be intercepted for malicious use while being transmitted from server to client. (ii) Software bugs present in the server…
Bace, Rebecca Gurley; Bace, Rebecca. (2000) "Intrusion Detection"
Fortify Software Inc. (2008) "Fortify Taxonomy: Software Security Errors" Retrieved 17 November, 2008 at http://www.fortify.com/vulncat/en/vulncat/index.html
Fortify Software. (n. d.) "Seven Pernicious Kingdoms: A Taxonomy of Software Security
Homeland Security and Information Technology
Security and Technology
Geospatial Information System
The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations.
Security and Technology
In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Cybercrime. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The FBI: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/cyber
Goodchild, M.F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GI Science in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 3-20.
John D. Woodward, N.M. (2002). Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information Age. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.
Jussi, P. (2007). Digital Contagions: A Media Archaeology of Computer Viruses. New York: Peter Lang.
One such body is the American National Standards Institute or ANSI which is a non-profit private organization that surprisingly institutes standards the industry accepts voluntarily. Other influential standards organizations include the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers or IEEE and the Organization for Standardization or ISO. The IEEE was the organization that defined LAN standards in the Project 802 or the 802 series. These projects could be the blueprints that could be used to make XML more effective by using PAT Algebra Operators for query needs.
XML PAT Algebra Operators
The internet is based on a foundation of distributed hypertext. There is also plenty of proof that the internet could be regarded as a large distributed database where there are million to billions of queries processed daily. "XML is too slow an exchange format for any large volume of data transfer. It is fine for exchange of small amounts of…
Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices In Network Security -- As The Networking Landscape Changes, So Must The Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid Of Imperfection When It Comes To Developing Those For Your Group. Network Computing.
Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at http://www.cert.org/encyc_article/tocencyc.html#Overview
Gast, Matthew. (2002, April 19). Wireless LAN Security: A Short History. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/wireless/2002/04/19/security.html
Oasis. (n.d.). XML: Overview. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at http://xml.coverpages.org/xml.html#overview
In an effort to provide better care for its patients, arises the need to design a network able to support a new multi-location dental care practice. In this report, we will provide a clear set of requirements for the network solution, and then identify the information that is to be protected as well as their related security requirements. Also, we will identify the types of network components, devices and equipment that would be involved in meeting the needs of the stationary offices and all four mobile dentists, and then we will provide a network design diagram that shows an appropriate network configuration to meet the requirements. Finally, we will explain the benefits of the proposed network solution, and identify the risks and risk mitigation strategies associated with the proposed network solution.
With five dental offices currently operating, we need to design a network that will integrate databases of…
DAUTI, B.A. (2007, April 26). METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK AND WEB PORTAL FOR THE CITY OF GJILAN. Retrieved August 18, 2012, from UMUC Europe Web site: http://ac-support.europe.umuc.edu
Dr. Cole, E. (2007, October 26). Types of Networks. Retrieved August 18, 2012, from Sans Technology Institute Web site: http://www.sans.edu
Stines, M. (2003). Remote Access VPN - Security Concerns and Policy Enforcement. Retrieved August 18, 2012, from SANS Institute Reading Room site: http://www.sans.org
White, C.M. (2011). Introduction to Metropolitan Area Networks and Wide Area Networks. In C.M. White, Data Communications and Computer Networks (pp. 276-320). Course Technology Cengage Learning.
Network Security Management
From the onset, it is important to note that for data to flow from one computer to another, such computers should be interconnected in what is referred to as a network. With such interconnectedness comes the risk of data interception and it is for this reason that network security is considered crucial.
In the recent past, the number of corporations that have experienced attacks on their computing resources has been on the increase. Outages in this case have ranged from denial-of-service-attacks to viruses to other more sophisticated forms of attack. It is important to note that these attacks, which are rarely publicly acknowledged by the affected companies, are coming at a time when organizations are increasingly becoming dependent on information systems and networks to conduct their business. Today, business communications between an entity and the various groups of stakeholders, including but not limited to employees and customers,…
BBC. (2013). Sony Fined Over 'Preventable' PlayStation Data Hack. BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-21160818
Canavan, J.E. (2001). Fundamentals of Network Security. Norwood, MA: Artech House.
Cole, E., Krutz, R.L. & Conley, J. (2005). Network Security Bible. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons.
