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Changes in the bain such as deceased adaptive capacity, neuotansmitte and ecepto changes, cognitive impaiment, and dementia incease the isk of depession, as moe factos ente the equation and the patient becomes moe depessed, the likelihood of a suicide attempts inceases (McFaland, 2005).As peviously mentioned, diagnosing depession in the eldely can be a challenging task due to all of the factos involved. When consideing if an individual is depessed, one must examine the individual's backgound, cognition, medical histoy, etc. In ode to diagnose depession, thee ae witten and oal inventoies of a peson's mind that need to be pefomed. Symptoms of sevee depession include: diminished inteest in usual activities, significant weight loss o gain, insomnia o hypesomnia, psychomoto agitation o etadation, fatigue o loss of enegy, feelings of wothlessness o guilt, diminished ability to concentate, and ecuent thoughts of death o suicide. Depession does not always have to be sevee.…
references are given to organic disorders in stage 2 because it is believed that these are the primary causes. In GMSS stage 1 the patient must score a severity level of 3 (out of 5) to be classified as syndromal depression. In the experiment conducted by Jackson and Baldwin 36% of the sample was classified as having syndromal depression. This sample was made up of elderly medically ill hospital inpatients. The selection appears to reflect the general population fairly well, as it is believed that between 9% and 45% of the medically ill elderly experience depression (Thase and Lang, 2004).
Therapies for depression in the elderly - There are many ways to go about treating depression in the elderly. According to most professionals, there are 7 guidelines to follow: 1) correct any underlying illness; 2) avoid, if possible, prescribing medications that may cause or exacerbate depression; 3) decrease isolation due to sensory deprivation; 4) increase stimulation; 5) consider psychotherapy; 6) consider psychiatric referral for severe depression, and 7) consider
Depression in the Elderly
Although many of the elderly citizens in the United States in the future will enjoy better health than in years past, many will still suffer from various age-related healthcare and mental health problems as they grow older that may contribute to the development of depressive disorders. In fact, older people in particular have a number of factors working against them that appear to contribute to the incidence of depression in this population. For example, St. John and Keleher (2007) report that the elderly frequently experience social isolation and exclusion in ways that contributes to a higher incidence of depression. Likewise, Williamson (2008) notes that, "Depression in the elderly can cause a great deal of needless anguish and suffering for the family and patient. For the typical elderly patient, the symptoms described to physicians on regular visits are usually physical rather than mental" (p. 19).
Anstey, K.J., Von Sanden, C., Sargent-Cox, K. & Luszcz, M.A. (2007). Prevalence and risk factors for depression in a longitudinal, population-based study including individuals in the community and residential care. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(6),
Bhalla, R.K., Butters, M.A., Becker, J.T., Houck, P.R., Snitz, B.E., Lopez, O.. L., Aizenstein,
H.J., Raina, K.D., Dekosky, S.T. & Reynolds, C.F. (2009). Patterns of mild cognitive impairment after treatment of depression in the elderly. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(4), 308-309.
Depression and Eating Disorders
The eating disorder category in the DSM-IV includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified categories. Peck and Lightsey (2008) note that while the DSM classification symptom is currently the most used system, there has been some debate in the about how to classify people with eating disordered behavior. A viable alternative to the discrete categories used in the DSM is notion of viewing eating disorders along a continuum from having no such behaviors to the severe eating disordered behaviors. In an effort to combine the two methods the self-report Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis (QEDD) was developed. The QEDD distinguishes nonsymptomatic individuals (no symptoms) to symptomatic individuals (those that have some symptoms, but do not qualify for a diagnosis to anyone qualifying for an eating disorder diagnosis). Previous research has provided support for this conceptualization by comparing the QEDD with scores…
Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G., Jr., & Kessler, R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 348 -- 358.
Depression continues to be one of most common medical conditions for the elderly.
Percentages of elderly with the illness
Degree of increase in suicidal tendencies of depressed
Wrong assumption that aging necessitates depression.
Difficulty of healthcare providers in recognizing depression.
Increased tendency toward suicidal tendencies in many depressed.
Other individuals immune to depression and suicide despite life problems.
Individuals may not even recognize their own depression
Myths associated with aging including depression
Symptoms may take months to worsen and show up
Aging individuals should be treated similar to younger patients when seen by doctor.
Depression can mask itself in many ways
Up to family and healthcare providers to be vigilant and notice changes.
With care, individuals can be helped.
Depression ranks as one of the most common medical problems in the elderly. The occurrence of this illness among community-dwelling older individuals ranges from 8 to 15% and among institutionalized individuals,…
De Leo, D. (ed) (2004). Suicidal Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.
Evans, G. (2000) Suicide and the elderly: warning signs and helping points.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) of the University of Florida.
Fact sheet FCS2183. Gainesville, FLA.
Depression in Young and Older Women
Recent research reveals that about one percent of the general population suffers from manic-depression and five percent suffers from major depression during their lives (Simonds, 2001, p. 86). However, the incidence for depression in women is twice as high or more; as many as one in five American women has a history of depression during her lifetime.
Due to the various social and medical problems presented by increasing numbers of women who suffer from depression, this topic is of utmost importance in today's society.
This paper will examine the causes and effects of depression in both young and older women; examine existing medical research for both groups; identify major differences in depression for young and older women; and present a conclusive analysis of observations.
To determine what the causes of depression are in young and older women, and to differentiate between the two groups,…
Blumenthal, Susan. (Fall, 1996). Gender Differences in Depression. The Decade of the Brain, NAMI, Volume VII, Issue 3.
