Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
THE RIGHT CHOICE
Deontology is an ethical theory, which states actions should be performed according a previously ranked set of values (Johnson, 1996). It states that some rights must not be violated even if it may produce the greatest overall good. It sees rightness as something intrinsic, rather than extrinsic, to the action performed. It is generally attributed to the philosophy of Immanuel Kant on categorical imperatives. Deontology urges that actions or means to actions must themselves be ethical. It upholds ethical norms and truths to be universally applicable. Immoral actions are those, which are wrong in themselves and of themselves. Deontology requires that all people act with the view that their act be a universal pattern or norm of behavior. Immanuel Kant also maintains that people arrive at moral conclusions on what is morally right or wrong through rational thought. Deontology insists that the means must…
Andre, C. And Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: the utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics: Santa Clara University. Retrieved on November 9, 2011 from http://www.scu.edu /ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The potential to be a good person is the core of Aristotelian ethics, which also posits that individuals should make decisions based on their desire to do good and their potential to do good. Virtue ethics is not based either on consequences or on absolute moral values and can thus provide a solid middle ground for basing any ethical economics theory. Unlike deontology, virtue ethics does not rely on authorities for enforcement. Instead, virtue ethics depends on internal issues like trust.
Neither deontology nor virtue ethics alone can create a substantial theory of ethical economics. Van Staveren thoroughly addresses situational variables that might constrict the application of either ethical theory to real-world economics. Her analysis is based on sound examples and reasoning. Deontology is too absolute to be of any ultimate value, whereas virtue ethics cannot be applied universally. Van Staveren draws the only logical conclusion: that both virtue ethics…
As stated in the AICPA code of conduct, the accountants need to put aside their own points-of-view and use the unified school of thought that is presented in the code. This means that the accountants should work on a deontological perspective since the utilitarianism perspective is akin to breaking or bending the rules in order to satisfy their own interests.
The professional code of conduct was developed as a result of regulating the accountants who had failed to self-regulate themselves. This is also the reason behind the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Naturally, people are known to think about themselves first without considering the interests of others. Therefore allowing the utilitarianism point-of-view will simply be allowing the accountants to do as they please. Every person has their own virtues and thoughts on what is right or wrong. The basic tenet of utilitarianism will thus hurt the businesses since it will bring about egotism…
Hess, D. (2007). A Business Ethics Perspective on Sarbanes-Oxley and the Organizational Sentencing Guidelines. Michigan Law Review, 105(8), 1781-1816.
Micewski, E.R., & Troy, C. (2007). Business Ethics -- Deontologically Revisited. Journal of Business Ethics, 72, 17-25. doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9152-z
By happiness it is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure." (Philosophical Classics, 2010. P.946).
This approach has been experienced a lot within the accounting fraternity. The actions of the accountant can be weighed to be right or wrong depending on the amount of pleasure they bring or otherwise. This approach helps in the quest for pleasure and the well being of each member of the community.
The utilitarian theory therefore is a pointer that the qualifications that are to be met or instituted within the accounting field by the AICPA are or should aim at being for the good of the clients and the firms as well as the practitioners for the eventual good of the accounting fraternity.
Bearing the sensitivity of the accounting field, the proneness to malpractice and the various abuses that can come up when loopholes are discovered,…
Catherine Rainbow (2002), Descriptions of Ethical Theories and Principles. Retrieved August 29, 2012 from http://www.bio.davidson.edu /people/kabernd/indep/carainbow/Theories.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
" (Duska and Duska, 2003)
Duska and Duska state that the accountant has three obligations:
1) to be competent and know about the art and science of accounting;
2) to look out for the best interests of the client; avoiding the temptation to take advantage of the client; and 3) to serve the public interest. (2003)
These responsibilities are clearly stated in the AICPA code of ethics, which states:
Competence is derived from a synthesis of education and experience. It begins with a mastery of the common body of knowledge required for designation as a certified public accountant. The maintenance of competence requires a commitment to learning and professional improvement that must continue throughout a member's professional life. It is a member's individual responsibility. In all engagements and in all responsibilities each member should undertake to achieve a level of competence that will assure that the quality of the member's…
Adams, Barbara L.; Malone, Fannie L. And James, Woodrow, Jr. (1994) Ethical Reasoning in Confidentiality Decisions. The CPA Journal 1994. Online available at http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/old/15611655.htm
Dolfsma, W. (2004) Institutional Economics and the Formation of Preferences. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar; in Dolfsma, Wilfred (2005) Accounting as Applied Ethics: Teaching a Discipline. Erasmus Research Institute of Management - Report Series - Research in Management
Dolfsma, Wilfred (2005) Accounting as Applied Ethics: Teaching a Discipline. Erasmus Research Institute of Management - Report Series - Research in Management
Duska, Ronald F. And Duska, Brenda Shay (2003) Accounting Ethics. Blackwell Publishing. Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=Y4LgVJgynCsC&dq=deontology+%26+utilitarianism+accounting+profession&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
Philosophy: Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
In this paper I will discuss why I feel Deontology (Immanuel Kant's philosophy) is more correct than Utilitarianism (John Stuart Mill), as applied to a specific issue. First I will give an interpretation of Kant's deontology, and point out the strong and logical points within his arguments; secondly I will offer an analysis of Mill's Utilitarianism, and why I feel Mill's views fall short.
Explanation: In Kant's The Moral Law, "Ethics is based not on feeling but on reason" (343) and our "moral duties," according to Pojman's analysis of Kant, "are not dependent on feelings but on reason." And so, actions are morally correct based on the source of their motives, one could say; those actions are morally correct if, that is, the motives for the actions are drawn from a sense of "duty." Duty is important in Kant's work, and therefore the deontological comes into…
Pojman, Louis P. Philosophy: The Quest for Truth. Belmont, California: Wadsworth,
As advanced by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, it is a system built entirely on the effects or consequences of an action, regardless of the intentions. This makes it quite clearly the opposite of deontology; according to deontological ethics, telling a lie is wrong even if it saves a million lives. According to utilitarianism, even doing something purposefully bad would be good if it accidentally had a good effect. In order to measure the morality of an act, its total utility -- the overall effect it has on all persons involved -- is determined, and anything that leads to more good than bad is considered ethically correct. Utilitarian ethics is often summed up in the phrase, "the greatest good for the greatest number."
For Bentham and Mill, "good" was measured in happiness, which was also equated with the absence of pain. The specific calculus Bentham developed to measure happiness…
virtue ethics deontology emphasizes importance virtues, moral character, deontology emphasizes duties rules. Suppose obvious helped. A deontologist point fact, helping agent acting accordance moral rule " Do " a virtue ethicist fact helping person charitable benevolent.