Finkle, J. & Hosenball, M. (2014). Exclusive: More Well-Known U.S. Retailers Victims of Cyber Attacks -- Sources. Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/01/12/us-target-databreach-retailers-idUSBREA0B01720140112
Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007
2007 Estonian Cyber-war
This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication. This form of globalization also yielded benefits for Estonia by improving the standard of living of its people. However, other than benefits, it has also ascended the availability of new weapons of confrontation for groups who have been seeking and opposing certain Estonian political measures and ideologies. The digital activists from the ussian land did the same to Estonia in May 2007 (Herzog, 2011).
More than 340,000 ethnic ussians reside in Estonia which means that the ussians comprise about 25% of the country's populace. Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, the small country has been experiencing an unsteady and shaky relationship with Moscow (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Thus, Estonia and ussia share an extensive history of…
Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defence Review, 11, 4-40. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.bdcol.ee/files/files/documents/Research/BSDR2009/1_ Ashmore - Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks .pdf
Authority of the House of Lords, European Union Committee. (2010). Protecting Europe against Large-Scale Cyber-Attacks. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from the Stationery Office Limited website: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldeucom/68/68.pdf
Czosseck, C., Ottis, R., & Taliharm, A. (n.d.). Estonia after the 2007 Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic and Organisational Changes in Cyber Security. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from http://www.ccdcoe.org/articles/2011/Czosseck_Ottis_Taliharm_Estonia_After_the_2007_Cyber_Attacks.PDF
Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, IV (2), 49-60. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1105&context=jss
Security Audit for FX Hospital EH/EM Systems
The study carries out the security audits for the FX Hospital EH/EM information systems to identify the vulnerabilities in the systems. The study uses the BackTrack as an auditing tool to penetrate the website, and outcomes of the auditing reveal that the website is not secure and can be subject to different vulnerabilities. After carrying out the auditing, the study is able to collect as much patients' data as possible revealing the website can be subject to vulnerable attacks. One of the vulnerabilities identified is that the website UL starts from HTTP showing that an attacker can easily break into the website and collect sensitive information. Moreover, all the data in the website are not encrypted making them easy for an attacker to collect patients' data.
By consequence, the FX Hospital can face lawsuits for failing to protect patients' data because if patients'…
Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009). Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.
Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.
Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.
Mell, P.Bergeron, T. & Henning, D.(2005).Creating a Patch and Vulnerability Management Program. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Abstract - With regard to security, the major issue is that most mobile devices are targets that are in line to face attacks. Mobile devices face a range of threats that capitalize on several susceptibilities usually obtained in such devices. Lack of encryptions is a major threat to security of mobile device networks. Information such as text messages and electronic messages that are sent using a mobile device are more often than not unencrypted. Furthermore, numerous mobile device applications lack such encryptions over the networks for transmission and reception and therefore simplify the process of data interception. Malware is an additional problem regarding mobile device networks. It is simple for mobile device users to download malware through games and security patches and also through online advertisements. Consequently, this makes it significantly easy for data interception owing to spyware and Trojans. The lack of security software is also a major issue.…
With the continued integration of technology, and especially internet-based technologies, into everyday life, the threat of cyberterrorism becomes more and more of a concern, as the potential for exponentially devastating effects increases alongside reliance on these emerging technologies. However, combating cyberterrorism is not as simple as one might think (or hope), because even the definition of the word itself remains under discussion. Nonetheless, after examining some of the more common definitions of cyberterrorism as well as the most obvious and evolving cyberterrorist threats, it becomes clear that much of the official preparation and response to cyberterrorism tends to focus on red herrings, missing the areas with the greatest potential for harm while focusing on far less likely doomsday scenarios. ealizing this fact ultimately offers some better ideas for stopping current and future cyberterrorists.
The first hurdle to understanding and combating cyberterrorism is the fact that there is no singularly…
Anonymous, . (2001). Client-side distributed denial-of-service: valid campaign tactic or terrorist act?. Leonardo, 34(3), 269-274.
Baldwin, FN. (2004). The financing of terror in the age of the internet: wilful blindness, greed or a political statement?. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 8(2), 127-158.
Collin, B. (1997). Future of cyberterrorism: the physical and virtual worlds converge. Crime and Justice International, 13(2), 15-18.
Kaiser, J. (1999). Cyberterrorism threat hyped?. Science, 283(5399), 139.