Boyles, Salynn. (February 14, 2002). Older Women Have Tough Time With Depression. WebMD Medical News.
Merschino, Diane. (July 2002). Depression in Young Women. Women's College Hospital Foundation.
National Institute of Mental Health. (October, 1999). Depression: What Every Woman Should Know. NIMH Publication No. 95-3871.
This difficulty does not just stop at causing dietary deficiencies but may also lead to acute dental and non-dental diseases. With early detection and intervention such diseases can be prevented thus the health professionals in senior centers can take a step of screening the seniors for oral problems and take the necessary steps. They can also train the seniors on practicing preventive health and also refer them to appropriate nutritional and dental professionals.
It is common for seniors to rate their health, the good news is that most of them rate their health status as good, very good, or excellent. There is a relation between self-rated health and mortality and expectations for dying, it is therefore necessary to encourage those having positive self-rating so that they can maintain and improve their health. Those with negative self-ratings should also not be ignored but should be assisted to develop a positive attitude…
Alvarado-Esquivel, C. et al. (2004). Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in elders of nursing homes and a senior center of Durango City, Mexico. BMC Psychiatry, 4:3.
Farone, D.W. et al. (2005). Use of senior centers as a moderator of stress-related distress among
Latino elders. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 46(1)
Michinov, N. (2007). Social comparison and affect: A study among elderly women. The Journal
The gradual decrease in income, eventual dependency on other people and the government for financial resource, lack of activities to do, and the onset of physical and/or physical limitations as a result of aging are known causes of frustration, stress, and even depression among elderly people who have retired (Blekesaune and Solem, 2005, p. 80). In the case of Mrs. a, she has not experienced these negative feelings or emotions as she had been flexibly and intermittently engaging herself in house-, family- and community-related pursuits. However, she did admit that her husband's death had been a pivotal point in her life, when she felt that she, too, must be with her husband because, as far as she is concerned, she has already accomplished what she was supposed to do as a "wife, mother, and woman."
Interestingly, with Mrs. a, work and retirement is not the conventional kind of retirement one…
Bassuk, S. (2002). "Socioeconomic status and mortality among the elderly: findings from four U.S. communities." American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 155, No. 6.
Blekesaune, M. And P. Solem. (2005). "Working conditions and early retirement: a prospective study of retirement behavior." Research on Aging, Vol. 22.
Kilminski, a. (2007). "Cumulative index of health disorders as an indicator of the aging-associated processes in elderly." Mech. Ageing Development, Vol. 128, No. 3.
Maciejewski, P. (2007). "An empirical examination of the stage theory of grief." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 297, No. 7.
depression has been known as a "result when individuals forfeit their personal power." (Depression: Multimedia Sourcebook, p.1) It also has been described in ancient times as "... [an] affliction [that] laid its cause to supernatural intervention, primarily religious in nature. (insworth, p. 48) In the Hindu depression was noted as a struggle between good and evil in which evil would win and "victimize individual humans." (insworth, p.48) In texts from Babylonia and Egypt, gods punished transgressions in the hearts of people and placed on them the depressive curse. The early Hebrew texts allude to the belief that depression in humans reflects the displeasure of Yahweh.
But according to up-to-the-date research, we know that depression is an "innocuous-sounding word... that refers to a potentially disabling illness that affects many but is understood by few." (insworth p.1) Professor Patricia insworth, a leading psychologist on depression, further explains that sufferers often do not…
A variety of medical conditions can cause depression. These include dietary
1. http://www.nami.org / deficiencies in vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid. Degenerative neurological disorders may also be to blame such as Alzheimer's disease and strokes or through certain viral infections, such as hepatitis and mononucleosis.1
Depression typically cannot be shaken or willed away. (Becker, p. 187) An episode must therefore run its course until
Depression is a state of sadness and gloom where one feels dull and overwhelmed by the challenges of life. People tend to say that they are "depressed' any time they feel very unhappy. More likely than not, it could just be a mere response to fatigue, sad thoughts or events. This improper use of this term causes confusion between an ordinary mood swing and a medical condition. While it is normal for all human beings to experience dejection every now and then, a few people may experience unipolar depression. Ordinary dejection is rarely serious enough to significantly affect a person's day to day activities and does not persist for long. Mood downcasts can even have some benefits. Time spent contemplating can help an individual explore their inner self, values and way of life. They often come out of it feeling stronger, resolved and with a greater sense of clarity.
Comer, R. (2013). Abnormal Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Bolton, P., Bass, J., Neugebauer, R., Verdeli, H., Clougherty, K. F., Wickramaratne, P.,. ..& Weissman, M. (2003). Group interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in rural Uganda: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 289(23), 3117-3124. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12813117
Dombrovski, A. Y., Lenze, E. J., Dew, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Pollock, B. G., Houck, P. R., & Reynolds, C. F. (2007). Maintenance Treatment for Old-Age Depression Preserves Health-Related Quality of Life: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Paroxetine and Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(9), 1325-1332. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17767673
Elder, B. L., &Mosack, V. (2011). Genetics of depression: an overview of the current science. Issues in mental health nursing, 32(4), 192-202. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355753
Depression, Disease, And Aging
Aging brings many changes in health, social relationships, work situation, and other dimensions of life, and old age has been examined as one aspect of life development, showing how earlier stages contribute to the coping mechanisms older people have and how they apply these to new situations. A number of the changes accompanying old age can create stress and depression, and in turn these psychological states can contribute to the onset of disease or to the course disease takes. Studies have also shown that untreated depression can contribute to a higher suicide rate for the elderly.
