Deontology Essays (Examples)

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Ethical Theory

Words: 3027 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85977253

Deontology and Consequentialism

An Analysis of "Rightness" from Deontological and Teleological Perspectives

Deontological ethics stems from the notion that one is obliged by duty to behave in a "moral" manner. There are a number of theories that range from moral absolutism to Divine Command theory that may be described as deontological, but each differs in its approach to "morality" even though each recognizes an "obligation" to attend to a set of rules. In contrast to deontological ethics are teleological ethics, which gauge the morality of one's actions by their consequences. A number of theories may be classified as teleological, such as utilitarianism, pragmatism and consequentialism. This paper will explore the ideas behind deontological and teleological ethics and show how an approach to "morality" must observe at least some objective standard, and that it is the objective standard that makes an action "right," and not the dutiful adherence to the standard…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dreier, Jamie. "In defense of consequentializing."

Horgan, Terrry; Timmons, Mark. "Untying a Knot from the Inside Out: Reflections on the 'Paradox' of Supererogation."

Locke, John. "Essay Concerning Human Understanding." Bartleby. Web. 27 Nov

2012.
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Business Ethics an Ethical Issue Refers to

Words: 1848 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14483260

Business Ethics

An ethical issue refers to a situation whereby an organization is required to choose amongst alternatives that must be evaluated as either wrong or right. For example, an ethical issue arises when a business company opts to make as much profit while pollution the environment, the dilemma here being the regulation and social consequences. The company management may opt to bribing the regulation implementing organization as long as they continue making short-term profits before the law catches up with them, by then they may be forced to attire with the rule or shut down but they will have made as much finances than when they may have started and the consequences on the social life will have reached the stage where it affects their health and made the environment unbearable. The principle of autonomy; which requires individuals to be left on their own independence to conduct their activities,…… [Read More]

References

Andrew, J. (2008). Utilitarianism and deontology theories. New York: John and sons ltd.

Ferrell, O.C., & Fraedrich, J. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. Salt Lake: Cengage Learning.

Joanne, B. (2010). Ethics and Business success. Mexico: Greenwood press.

John, K., & Berlyn, M. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of decision making models. Normative and rationale models, 15 (14), 319-325.
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Corporate Governance and Ethical Responsibility

Words: 1923 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49853608

" Thus this principle is founded on an individual's ability to predict a given action's consequences. On predicting such consequences, an individual is supposed to choose the course of action which would in the end benefit the greatest number of people. In such a case, the choice selected would be considered ethically correct. For instance, if one innocent person has to be killed so as to save the entire human race, then it would be ethically right to kill such a person from a utilitarian point-of-view. An application of this principle in our scenario seems somewhat straightforward. To determine the right course of action in this case, the question to be asked is; of all the alternative courses of action at Dr. Doight's disposal, which course of action would benefit the greatest number of people? In my opinion, seeking to ensure that the situation is brought under control no matter…… [Read More]

References

Bredeson, D. (2011). Applied Business Ethics: A Skills-Based Approach. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J. & Ferrell, L. (2008). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Freeman, R.E. (2010). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lozano, J.M. (2002). Ethics and Organizations: Understanding Business Ethics as a Learning Process. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
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Ethical and Legal Aspects of

Words: 2640 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72101523

Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.

The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.

In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.

Routledge.

Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press

Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
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Ethical Theories in Nursing

Words: 4777 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74406948

Nursing Ethical Theories

Ethical Theories in Nursing

Significance of Moral in Nursing

Deontology vs. Utilitarianism

Deontology

Utilitarianism

Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics

Justice Ethics

Care Ethics

ights Ethics

Conflict of ights

Ethical Theories in Nursing

Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.

The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…… [Read More]

References

Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange

Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).

Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19

Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
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Ethical Treatment of Prisoners the Treatment of

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36128161

Ethical Treatment of Prisoners

The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).

There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.

Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.

Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.

Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.

Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
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Marketing Product Safety and Intellectual Property Legal

Words: 2675 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46206825

Marketing

Product Safety, And Intellectual Property

Legal and Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual

Ethics and legal issues refer to the morals and principles that govern the behavior and conduct of individuals or organizations. These legal principles and ethics serve to guide and offer directions on how to act or respond when faced with moral dilemmas. Marketing, advertising and product safety are areas of importance to everyone in the community. Production, distribution and use of products or services are areas guided by the laws of the land. The laws function to protect the community from exploitation or mishandling by the participants in the above sectors. In the marketing and advertising framework, the concept of ethics deals with personal moral principles and values. Under this framework, the society understands that laws are values and standards that are enforceable in the court. In the production of goods and services, the…… [Read More]

References

Ventola, C.L. (2011). Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising. Journal List, 36 (10), 669-674,681-684. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov > Journal List > PT > v. 36 (10); Oct 2011

Hurd, H.M. (1996). Deontology of Negligence, The. BUL Rev., 76, 249.

Carden, S. (2006). Virtue ethics: Dewey and Maclntyre. New York: Continuum International

publishing group
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Corporate Governance and Ethical Responsibility Dr Doright

Words: 1798 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98361189

Corporate Governance and Ethical esponsibility

Dr. Doight recently hired President "Universal Human Care Hospital," oversees departments 5,000 employees 20,000 patients medical facility. He provided a broad set duties oversight numerous departments, including business development, customer services, human resources, legal, patient advocacy, a .

Corporate Governance and Ethical esponsibility

Duty of loyalty owed to internal and external stakeholders

According to Heath (2006)

, duty of loyalty entails good faith and honesty in best interests of a corporation's stake holders. The duty of loyalty involve the no-profit rule and no conflict rule Heath, 2006.

The duty of loyalty thus implies that, a person in-charge of overseeing the operations in an organization should not let his/her personal interest dictate performance of duty. It also governs actions which must be guided by honesty and good faith. A corporation's stake holders can be classified into two; internal and external Weaver, 2006()

Duty of Loyalty to…… [Read More]

References

Gilbert J.A. (2007). Strengthening Ethical Wisdom: Tools for Transforming Your Health Care Organization. . Chicago, IL: Health Forum, Inc.

Heath, J. (2006). Business Ethics without Stakeholders. Business Ethics Quarterly, 16(4), 533-557.

Joseph R.D., & McCall J.J. (2005). Contemporary issues in Business Ethics 5th edition Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth.