Cyber terrorism is the process of using disruptive, electronic activities to disrupt or destroy computers or computer networks with the aim of causing further damage or fear. Cyber terrorism is therefore a very great threat to information as it can lead to the leaking, damage or loss of very critical information by countries. In any case, cyber terrorism is facilitated through hacking and other activities aimed at affecting information across the world Verton, 2003.
Therefore as a threat, cyber terrorism involves terrorists using information technology in order to further their evil causes. The present technological world offers terrorists the opportunity to use information technology to make electronic threats through hackings, introduction of viruses defacing websites and Denial-of-service attacks.
Evolution of cyber terrorism
The evolution of cyber terrorism has basically grown in tandem with the developments realized in information technology. The initial threats began in the 1980s and continue as terrorists…
Alexander, Y., & Swetnam, M.S. (2001). Cyber terrorism and information warfare: threats and responses. Ardsley, NY: Transnational.
Elmusharaf, M.M. n. d. (2012). Cyber Terrorism: The new kind of Terrorism. Computer Crime Research Center - Daily news about computer crime, internet fraud and cyber terrorism. Retrieved May 29, 2012, from http://www.crime-research.org/articles/Cyber_Terrorism_new_kind_Terrorism
Taylor, R.W. (2006). Digital crime and digital terrorism. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Verton, D. (2003). Black Ice: the Invisible Threat of Cyber-Terrorism. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Pfleeger, a hash function is used for the provision of message integrity checks and digital signatures. It is a transformation that takes an input and returns a fixed-size string. The basic requirements for a cryptographic hash function are that its input can be of any length but its output has a fixed length. It is said to be a one-way function if it is simply hard to invert. If, given a message, it is computationally infeasible to find a message then it is said to be a weakly collision-free hash function. A strongly collision-free hash function is one for which it is computationally infeasible to find any two messages.
2.The use of SSL ensures that SSL servers and clients can be configured to use only specific cryptographic algorithms.
3.Pfleeger's method for costing requires calculation of expenses and costs associated with delivering a cost effective security system based on risk analysis…
Works Cited and Referenced
Pfleeger, Charles P. (2003). Security In Computing. Third edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Webopedia. (2004). Internet computer search engine. http://www.webopedia.com .
This means that you must continually monitor and communicate about possible changes, pertaining to the overall scope of the threat. Once this occurs, is when an entity will have an effective security procedure that will adapt to the various changes that are taking place.
This is significant, because this information can be used to corroborate the overall nature of security threats that could be faced by the SME. Where, this information is useful in helping to identify and address possible operational considerations that must be taken into account. As a result, this will help to provide not only a glimpse of possible security challenges that will be faced, but it will also help to establish an effective IT security protocol.
When you compare this with the previous source, this information can be used to highlight specific security threats that the company we are examining could face. Where, it discusses the…
E Commerce Growth. (2010). Strategic E-Commerce Solutions. Retrieved from: http://www.sescommerce.com/ecommerce-growth.asp
Internet Usage Statistics. (2010). Internet World Stats. Retrieved from: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
PEW Wireless Internet Usage Rising. (2010). Wireless Week. Retrieved from: http://www.wirelessweek.com/News/2010/07/PEW-Wireless-Internet-Use-Rising-Mobile-Content/
Reflective Writing. (2010). UNSW. Retrieved from http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/pdf/reflective.pdf
S. is the issue of waiting times. Wait times for services are affected by several factors. Both countries are plagued by excessive wait times for certain services, such as specialists, surgery, or specialized treatments such as that for specific cancers or heart conditions. In both the United States and Canada, waiting times are determined in part by the number of providers available to provide that service in a certain geographic area. However, in the United States, wait times can be slowed by access to funding or the unwillingness of a provider to perform a certain service at the price set by the insurer, be it private or public. In Canada, price does not figure into the wait time. The urgency of the need of the person and the availability of services in a certain geographic area are the only factors that figure into the wait time.
Emergency room waits tend…
CBS Staff Reporter (2009). "Medical Debt Huge Bankruptcy Culprit - Study: It's Behind Six-In-
Ten Personal Filings." CBS. 2009-06-05.