How the elderly person is affected may depend on his or her closest relationship. The aging process for many includes physical or mental deterioration which can place considerable strain on the life partner, who now has to contend not only with his or her own diminished function because of aging…
Causes of depression 2004, GlaxoSmithKline, retrieved August 23, 2005 from http://www.depression.com/causes_of_depression.html .
Cox, H.G. (1988). Later life: the realities of aging. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Depner, C.E. & Ingersoll-Dayton, B. (1985). "Conjugal social support and patterns in later life." Journal of Gerontology, 40, No. 6, 761-766.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1998). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows
The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature Adult," 2001). This is an honorable and true statement. Too often many of our elderly people's needs are not noticed or attended to by family, friends, or medical practitioners. This is especially true for older women whose husbands have died.
Widowhood can have a tremendous impact on the health of older women (Ferraro, 1989; owling, 1987; Gass & Chang, 1989). The death of a spouse or partner has been described as the most disruptive and difficult role transition that an individual confronts throughout the life course (Lopata, 1987). In the United States, over 49% or 8.4 million women over the age of 65 are widows (radsher, 2000). Houdin (1993) states that "although the literature abounds with subjective pieces concerning bereavement, little…
Bibliography for Chapters One and Two
Barry, Kasl, and Prigerson
Turvey, 1999 (Parkes, 1998).
For instance, a decline in peripheral vision may impact the ability to pass approaching vehicles safely, and the decreased range of motion in an older person's neck may impair the ability to look behind when backing up. Also, reaction time decreases by almost 40% on average from age 35 to 65 (Jackson, 1999).
It also appears that the aging process may affect cognitive skills. Short-term memory loss, for instance, can decrease driving skills by interfering with an individual's ability to process information effectively when merging onto a highway into traffic or changing lanes. Such issues are magnified when driving under stressful situations. The higher incidence of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, among older men and women leads to an increased risk of accident involvement (Jackson, 1999).
According to AAP, as a group, persons age 65 and older are relatively safe drivers. Although they represent 14% of all licensed drivers, they are…
Bedard, M., Stones, M., Guyatt, G. & Hirdes, J. (2001). Related fatalities among older drivers and passengers: past and future trends. The Gerontologist. 41 (6), 751-57.
Beers, M.H. & Berkow, R. (eds.) (2000) the Merck Manual of Geriatrics. 3rd ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co.
Central Intelligence Agency (1998). World Fact Book Washington, D.C.: Government
The emphasis is on normal, everyday activities provided for residents. According to the authors, however, little research has been conducted to investigate the actual effect of such activities and settings upon residents. The assumption is that such settings have a better effect that traditional institutions, but there is little empirical research to support this.
Hence, Verbeek et al. (2010) conducted a study to compare small-scale living with regular care in nursing homes in the Netherlands. Interestingly, they found no significant difference between the quality of life experienced by residents in traditional institutional settings and those in small-scale living facilities. Furthermore, there was also no significant difference in the job satisfaction levels of nursing staff between both types of institution was found. Another important aspect, namely neuropsychiatric symptoms and agitation were also significantly similar for both institution types. According to the authors, a difference was found in the satisfaction level of…
Gaugler, J.E. (2005, Mar.). Family Involvement in Residential Long-Term Care: A Synthesis and Critical Review. Aging and Mental health, Iss. 9, vol. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2247412/
Lyness, J.M., Yu, Q., Tang, W., Tu, X., and Conwell, Y. (2009, Dec.). Risks for Depression Onset in Primary Care Elderly Patients: Potential Targets for Preventive Interventions. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2982671/
Simonazzi, a. (2009, Jun). Home care and cash transfers. Effects on the elderly care-female employment trade-off. Retrieved from: http://www.aiel.it/bacheca/SASSARI/papers/simonazzi.pdf
Verbeek, H., Zwakhalen, S.M.G., Van Rossum, E., Ambergen, T, Kempen, G.I.J.M., and Hamers, J.P.H. (2010, Nov.). Dementia Care Redesigned: Effects of Small-Scale Living Facilities on Residents, their Family Caregivers, and Staff. American Medical directors Association. Retrieved from: http://www.unimaas.nl/hcns/websiteVW/publications/Publication%20scans/Verbeek.%20Dementia%20care%20redesigned.pdf
In addition, those who are emotionally troubled and who are overweight -- often a contributing factor to emotional difficulties -- do not receive extra counseling time." Seale, Seale & Zhang (2008, p.425) This is a serious concern and one that must be addressed immediately by physicians who are providing care for obese patients.
A lot of revamping has to be done to meet this increased need of obese elderly and this has to be done fast. The numbers are increasing by the day and unless some initiatives are taken right away, it can blow up into a full-fledged catastrophe in the future. The first and foremost step that is required is to change the present healthcare system to make it more effective and efficient. Changes have to be made in the delivery of service as well as payments to make it more accessible to the elderly.
Another important step…
Arterburn, David E. (2004). The Coming Epidemic of Obesity in Elderly Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 52(11). 1907-1912
Odilia I; Bermudez; Tucker, Katherine L. (2001). Total and Central Obesity among Elderly Hispanics and the Association with Type 2 Diabetes. Obesity Research (9), 443 -- 451; doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.58
Thompson, Dennis. (2009, December 31). As U.S. Ages, Health Care May Need to Change. HealthDay Consumer News Service.