Khurana, R., & Nohria, N. (2008). It's Time to Make Management a True Profession. Harvard Business Review, 86(10), 1-8.
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Ethical Decisions

Words: 705 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57695905

Ethical Decision Making

In general, there are three major ethical approaches to decision-making: that of consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics. Ethical dilemmas arise when there is a conflict of values or when it is impossible to satisfy all of the needs of stakeholders. A good example of this relates to food insecurity and the growing crisis of malnutrition and obesity amongst the poorest inhabitants of America. Some have advocated limiting the types of foods that can be bought with EBT (electronic benefits transfer) cards to healthy and nutritious foods -- for example, banning buying soda and candy with this supported nutrition program. Others have argued that it is wrong to limit a person's choice of foods simply because he or she is poor, while a wealthier person does not have to suffer such dehumanizing scrutiny of their eating habits.

From a consequentialist standpoint, the consequences of an ethical decision are…… [Read More]

References

Chaussee, J. (2013). Talk of banning soda from food stamp benefits elicits upset and uncertainty.

Oakland North Retrieved from:  http://oaklandnorth.net/2013/10/09/mayor-jean-quan-joins-peers-in-supporting-potential-calfresh-soda-ban/ 

Hursthouse, Rosalind. (2013). Virtue ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Retrieved from: .
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Applying Ethics to Public Policy Nutritional Goals

Words: 2406 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32757189

Ethics and Public Policy

Ethical Dilemma

This paper discusses the application of the major ethical theories of consequentialism (utilitarianism), deontology, and virtue ethics to a specific policy question, namely how to improve the nutrition of the nation's poor and to reduce the rise in food insecurity. It also discusses the implications of ethical theories such as determinism and moral relativism. First, the theory is discussed in the abstract, followed by an exposition of how the theory relates to real-world practice. The paper concludes with a more general reflection on the implications of ethical theories for public policy-makers. The specific merits of virtue ethics are stressed vs. The more extreme and polarizing views of deontology and consequentialism.

An ethical dilemma: Food insecurity

One of the dilemmas facing public policy-makers regarding food insecurity and the need to improve the diet of poor Americans is the balance between individual liberties and the need…… [Read More]

References

Athanassoulis, N. (2014). Virtue ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved  http://www.iep.utm.edu/virtue/ 

Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. (2012). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia

of Philosophy. Retrieved from:

http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/ethics-deontological
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reflections and'summaries on ethical theories

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33539473

Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical framework. The consequences of an action are more important than the motivations behind the action or the action itself. An action has "utility" if it serves the greatest good. The basic principle of utilitarianism is creating the greatest good for the greatest number of people, or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. The ethics of utilitarianism differ from ethical egoism in that the individual may make a sacrifice for the common good because it is the aggregate of happiness/goodness that matters, not maximizing individual happiness. Central to utilitarianism is the belief that all people are inherently equal and of equal consideration when making ethical decisions (p. 55). John Stuart Mill outlined the core tenets of utilitarianism, which became a fundamental component of Enlightenment political philosophy. Another utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, proposed a happiness calculus that can be used to more rigorously apply…… [Read More]

Works Cited

MacKinnon, Barbara and Fiala, Andrew. Ethics. 8th edition. Cengage.
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Bad Motives for Good Actions

Words: 1364 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96488638

Business Ethics

Something that I have found particularly interesting in Baird's textbook is the notion of "deontological" ethics. (Baird 151). This is the idea that "right" behavior or "good" behavior is about playing by the rules. However what I find really interesting about the idea is that, in some sense, it is the only way we have of getting a glimpse into the motivations of others. In some sense, a full account of the ethics of any given situation must in some way take into account someone's motives -- especially motives for compliance. Ethical behavior shouldn't be something that we adopt out of a sense of compulsion. Instead, with deontology, we are talking more about the concept of duty.

I suppose what is most interesting to me about this is the notion that there can be different reasons, good and bad, for adopting the same set of ethical principles. I'm…… [Read More]

References

Baird, C.A. (2012). Everyday Ethics: Making Wise Choices in a Complex World. Ethics Game Press Publishers.
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Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility CSR

Words: 1964 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72742291

The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.

WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…… [Read More]

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Ethics Table Q1 Brief Definitions of

Words: 870 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83412268

Consequence-based ethics

c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics

d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics

e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics

f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics

g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics

Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.

Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…… [Read More]

Reference

Trevino, L.K., & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right (4th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Justification of Constraints in Non-Consequentialism

Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95546735



ibliography

1. Nagel, Thomas. The Limits of Objectivity. The Tanner Lecture on Human Values. Delivered at rasenose College, Oxford University. May 1979. Page 126. On the Internet at http://www.tannerlectures.utah.edu/lectures/nagel80.pdf

2. The Trolley Problem. Wikipedia. On the Internet at http://www.ezresult.com/article/Trolley_problem

3. The Non-Philosopher's Guide to Can ad Men Make Good rains do ad Things? On the Internet at http://www.mindspring.com/~mfpatton/binvat.htm

4. http://www.hu.mtu.edu/~tlockha/h3710ethicaltheory.s02.doc

Nagel, Thomas. The Limits of Objectivity. The Tanner Lecture on Human Values. Delivered at rasenose College, Oxford University. May 1979. Page 126. On the Internet at http://www.tannerlectures.utah.edu/lectures/nagel80.pdf

The Trolley Problem. Wikipedia. On the Internet at http://www.ezresult.com/article/Trolley_problem

Judith J. Thomson. Killing, Letting Die and the Trolley Problem.

Ibid. ut also the Non-Philosopher's Guide to Can ad Men Make Good rains do ad Things? On the Internet at http://www.mindspring.com/~mfpatton/binvat.htm

The Trolley Problem. Wikipedia. On the Internet at http://www.ezresult.com/article/Trolley_problem

Nagel, Thomas. The Limits of Objectivity. The Tanner Lecture on Human Values. Delivered at…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Nagel, Thomas. The Limits of Objectivity. The Tanner Lecture on Human Values. Delivered at Brasenose College, Oxford University. May 1979. Page 126. On the Internet at http://www.tannerlectures.utah.edu/lectures/nagel80.pdf

2. The Trolley Problem. Wikipedia. On the Internet at http://www.ezresult.com/article/Trolley_problem

3. The Non-Philosopher's Guide to Can Bad Men Make Good Brains do Bad Things? On the Internet at http://www.mindspring.com/~mfpatton/binvat.htm

4. http://www.hu.mtu.edu/~tlockha/h3710ethicaltheory.s02.doc
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Corporate Governance and Ethical Responsibility

Words: 2146 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44661235

However, those who have serious ethical and moral integrity will generally do what it takes to get a problem corrected, even if they have to lose out personally or professionally to protect the health and welfare of other people under their care. It does not appear that Dr. Doight did any of that. He determined that following procedure was enough to fulfill his duties, whether or not that procedure resulted in any resolution for the patients.