To 'do good' or to 'be good'?: Deontological vs. virtue ethics
In our daily lives, we often find ourselves torn between the competing demands of virtue ethics vs. deontology. Do we go with our 'gut instinct' and hope that virtue in our character will guide us in the right way, or do we follow the rules of a moral order, even when doing so is unpleasant and even counterintuitive? Ultimately, while virtue ethics is somewhat problematic in its construction because of the vague and highly debatable nature of what constitutes virtue, it is a more feasible means to govern one's ethical life than the rigidity of deontology.
According to deontologists, rather than speculate about…
Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. "Deontological Ethics." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (Fall 2008 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.). 22 Nov 2012. .
Hursthouse, Rosalind. "Virtue Ethics." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2012
Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.). 22 Nov 2012.
Deontology decides what one should and should not do based on what is fundamentally right and wrong. It basis ethical theory on what is morally required by duty, what is forbidden or wrong according to societal standard, and what is permitted or allowed based on normative ethical standard. Effect has nothing to do with choices; one simply obeys based on moral standards and duty. Moral right takes priority over everything else, in some case even over what one may consider the "good" of a matter. Moral agents have obligations that they must take certain actions, because it is their duty to do so; therefore they must do so.
Deontological theories are those suggesting that one's actions are right when they accord with what is ethically correct, according to certain ethical maxims, rights, rules, or duties (Cherry & Jacob, 2005; Chitty, 2005). Deontology states that actions…
Cherry, B. & Jacob, S.R. 2005. Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends & management. Elsevier Mosby.
Chitty, K.K. 2005. Professional Nursing: Concepts and Challenges. Elsevier Saunders.
Cowen, P.S. & Moorhead, S. 2006. Current issues in nursing. Mosby Elsevier.
Kamm, F.M., 1996, Morality, Mortality: Volume II: Rights, Duties, and Status, New York:
Ethics and Morality: Utilitarianism, Deontology, And ights Ethics Principles
Dramatized Example of Utilitarianism
At some point in the popular investigative TV show 24, Jack Bauer, an influential counterterrorism officer, questions terrorist Syed Ali, seeking to get him to reveal the location of a nuclear bomb that has been set to detonate in Los Angeles. Ali, however, is reluctant to cooperate, and Bauer, who unfortunately does not have the pleasure of time, orders his officers to kill the elder one of Ali's two sons and threatens to kill the younger one if Ali still does not cooperate. In a bid to save his son, Ali reveals the weapon's location, and Bauer's men get to neutralize it just in time to save Los Angeles. Bauer's action spurs a heated debate, and even Supreme Court officials find themselves divided. The question on everyone's mind is - should Jack Bauer be convicted for killing…
CMU. (2002). Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy: Utilitarian Theories. Carnegie Mellon University Library. Retrieved 10 June 2014 from http://www.cmu.edu/index.shtml
Conway, P. & Gawronski, B. (2013). Deontological and Utilitarian Inclinations in Moral Decision-Making: A Process Dissociation Approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2), 216-235.
Westside Toast Masters (n.d.). The Universal Nature of Ethical Principles. Westside Toast Masters. Retrieved 10 June 2014 from http://westsidetoastmasters.com/resources/thinking_tools/ch12lev1sec4.html
Deontology and DNR: Addressing the Issue
Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders are an issue for a number of care providers in hospitals, especially those who work within the context of hematology and oncology care. As Weissman (1999) notes, DNR is a stumbling block for many nurses and nursing students: for example, he states that his students unanimously struggle to understand the purpose of asking terminally-ill patients what their preferences are on resuscitation—“We know it’s required under hospital policy to ask patients their preference about resuscitation, but these cancer patients . . . well . . . you know . . . they’re dying . . . it doesn't make sense” (Weissman, 1999, p. 149). Weissman (1999) states that while DNR orders were “designed to ensure patient autonomy while at the same time identifying patients in whom resuscitation is not indicated,” they have come to serve, unfortunately, as “an example…
Deontology and Consequentialism
An Analysis of "Rightness" from Deontological and Teleological Perspectives
Deontological ethics stems from the notion that one is obliged by duty to behave in a "moral" manner. There are a number of theories that range from moral absolutism to Divine Command theory that may be described as deontological, but each differs in its approach to "morality" even though each recognizes an "obligation" to attend to a set of rules. In contrast to deontological ethics are teleological ethics, which gauge the morality of one's actions by their consequences. A number of theories may be classified as teleological, such as utilitarianism, pragmatism and consequentialism. This paper will explore the ideas behind deontological and teleological ethics and show how an approach to "morality" must observe at least some objective standard, and that it is the objective standard that makes an action "right," and not the dutiful adherence to the standard…
Dreier, Jamie. "In defense of consequentializing."
Horgan, Terrry; Timmons, Mark. "Untying a Knot from the Inside Out: Reflections on the 'Paradox' of Supererogation."
Locke, John. "Essay Concerning Human Understanding." Bartleby. Web. 27 Nov
An ethical issue refers to a situation whereby an organization is required to choose amongst alternatives that must be evaluated as either wrong or right. For example, an ethical issue arises when a business company opts to make as much profit while pollution the environment, the dilemma here being the regulation and social consequences. The company management may opt to bribing the regulation implementing organization as long as they continue making short-term profits before the law catches up with them, by then they may be forced to attire with the rule or shut down but they will have made as much finances than when they may have started and the consequences on the social life will have reached the stage where it affects their health and made the environment unbearable. The principle of autonomy; which requires individuals to be left on their own independence to conduct their activities,…
Andrew, J. (2008). Utilitarianism and deontology theories. New York: John and sons ltd.
Ferrell, O.C., & Fraedrich, J. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. Salt Lake: Cengage Learning.
Joanne, B. (2010). Ethics and Business success. Mexico: Greenwood press.
John, K., & Berlyn, M. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of decision making models. Normative and rationale models, 15 (14), 319-325.
" Thus this principle is founded on an individual's ability to predict a given action's consequences. On predicting such consequences, an individual is supposed to choose the course of action which would in the end benefit the greatest number of people. In such a case, the choice selected would be considered ethically correct. For instance, if one innocent person has to be killed so as to save the entire human race, then it would be ethically right to kill such a person from a utilitarian point-of-view. An application of this principle in our scenario seems somewhat straightforward. To determine the right course of action in this case, the question to be asked is; of all the alternative courses of action at Dr. Doight's disposal, which course of action would benefit the greatest number of people? In my opinion, seeking to ensure that the situation is brought under control no matter…
Bredeson, D. (2011). Applied Business Ethics: A Skills-Based Approach. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J. & Ferrell, L. (2008). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Freeman, R.E. (2010). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lozano, J.M. (2002). Ethics and Organizations: Understanding Business Ethics as a Learning Process. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…
Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.
Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press
Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…
Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange
Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).
Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19
Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
Ethical Treatment of Prisoners
The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).
There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.
Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…
Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.
Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
Product Safety, And Intellectual Property
Legal and Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual
Ethics and legal issues refer to the morals and principles that govern the behavior and conduct of individuals or organizations. These legal principles and ethics serve to guide and offer directions on how to act or respond when faced with moral dilemmas. Marketing, advertising and product safety are areas of importance to everyone in the community. Production, distribution and use of products or services are areas guided by the laws of the land. The laws function to protect the community from exploitation or mishandling by the participants in the above sectors. In the marketing and advertising framework, the concept of ethics deals with personal moral principles and values. Under this framework, the society understands that laws are values and standards that are enforceable in the court. In the production of goods and services, the…
Ventola, C.L. (2011). Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising. Journal List, 36 (10), 669-674,681-684. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov > Journal List > PT > v. 36 (10); Oct 2011
Hurd, H.M. (1996). Deontology of Negligence, The. BUL Rev., 76, 249.
Carden, S. (2006). Virtue ethics: Dewey and Maclntyre. New York: Continuum International
Corporate Governance and Ethical esponsibility
Dr. Doight recently hired President "Universal Human Care Hospital," oversees departments 5,000 employees 20,000 patients medical facility. He provided a broad set duties oversight numerous departments, including business development, customer services, human resources, legal, patient advocacy, a .
Corporate Governance and Ethical esponsibility
Duty of loyalty owed to internal and external stakeholders
According to Heath (2006)
, duty of loyalty entails good faith and honesty in best interests of a corporation's stake holders. The duty of loyalty involve the no-profit rule and no conflict rule Heath, 2006.
The duty of loyalty thus implies that, a person in-charge of overseeing the operations in an organization should not let his/her personal interest dictate performance of duty. It also governs actions which must be guided by honesty and good faith. A corporation's stake holders can be classified into two; internal and external Weaver, 2006()
Duty of Loyalty to…
Gilbert J.A. (2007). Strengthening Ethical Wisdom: Tools for Transforming Your Health Care Organization. . Chicago, IL: Health Forum, Inc.
Heath, J. (2006). Business Ethics without Stakeholders. Business Ethics Quarterly, 16(4), 533-557.
Joseph R.D., & McCall J.J. (2005). Contemporary issues in Business Ethics 5th edition Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth.
Khurana, R., & Nohria, N. (2008). It's Time to Make Management a True Profession. Harvard Business Review, 86(10), 1-8.
Ethics and Public Policy
This paper discusses the application of the major ethical theories of consequentialism (utilitarianism), deontology, and virtue ethics to a specific policy question, namely how to improve the nutrition of the nation's poor and to reduce the rise in food insecurity. It also discusses the implications of ethical theories such as determinism and moral relativism. First, the theory is discussed in the abstract, followed by an exposition of how the theory relates to real-world practice. The paper concludes with a more general reflection on the implications of ethical theories for public policy-makers. The specific merits of virtue ethics are stressed vs. The more extreme and polarizing views of deontology and consequentialism.
An ethical dilemma: Food insecurity
One of the dilemmas facing public policy-makers regarding food insecurity and the need to improve the diet of poor Americans is the balance between individual liberties and the need…
Athanassoulis, N. (2014). Virtue ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved http://www.iep.utm.edu /virtue/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical framework. The consequences of an action are more important than the motivations behind the action or the action itself. An action has "utility" if it serves the greatest good. The basic principle of utilitarianism is creating the greatest good for the greatest number of people, or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. The ethics of utilitarianism differ from ethical egoism in that the individual may make a sacrifice for the common good because it is the aggregate of happiness/goodness that matters, not maximizing individual happiness. Central to utilitarianism is the belief that all people are inherently equal and of equal consideration when making ethical decisions (p. 55). John Stuart Mill outlined the core tenets of utilitarianism, which became a fundamental component of Enlightenment political philosophy. Another utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, proposed a happiness calculus that can be used to more rigorously apply…
MacKinnon, Barbara and Fiala, Andrew. Ethics. 8th edition. Cengage.
Something that I have found particularly interesting in Baird's textbook is the notion of "deontological" ethics. (Baird 151). This is the idea that "right" behavior or "good" behavior is about playing by the rules. However what I find really interesting about the idea is that, in some sense, it is the only way we have of getting a glimpse into the motivations of others. In some sense, a full account of the ethics of any given situation must in some way take into account someone's motives -- especially motives for compliance. Ethical behavior shouldn't be something that we adopt out of a sense of compulsion. Instead, with deontology, we are talking more about the concept of duty.
I suppose what is most interesting to me about this is the notion that there can be different reasons, good and bad, for adopting the same set of ethical principles. I'm…
Baird, C.A. (2012). Everyday Ethics: Making Wise Choices in a Complex World. Ethics Game Press Publishers.
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…
c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics
d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics
e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics
f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics
g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics
Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.
Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…
Trevino, L.K., & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right (4th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
1. Nagel, Thomas. The Limits of Objectivity. The Tanner Lecture on Human Values. Delivered at rasenose College, Oxford University. May 1979. Page 126. On the Internet at http://www.tannerlectures.utah.edu/lectures/nagel80.pdf
2. The Trolley Problem. Wikipedia. On the Internet at http://www.ezresult.com/article/Trolley_problem
3. The Non-Philosopher's Guide to Can ad Men Make Good rains do ad Things? On the Internet at http://www.mindspring.com/~mfpatton/binvat.htm
Nagel, Thomas. The Limits of Objectivity. The Tanner Lecture on Human Values. Delivered at rasenose College, Oxford University. May 1979. Page 126. On the Internet at http://www.tannerlectures.utah.edu/lectures/nagel80.pdf
The Trolley Problem. Wikipedia. On the Internet at http://www.ezresult.com/article/Trolley_problem
Judith J. Thomson. Killing, Letting Die and the Trolley Problem.
Ibid. ut also the Non-Philosopher's Guide to Can ad Men Make Good rains do ad Things? On the Internet at http://www.mindspring.com/~mfpatton/binvat.htm
The Trolley Problem. Wikipedia. On the Internet at http://www.ezresult.com/article/Trolley_problem
Nagel, Thomas. The Limits of Objectivity. The Tanner Lecture on Human Values. Delivered at…
1. Nagel, Thomas. The Limits of Objectivity. The Tanner Lecture on Human Values. Delivered at Brasenose College, Oxford University. May 1979. Page 126. On the Internet at http://www.tannerlectures.utah.edu/lectures/nagel80.pdf
2. The Trolley Problem. Wikipedia. On the Internet at http://www.ezresult.com/article/Trolley_problem
3. The Non-Philosopher's Guide to Can Bad Men Make Good Brains do Bad Things? On the Internet at http://www.mindspring.com/~mfpatton/binvat.htm
However, those who have serious ethical and moral integrity will generally do what it takes to get a problem corrected, even if they have to lose out personally or professionally to protect the health and welfare of other people under their care. It does not appear that Dr. Doight did any of that. He determined that following procedure was enough to fulfill his duties, whether or not that procedure resulted in any resolution for the patients.