Dutton, Drake, D; Engelke. K; McAuliffe, M; Rose, M., (2005). Challenges that nurses face in caring for morbidly obese patients in the acute care setting. Surgery for Obesity and Related
Restraining the Elderly
The Project Management path for this research proposal will follow the path of quantitative research in a 'quasi-experimental' environment. Adhering as closely as possible to quantitative experiments designed to establish the causal factors or interdependent links between grouped variables, the researcher will follow a natural course of progression in administering dependent and independent variables, designing the sampling set, determining the optimal time(s) and location(s) for conducting the research, developing the measures and instruments necessary for evaluation of non-empirical evidentiary conclusion (i.e., the thought processes and reasoning of medical staff), measuring the response to education and procedural methodology, documentation to include evaluation materials, response forms, and restraint logs, preparing the education program, delivering the lectures, and evaluating the results in change or lack of change in care providers attitudes toward patient restraint.
Any project that measures the process of learning, comprehension, acceptance or denial,…
The results of this analysis highlight the need for hospitals to fine-tune their discharge process to reduce readmissions, and support the expenditure of additional resources for this purpose as a cost-effective intervention; as an example, author cites a hospital in Iowa that implemented a rigorous post-discharge planning process for patients with heart failure and 30-day readmission rates were reduced by 3-9% during the 3-month period following implementation.
The research showed that many elderly patients who suffer from congestive heart failure also suffer from a wide range of comorbid conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. These patients can be reasonably expected to require periodic or even frequent treatment in emergency departments and/or hospitalizations for these conditions, making the need for effective and seamless post-discharge planning especially important. In this regard, the research also showed that there are some valuable evidence-based practice guidelines available, though, that can help clinicians better coordinate post-discharge…
In a study of the prevalence of elder abuse in the United States, financial difficulties on the part of the abuser did appear to be an important risk factor (Krug, 2002, pp. 130-131).
elationship factors - in the early theoretical models, the level of stress of caregivers was seen as a risk factor that linked elder abuse with care of an elderly relative. While the accepted image of abuse depicts a dependent victim and an overstressed caregiver, there is growing evidence that neither of these factors properly accounts for cases of abuse. Although researchers do not deny the component of stress, they tend now to look at it in a wider context in which the quality of the overall relationship is a causal factor. Today, the belief is that stress may be a contributing factor in cases of abuse but does not by itself account for the entire phenomenon.
Brandl, Bonnie. (2000). Power and Control: Understanding Domestic Abuse in Later Life.
Generations. 24(2), p. 39-45.
Elder Abuse and Neglect. (2009). Retrieved February 11, 2010, from Helpguide.org Web site:
Cognitive Disorder in Elderly
Cognitive Disorders in Elderly
Cognitive Assessment & Lab
Kris Thomas, PhD
The research of this study is related to cognitive, dementia, Alzheimer disease, and depression issues with the elderly populations of the United States and in the world in general. Societies with a large number of elderly people such as the U.S.A. are increasingly focusing their efforts on improving the life standards of these people based on the types of services given to them. The well-being of those on palliative and hospice care is as important as the well-being of the family members of these patients. Although many health issues present themselves during the elder years of any patient, there is a lot of attention paid to cognitive and mood issues in this age group. The disorders and maladies that are relevant to this population include, among others, depression, dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI)…
American Psycholgical Association (APA) (2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychologists Association.
Abby C. (2010). Physical Activity for an Aging Population. Public Health Reviews, Vol. 32. Retrieved from: http://www.publichealthreviews.eu/upload/pdf_files/8/PHR_32_2_King.pdf
Aklin, W. M., & Turner, S. M. (2006). Toward understanding ethnic and cultural factors in the interviewing process. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43(1), 50-64.
Elderly in Monrovia, CA
The population of people aged 65 years or greater is steadily escalating, as baby boomers come of age. It is estimated that this age bracket accounts for 10% of the total world population, and is statistically increasing. As this sector of the population steadily increases, there are of course, accompanying health care issues: osteoarthritis, cardiac and kidney issues, Alzheimer's or dementia, and an ever-growing problem with depression. For this essay, we will concentrate on several health issues that plague seniors nationally, but will specifically focus on the aging population over 65 in Monrovia, California.
Monrovia is a smallish city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County. Monrovia was settled in the late 1800s as a central hub for the growing orange grove industry, but has now become more of a bedroom community that supports the urban…
Breathe California of Los Angeles County. (2009). Cited in:
California Department of Public Health. (June 2009). "Healthy California -- 2010
Midcourse Review." Executive Summary. Cited in:
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…
Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.
Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.
Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
It is also wise to have it reviewed by a doctor or attorney, the Family Doctor eb site suggests; that way you can be assured that what you wish to have done with you and to you if you become incapacitated is "understood exactly as you intended" (Family Doctor).
The advance directives are sensitive and private, and they are very important for seniors. But the advance directives can be controversial, so it is wise for older people to know the law and understand the facts. To wit, there have been rumors and falsehoods spread on the orld ide eb and elsewhere about the advance directives that are spelled out in the recent overhaul of the healthcare system. Former governor of Alaska Sarah Palin made news in the summer of 2009 by asserting that the advance directives in the healthcare overhaul created a "death panel" of bureaucrats who will "decide, based…
Binstock, Robert H., and George, Linda K. (2010). Handbook of Aging and the Social
Sciences. Maryland Heights, MO: Academic Press.