It would appear that Dr. Doight followed the deontological argument that one only has to follow the rules to be ethical. For many people, that is an acceptable choice. For others, the rules would not be important and would not have anything to do with whether something was considered to be ethical. With Dr. Doight, it is not just the possibility that he feels he has done what is ethical, but also possible that…… [Read More]

References

Becker, L.C., & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics, (2nd ed). New York, NY: Routledge.

Fagothey, a. (2000). Right and Reason. Rockford, IL: Tan Books & Publishers.

Kamm, F.M. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. (2012). Chapters 7&8, the utilitarian approach & the debate of utilitarianism." The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
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Moral Leadership Ethical Values and Behavior

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19146534

Ethical Values and Behavior

Moral Leadership: Batson vs. Tyler

Batson (Chapter 8, hode, 2006) is of the view that moral leadership is about getting people to uphold moral standards and to always act ethically. The underlying assumption is that when everyone acts within their moral capacities, the organization and society as a whole is deemed to benefit. Acting morally, according to Batson, means looking out for the needs and well-being of others, and acting in their favor whenever our interests and theirs are in conflict. Moral leadership is about getting the people around you to look out for others, and to always put the needs of others before their own. It is about motivating people to care for the needy, promote justice in society, conduct their businesses within ethical boundaries, pay their taxes, vote, recycle harmful substances, and contribute to charity programs, not because they derive benefit from doing so,…… [Read More]

References

Hill, J.L. (1996). The Case for Vegetarianism: Philosophy for a Small Planet. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield.

Mackinnon, B. & Fiala, A. (2014). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues (concise, 8th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning

Rhode, D.L. (Ed.). (2006). Moral Leadership: The Theory of Practice and Power, Judgment and Policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
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Ethics and Corporate Responsibility

Words: 2000 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69505526

hypothetical firm -- Pharmacare -- and address the issues of corporate responsibility and ethics.
Background Information on Case

New Jersey-based company, Pharmacare (We CARE about YOUR health®) counts among the leading pharmaceutical firms across the globe. It is reputed for being an ethical, well-managed and caring corporation that manufactures superior-quality products aimed at saving the lives of millions and enhancing the QOL (quality of life) of millions of other people. Its offering constitutes discounted and free medicines to people with low income. Furthermore, the company has a charity sponsoring scholarships and health education programs. Pharmacare's Chief Executive is a Phrma (Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America) board member (Background Information). A short while ago, the organization commenced a novel program "We CARE about YOUR world®" in which it vows to adopt green practices such as recycling and packaging changes to demonstrate its responsibility to safeguard the environment. This step has…… [Read More]

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Identification You Have Been Given

Words: 2981 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58729326

Please see "Stake Holder: The Taliban" for more information regarding virtue ethics.

The farmers who are growing poppy plants have a logical stake in this moral dilemma as well. If their crops are destroyed they will have no alternative but to join the Taliban to help settle their debts. They are in a precarious position where they are often forced to grow poppies because they are a very lucrative and traditional cash crop. Their history and culture will be severely affected if their livelihood is destroyed as well. If they functioned as utilitarians, the farmers would look for another alternative to growing poppies or perhaps request a government subsidy since their poppy production kills millions worldwide who abuse their drugs. The farmers likely do not have access to this information however, which makes their position even harder to justify.

Stakeholder:

The Afghan People

Utilitarianism- Principle. See "Stakeholder: The United States…… [Read More]

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Values and Ethics in the Workplace Values

Words: 1171 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41268688

Values and Ethics

in the Workplace

Values and Ethics in the Workplace

Values and ethics in the workplace can be extremely different among various jobs, careers, companies and organizations, ages, races, and ethnic groups, cultures and parts of the world, office environments, and the individual employees themselves. For example, a secretary in the administrative office of a Catholic church, a poor and illiterate factory worker in India, and a stockbroker who works as a managing partner in a prestigious firm would all hold different and maybe even opposing morals. The secretary would probably be opposed to working on a Sunday so that she had the time to attend church, while the stockbroker would feel compelled to work even on Sunday so that he did not feel lazy and unmotivated, and the factory worker would not have the option of making such a decision as he would have to work every…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Darwall, Stephen. (2002) Consequentialism. Oxford: Blackwell.

Loptson, Peter. (2006) Theories of Human Nature. Peterborough, ON: Broadview.

Orend, Brian. (2000) War and International Justice: A Kantian Perspective. West Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (October 15, 2004) Social Contract Theory. Retrieved on April 23, 2011 from http://www. iep.utm.edu/soc-cont/#SH3b.
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Accountant Daniel Potter an Accounting

Words: 1182 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64063494

Dan's first step would be to speak with a representative in Human esources, outlining his concerns in writing, citing the legalities and the potential liability to the firm. He needs to do this in a non-confrontational manner that focuses specifically on the ethical issue, and not the personality conflicts.

Dan, in fact, has several issues towards his benefit. 1) Ethics are not an "except for" and he has the legal and moral obligation to provide correct and ethical work for his clients and his company; 2) if he had followed his supervisor's instructions, he would be challenging professional accountancy codes as well as putting his, and the firm's, professional and legal integrity on the line; 3) if Dan does nothing and something does go wrong, he will be the scapegoat unless there is a clear paper trail showing the steps he took to mitigate the situation.

Dan should take the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Brooks, L., Dunn, P. (2010). Business and Professional Ethics: For Directors, Executives, and Accountants. Mason, OH: Cenage/SouthWest Publishing.
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Pacifism Since Time Immemorial Nations

Words: 1928 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12771182



ithin the realm of social contract theory, citizens within a given state consent, either tacitly or explicitly, to surrender various rights and freedoms to the authority of the state. In return, the state guarantees protection of citizen's rights and freedoms. The state also guarantees citizen's protection from external aggression and preservation of national security in return for citizens' sacrifice of certain rights. Citing national security protocol, safeguarding civilian life and forestall another terrorist strike in the wake of 9 / 11, Jean Bethke Elshtain wrote that the fight against terrorism waged by the Bush regime against the Middle Eastern perpetrators and their allies qualifies as just war. hile the claim that waging retaliatory war deterred recurrence is a reasonable one, the manner in which the U.S. went about it defied the Jus in bello principle of just war. The inhumane treatment of suspected terrorist in the Guantanamo Bay and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Benson, Richard. The Just War Theory: A Traditional Catholic Moral View, New York: The Tidings 2006.