Coverme. (n.d.). Newfoundland and Labrador Government Health Insurance Plan Offers Limited
[Microsoft] Thus both the web-based live feedback programs as well as the product launch offers by Microsoft are highly effective methods for the company to gather customer views, interests and needs so that they can be used for betterment of their existing products as well as being useful in the development of their new products for the targeted market segment. These didactic online sessions help the company improvise their product design to suit the demands of the customers and thus improve the sales pitch for the product, which ultimately depends on customer satisfaction.
Success in ecommerce is all about providing excellent customer service and incorporating customer friendly and interactive features on the web portals. The customer must have an easy to use interface and must be able to find his way through without much hassle. Ease of use and swift navigation around the different pages of the website are important…
Paul Wright, "Inside Microsoft.com: Analyzing Denial of service attacks," retrieved March 14th 2008, from, http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc161020.aspx
Microsoft, "Use RSS to stay up-to-date with Microsoft.com," retrieved March 14th 2008, from, http://www.microsoft.com/communities/guide/rss.mspx
Microsoft, "Get live and on-demand access to a wide range of technical and business guidance from industry experts.," retrieved March 14th 2008, at http://www.microsoft.com/communities/webcasts/default.mspx
Microsoft, 'the Windows feedback Program', retrieved March 14th 2008, at http://wfp.microsoft.com/
Internet has grown exponentially since its first introduction to the public. The precursor to the Internet was the ARPANET. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense (Carlitz and Zinga, 1997) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) were the primary creators of the ARPANET. Subsequently however, efforts from private entities and universities have helped develop the network infrastructure, as it exists today. "The goals of ARPA's 'Resource Sharing Computer Network' project were to develop the technology for and demonstrate the feasibility of a computer network while improving communication and collaboration between research centers with grants from ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)." (Press, 1996) J.C.R. Licklider of MIT undertook groundbreaking work in developing computer interactivity. Later, he implemented his vision though time-sharing systems-affordable interactive computing. The effort of the NSF also helped to distribute the features of this new networking capability to all major universities and research…
Ansari, Asim, Skander Essegaier, and Rajeev Kohli. "Internet Recommendation Systems." Journal of Marketing Research 37.3 (2000).
Bannan, Karen J. "Clean It Up." PC Magazine 20.16 (2001).
Beguette, Glenda, et al. Internet Content Filtering and Cipa Legislation. 2002. Available: http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/tsullivl/469Sp02/filtering.html. June 26, 2005.
Bell, Bernard W. "Filth, Filtering, and the First Amendment: Ruminations on Public Libraries' Use of Internet Filtering Software." Federal Communications Law Journal 53.2 (2001): 191-238.
Communication Upgrade Plan
Communications Upgrade Plan
The Abco Company wishes to upgrade its telecommunications technology to a system that is more efficient than the outdated Centrex system now in place. As part of the upgrade plan, the CEO has asked for an explanation of the various systems and technologies available for the upgrade. This research explores various technologies and recommends the proper solution for the business problem at hand.
Communications Upgrade Plan
The Centrex phone system has been the standard in business telecommunications since the 1960s. The system has been the only system of this type for many years. usinesses, such as Abco have had their Centrex System for many years. However, aside from being outdated technology, the Centrex System is no longer the most cost effective solution for businesses. The Abco Corporation has had its Centrex system for as long as anyone can remember. Until recently, no one had…
Callahan, R. (2008). Businesses Move to Voice-over-IP. 12 September 2008. Forbes.com.
Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2008/12/09/skype-vonage-ringcentral_leadership_clayton_in_rc_1209claytonchristensen_inl.html
This article explores the advantages and move towards VoIP in many businesses.
CISCO. (2011). Quality of Service for Voice over IP. Cisco Systems. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./docs/ios/solutions_docs/qos_solutions/QoSVoIP/QoSVoIP.html
Network Security: Past, Present and Future
The work of Curtin (2007) states that a network is defined as "any set of interlinking lines resembling a net, a network of roads -- an interconnected system, a network of alliances." Quite simply a computer network is a system of computers that are interconnected. There are seven layers of communication types identified by the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) eference Model as well as the interfaces among them. Each layer is stated to be dependent on the services that the layer above it provides including the physical network hardware.