It would appear that Dr. Doight followed the deontological argument that one only has to follow the rules to be ethical. For many people, that is an acceptable choice. For others, the rules would not be important and would not have anything to do with whether something was considered to be ethical. With Dr. Doight, it is not just the possibility that he feels he has done what is ethical, but also possible that…
Becker, L.C., & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics, (2nd ed). New York, NY: Routledge.
Fagothey, a. (2000). Right and Reason. Rockford, IL: Tan Books & Publishers.
Kamm, F.M. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. (2012). Chapters 7&8, the utilitarian approach & the debate of utilitarianism." The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Ethical Values and Behavior
Moral Leadership: Batson vs. Tyler
Batson (Chapter 8, hode, 2006) is of the view that moral leadership is about getting people to uphold moral standards and to always act ethically. The underlying assumption is that when everyone acts within their moral capacities, the organization and society as a whole is deemed to benefit. Acting morally, according to Batson, means looking out for the needs and well-being of others, and acting in their favor whenever our interests and theirs are in conflict. Moral leadership is about getting the people around you to look out for others, and to always put the needs of others before their own. It is about motivating people to care for the needy, promote justice in society, conduct their businesses within ethical boundaries, pay their taxes, vote, recycle harmful substances, and contribute to charity programs, not because they derive benefit from doing so,…
Hill, J.L. (1996). The Case for Vegetarianism: Philosophy for a Small Planet. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield.
Mackinnon, B. & Fiala, A. (2014). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues (concise, 8th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning
Rhode, D.L. (Ed.). (2006). Moral Leadership: The Theory of Practice and Power, Judgment and Policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Please see "Stake Holder: The Taliban" for more information regarding virtue ethics.
The farmers who are growing poppy plants have a logical stake in this moral dilemma as well. If their crops are destroyed they will have no alternative but to join the Taliban to help settle their debts. They are in a precarious position where they are often forced to grow poppies because they are a very lucrative and traditional cash crop. Their history and culture will be severely affected if their livelihood is destroyed as well. If they functioned as utilitarians, the farmers would look for another alternative to growing poppies or perhaps request a government subsidy since their poppy production kills millions worldwide who abuse their drugs. The farmers likely do not have access to this information however, which makes their position even harder to justify.
The Afghan People
Utilitarianism- Principle. See "Stakeholder: The United States…
Values and Ethics
in the Workplace
Values and Ethics in the Workplace
Values and ethics in the workplace can be extremely different among various jobs, careers, companies and organizations, ages, races, and ethnic groups, cultures and parts of the world, office environments, and the individual employees themselves. For example, a secretary in the administrative office of a Catholic church, a poor and illiterate factory worker in India, and a stockbroker who works as a managing partner in a prestigious firm would all hold different and maybe even opposing morals. The secretary would probably be opposed to working on a Sunday so that she had the time to attend church, while the stockbroker would feel compelled to work even on Sunday so that he did not feel lazy and unmotivated, and the factory worker would not have the option of making such a decision as he would have to work every…
Darwall, Stephen. (2002) Consequentialism. Oxford: Blackwell.
Loptson, Peter. (2006) Theories of Human Nature. Peterborough, ON: Broadview.
Orend, Brian. (2000) War and International Justice: A Kantian Perspective. West Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (October 15, 2004) Social Contract Theory. Retrieved on April 23, 2011 from http://www. iep.utm.edu/soc-cont/#SH3b.
Dan's first step would be to speak with a representative in Human esources, outlining his concerns in writing, citing the legalities and the potential liability to the firm. He needs to do this in a non-confrontational manner that focuses specifically on the ethical issue, and not the personality conflicts.
Dan, in fact, has several issues towards his benefit. 1) Ethics are not an "except for" and he has the legal and moral obligation to provide correct and ethical work for his clients and his company; 2) if he had followed his supervisor's instructions, he would be challenging professional accountancy codes as well as putting his, and the firm's, professional and legal integrity on the line; 3) if Dan does nothing and something does go wrong, he will be the scapegoat unless there is a clear paper trail showing the steps he took to mitigate the situation.
Dan should take the…
Brooks, L., Dunn, P. (2010). Business and Professional Ethics: For Directors, Executives, and Accountants. Mason, OH: Cenage/SouthWest Publishing.
ithin the realm of social contract theory, citizens within a given state consent, either tacitly or explicitly, to surrender various rights and freedoms to the authority of the state. In return, the state guarantees protection of citizen's rights and freedoms. The state also guarantees citizen's protection from external aggression and preservation of national security in return for citizens' sacrifice of certain rights. Citing national security protocol, safeguarding civilian life and forestall another terrorist strike in the wake of 9 / 11, Jean Bethke Elshtain wrote that the fight against terrorism waged by the Bush regime against the Middle Eastern perpetrators and their allies qualifies as just war. hile the claim that waging retaliatory war deterred recurrence is a reasonable one, the manner in which the U.S. went about it defied the Jus in bello principle of just war. The inhumane treatment of suspected terrorist in the Guantanamo Bay and the…
Benson, Richard. The Just War Theory: A Traditional Catholic Moral View, New York: The Tidings 2006.
Butler, Paul. By Any Means Necessary: Using Violence and Subversion to Change Unjust Law 50. UCLA L. Rev. 2003 p. 721
Cortright, David. Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke Just War against Terror: The Burden of American Power in a Violent World New York: Basic Books, 2004
Aristotle, happiness and pleasure was moderation and a middle action between two vices. . So, for example, modesty would be a virtue as it comes between two extremes or vices; egotism and low self-esteem. Another example would be working sensibly. The two vices of working would be overworking and laziness. The middle option would be working sensibly. This, according to Aristotle, is the correct choice of action. He said we should act in the right way, at the right time, in the right amount towards the right persons for the correct reasons:"...To experience these emotions [fear, courage, desire, anger, pity, and pleasure] at the right times and on the right occasions and toward the right persons and for the right causes and in the right manner is the mean or the supreme good, which is characteristic of virtue" (Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, II). Happiness, then, comes not at the end of…
At the same time, optimized care is mandated by the medical code of ethics. If older people are therefore sufficiently able to function independently, access to care should be available to them, because this is their preference, and professionals have an obligation to honor these preferences.
In the medical profession, there are no simple solutions to the discrepancy between the fiscal limitations of health care and the ethical obligations of professionals to their clients. The best ideal is to use specific codes of ethics in order to find an acceptable solution that satisfies both the drive to remain financially viable and the obligation to provide all clients with the optimal care.