Butler, Paul. By Any Means Necessary: Using Violence and Subversion to Change Unjust Law 50. UCLA L. Rev. 2003 p. 721

Cortright, David. Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke Just War against Terror: The Burden of American Power in a Violent World New York: Basic Books, 2004
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Aristotle Happiness and Pleasure Was Moderation and

Words: 1148 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52166078

Aristotle, happiness and pleasure was moderation and a middle action between two vices. . So, for example, modesty would be a virtue as it comes between two extremes or vices; egotism and low self-esteem. Another example would be working sensibly. The two vices of working would be overworking and laziness. The middle option would be working sensibly. This, according to Aristotle, is the correct choice of action. He said we should act in the right way, at the right time, in the right amount towards the right persons for the correct reasons:"...To experience these emotions [fear, courage, desire, anger, pity, and pleasure] at the right times and on the right occasions and toward the right persons and for the right causes and in the right manner is the mean or the supreme good, which is characteristic of virtue" (Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, II). Happiness, then, comes not at the end of…… [Read More]

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Legal and Ethical Considerations in Marketing Product Safety and Intellectual Property

Words: 3091 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88383960

Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property

Ethical issues relating to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of product safety

Various organizations often find themselves in the wrong side of the law when undertaking their various business practices relating to marketing and advertisement. It is the desire of every company to have its product known to as many consumers as possible. This often drives them to employ diverse marketing and advertisement strategies that raise some critical ethical issues. The same also applies to the protection of someone's intellectual property and enhancing product safety. This study focuses on deceit, unfairness, and advertising and children as some of the critical ethical issues related to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of product safety

Deceit

The Federal Trade Commission is a government branch established to battle deception in advertising. As illustrated in the FTC Act of 1914, the FTC is answerable for…… [Read More]

References

Cheeseman, H.R. (2010). The legal environment of business and online commerce: Business ethics, e-commerce, regulatory, and international issues. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Dukes, M.N.G. (2006). The law and ethics of the pharmaceutical industry. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Palmer, D.E. (2010). Ethical issues in e-business: Models and frameworks. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference.

Keillor, B.D., & Wilkinson, T.J. (2011). International business in the 21st century. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
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Moral and Ethical Dilemma in

Words: 3625 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38553526

At the same time, optimized care is mandated by the medical code of ethics. If older people are therefore sufficiently able to function independently, access to care should be available to them, because this is their preference, and professionals have an obligation to honor these preferences.

In the medical profession, there are no simple solutions to the discrepancy between the fiscal limitations of health care and the ethical obligations of professionals to their clients. The best ideal is to use specific codes of ethics in order to find an acceptable solution that satisfies both the drive to remain financially viable and the obligation to provide all clients with the optimal care.

DILEMMA

As mentioned, above, the dilemma involves Mrs. DN, an elderly woman who suffered from a debilitating stroke that left her in a wheel chair. Because she was generally at home, she had the right to home care according…… [Read More]

References

Bevir, M. (2002). SidneyWebb: Utilitarianism, Positivism, and Social Democracy. Journal of Modern History, No. 74. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7vm01529.pdf

Bevir, M. And O'Brien, D. (2003, Jan 1). From Idealism to Communitarianism: The Inheritance and Legacy of John Macmurray. History of Political Thought, No. 24. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/95m6q13r.pdf

Carroll, M.J. (2007, Dec). Physical Therapists' Perception of Risk of Violating Laws and Rules Governing the Practice of Physical Therapy and/or Their Personal Moral and Ethical Values when Failing to Provide Treatment for an Uninsured or Underinsured Patient. Graduate College of Bowling Green. Retrieved from http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Carroll%20Mark%20J.pdf-acc_num=bgsu1193091796

De Sousa e Brito, J. (2008, Aug 8). From Utilitarianism To Kantism: Bentham's Proof of Utilitarianism, Mill and Kant. ISUS X, Tenth Conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4zn812s7.pdf
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Three Ethical Frameworks for Punishment

Words: 882 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70734709

humans have been concerned with the most expedient and effective means of punishment for a crime committed. ecently, the United States has turned more to a correctional than a rehabilitative approach to punishing offenders. Studies conflict as to the success of this approach, although numbers of crimes have declined moderately. In addition, such incarceration leads to other problems such as considerably higher costs and increasing numbers of offenders having chronic diseases such as AIDS.

According to Gould and Sitren in "Crime and Punishment: Punishment Philosophies and Ethical Dilemmas," there are three major frameworks that address the purpose of punishment -- utilitarianism, deontology and peacemaking.

Utilitarianism recognizes the purpose of punishment in terms of the end result. For utilitarians, punishment is justifiable because it creates a greater balance of happiness vs. unhappiness. For Bentham, punishment should be utilized to maximize the total pleasure or minimize the total pain of all parties…… [Read More]

References Cited

YOU NEED TO ADD THE OTHER ONES HERE, SINCE YOUR FAX DID NOT INCLUDE THE BIBLIO. THANKS

Bedeau, H.A. (2002) Thinking and Writing about Philosophy. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

Braswell, M., Fuller, J, & Lozoff, B. (2001). Corrections, Peacemaking and Restorative Justice: Transforming Individuals and Institutions. Ottowa, Canada: Anderson Publishing.
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Employee's Rights to Health and Safety in

Words: 1870 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21555220

Employee's Rights to Health and Safety in the Workplace

The objective of this study is to analyze the rights of employees to health and safety in the workplace in regards to the scenario as follows:

DoRight has recently been hired as the President of the "Universal Human Care Hospital," where he oversees all departments with over 5,000 employees and over 20,000 patients at the medical facility. He has been provided with a broad set of duties and oversight of numerous departments, including business development, customer services, human resources, legal, patient advocacy, to name a few. He has managers in each department that he supervises and who work with him to address the needs of the various internal and external stakeholders of the hospital. Dr. DoRight discovers that some patients within the hospital have been dying as a result of a variety of illegal procedures by doctors and nurses, and negligent…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Grush, Rick (nd) Introduction to some basic ethical orientations. Biomedical Ethics Readings. Retrieved from: http://mind.ucsd.edu/syllabi/03-04/1-Summer/readings/biomed-readings.pdf