Technology: Description and Area of esearch
The most popular networks which have been used over the past twenty-five years and which include both private and public networks include the following network services: (1) UUCP -- Unix-to-Unix CoPy: This was developed originally for connecting Unix hosts together however, since that time UUCP…
Bouchard, Mark (2009) WANTED: The Future of Network Security for Service Providers -- Now!AimPoint Group, LLC. Juniper Networks. Retrieved from: http://www.juniper.net/us/en/local/pdf/whitepapers/2000301-en.pdf
Cisco Security Planning and Design Service (2010) Cisco Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.planetcisco.org/en/U.S./services/ps2961/ps2952/services_datasheet_securitypd.pdf
Graff, Mark (2002 ) The Future of Internet Security. Para-Protect. Retrieved from: http://www.markgraff.com/mg_writings/TFOIS6000.pdf
Keohane & Nye (2000) in: Schneider, Jim (2003) Globalization and Think-Tanks: Security Policy Networks. SAREM International Seminar, Istanbul, May 30, 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.policy.hu/schneider/GlobalTTs.pdf
U.S. & Norway Healthcare Systems
healthcare system has many advantages and disadvantages which are most revealing when compared to the other health care systems of the world. An analysis between the U.S. healthcare system and a government run healthcare system of Norway provides a deeper understanding of the similarities and differences in the two systems.
Almost every other developed nation in the world has some form of universal coverage which reduces this disparity in care. However, many of these systems are purportedly ridden with their own issues such as high cost and long waiting times. By comparing the U.S. system with the universal system like that of Norway, I can investigate the effectiveness of each in terms of the quality of care provided and the equality of distribution of that care.
A Comparison and Analysis of Healthcare Systems in the United States and Norway
A. United States
The healthcare system…
Goldman, Dana P. And Elizabeth A. McGlynn. (2005). U.S. Healthcare Facts About Cost, Access and Quality [Online]. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/pubs/corporate_pubs/2005/RAND_CP484.1.pdf
Johnsen, Jan Roth. (2006). Health Systems in Transition: Norway. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/95144/E88821.pdf
Tanner, Michael D. (March, 18, 2008). Policy Analysis: The Grass is Not Always Greener: A Look at National Health Care Systems Around the World (policy number 613). Retrieved from http://lib.trinity.edu/research/citing/APAelectronicsources.pdf
The University of Maine. (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? [Online]. Retrieved from http://dll.umaine.edu/ble/U.S.%20HCweb.pdf
Small Medium Enterprise Set Up
Market research (location and size of market)
Market segmentation (which segments will you target)
Products/services and target market(s)
Promotions and advertising
Evaluation of marketing
Legal and licensing requirements
Organisational structure and staffing
Insurance and security issues
Critical risks/contingency plans
Capital expenditure forecast
Cash flow forecast
Projected profit and loss statement
Owner's personal expenses (continued on next page)
Environmental responsibility and Eco-sustainability
Conclusions and future directions
Business Plan Structure
The business plan will focus on establishing a new kind of insurance company in Australia called Jade Insurance. Their basic goals are to offer clients with low cost solutions, better service and more personal attention on host of products. This will be achieved through working with local and overseas carriers. The idea…
General Insurance Industry Survey, 2010, KPMG, viewed October 25, 2013
Global Insurance Market Trends, 2012, OECD, viewed October 25, 2013
Insurance Facts and Figures, 2012, PWC, viewed October 23, 2013
Market Presentation, 2013, Lloyds, viewed October 23, 2013
Personnel Law and Regulation
Workers Compensation Rehabilitation
For nearly 100 years, the system of Worker's Compensation has been used in the United States. Worker's Compensation is legislated and administered at the state level. Accordingly, each state has passed their own laws and developed their own system to administer Worker's Compensation within their jurisdiction. Despite the differences of each state's benefits, the overall concept of Worker's Compensation is used in each state.
The model of Worker's Compensation is simple. Employees loose their right to sue their employer for negligence, and employers are required to provide Worker's Compensation to their employees. Specific benefits vary from state to state. All state systems provide some form of protection for employees who are hurt while working.
Prior to the adoption of Worker's Compensation, the previous system required an employee to file a lawsuit against their employer. This proved to be ineffective and problematic. For example,…
Job Got You Stressed?" Health Beat Magazine, February 28, 1995. Pages 50-51
Adams, John D. "Creating and Maintaining Comprehensive Stress-Management Training" Stress Management in Workplace Settings, Praeger Publishers: New York (1989)
Bloch, Frank S. (Editor), Prins, Rienk (Editor) (2001). Who Returns to Work & Why?: A 6 Country Study on Work Incapacity & Reintegration (International Social Security Series, V. 5). Somerset, NJ: Transaction Publications
Clay, Rebecca A., "Job-stress Claims Spin out of Control," American Psychological Association Monitor, July 1998, pgs. 52-55.