As mentioned, above, the dilemma involves Mrs. DN, an elderly woman who suffered from a debilitating stroke that left her in a wheel chair. Because she was generally at home, she had the right to home care according…
Bevir, M. (2002). SidneyWebb: Utilitarianism, Positivism, and Social Democracy. Journal of Modern History, No. 74. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7vm01529.pdf
Bevir, M. And O'Brien, D. (2003, Jan 1). From Idealism to Communitarianism: The Inheritance and Legacy of John Macmurray. History of Political Thought, No. 24. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/95m6q13r.pdf
Carroll, M.J. (2007, Dec). Physical Therapists' Perception of Risk of Violating Laws and Rules Governing the Practice of Physical Therapy and/or Their Personal Moral and Ethical Values when Failing to Provide Treatment for an Uninsured or Underinsured Patient. Graduate College of Bowling Green. Retrieved from http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Carroll%20Mark%20J.pdf-acc_num=bgsu1193091796
De Sousa e Brito, J. (2008, Aug 8). From Utilitarianism To Kantism: Bentham's Proof of Utilitarianism, Mill and Kant. ISUS X, Tenth Conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4zn812s7.pdf
humans have been concerned with the most expedient and effective means of punishment for a crime committed. ecently, the United States has turned more to a correctional than a rehabilitative approach to punishing offenders. Studies conflict as to the success of this approach, although numbers of crimes have declined moderately. In addition, such incarceration leads to other problems such as considerably higher costs and increasing numbers of offenders having chronic diseases such as AIDS.
According to Gould and Sitren in "Crime and Punishment: Punishment Philosophies and Ethical Dilemmas," there are three major frameworks that address the purpose of punishment -- utilitarianism, deontology and peacemaking.
Utilitarianism recognizes the purpose of punishment in terms of the end result. For utilitarians, punishment is justifiable because it creates a greater balance of happiness vs. unhappiness. For Bentham, punishment should be utilized to maximize the total pleasure or minimize the total pain of all parties…
YOU NEED TO ADD THE OTHER ONES HERE, SINCE YOUR FAX DID NOT INCLUDE THE BIBLIO. THANKS
Bedeau, H.A. (2002) Thinking and Writing about Philosophy. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Braswell, M., Fuller, J, & Lozoff, B. (2001). Corrections, Peacemaking and Restorative Justice: Transforming Individuals and Institutions. Ottowa, Canada: Anderson Publishing.
Employee's Rights to Health and Safety in the Workplace
The objective of this study is to analyze the rights of employees to health and safety in the workplace in regards to the scenario as follows:
DoRight has recently been hired as the President of the "Universal Human Care Hospital," where he oversees all departments with over 5,000 employees and over 20,000 patients at the medical facility. He has been provided with a broad set of duties and oversight of numerous departments, including business development, customer services, human resources, legal, patient advocacy, to name a few. He has managers in each department that he supervises and who work with him to address the needs of the various internal and external stakeholders of the hospital. Dr. DoRight discovers that some patients within the hospital have been dying as a result of a variety of illegal procedures by doctors and nurses, and negligent…
Grush, Rick (nd) Introduction to some basic ethical orientations. Biomedical Ethics Readings. Retrieved from: http://mind.ucsd.edu/syllabi/03-04/1-Summer/readings/biomed-readings.pdf
Mossman, Douglas (2012) Physician Impairment: When Should You Report? Malpractice RX. Retrieved from: http://www.currentpsychiatry.com/pdf/1009/1009CP_Malpractice.pdf
Rabinowitz, Phil (2012) Identifying and Analyzing Stakeholders and Their Interests. Community Toolbox. Retrieved from: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/chapter7_section8_main.aspx
Alpers, Ann (2001) Key Legal Principles for Hospitalists. Retrieved from: http://hospitalmedicine.ucsf.edu/improve/literature/discharge_committee_literature/handoff_communication_and_discharge/key_legal_principles_for_hospitalists_alpers_am_j_med.pdf
PESONAL & OGANIZATIONAL ETHICS
Personal and Organizational Ethics Values for, for-Profit and Non-Profit Organizations
Ethics is a requirement of the society to both individuals and organizations. Ethics are applied to business and personal behaviors, and are used to determine how companies and individuals abide to policies. To indicate the application of ethical principles in organizations, an analysis is carried out of For-Profit and Non-For-Profit organizations, in this case Bank of America and Boys Club of America. This is by analyzing an ethical dilemma they are experiencing, their approach to the problem, and the legal, political, and social outcomes emerging from this cause of action.
The Boys Clubs of America is a non-for-profit organization founded in 1860s in Harford, Connecticut Formed with the aim of giving boys who roamed the streets a positive alternative. The club has undergone major changes beginning in 191 when several boys' clubs affiliated to…
Anonymous. (2009, Dec 16). Boys & Girls Clubs of America, Lowe's Announces $1 Million
Bach, R. (2010, March). A Letter from our Chairman Emeritus: March 2010. Retrieved from Boys and Girls Club of America: http://www.bgca.org/chairman/Pages/MarchLetterfromOurChairman.aspx
Bank of America. (2013). Retrieved March 21, 2013, from Bank of America: http://message.bankofamerica.com/heritage/#/ourheritage
BCOA. (2011). Boys of America. Retrieved from Boys of America: http://www.bgca.org/Pages/index.aspx .
utilitarianism vs. Deontology
The case of Sam is one that raises ethical dilemma since Sam had stayed out of job market for long and immediately he gets the job, he finds there is some aspect he grossly disagrees with in his work. He realizes that the company adds some substance to their cigarettes that makes them addictive. This Sam disagrees with and would not like to be part of it, as a matter of fact he would like to expose them to the general public.
Taking a utilitarian angel to the case at hand, if Sam was a utilitarian, he would continue working and supervising his department and not expose discovery to the public. This is based on the fact that according to Bentham, Sam should think of what brings more pleasure than pain to him and follow that. Sam should also consider the extent of the pleasure he would…
Technology / Privacy / orkplace
There is a rapidly increasing use of technological monitoring in the workplace, and while technology in general has been highly beneficial to companies, the use of some technologies has raised privacy and ethical concerns among employees. This paper reviews the available literature when it comes to workplace monitoring of employees and the ethical implications of that monitoring.
Is Privacy in the orkplace a Dying Notion?
The right to privacy is a nice idea, and in some instances and circumstances in the United States an individual can reasonably expect to have his or her privacy respected. ebsites, for example, notify users frequently that their privacy is important and it is being protected. However, when it comes to the workplace, in an age of increased reliance on electronic technology, management has been able to "…monitor virtually all workplace communications" that employees have access to.
Findlaw asserts that…
Davidson College. (2002). Descriptions of Ethical Theories and Principles. Retrieved March 8, 2015, from http://www.bio.davidson.edu .
Esikot, I.F. (2012). Globalization vs. Relativism: The Imperative of a Universal Ethics.
Journal of Politics and Law, 5(4), 129-134.