Black, Jane A. (2008). Notes: The Not-So-Golden Years: Power of Attorney, Elder Abuse, and Why Our Laws are Failing a Vulnerable Population. St. John's Law Review, 82(1), 289-314
Collier, Elizabeth. (2005). Latent age discrimination in mental health care. Mental Health
Great Depression and the New Deal
The Great Depression
The Great Depression was caused by the stock market crash of 1929. The 1920s had been a roaring good time for Americans: credit was easy and investments were going up. In the 1920s, it was known as the Installment Plan -- and "enjoy while you pay" was a popular expression used to lure buyers into the market who could not otherwise afford to be consumers. Credit was used for everything -- including stock. However, when credit expands in the form of shoddy loans, a credit bubble is created. The bubble, in this case, popped in 1929 when the market realized no more credit was going to be pumped in as a result of too many loans to undeserving customers were being made (i.e., customers who could not pay them back). With the market correction came the margin calls and accounts had…
Brinkley, Alan. Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and The Great
Depression. NY: Vintage, 1983.
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Jeansonne, Glen. Transformation and Reaction America 1921-1945. IL: Waveland
An opportunity has been identified in a growing niche that has been largely untapped to date. The opportunity further can be described as being at a crossroads that exists where many factors come together in an intersection in which many social changes are present. The business model that is being proposed in this report consists of developing prepped meal service for seniors, where prepared, nutritionally-balanced meals are delivered to seniors who have trouble cooking for themselves, at a cost-effective price. The need for a sustainable food service model that focuses on meals that are easy to prepare, nutritionally-balanced, consistent with dietary requirements, and affordable is especially relevant to a vulnerable population like the elderly who, in many cases, has difficulty in maintaining a proper diet. The demand for such a service has quietly build a niche industry that is still developing.
There are many social factors that have been identified…
Daily Hassles Scale; Beck Depression Inventory; and Ways of Coping Questionnaire
The Daily Hassles and Uplifts (HSUP) scale, created by ichard S. Lazarus and Susan Folkman, measures participants attitudes about daily events characterized (by them,) as either "hassles" or "uplifts." Instead of focusing on potentially stressful events as overwhelming and frustrating, the tool provides participants with a way in which they can regard them as life-changing thereby growth producing, and positive. The Uplifts scale suggests positive aspects of daily life and counteracts stress and consists of three scales: the Hassles scale, the Uplift scale, and the Combined scale.
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-II), created by Dr. Aahron Beck, is a 21-question multiple choice self-inventory (each item scored on a scale of 0-3) and one of the most widely used instruments for measuring depression. It believes that depression stems from cognitive attitudes and breaks depression into three categories: affective, physical,…
Beck AT, Steer RA, Ball R, Ranieri W (December 1996). "Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories -IA and -II in psychiatric outpatients." Journal of personality assessment 67 (3): 588 -- 97.
Lazarus, R. & Folkman, S. Hassles & Uplifts. Mind garden http://www.mindgarden.com/products/hsups.htm
Lazarus, R. & Folkman, S. Ways of Coping Questionnaire Mind garden http://www.mindgarden.com/products/wayss.htm
Pearson. BDI-II. Assessment & Information
Silence and Withdrawal - where the man "punishes" the woman for her "behavior" by becoming silent and withdrawn.
Lack of Emotional Connection - where the woman reaches out for support and empathy, and the man withholds it (Chang 73-81).
It is easy to see how these conditions of verbal and mental abuse could lead to feelings of low self-esteem and depression in women. Author Chang quotes a woman stuck in a mentally abusive relationship as saying, "He complained I never communicated with him, but whenever I tried to communicate with him, he would always tell me why I was wrong to think that way. And so it finally reached a point of why bother. You know, I got tired of listening to him criticize me'" (37-year-old nurse) (Chang 73). Studies indicate that abuse in a relationship, no matter what type of abuse, can lead to long-term depression, especially when the…
Ainsworth, Patricia. Understanding Depression. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.
Chang, Valerie Nash. I Just Lost Myself. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
D'Mello, Dale a. "1 Epidemiology of Late-Life Depression." Depression in Later Life: A Multidisciplinary Psychiatric Approach. Ed. James M. Ellison and Sumer Verma. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003. 1-26.
Editors. "Depression: What Every Woman Should Know." National Institute for Mental Health. 2007. 30 Nov. 2007. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-what-every-woman-should-know/summary.shtml
Substance Abuse in the Elderly
The increase in substance abuse among people over 60 years of age is understandable from several perspectives. The boomer generation grew up in a society that was experimenting with controlled substances, and in -- or on the margins of -- a culture that viewed the use of drugs as normative. Indeed, much of the rhetoric about drugs and alcohol was that these substances could enhance life experiences, provide deeper insights into one's life -- transcendence, if you will -- and ease the suffering brought about by life transitions and quotidian pressures. This generation found self-medicating for personal angst and genuine disorders such as depression or post-traumatic syndrome was acceptable.
While many life challenges are universal and do not occur in higher percentages according to particular demographics, other challenges are linked to demographics. People in their 60s and beyond do experience an uptick of physical and…
Garland, E.L., Froeliger, B., & Howard, M.O. (2014, November 11). Neurophysiological evidence for remediation of reward processing deficits in chronic pain and opioid misuse following treatment with Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement: exploratory ERP findings from a pilot RCT. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25385024
lay, S., atista, a., Andreoli, a. & Gastal, F. (2008). The Relationship etween Religiosity and Tobacco, Alcohol Use, and Depression in an Elderly Community Population. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 16(11): 934-43.
These researchers set out to examine the effect that religious belief and overall religiosity among the elderly research subjects of the study had on their use of alcohol and tobacco as well as their rates and levels of depression. A series of random samples of individuals sixty years of age or older in Rio Grande do Sul, razil were interviewed to obtain data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco use, alcohol abuse and dependence, depression, certain other lifestyle and health characteristics, and four different elements of religiosity. After controlling for other factors, religion was found to have a negative correlation with tobacco use, while not having a religious affiliation was associated with a greater tendency towards alcohol abuse as…
Blay, S., Batista, a., Andreoli, a. & Gastal, F. (2008). The Relationship Between Religiosity and Tobacco, Alcohol Use, and Depression in an Elderly Community Population. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 16(11): 934-43.