Mossman, Douglas (2012) Physician Impairment: When Should You Report? Malpractice RX. Retrieved from: http://www.currentpsychiatry.com/pdf/1009/1009CP_Malpractice.pdf

Rabinowitz, Phil (2012) Identifying and Analyzing Stakeholders and Their Interests. Community Toolbox. Retrieved from: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/chapter7_section8_main.aspx

Alpers, Ann (2001) Key Legal Principles for Hospitalists. Retrieved from:  http://hospitalmedicine.ucsf.edu/improve/literature/discharge_committee_literature/handoff_communication_and_discharge/key_legal_principles_for_hospitalists_alpers_am_j_med.pdf
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Personal & Organizational Ethics Personal and Organizational

Words: 2664 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88810160

PESONAL & OGANIZATIONAL ETHICS

Personal and Organizational Ethics Values for, for-Profit and Non-Profit Organizations

Ethics is a requirement of the society to both individuals and organizations. Ethics are applied to business and personal behaviors, and are used to determine how companies and individuals abide to policies. To indicate the application of ethical principles in organizations, an analysis is carried out of For-Profit and Non-For-Profit organizations, in this case Bank of America and Boys Club of America. This is by analyzing an ethical dilemma they are experiencing, their approach to the problem, and the legal, political, and social outcomes emerging from this cause of action.

Part One

The Boys Clubs of America is a non-for-profit organization founded in 1860s in Harford, Connecticut Formed with the aim of giving boys who roamed the streets a positive alternative. The club has undergone major changes beginning in 191 when several boys' clubs affiliated to…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. (2009, Dec 16). Boys & Girls Clubs of America, Lowe's Announces $1 Million

Bach, R. (2010, March). A Letter from our Chairman Emeritus: March 2010. Retrieved from Boys and Girls Club of America:  http://www.bgca.org/chairman/Pages/MarchLetterfromOurChairman.aspx 

Bank of America. (2013). Retrieved March 21, 2013, from Bank of America: http://message.bankofamerica.com/heritage/#/ourheritage

BCOA. (2011). Boys of America. Retrieved from Boys of America:  http://www.bgca.org/Pages/index.aspx .
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Solving Ethical Dilemma Using Ethics Theories

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22525413

utilitarianism vs. Deontology

The case of Sam is one that raises ethical dilemma since Sam had stayed out of job market for long and immediately he gets the job, he finds there is some aspect he grossly disagrees with in his work. He realizes that the company adds some substance to their cigarettes that makes them addictive. This Sam disagrees with and would not like to be part of it, as a matter of fact he would like to expose them to the general public.

Taking a utilitarian angel to the case at hand, if Sam was a utilitarian, he would continue working and supervising his department and not expose discovery to the public. This is based on the fact that according to Bentham, Sam should think of what brings more pleasure than pain to him and follow that. Sam should also consider the extent of the pleasure he would…… [Read More]

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Ethics Privacy and the Workplace

Words: 2519 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92497806

Technology / Privacy / orkplace

There is a rapidly increasing use of technological monitoring in the workplace, and while technology in general has been highly beneficial to companies, the use of some technologies has raised privacy and ethical concerns among employees. This paper reviews the available literature when it comes to workplace monitoring of employees and the ethical implications of that monitoring.

Is Privacy in the orkplace a Dying Notion?

The right to privacy is a nice idea, and in some instances and circumstances in the United States an individual can reasonably expect to have his or her privacy respected. ebsites, for example, notify users frequently that their privacy is important and it is being protected. However, when it comes to the workplace, in an age of increased reliance on electronic technology, management has been able to "…monitor virtually all workplace communications" that employees have access to.

Findlaw asserts that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davidson College. (2002). Descriptions of Ethical Theories and Principles. Retrieved March 8, 2015, from http://www.bio.davidson.edu.

Esikot, I.F. (2012). Globalization vs. Relativism: The Imperative of a Universal Ethics.

Journal of Politics and Law, 5(4), 129-134.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2010). Consequentialism. Retrieved March 8, 2015,
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Ethical Reasoning Donaldson and Werhane Outline the

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3863035

Ethical Reasoning," Donaldson and Werhane outline the three fundamental theories of ethics: consequentialism, deontology, and human nature ethics. Consequentialism, also known as teological ethics, can be further divided into ethical egoism and utilitarianism. Ethical egoism is based on the theory that to act out of self-interest will ultimately be the most ethical decision. Ethical egoism is rarely supported by philosophers, especially in relation to other ethical reasoning theories such as utilitarianism. Philosophers like Bentham and John Stuart Mill argued that the ethical decisions should be based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Although Mill framed the concept of "good" in terms of happiness, the "greater good" does not necessarily entail happiness and may refer to other abstract concepts like aesthetics. Utilitarianism can itself be subdivided into pluralistic utilitarianism and preference utilitarianism: the former embraces all abstract concepts that can be classified as "good" whereas the…… [Read More]

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Business Ethics When the Truth Takes a

Words: 7788 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80178711

Business Ethics

When the Truth Takes a Stretching Class

Maria Bailey clearly and blatantly misrepresented the size of her start-up business, but shrugged it off saying she knew what she was "capable of doing" and just wanted to show potential clients "what we were going to be," rather than tell them the truth about how fledgling her business actually was at that time.

Was it immoral for Mary Bailey to misrepresent her company?

Looking at the "consequential" side of her decision to fudge the truth about her company, moral decisions are made based upon what the consequences of the action will be. The results of her action actually could have several consequences. The one first and pivotal consequence Maria hopes will happen, of course, is that the fact of her deciding to embellish the truth about the size of her company will bring potential customers into her business start-up Web…… [Read More]

References

Australasian Business Intelligence. (2004, May 4). Guilty plea follows workplace death.

Bauman, Margaret. (2004). Alaska leads nation in workplace death rate, report says.

Alaska Journal of Commerce.

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999). Improvements in workplace safety
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Ethic Responsibilities of the Workplace

Words: 2624 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44352712

Ethics and Corporate esponsibility

The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.