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2010). Consequentialism. Retrieved March 8, 2015,
Ethical Reasoning," Donaldson and Werhane outline the three fundamental theories of ethics: consequentialism, deontology, and human nature ethics. Consequentialism, also known as teological ethics, can be further divided into ethical egoism and utilitarianism. Ethical egoism is based on the theory that to act out of self-interest will ultimately be the most ethical decision. Ethical egoism is rarely supported by philosophers, especially in relation to other ethical reasoning theories such as utilitarianism. Philosophers like Bentham and John Stuart Mill argued that the ethical decisions should be based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Although Mill framed the concept of "good" in terms of happiness, the "greater good" does not necessarily entail happiness and may refer to other abstract concepts like aesthetics. Utilitarianism can itself be subdivided into pluralistic utilitarianism and preference utilitarianism: the former embraces all abstract concepts that can be classified as "good" whereas the…
When the Truth Takes a Stretching Class
Maria Bailey clearly and blatantly misrepresented the size of her start-up business, but shrugged it off saying she knew what she was "capable of doing" and just wanted to show potential clients "what we were going to be," rather than tell them the truth about how fledgling her business actually was at that time.
Was it immoral for Mary Bailey to misrepresent her company?
Looking at the "consequential" side of her decision to fudge the truth about her company, moral decisions are made based upon what the consequences of the action will be. The results of her action actually could have several consequences. The one first and pivotal consequence Maria hopes will happen, of course, is that the fact of her deciding to embellish the truth about the size of her company will bring potential customers into her business start-up Web…
Australasian Business Intelligence. (2004, May 4). Guilty plea follows workplace death.
Bauman, Margaret. (2004). Alaska leads nation in workplace death rate, report says.
Alaska Journal of Commerce.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999). Improvements in workplace safety
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…
Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.animal-ethics.org/virtue-ethics-care-ethics/
Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/12/24/obama-reversal-indigenous-peoples-stirs-concern-legal-claims/
Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/366.full
Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-utilitarianism-and-deontology/
Students who are bussed to a larger school can use the time to be productive; reading, homework, etc.
1.5-2 hours per day of commuting is unacceptable for students and will eat into their family and work time.
A larger school will provide greater opportunity for social networks, sports, music, drama, and more extracurricular activities.
Loss of community will make the younger students uncomfortable as well.
A larger school will provide greater academic opportunities for the HS students in preparation for university; there are more resources available.
The student to teach ratio will change and the students will be part of just another large classroom.
Thus, the question really comes down to potential. Neither side can equivocally state that the future of the students will be better or worse; there are arguments for both as well as the possibility that the solution will be quite positive for some,…
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. New York: Sage.
Groves, R. a. (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books.
Hatton, J. (1996). Science and Its Ways of Knowing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Benjamin Cummings Publishers.
For example, and employee might decide they will never be late for a meeting, which will appear to be a noble duty, but there might be a hidden reason towards this action. Maybe the employee prefers to sit in a particular place or sit. Another negative attribute of the deontology theory is the fact that it is mostly concerned with the individual's welfare and not others.
This theory deals with the individual's ability to foresee the consequences of their actions. A person will have to analyze the choice they make to ensure that they benefit more people Weymark, 2005.
Using this theory a person can compare similar past solutions, and develop a system that determines which choice will be most beneficial for a majority of people.
For a large corporation, this theory would be beneficial because employees will endeavor to perform their duties while analyzing the consequences of…
Ronzoni, M. (2010). Teleology, Deontology, and the Priority of the Right: On Some Unappreciated Distinctions. [Article]. Ethical Theory & Moral Practice, 13(4), 453-472. doi: 10.1007/s10677-009-9209-z
Weymark, J.A. (2005). Measurement theory and the foundations of utilitarianism. [Article]. Social Choice & Welfare, 25(2/3), 527-555. doi: 10.1007/s00355-005-0017-7
Consequentialist and Deontological Ethical Issues.
Consequentialism states that the morality of an action is determined by the specific results of that action. Deontology, on the other hand, states that the morality of an action is determined by duty or adherence to given rules. (Theodore oosevelt)
Consequentialism is based on the consequences of actions. According to consequentialism, actions are right or wrong depending on whether their consequences further the goal. The goal or "the good," can be something like the happiness of all people or the spreading of peace and safety. Anything which contributes to that goal is right and anything which does not is wrong. Actions are thought to have no moral value in themselves, but only get moral value from whether or not they lead to the goal.
Deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. According to this theory, it is your duty to do actions which…
Gibney, Alex. "Ask Why: Enron, "the diffusion of responsibility," and the Atlantic Yards parallels (will anyone look at the Development Agreement?)" [Online] Available: http://atlanticyardsreport.blogspot.com/2010/06/ask-why-enron-diffusion-of.html
Hoagland-Smith, Leanne. "Car Dealerships Still Are Still Clueless in How to Increase Car Sales & Develop Customer Loyalty. [Online] Available at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/perform/perform.html
Murdarasi, Karen. "Deontology and Consequentialism: Two Opposing Ethical Theories and Their Main Criticisms" [Online] Available at: http://www.suite101.com/content/deontology-and-consquentialism-a91650
Roosevelt, Theodore. Den of Hydralisks. [Online] Available at: http://hydralisk.wordpress.com/2007/04/29/deontology-vs.-consequentialism-part-1/
Criticism of Consequentialism:
The deontological criticism of consequentialism would suggest that the very fact that two identical acts can be highly ethical or highly unethical in different circumstances renders consequentialism purely subjective and dependent on opinion instead of objective principles. In that view, the deontological ethical approach may produce unintended negative results on occasion, but at least deontological ethics are predictable and consistent; furthermore, deontological values lead to the better choice of conduct often enough to justify any specific instances where practical injustices could result from adherence to rules.
Adhering to rules is the surest way of ensuring ethical human conduct notwithstanding that isolated societies may establish rules that could be defined objectively as unethical. One of the best examples of the impracticality of consequentialism is the general law of false arrest in most American states. A citizen arrested unlawfully by a duly authorized law enforcement officer may not flee…
Beauchamp, Bowie, & Arnold. (2009). Ethical Theory and Business. 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Ileana Final Portfolio
This portfolio documents performance of key class and personal objectives for HU280-01: Bioethics 1103C, specifically analytical skill building, knowledge acquisition and practical application. The samples demonstrate achievement by presenting excerpts from submitted assignments, Discussion and Seminar interactions, interactions with the instructor and reflections on progress mastering central concepts, ideas and perspectives in bioethics. This work demonstrates a progression from identification, synthesis and recapitulation of selected relevant ethical systems, placing those systems in the contexts through which they arose, and applying those precepts to emerging controversies in modern life. The underlying benchmark this presentation attempts to demonstrate is that if learning is indicated by a change in behavior, then my implementation of new methods considering bioethical dilemmas and also improved critical reasoning and research methods, indicates learning over this process of course inquiry.