These researchers set out to examine the effect that religious belief and overall religiosity among the elderly research subjects of the study had on their use of alcohol and tobacco as well as their rates and levels of depression. A series of random samples of individuals sixty years of age or older in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil were interviewed to obtain data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco use, alcohol abuse and dependence, depression, certain other lifestyle and health characteristics, and four different elements of religiosity. After controlling for other factors, religion was found to have a negative correlation with tobacco use, while not having a religious affiliation was associated with a greater tendency towards alcohol abuse as well as depression and increased tobacco use.
Cultural concepts were a key consideration in this research, and were explicitly addressed in interviews by questions dealing with cultural, ethnic, and religious background. Because this was a study that specifically looked at correlations between certain cultural elements and other health and behavioral aspects, cultural considerations were not controlled for but rather were analyzed. The interview approach made for direct and honest appraisal of these considerations.
According to a recent study, the elderly are hospitalized more often due to alcohol-related problems than for heart attacks (Doup). Another study found some 70% of elderly adults' hospitalizations are related to alcohol, medication, or a mixture of both (Doup).
Many seniors live alone either due to divorce or the death of a spouse, and many more still are retired and have children out of state, and so do not drive as much or as far as before (Doup). This isolation leads many seniors to develop alcohol and drug problems late in life, at a time when they are most vulnerable to medical conditions (Doup). The elderly make up some 11% of the U.S. population, yet they take more than 35% of the drugs prescribed, such as blood pressure medication, sleep medication, and tranquilizers, all of which created a toxic cocktail when mixed with alcohol, causing everything from dizziness to…
Bosworth, Michael F. "Alcohol abuse in the elderly." American Family Physician.
April 1, 1989. Retrieved October 07, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Dooley, Pat. "For Best Nutrition, Elderly Should Socialize, Too."
The Virginian Pilot. July 5, 1996. Retrieved October 07, 2006 from HighBeam
Loss of Function on the Quality of life and Independence, and Quality of life for the elderly Population
Although living longer comes with a price, having a good social relationship, support system, social relationships, and residing in their own abode is what could give seniors independence, happiness, and quality of life. Before discussing how a given loss of function influences the quality of life and the independence of an aging person, it is crucial to define some concepts. These concepts are the quality of life, independence, and activities of daily living, as they will be used in this discussion. Quality of life has varying meanings for different individuals particularly to the elderly population. Quality of life could mean good pension or income, family and friends, being active, being independent, good and safe living conditions, opportunity to learn latest concepts, developing new things, religion, and social relationships among others. Quality of…
Brunner, L.S., & Day, R.A. (2009). Brunner & Suddarth's textbook of Canadian medical-surgical nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dawson, D.R., & Stern, B. (2007). Reflections on facilitating older adult's participation in valued occupations. Occupational Therapy Now, 9(5), 3-5. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229614344?accountid=35812
Loue, S. (2008). Encyclopedia of aging and public health: With 19 tables. New York, NY: Springer.
Whitbourne, S.K., & Whitbourne, S.B. (2011). Adult development and aging: Biopsychosocial perspectives. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
elping the elderly quit smoking is one of the most important responsibilities of the healthcare professional. The number of cessation programs designed for the elderly are severely limited, therefore the venues by which they actively quit smoking are not nearly as prevalent as other age segments. Most health care professionals have not received significant training in smoking cessation counseling in general, even though it is one of the most prevalent causes of health problems within America.
In the absence of having a strong primary care physician or a group therapy session to promote smoking cessation, alternatives include the use of cessation literature. Many channels of education have been attempted with some success in the elderly. In one recent test conducted by Rimer and Orleans using smoking cessation brochures, the results were extremely promising. In the study, three groups were established with the control group receiving cessation literature not specifically designed…
Huston, C.G., Shelton, D.M., Chrismon, J.H., et al. (1997). Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation among older adults: United States, 1965-94. Tobacco Control, 6(3): 175-80.
Hermanson, B., Omenn, G.S., Kronmal, R.A., et al. (1988). Beneficial sixteen year outcome of smoking cessation in older men and women with coronary artery disease. Result from the CASS registry. New England Journal of Medicine, 319(21):1365-9.
Rimer, B.K. And Orleans, C.T. (1994). Tailoring smoking cessation for older adults. Cancer, 74(7 Suppl):2051-4.
Care Case Study
Slide 1 Footnotes
There have been enormous changes due to introduction of various cultural elements in the continuum of care. Before, when people were admitted to assisted living facilities or hospital settings, there were very little cultural elements outside of the majority culture which had sponsored the facility. For example, if a facility was associated with some sort of church or temple, there were elements of that religion present, but there was little alternatives for members of other cultures or religions.
Yet, today, there are now a much wider array of cultural elements available in assisted living homes and hospital facilities. Assisted living programs are regulated on the level of the state.