A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…… [Read More]

References

Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.animal-ethics.org/virtue-ethics-care-ethics/

Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/12/24/obama-reversal-indigenous-peoples-stirs-concern-legal-claims/

Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/366.full

Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-utilitarianism-and-deontology/
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School Closure Research -- Peggy

Words: 5260 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79662216



Transportation

Students who are bussed to a larger school can use the time to be productive; reading, homework, etc.

1.5-2 hours per day of commuting is unacceptable for students and will eat into their family and work time.

Opportunities

A larger school will provide greater opportunity for social networks, sports, music, drama, and more extracurricular activities.

Loss of community will make the younger students uncomfortable as well.

Academics

A larger school will provide greater academic opportunities for the HS students in preparation for university; there are more resources available.

The student to teach ratio will change and the students will be part of just another large classroom.

Thus, the question really comes down to potential. Neither side can equivocally state that the future of the students will be better or worse; there are arguments for both as well as the possibility that the solution will be quite positive for some,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.

Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. New York: Sage.

Groves, R. a. (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books.

Hatton, J. (1996). Science and Its Ways of Knowing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Benjamin Cummings Publishers.
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Ethical Theories Ethical Theories Are

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79653165

For example, and employee might decide they will never be late for a meeting, which will appear to be a noble duty, but there might be a hidden reason towards this action. Maybe the employee prefers to sit in a particular place or sit. Another negative attribute of the deontology theory is the fact that it is mostly concerned with the individual's welfare and not others.

Utilitarianism theory

This theory deals with the individual's ability to foresee the consequences of their actions. A person will have to analyze the choice they make to ensure that they benefit more people Weymark, 2005.

Using this theory a person can compare similar past solutions, and develop a system that determines which choice will be most beneficial for a majority of people.

For a large corporation, this theory would be beneficial because employees will endeavor to perform their duties while analyzing the consequences of…… [Read More]

References

Ronzoni, M. (2010). Teleology, Deontology, and the Priority of the Right: On Some Unappreciated Distinctions. [Article]. Ethical Theory & Moral Practice, 13(4), 453-472. doi: 10.1007/s10677-009-9209-z

Weymark, J.A. (2005). Measurement theory and the foundations of utilitarianism. [Article]. Social Choice & Welfare, 25(2/3), 527-555. doi: 10.1007/s00355-005-0017-7
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Consequentialist and Deontological Ethical Issues

Words: 2715 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54677223

Consequentialist and Deontological Ethical Issues.

Consequentialism states that the morality of an action is determined by the specific results of that action. Deontology, on the other hand, states that the morality of an action is determined by duty or adherence to given rules. (Theodore oosevelt)

Consequentialism is based on the consequences of actions. According to consequentialism, actions are right or wrong depending on whether their consequences further the goal. The goal or "the good," can be something like the happiness of all people or the spreading of peace and safety. Anything which contributes to that goal is right and anything which does not is wrong. Actions are thought to have no moral value in themselves, but only get moral value from whether or not they lead to the goal.

Deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. According to this theory, it is your duty to do actions which…… [Read More]

References

Gibney, Alex. "Ask Why: Enron, "the diffusion of responsibility," and the Atlantic Yards parallels (will anyone look at the Development Agreement?)" [Online] Available:  http://atlanticyardsreport.blogspot.com/2010/06/ask-why-enron-diffusion-of.html 

Hoagland-Smith, Leanne. "Car Dealerships Still Are Still Clueless in How to Increase Car Sales & Develop Customer Loyalty. [Online] Available at:  http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/perform/perform.html 

Murdarasi, Karen. "Deontology and Consequentialism: Two Opposing Ethical Theories and Their Main Criticisms" [Online] Available at: http://www.suite101.com/content/deontology-and-consquentialism-a91650

Roosevelt, Theodore. Den of Hydralisks. [Online] Available at: http://hydralisk.wordpress.com/2007/04/29/deontology-vs.-consequentialism-part-1/
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Ethics - Consequentialism Consequentialism Consequentialist

Words: 1287 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95980478

Criticism of Consequentialism:

The deontological criticism of consequentialism would suggest that the very fact that two identical acts can be highly ethical or highly unethical in different circumstances renders consequentialism purely subjective and dependent on opinion instead of objective principles. In that view, the deontological ethical approach may produce unintended negative results on occasion, but at least deontological ethics are predictable and consistent; furthermore, deontological values lead to the better choice of conduct often enough to justify any specific instances where practical injustices could result from adherence to rules.

Adhering to rules is the surest way of ensuring ethical human conduct notwithstanding that isolated societies may establish rules that could be defined objectively as unethical. One of the best examples of the impracticality of consequentialism is the general law of false arrest in most American states. A citizen arrested unlawfully by a duly authorized law enforcement officer may not flee…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp, Bowie, & Arnold. (2009). Ethical Theory and Business. 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
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Final Portfolio Project

Words: 3811 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21112707

Ileana Final Portfolio

Bioethics Final

This portfolio documents performance of key class and personal objectives for HU280-01: Bioethics 1103C, specifically analytical skill building, knowledge acquisition and practical application. The samples demonstrate achievement by presenting excerpts from submitted assignments, Discussion and Seminar interactions, interactions with the instructor and reflections on progress mastering central concepts, ideas and perspectives in bioethics. This work demonstrates a progression from identification, synthesis and recapitulation of selected relevant ethical systems, placing those systems in the contexts through which they arose, and applying those precepts to emerging controversies in modern life. The underlying benchmark this presentation attempts to demonstrate is that if learning is indicated by a change in behavior, then my implementation of new methods considering bioethical dilemmas and also improved critical reasoning and research methods, indicates learning over this process of course inquiry.

This process has provided a structural framework that translates directly to my work…… [Read More]

Klimanskaya, I., Chung, Y., Becker, S., Lu, S., and Lanza, R. (2006). Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres. Nature 444 (7118), 481 -- 485. Retrieved from: doi:10.1038/nature05142

Parks, J.A., and Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Prentice Hall.
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John Rawls Addendum

Words: 2160 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17947528

Dworkin's two models are extremes in their own right with regard to individual rights; the first model puts balancing individual rights against other social goals. The second model holds that one should err on the side of individual rights instead of balancing them among a whole society. These two models do not encompass a middle ground of a liberal democracy such as the U.S. when examining the place that individual rights have in a society; always putting individual rights ahead of the needs of society can be just as damaging to ignoring individual rights in favor of the overall needs of society.