This process has provided a structural framework that translates directly to my work…
Klimanskaya, I., Chung, Y., Becker, S., Lu, S., and Lanza, R. (2006). Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres. Nature 444 (7118), 481 -- 485. Retrieved from: doi:10.1038/nature05142
Parks, J.A., and Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Dworkin's two models are extremes in their own right with regard to individual rights; the first model puts balancing individual rights against other social goals. The second model holds that one should err on the side of individual rights instead of balancing them among a whole society. These two models do not encompass a middle ground of a liberal democracy such as the U.S. when examining the place that individual rights have in a society; always putting individual rights ahead of the needs of society can be just as damaging to ignoring individual rights in favor of the overall needs of society.
The "two models" approach is especially relevant in light of the new threats to national security posed by terrorism and the acceptable ways of not only preventing terror but also of treating the accused in these situations. The dispute over the civil liberties that are available to the…
Rosseau, J. 3rd ed The Social Contract. Penguin Classics, 1968.
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by J. Meikljohn. Prometheus, 1990.
Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Belknap Press, 1999.
Rawls, John. Handout on 1st/2nd Principles of Justice.
People's moral actions and other undertakings are properly understood through various theories that have been postulated. This study focuses on the virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontology theory, which have some commonalities and variations depending on the way they are interpreted and adopted. It is evident that instances of all the theories are evident in the way people act in their day-to-day activities as they try to uphold the desired moral standards in a society (Geirsson & Holmgren, 2000).
Deontology was established against utilitarianism. The theory of deontology is primarily concerned with the concept of duty. This means that people must fulfill their moral duty regardless of whether it makes the community happy. This theory argues that a right action is defined by a duty. When an individual identifies his duties, then he must carry out the natural right of action without taking in mind the consequences of the action. This…
Geirsson, H., & Holmgren, M.R. (2000). Ethical theory: A concise anthology. Peterborough, Ont: Broadview Press.
Smith, D.M. (2000). Moral geographies: Ethics in a world of difference. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press
hat would you do?
In the first place, lives are more valuable -- far more valuable -- than jobs. True, without a job many adult individuals would suffer, but given the possibility that the bug in the prototype that Occidental Engineering was producing could cause an accident in the skies and a resulting loss of many lives, the best course for the project manager is to listen to engineer ayne Jones and take the ethical course of action. This paper reviews three ethical theories, one of which will be determined to be the most appropriate for this dilemma: Virtue Ethics, Deontology, and Utilitarianism.
According to author Barbara MacKinnon, Virtue Ethics asks "How we ought to be" rather than "hat we ought to do" (MacKinnon, et al. 2015). Virtue Ethics deals with the traits of personal character (habits, tendencies, and disposition) that make a person "good"; in…
Kay, C.D. (2004). Ethical Theory / Ethical Updates. Wofford College Department of Philosophy. Retrieved January 31, 2015, from http://sites.wofford.edu .
MacKinnon, B., and Fiala, A. (2015). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues, Concise
Edition. Independence IN: Cengage Learning.
Tannsjo, T. (2008). Understanding Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Theory. Edinburgh,
The direct harm the other individual ultimately determines the rightness or wrongness of the individual's actions and decisions.
Applied in the Schiavo case, deontology then considers the decision to deprive Schiavo of the feeding tubes that sustains her life as not a permissible act. It is true that with Schiavo's death, both her husband and family will not be aggrieved or directly harmed with her death; instead, both parties will feel relief with the eventual decision to 'end' Schiavo's physical suffering. Her death will not cause any detriment to the lives of her husband and family, making Schiavo's death ethical, to the extent that it relieved Schiavo from the physical suffering she experiences, and her family from worrying about her condition and the continuous financial burden they experienced as a result of her prolonged hospitalization. However, despite these arguments, the decision to discontinue her life support was made by her…
Western Ethical Theories
The objective of this work is to examine Western Ethical theories including teleological, deontological, natural law, and interest view and virtue ethics.
The work of Bennett-Woods (2005) states that while the words 'ethics' and 'morality' are "often used interchangeably, morality is more precisely used to refer to the customs, principles of conduct and moral codes of an individual, group or society." Ethics, is also stated to be termed "moral philosophy of the science of morals" and is the branch of philosophy that examines "morality through the critical examination of right and wrong in human action." (Bennett-Woods, 2005)
The study of ethics is generally characterized into three specific domains of study include those of: (1) metaethics which is related to the nature of right and wrong insofar as the where and how of the original of ethical judgments and what these judgments mean regarding the human nature and…
Virtue Ethics (2010) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu /entries/ethics-virtue/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Justice, political philosopher John Rawls looks at the idea of social justice and the individual rights of the individual by redefining the last 200+ years of the American experience. In general, he looks at the manner in which the Founding Fathers were correct by basing their views on previous social contract theorists like Locke and Rousseau. For example, there is a clear linkage between John Locke and Rawls that validates the ideas of liberalism within American society. In fact, Rawls notes that the American Experience extended the concept of justice far beyond hat any of the Enlightenment philosophers ever hoped (Rawls, 1957).
Rawls (1921-2002), an American philosopher who focused on moral and political philosophy, believed that the principles of justice are the models that rational individuals who are free would choose as basic ways to cooperate within their society. He called this position the original position, in that it was…
Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rawls, J. (1957). Justice as Fairness. Philosophical Review. 54 (22): 653-62.
Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rawls, J. (2001). A Theory of Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.
ethics, teleology refers to consequentialist ethics, in which the morality of an action is based on its consequences rather than on the nature of the act itself. Utilitarianism is a type of teleological ethics, because utilitarianism is based on creating the maximum amount of happiness (or some other predetermined desirable outcome such as prosperity or health) for the most people possible. Ethical egoism, the view that benefitting the self justifies an action, is also a type of teleology ("Deontological and Teleological Assumptions in Normative Ethics," n.d.). Deontological ethics are opposite to teleological ethics because the consequences are less important than the nature of the act itself. According to the deontological ethical framework, an act is categorically moral or immoral. It does not matter if an act produces happiness or any other result. Deontology espouses the view that the ends do not justify the means; whereas the teleologist believes that the…
"Deontological and Teleological Assumptions in Normative Ethics," (n.d.). Regis University. Retrieved online: http://rhchp.regis.edu/hce/ethicsataglance/DeontologicalTeleological/DeontologicalTeleological_01.html
"Teleological Ethics," (n.d.). Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/585940/teleological-ethics
Would the peson taking the action in question be willing to have eveyone act that way?
Is the peson taking the action teating othes with espect?
Is the peson taking the action teating othes in ways that they have consented to be teated? (Caoll, 2000; Velazquez, 2005).
SW, and most of the majo ailines, have not eacted with fainess with thei seat sizes; Ameicans ae gowing lage, but seat distance and sizing emains equal to, o smalle, than 3-4 decades ago. This is unfai and unethical because it punishes eveyone, not just the obese.
Ailines egulaly chage fo excess baggage based on thei own ules; excess gith o weight is not so diffeent. Tickets ae based on clients comfotably and safely filling a seat- if eithe issue is off, then the pocess becomes unfai.