Brodkin, J. (2008). Gartner: Seven cloud-Computing security risks. Infoworld, pp. 1 -- 3.
Carlin, S. & Curran, K. (2011). Cloud computing security. International Journal Of Ambient Computing And Intelligence (IJACI), 3 (1), pp. 14 -- 19.
Cloud Computing Benefits, risks and recommendations for information security. (2009). [e-book] Available through: ENISA https://resilience.enisa.europa.eu/cloud-security-and-resilience/publications/cloud-computing-benefits-risks-and-recommendations-for-information-security [Accessed: 24 Mar 2014].
Cloudsecurityalliance.org. (2011). Top threats to cloud computing: cloud security alliance. [online] Retrieved from: https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/top-threats [Accessed: 24 Mar 2014].
Feng, D., Zhang, M., Zhang, Y. & Xu, Z. (2011). Study on cloud computing security. Journal Of Software, 22 (1), pp. 71 -- 83.
Grobauer, B., Walloschek, T. & Stocker, E. (2011). Understanding cloud computing vulnerabilities. Security & Privacy, IEEE, 9 (2), pp. 50 -- 57.
Jamil, D. & Zaki, H. (2011). CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY. International Journal Of Engineering Science & Technology, 3 (4).
Jasti, A., Shah, P., Nagaraj, R. & Pendse, R. (2010). "Security in multi-tenancy…
Information System Security Plan
The information security system is required to ensure the security of the business process and make the confidential data of the organization secure. The organization's management is required to analyze the appropriate system to be implemented and evaluate the service provided on the basis of their required needs. The implementation of the system requires the compliance of organizational policies with the service provider to ensure the maximum efficiency of the system. The continuous update and maintenance of the system is required to ensure the invulnerability of the system towards the potential internal and external threats.
Data Security Manager and Coordinator
Evaluate Service Providers
Change Passwords Periodically
estricted access to personal information
Safeguard paper records
eport unauthorized use of customer information
Terminated Employees 1
3. External isks 1
3.1 Firewall Protection 1
3.2 Data Encryption 1
Baskerville, R., & Siponen, M. (2002).An information security meta-policy for emergent organizations.Logistics Information Management, 15(5/6), 337-346.
Dlamini, M.T., Eloff, J.H., & Eloff, M.M. (2009). Information security: The moving target. Computers & Security, 28(3), 189-198.
Dhillon, G., & Backhouse, J. (2000). Technical opinion: Information system security management in the new millennium. Communications of the ACM, 43(7), 125-128.
Jain, A.K., Ross, A., & Pankanti, S. (2006). Biometrics: a tool for information security. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on, 1(2), 125-143.
Cloud Computing Security Pros & Cons
Over the last ten years, cloud computing has rapidly grown and it is expected to grow even further as more businesses move online. When cloud computing was first conceived, many skeptics dismissed it as being just another tech fad that will quickly disappear. However, over the last three years cloud computing has truly changed the way we think about IT nowadays. The Cloud has significantly reduced the cost of doing business and has allowed businesses to focus on their core activities and not IT related issues (Krutz & Vines, 2010; Ali, Khan &Vasilakos, 2015). These reasons and many other which we will highlight in this essay show that Cloud computing is here to stay. However, like any other technology, cloud computing has also been associated with a few challenges and inefficiencies. This paper will look at the pros and cons of cloud computing. In…
Ali, M., Khan, S. U., &Vasilakos, A. V. (2015). Security in cloud computing: Opportunities and challenges. Information Sciences, 305, 357-383.
Krutz, R. L., & Vines, R. D. (2010). Cloud security: A comprehensive guide to secure cloud computing. Wiley Publishing.
Nedelcu, B., Stefanet, M. E., Tamasescu, I. F., Tintoiu, S. E., & Vezeanu, A. (2015). Cloud
Computing and its Challenges and Benefits in the Bank System. Database Systems Journal, 6(1), 44-58.
IT Security Implementation
Provide a summary of the actual development of your project.