As such, different states have different types of programs and policies that impact the degree to which cultural characteristics are included or excluded within various assisted living facilities. Some programs encourage cultural elements of patients…
ALFA - Assisted Living Federation of America. (2009). Assisted Living Regulations and Licensing. Retrieved from http://www.alfa.org/State_Regulations_and_Licensing_Informat.asp
Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. (2011). Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Retrieved from http://www.medpac.gov/documents/Mar11_EntireReport.pdf
National Caregivers Library. (2012). Independent Living Facilities. Retrieved from http://www.caregiverslibrary.org
Next Step in Care. (2012). Reducing the Stress of Hospitalization for Patients with Dementia and their Family Caregivers: A Guide. Family Caregiver Alliance. Retrieved from http://caregiver.org/caregiver/jsp/content_node.jsp?nodeid=2449#researchpractice
In the STAI, the researcher asks the subjects how they feel at the moment and in the recent past, and how they anticipate feeling in the future (enazon & Coyne, 2000). This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). oth physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003).
Once those tests are completed, the volunteers will be asked to cycle on an ergometer for 30 minutes. The Talk Test, Target Heart Rate Evaluation, and the org Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale will all be administered while the volunteer is cycling. This is done to determine the energy level - or the perceived energy level - of the volunteer. All of these tests and this same specific pattern will…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Benazon, N.R., & Coyne, J.C. (2000). Living with a depressed spouse. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 71-79.
Dietz, W., MD, Ph.D. (2002). The obesity epidemic: Causes, consequences and solutions. Retrieved from University of Michigan, School of Public Health Web site: http://www.sph.umich.edu/symposium/2002/keynote.html .
Hewitt, P.L., et al. (2001). Death from anorexia nervosa: Age span and sex differences. Aging and Mental Health, 5(1), 41-46.
Incontinence is another condition not frequently intimated to their doctor. Less than a third of them actually report falls despite the availability of initiatives and measures, which can address falls. These include home-based exercises, home environment assessment, cataract surgery, medication review and Vitamin D and calcium supplements (CFA).
Falls Prevention Intervention
Studies reveal the importance of physical activity in preventing or reducing the risk of falls among older persons in the community and at home (Rose 2007). There is, however, limited evidence at present that physical activity benefits very weak ones in care facilities. Physical activity promises benefit to healthy older adults against the risk of falls. Those at moderate risk, on the other hand, will gain more from structured exercise programs aimed at risk factors, which can be manipulated or changed. They can be adjusted to progress according to the individual's capabilities and earlier physical activity experience. And those…
Cripps, R. 2001, 'Deaths from falls in the elderly top 1,000-year,' Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [Online] Available at http://www.aihw.gov.au/media-release=detail/?id=6442464404
CFA 2011, 'Fall rates need to fall further,' Continence Foundation of Australia [Online]
Available at http://www.continence.org.au/news.php/38/fall-rates-need-to-fall-further
Ory, M.G. et al. 2009, 'Implementing and disseminating on evidence-based program to prevent falls in older adults, Texas, 2007-2009,' Preventing Chronic Disease [Online]
Ruth E. Mathias and a.E. Benjamin (2003) report that social workers are becoming increasingly concerned about elder abuse in long-term care settings (p. 174). A study conducted by these social scientists/authors, reveals that Medicaid related agency care demonstrates no harmful or increase in the abuse suffered by elderly people receiving care through private agencies, but that there is little social worker oversight, and because of that, reports and information supporting that fact can be misleading at this point in time (p. 174). Mathias and Benjamin reported, too, that direct care provided by family members was proven to be less abusive to the elderly than services rendered by state and private providers (p. 174).
The most concentrated areas of consumer complaints reported was the difficulty in scheduling services, language barriers, and high care-giver/assistant turnover (p. 174). These are areas of concern, because the elderly are often suffering levels of dementia that…
In the film The Savages (Jenkins, 2007) two siblings (Jon and Wendy Savage, the parallel to the Peter Pan characters by the same first name is not hidden) are brought together to care for their aging father who has dementia. Lenny Savage (the father) is the patriarch of the estranged Savage family. Lenny was living in Arizona with his girlfriend, whom we suspect also has dementia, but she abruptly passes away as the film begins. Lenny has had no connection with his children who both live far away on the east coast (Jon in Buffalo; Wendy in New York). Their mother is out of the picture having left their father years before and no one knows where she is. The children, left to their own devices, have grown into isolated, repressed, emotionally-stunted, self-absorbed adults (savages). The film is more about the struggles of the sister and brother to grow…
Alzheimer's Association (2012). http://www.alz.org/about_us_about_us_.asp .
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
de Boer, M.E., Hertogh, C.M.P.M., Droes, R.M., Riphagen, I.I., Jonker, C., & Eefsting J.A. (2007). Suffering from dementia - the patient's perspective: A review of the literature. International Psychogeriatrics, 19(6), 1021-1039.
Jenkins, T. (2007). (Jenkins, T. Director & Payne, A. Producer) The savages [Film]. United States, This In That Studios.
This paper examines the impact of Parkinson’s disease on elderly (65+ years of age) Caucasian males. This is an underserved population in the U.S. 1% of all elderly persons suffer from Parkinson’s and 60% of them are of this underserved population. The paper discusses risk factors that may lead to the onset of this disease but recognizes that the etiology of Parkinson’s is still as of yet unknown. It examines some of the most common health issues of this population and identifies existing barriers to care. The key factors and social determinants of health of this population are discussed and health policies and advocacy groups, such as the Michael J. Fox Foundation are examined in terms of what they bring to the discussion about regulating control and prevention of the disease. Finally, recommendations for improving existing programs and interventions for this population are identified, including: the need to increase…
A list of all of the residents was obtained from the two facilities as well as their admission dates. All of the necessary charts of eligibility were reviewed ads well as the data obtained from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) which were recorded by means of the Chart eview Form as well as the Minimum Data Set Cognitive Performance Scale (MDS-CPS).