The "two models" approach is especially relevant in light of the new threats to national security posed by terrorism and the acceptable ways of not only preventing terror but also of treating the accused in these situations. The dispute over the civil liberties that are available to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rosseau, J. 3rd ed The Social Contract. Penguin Classics, 1968.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by J. Meikljohn. Prometheus, 1990.

Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Belknap Press, 1999.

Rawls, John. Handout on 1st/2nd Principles of Justice.
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People's Moral Actions and Other Undertakings Are

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6270365

People's moral actions and other undertakings are properly understood through various theories that have been postulated. This study focuses on the virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontology theory, which have some commonalities and variations depending on the way they are interpreted and adopted. It is evident that instances of all the theories are evident in the way people act in their day-to-day activities as they try to uphold the desired moral standards in a society (Geirsson & Holmgren, 2000).

Deontology was established against utilitarianism. The theory of deontology is primarily concerned with the concept of duty. This means that people must fulfill their moral duty regardless of whether it makes the community happy. This theory argues that a right action is defined by a duty. When an individual identifies his duties, then he must carry out the natural right of action without taking in mind the consequences of the action. This…… [Read More]

References

Geirsson, H., & Holmgren, M.R. (2000). Ethical theory: A concise anthology. Peterborough, Ont: Broadview Press.

Smith, D.M. (2000). Moral geographies: Ethics in a world of difference. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press
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Should a Company Water Down Ethics in Order to Get a Profitable Outcome

Words: 1392 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79473217

Ethical Decision

hat would you do?

In the first place, lives are more valuable -- far more valuable -- than jobs. True, without a job many adult individuals would suffer, but given the possibility that the bug in the prototype that Occidental Engineering was producing could cause an accident in the skies and a resulting loss of many lives, the best course for the project manager is to listen to engineer ayne Jones and take the ethical course of action. This paper reviews three ethical theories, one of which will be determined to be the most appropriate for this dilemma: Virtue Ethics, Deontology, and Utilitarianism.

Virtue Ethics

According to author Barbara MacKinnon, Virtue Ethics asks "How we ought to be" rather than "hat we ought to do" (MacKinnon, et al. 2015). Virtue Ethics deals with the traits of personal character (habits, tendencies, and disposition) that make a person "good"; in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kay, C.D. (2004). Ethical Theory / Ethical Updates. Wofford College Department of Philosophy. Retrieved January 31, 2015, from  http://sites.wofford.edu .

MacKinnon, B., and Fiala, A. (2015). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues, Concise

Edition. Independence IN: Cengage Learning.

Tannsjo, T. (2008). Understanding Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Theory. Edinburgh,
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Terry Schiavo the Case of

Words: 803 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10903901

The direct harm the other individual ultimately determines the rightness or wrongness of the individual's actions and decisions.

Applied in the Schiavo case, deontology then considers the decision to deprive Schiavo of the feeding tubes that sustains her life as not a permissible act. It is true that with Schiavo's death, both her husband and family will not be aggrieved or directly harmed with her death; instead, both parties will feel relief with the eventual decision to 'end' Schiavo's physical suffering. Her death will not cause any detriment to the lives of her husband and family, making Schiavo's death ethical, to the extent that it relieved Schiavo from the physical suffering she experiences, and her family from worrying about her condition and the continuous financial burden they experienced as a result of her prolonged hospitalization. However, despite these arguments, the decision to discontinue her life support was made by her…… [Read More]

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Western Ethical Theories

Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10008808

Western Ethical Theories

The objective of this work is to examine Western Ethical theories including teleological, deontological, natural law, and interest view and virtue ethics.

The work of Bennett-Woods (2005) states that while the words 'ethics' and 'morality' are "often used interchangeably, morality is more precisely used to refer to the customs, principles of conduct and moral codes of an individual, group or society." Ethics, is also stated to be termed "moral philosophy of the science of morals" and is the branch of philosophy that examines "morality through the critical examination of right and wrong in human action." (Bennett-Woods, 2005)

The study of ethics is generally characterized into three specific domains of study include those of: (1) metaethics which is related to the nature of right and wrong insofar as the where and how of the original of ethical judgments and what these judgments mean regarding the human nature and…… [Read More]

References

Virtue Ethics (2010) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/ 

Eric Wingrove-Haugland (1999) The Foundations of the Core Values in Western Ethical Theories. Retrieved from:  http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE99/Wingrove99.html 

Lovin, R.W. (2004) Moral Theories. Blackwell Publishing Company. Retrieved from:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/content/BPL_Images/Content_store/Sample_chapter/0631216340/Schweiker_sample%20chapter_A%20companion%20to%20religious%20ehtics.pdf 

Bennett-Woods, D. (2005 ) Ethics at a Glance. 2005 Regis University. Retrieved from:  http://rhchp.regis.edu/HCE/EthicsAtAGlance/EthicsAtAGlance.pdf
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Justice Political Philosopher John Rawls Looks at

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56843888

Justice, political philosopher John Rawls looks at the idea of social justice and the individual rights of the individual by redefining the last 200+ years of the American experience. In general, he looks at the manner in which the Founding Fathers were correct by basing their views on previous social contract theorists like Locke and Rousseau. For example, there is a clear linkage between John Locke and Rawls that validates the ideas of liberalism within American society. In fact, Rawls notes that the American Experience extended the concept of justice far beyond hat any of the Enlightenment philosophers ever hoped (Rawls, 1957).

Rawls (1921-2002), an American philosopher who focused on moral and political philosophy, believed that the principles of justice are the models that rational individuals who are free would choose as basic ways to cooperate within their society. He called this position the original position, in that it was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rawls, J. (1957). Justice as Fairness. Philosophical Review. 54 (22): 653-62.

Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.

Rawls, J. (2001). A Theory of Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Difference Between Teleological and Deontological Ethics

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40304988

ethics, teleology refers to consequentialist ethics, in which the morality of an action is based on its consequences rather than on the nature of the act itself. Utilitarianism is a type of teleological ethics, because utilitarianism is based on creating the maximum amount of happiness (or some other predetermined desirable outcome such as prosperity or health) for the most people possible. Ethical egoism, the view that benefitting the self justifies an action, is also a type of teleology ("Deontological and Teleological Assumptions in Normative Ethics," n.d.). Deontological ethics are opposite to teleological ethics because the consequences are less important than the nature of the act itself. According to the deontological ethical framework, an act is categorically moral or immoral. It does not matter if an act produces happiness or any other result. Deontology espouses the view that the ends do not justify the means; whereas the teleologist believes that the…… [Read More]

References

"Deontological and Teleological Assumptions in Normative Ethics," (n.d.). Regis University. Retrieved online:  http://rhchp.regis.edu/hce/ethicsataglance/DeontologicalTeleological/DeontologicalTeleological_01.html 

"Teleological Ethics," (n.d.). Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/585940/teleological-ethics
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Service Fariness for CRM Modern

Words: 818 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31028070

Would the peson taking the action in question be willing to have eveyone act that way?