It is not just the obese passenge's consideations that must be addessed, but the othe…
references. In Mikula, G., ed. Justice and Historical Interaction. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 167-218.
Velazquez, M. (2005). Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases. New York: Prentice Hall.
expert security software programmer works top secret national government country Zulu.
There is very little question as to what action a strict deontologist would do in the scenario for this assignment -- he or she would unequivocally adhere to his or her duty. The more pressing question, of course, revolves around just where that duty lies. For a deontologist, that duty would lie with the job at hand and its responsibilities. As one who took an oath to only program software in accordance to the company that he or she works for -- which is essentially operating as an extension of the government that wishes the programmer to 'push the button' and destroy millions of innocent lives in World War II -- it would strongly appear that such an individuals would consider it his or her duty to effectively start World War III.
Moreover, it is interesting to note that…
tension between businesses interests in maximizing profits and the public's interest in receiving complete, truthful, and non-misleading information about products that they purchase.
The dangers against greenwashing are that consumers will have no confidence in the products or services they are buying. This means that they will not purchase specific items. As they feel they are being deceived and cheated through false labeling / misrepresentation. At the same time, there is the possibility that a firm could face penalties from government regulators who feel that they are engaging in false advertising. This will have a negative impact on the image of the organization and their ability to address the needs of customers in the future. ("Six Sins of Greenwashing," 2007)
For an executive; it is advisable to not practice these kinds of policies. The reason why is because it will hurt the brand image of the products they are selling…
Clean Air Act Summary. (2013). EPA. Retrieved from: http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-air-act
Environmental Protections Rules and Regulations. (2012). Federal Register, 77 (32), 9304 -- 9513.
EPA To Set Modest Pace. (2010). EPA. Retrieved from: http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6424ac1caa800aab85257359003f5337/d2f038e9daed78de8525780200568bec!OpenDocument
New Source Litigation. (2013). Southern Company. Retrieved from: http://www.southerncompany.com/about-us/suppliers/fuel-services/environmental.cshtml
Housing Support on Teenager Parents
Housing Support on Teenagers
The Impacts of Housing Support on Teenagers Parent in United Kingdom
UK leads Europe in teenage pregnancies in Western Europe with 35,966 conceptions in the under 18s in 2009. Majority of these unplanned pregnancies are the cause and consequence of social exclusion in UK. (UNICEF, 2001) There are 90K teenagers under 20 years and 8k under 16-year's pregnancies in England each year; it is the highest rate in Western Europe (SEU, 1999).
Teenage pregnancy can take place before first menstrual period (12or 13 years), which can result into pregnancy but usually occurs between 13 to 20 years of age. The National Health Services spends over £63 million a year on teenage pregnancies in UK. (Dennison, 2004).
Teenage parenthood is a serious social problem; it has adverse effects on parents and children. These young mothers have greater chances of being poor, less…
Botting, B., Rosato, M. And Wood, R. (1998). Teenage mothers and the health of their children. ONS Population Trends 93: 19-28.
Dennison, C. (2004) Teenage pregnancy: An overview of the research evidence, London: Health Development Agency.
DfES (2006a)"Teenage Pregnancy: Accelerating the Strategy to 2010," DfES, Nottingham.
James R. Rest (1986), "Moral Development Advances in Research and Theory," published by Praeger, New York.
Herbalife: Ethical Issues
Herbalife is a company selling herbal products for health and dietary purposes. In order to do this, the company recruits interested people to help them sell their products. The way in which this is done is however questioned for its apparent unethical nature. The aspects of the case, together with the ethical issues involved, are discussed below.
Donaldson (127-128) provides three broad theories of ethics that can be applied to the situation of Herbalife. The first of these is deontology. According to this theory, a sense of duty accompanies all actions. This dictates that some acts are morally obligatory, regardless of the practical or economic consequences of such an act. The second theory pertains to rights. Especially during the new millennium, the issue of human rights has been at the top of business agendas. This then is also one of the major theories regarding ethics in…
Desjardins, J.R. And J.J. McCall. Contemporary Issues in Business Ethics. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1996.
Donaldson, J. Business Ethics. London: Academic Press, 1992.
Hawken, P. "A Teasing Irony." In Business and the Environment. Edited by Richard Welford and Richard Starkey. London: Earthscan Publications, Ltd., 1996.
Shaw, W.H. And V. Barry. Moral Issues in Business. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1995.
eality Shock Nursing
One of the biggest challenges for modern nursing is the challenge that newly graduated nurse's face once they leave school and enter a full-time health care facility. Colloquially known as "reality shock," this is the view that despite years of training, time in the clinical setting, and even prior experience, the stress of the new nurse is that they are unprepared for the pace, attitude, culture and expectations within their new career. The new nurse is now expected to have not only clinical knowledge but already know the hospital or facility logistically, be able to juggle multiple horizontal priorities, and even get to know colleagues and patients. This reality shock often causes new nurses to doubt their abilities, question their career choice, or, as a last resort, leave the profession entirely. For most nurses, reality shock is then the result of the emotional and psychological conflict between…
Bonis, S. (2009). Knowing in Nursing: A Concept Analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(6), 1328-41. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648
Kajander, S., et al. (2013, August). Self-Assessed level of competence of graduating nursing students and factors relating to it. Retrieved from Nurseeducationtoday.com: http://www.nurseeducationtoday.com/article/S0260-6917 (13)00300-6/abstract
MacIntyre, A. (2006). A Short History of Ethics. New York: Routledge.
Marquis, B., et al. (2009). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Ethical Analysis #2
Nurses face dilemmas of an ethical nature on a regular basis. This effectively means that from time to time, nurses are called upon make ethical decisions -- decisions that could have a huge impact on the well-being of patients. One of the current ethical issues being faced by nurses is whether or not to lie to patients. ecently, it was revealed that psychiatrists and nurses caring for dementia patients were actively practicing what Williams (2013) refers to as "therapeutic lying" in an attempt to keep the said patients happy. As a matter of fact 98% of nurses, as William further points out, admitted to lying to dementia patients. The question that ought to be answered in this case is; should nurses withhold some potentially upsetting information about diseases that happen to be life-threatening?
B. Ethical Principles and Theories at Issue
The ethical principles at work…
American Medical Association -- ANA (2014). Short Definitions of Ethical Principles and Theories: Familiar Words, What do they Mean? http://www.nursingworld.org/mainmenucategories/ethicsstandards/resources/ethics-definitions.pdf
Corner, J. & Bailey, C.D. (eds.) (2009). Cancer Nursing: Care in Context (2nd Ed.). Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
Williams, A. (2013). Dementia sufferers told white lies to keep them happy: Nurses and psychiatrists admit 'therapeutic lying' to confused patients. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2410811/Dementia-sufferers-told-white-lies-happy-Nurses-psychiatrists-admit-therapeutic-lying-confused-patients.html