Because small corporations have to work under conditions of conflicting information technology in many instances, the requirement of maintaining these systems details entails far too many time-consuming processes that have to be carried out. This allows for the business to work in a logical order and promotes a more logical approach to the making of business decisions. The end result is organizational progress and consistent profitability. Thus, the lack of having an IT Security Policy Plan in place may keep the organization from reaching its organizational potential. This project's main objective and expected outcome entails designing a network security plan for implementation and then detailing the process of implementing the program. The purpose is to address the various aspects of having a written and enforceable technology security policy as well as describing an overview of the…
However, this still relatively young application of internet technology does come with a wide array of security concerns that highlight the ethical and legal responsibilities facing these handlers of sensitive information.
ith identify theft and hacking of open source network activities real threats in the internet age, it is increasingly important for online shoppers bankers to be aware of the risks and for online financial institutions to be armed to protect against them.
For the banking industry, which has gone to considerable lengths to continually upgrade security measures, this presents a demand which is simultaneously economic and ethical. Indeed, the transition of users from traditional to online banking methods will be a shift "resulting in considerable savings in operating costs for banks." (Sathye, 325) This highlights the nature of it risks for all companies, which must balance security concerns with the financial optimization often associated with such change.
CMU. 2003. Risk Management. Carnegie Mellon University: Software Engineering Institute. Online at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/risk/index.html
Comptroller of the Current, Administrator of National Banks (CoC). (2005). Authentication in an Internet Banking Environment. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. Online at .
Sathye, M. (1999). Adoption of Internet Banking by Australian Consumers: An Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17(7), 324-334.
Stoneburner, G; Goguen, a. & Feringa, a. (2002). Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. NIST 800-30.
(%) Cross Site Scripting (XSS) errors -- by far the most common strategy hackers use to gain access to the source code of websites and the databases supporting them is to use a technique called cross-site scripting (Brodkin, 2007). Actively monitoring the percentage of XSS errors over time can determine patterns of when hackers attempt to gain access to a website's source code, database links, pricing and e-commerce systems. This is one of the most often used metrics in security dashboards used for monitoring Web-based applications and multisite installations.
(%) Incidence and Trending of Buffer Overflow Injection Flaws -- This is most commonly associated with attempts to gain access to SQL databases supporting a website by forcing a buffer overflow condition (Brodkin, 2007). This is one of the most effective hacking strategies there are as it forces a system to fail and allow access.
(%) Authentication Soft and Hard Errors…
Brodkin, J.. (2007, October). The top 10 reasons Web sites get hacked. Network World, 24(39), 1,16-17,20.
Su, M., Yu, G., & Lin, C.. (2009). A real-time network intrusion detection system for large-scale attacks based on an incremental mining approach. Computers & Security, 28(5), 301.
Xiong, K., & Perros, H. (2008). Trustworthy Web services provisioning for differentiated customer services. Telecommunication Systems, 39(3-4), 171-185.
Potential for denial of service attacks.
Section 4. ecommendation.
Based on the company's current adult student enrollment percentages and identified trends and opportunities, it is recommended that Apollo Group, Inc. more aggressively pursue the domestic 46 years-and-over market which currently stands at just over 10%. As Arsenault and Anderson (1998) emphasize, "The needs, interests, and expectations of retiring baby boomers will be significantly different than those of their parents and grandparents. Future generations of elders will seek continued personal growth in their retirement years, and hence the demand for educational programs and services designed to meet the needs of older adults will intensify" (p. 27). The positive aspects of this recommendation include the fact that this segment of the American population is growing more rapidly than most others and as Arsenault and Anderson point out, "Older adult learners are in an envious position because many have the luxury of enrolling…
About Apollo Group. (2008). Apollo Group, Inc. [Online]. Available: http://www.apollogrp.edu/About.aspx.
Apollo Group profile. (2008). Yahoo! Finance. [Online]. Available: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=APOL .
Arsenault, N. & Anderson, G. (1998). New learning horizons for older adults. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 69(3), 27-28.
Dohm, a. (2000). Gauging the labor force effects of retiring baby-boomers. Monthly Labor Review, 123(7), 17.
Both interviewees and quantitative data indicators point to a criminal justice system in that has been positively impacted by a new ecological presence, the MHC. (Trupin, and Richards 52).