Is the peson taking the action teating othes with espect?

Is the peson taking the action teating othes in ways that they have consented to be teated? (Caoll, 2000; Velazquez, 2005).

Analysis-

SW, and most of the majo ailines, have not eacted with fainess with thei seat sizes; Ameicans ae gowing lage, but seat distance and sizing emains equal to, o smalle, than 3-4 decades ago. This is unfai and unethical because it punishes eveyone, not just the obese.

Ailines egulaly chage fo excess baggage based on thei own ules; excess gith o weight is not so diffeent. Tickets ae based on clients comfotably and safely filling a seat- if eithe issue is off, then the pocess becomes unfai.

It is not just the obese passenge's consideations that must be addessed, but the othe…… [Read More]

references. In Mikula, G., ed. Justice and Historical Interaction. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 167-218.

Velazquez, M. (2005). Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases. New York: Prentice Hall.
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Expert Security Software Programmer Works Top Secret

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13438086

expert security software programmer works top secret national government country Zulu.

There is very little question as to what action a strict deontologist would do in the scenario for this assignment -- he or she would unequivocally adhere to his or her duty. The more pressing question, of course, revolves around just where that duty lies. For a deontologist, that duty would lie with the job at hand and its responsibilities. As one who took an oath to only program software in accordance to the company that he or she works for -- which is essentially operating as an extension of the government that wishes the programmer to 'push the button' and destroy millions of innocent lives in World War II -- it would strongly appear that such an individuals would consider it his or her duty to effectively start World War III.

Moreover, it is interesting to note that…… [Read More]

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Tension Between Businesses Interests in Maximizing Profits

Words: 3563 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27252552

tension between businesses interests in maximizing profits and the public's interest in receiving complete, truthful, and non-misleading information about products that they purchase.

The dangers against greenwashing are that consumers will have no confidence in the products or services they are buying. This means that they will not purchase specific items. As they feel they are being deceived and cheated through false labeling / misrepresentation. At the same time, there is the possibility that a firm could face penalties from government regulators who feel that they are engaging in false advertising. This will have a negative impact on the image of the organization and their ability to address the needs of customers in the future. ("Six Sins of Greenwashing," 2007)

For an executive; it is advisable to not practice these kinds of policies. The reason why is because it will hurt the brand image of the products they are selling…… [Read More]

References

Clean Air Act Summary. (2013). EPA. Retrieved from: http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-air-act

Environmental Protections Rules and Regulations. (2012). Federal Register, 77 (32), 9304 -- 9513.

EPA To Set Modest Pace. (2010). EPA. Retrieved from: http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6424ac1caa800aab85257359003f5337/d2f038e9daed78de8525780200568bec!OpenDocument

New Source Litigation. (2013). Southern Company. Retrieved from: http://www.southerncompany.com/about-us/suppliers/fuel-services/environmental.cshtml
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Housing Support on Teenager Parents Housing Support

Words: 2160 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88549427

Housing Support on Teenager Parents

Housing Support on Teenagers

The Impacts of Housing Support on Teenagers Parent in United Kingdom

UK leads Europe in teenage pregnancies in Western Europe with 35,966 conceptions in the under 18s in 2009. Majority of these unplanned pregnancies are the cause and consequence of social exclusion in UK. (UNICEF, 2001) There are 90K teenagers under 20 years and 8k under 16-year's pregnancies in England each year; it is the highest rate in Western Europe (SEU, 1999).

Teenage pregnancy can take place before first menstrual period (12or 13 years), which can result into pregnancy but usually occurs between 13 to 20 years of age. The National Health Services spends over £63 million a year on teenage pregnancies in UK. (Dennison, 2004).

Teenage parenthood is a serious social problem; it has adverse effects on parents and children. These young mothers have greater chances of being poor, less…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Botting, B., Rosato, M. And Wood, R. (1998). Teenage mothers and the health of their children. ONS Population Trends 93: 19-28.

Dennison, C. (2004) Teenage pregnancy: An overview of the research evidence, London: Health Development Agency.

DfES (2006a)"Teenage Pregnancy: Accelerating the Strategy to 2010," DfES, Nottingham.

James R. Rest (1986), "Moral Development Advances in Research and Theory," published by Praeger, New York.
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Ethical Problem's Relevant Values Stakeholders Decision Making

Words: 3888 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4540143

Ethical Problem(s)

elevant Values

Stakeholders

Decision Making

Utilitarianism

Problems with Utilitarianism

Deontology

awlsian Ethics

oss's Ethical Theory

Natural Law Theory

Ethical Analysis

Scenario

A Pennsylvania hospital is faced with a non-U.S. born 5-year-old daughter of undocumented immigrants who has a life-threatening need for a 2 million dollar transplant. Using critical analysis and your ethics knowledge render and defend a decision about whether to provide the transplant.

Ethical problem(s)

One of the ethical problems present is the fact that the 5-year-old was born in undocumented immigrants parents. She also was a non-United States citizen. Another problem is the child has a life threatening disease that requires a transplant for a substantiate amount of money that is two million dollar to be spending on a non-U.S. citizen. The case that is being presented brings into focus a number of the most currently vital questions that occur in the gap of medicine and…… [Read More]

References

Dwyer, J. (2004, February). Illegal immigrants, health care, and social responsibility. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 34-41. Retrieved from http://benedictine.learntoday.info/AngelUploads/Content/MPH-603-D3A3/_assoc/site/MM/WK5_Dwyer_Article.pdf

Kershaw, S. (2007). U.S. rule limits emergency care for immigrants. Retrieved from http://benedictine.learntoday.info/AngelUploads/Content/MPH-603-D3A3/_assoc/site/MM/WK5_NYTimes%20_%20No_Healthcare_for_Illegals.doc

Maximiano, J.M.B. (2003). Corporate social responsibility: Basic principles and best practices: Historico-philosophical issues in international business. Manila: DLSU University Press.