To sum up, while information is not completely conclusive, it is likely that the movement of deinstitutionalization has a direct relationship with the increase in the population of the mentally ill populations in jails and prisons. Many mental hospitals have been closed altogether. These hapless patients have been transferred to overworked community-based mental health clinics. This results in the dissipation of these patients over a wide variety of health care institutions. However, there is a great increase in the amount of mentally handicapped individuals amongst the jail and prison population. For this reason, there is a need for the expansion of mental-health services among the prison population. Also, mental health courts promise to provide relief.
"BJA Programs Mental…
"BJA Programs Mental Health Courts Program." Bureau of Justice Assistance. Office of Justice Programs, 2011. Web. 29 Nov 2011. .
"Deinstitutionalization: A Psychiatric Titanic." PBS.org. PBS, 2005. Web. 28 Nov 2011. .
Deas-Nesmith, D., and S. McLeod-Bryant. "Psychiatric Deinstitutionalization and Its Cultural Insensitivity." Journal of the National Medical Association. 84.12 (1992): 1036-1040. Print.
Lamb, H. Richard, Weinberger,, and Bruce H. Gross. "Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System: Some Perspectives." Psychiatric Quarterly. 75.2 (2004): 107-126. Print.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
entepise wide netwoking has been the topic of discussion. Advances in technology and netwoking systems have caused oganizations to develop new management techniques fo entepise wide netwoks. The pupose of this pape is to discuss the Management of entepise-wide netwoking. We will focus on fou aspects of entepise wide netwoking including; legacy systems, Intenet Secuity, offshoe development and suppot and Mobile computing. We will investigate how each of these aspects is handled within an entepise.
Legacy systems wee once popula in the business wold but have become less popula in ecent yeas. (Sinn 2003) legacy system is loosely defined as "a softwae platfom developed in a pocedual language such as Cobol o RPG, hosted on a mainfame o an IBM iSeies. In most cases the maintenance costs of the system tend to incease ove time while the available technical expetise aound it deceases (Ludin 2004)."
Many entepises ae…
references and Deter Computer Crime. Yale Law Journal, 112(6), 1577+.
Social Engineering as it Applies to Information Systems Security
The research takes into account several aspects that better create an overview of the term and the impact it has on security systems. In this sense, the first part of the analysis reviews the concept of social engineering and the aspects it entails. Secondly, it provides a series of cases that were influenced by social engineering and the effects each had on the wider picture of information security. Thirdly, the research looks at what policies are set in place to avoid this type of practice and how has the information security society responded to the threat posed by social engineering. Finally, possible solutions to the issues social engineering raises are also presented in the context of the increased technological environment in which business is conducted in the world we live in today.
General aspects on social engineering
A non-academic definition of…
Allen, Malcolm. "Social Engineering: A Means To Violate A Computer System," SANS Institute, 2006, available online at https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/engineering/social-engineering-means-violate-computer-system-529
Dimension Research. "The Risk Of Social Engineering On Information Security:
A Survey Of It Professionals" in Dimension Research, Sept. 2011, available online at http://www.checkpoint.com/press/downloads/social-engineering-survey.pdf
Honan, Mat. "How Apple and Amazon Security Flaws Led to My Epic Hacking" in Wired. 8 June 2012, available at http://www.wired.com/2012/08/apple-amazon-mat-honan-hacking/
Cyber Attacks on Financial Institutions
The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated cyber attacks from criminals. These criminals often email phishing campaigns to customers which have remained the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions. New innovations in banking, like online and mobile banking, have continued to create new vulnerabilities for cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and procedures for quick interventions in the event of an actual attack. However, beyond simply creating harmful software intended to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).
In 1998, one of the foremost examples of infrastructure hijacking ever discovered is known as The Morris worm. This…
Cordle, I. P. (2014, August 7). TotalBank responds to computer security breach, Miami Herald. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/news/business/article1978822.html Comment by dkamari: are all of these cited in your paper? If not, do not list them.
Mossburg, E. (2015). A Deeper Look at the Financial Impact of Cyber Attacks. Financial Executive, 31(3), 77-80. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/
Crossman, P. (2015, March 5). Is Apple Pay a Fraud Magnet? Only If Banks Drop the Ball. Retrieved from American Banker: http://www.americanbanker.com/news/bank-technology/is-apple-pay-a-fraud-magnet-only-if-banks-drop-the-ball-107312
Dean, B. (2015, March 4). Why companies have little incentive to invest in cybersecurity. Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://theconversation.com/why-companies-have-little-incentive-to-invest-in-cybersecurity-37570