The Minimum Data Set Cognitive Performance Scale (MDS-CPS) is a scale which is generated from the 5 MDS elements (comatose status, ability to make decisions, short-term memory, ability to make oneself be understood as well as eating).The scores from the scale ranged from 0 (for, no impairment) to 6 ( for, very severe impairment) as pointed out by Hartmaier et al. (1995).
The residents who scored two or less on the MDS-CPS were then asked in a kind way to willingly be part of the interview.
The interview involved…
Services Presentation in Older Adults
Approximately 75 million baby boomers were born in the United States between1946 and 1964. This generation will stress the healthcare system as has no other generation in history. There are many services available for older adults in relation to their psychosocial, cognitive, and emotional issues. This work will identify available services for older adults in a specific facility and address the issues relating to older adults and mental health programs or the psychosocial health of older adults in this facility. The facility at focus in this work is Tripler Army Medical Center in Hawaii.
The adult psychiatric treatment program for older adults at Tripler Army Medical Center in Hawaii is such that focuses on depression experienced in older adults. The U.S. Department of State examines the issues of dealing with elderly parents by those in the service so that the health care of…
Aging Baby Boomers In a New Workforce Development System (nd) report updates and revises an earlier study by the Urban Institute, The Aging Baby Boom: Implications for Employment and Training Programs, June 1997, by Stacy Poulos and Demetra Smith Nightingale.
American Legion giving little ground over proposed cost-shifting (2011) The American Legion Legislative Point Paper (2011) TRICARE. 4/6/2011. Retrieved from: http://www.legion.org/files/legislative_pointpapers/legislative_tricare.pdf
Caring for Elderly Patients (2010) U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from: http://www.state.gov/m/dghr/flo/c23141.htm
Department of Defense Health Care System and Military Facilities (2010) Brown, Bauman & Smith. Attorneys. Retrieved from: http://www.brownbaumansmith.com/newsletters/Elder-Law/?launch_pg=NewsletterDetailLayout&launch_sel=1000283&title=Department+of+Defense+Health+Care+Benefits
Substance abuse is a common affliction among the elderly population. Several factors may contribute to the prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse among older adults, including loneliness, poor health, and depression. The most rapidly growing segment of the American population is the elderly, and whether or not alcohol can be considered beneficial or detrimental in this population depends on the doses being consumed (Ferreira and Weems, 2008). However, the population of older adults is increasing and so is the proportion of elderly individuals demonstrating alcohol abuse (Ferreira and Weems, 2008).
It is estimated that by 2030 the proportion of adults comprising the elderly population (65 years and older) will reach 20%, which marks double the current number (Duncan et al., 2010). Interestingly, substance abuse in general has shown increases in the elderly population, with a steady increase in primary substance abuse problems other than alcohol observed in the elderly population…
Atkinson, R.M. (1990). Aging and alcohol use disorders: diagnostic issues in the elderly. International Psychogeriatrics, 2(1), 55-72.
Bobo, J.K., Greek, A.A., Klepinger, DH, Herting, J.R. (2010). Alcohol use trajectories in two cohorts of U.S. women aged 50 to 65 at baseline. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 58(12) 2735-80.
Chiu E. (2008). Alcohol for the older person -- friend or foe? Age and Ageing, 37(5), 493-4.
Duncan, D.F., Nicholson, T., White, J.B., Bradley, D.B., Bonaguro, J. (2010). The baby boomer effect: changing patterns of substance abuse among adults ages 55 and older. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 22(3), 237-48.
Not only that, the results of eating badly is harmful. Holland and Barrett magazine reports: "If your diet isn't as balanced as you'd hope for, there's a chance you could be missing out on L. Trytophan - an important amino acid that plays a vital role in the production of brain chemicals." If one's diet is lacking it, the safest way to get this supplement is in the form of 5-HTP - a natural compound that the body produces from L-Trytophan. 5-HTP is believed to help the body produce serotonin, a chemical that regulates mood, sleep and other brain-related functions. (Pearce, 1999)
In aging people who seem to have no appetite, there actually may be a sensory dysfunction, which keeps that person from enjoying food and other things that are sensed through taste and smell. Susan S. Schiffman, Ph.D. pointed out that in the elderly these senses are not entirely…
About Dementia. http://www.about-dementia.com/.2006.
Davis, Alison. "Stress -- it might be even worse than you think," a Summary of the Conference "Biology of Stress" co-sponsored by the OBSSR and NIGMS, April 12, 2006.
Huang, Cindy S., et al. "Common Molecular Pathways Mediate Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Excitation and Slow Synaptic Inhibition." Cell (Journal), Volume 123, Issue 1, 7 October 2005, Pages 105-118.
Pearce, Gillian. Depression Antidotes Newsletter. Thu, 15 Jul 1999-18:35:21 -0400.
Polypharmacy Low Income Elderly
Poly-Pharmacy Low Income Elderly
The author of this report will offer a brief treatise on several social theories, one relating to nursing and one of them not related to nursing, and how they related to poly-pharmacy low income elderly patients. After describing the low income elderly group and what makes the vulnerable, there will be a description, compare and contrast of the theories. The theories that shall be covered are the Imogene King theory and the Erikson theory. While painting with too broad a brush as it relates to the vulnerability of low income elderly patients or social and cultural theories in general is unwise, some general trends and outcomes are fairly consistent and easy to spot with a little observation and analysis.
The group up for analysis in this report is poly-pharmacy low-income elderly patients. Poly-pharmacy is typically defined as a patient that takes…
Allen, K.R., Hazelett, S.E., Jarjoura, D., Wright, K., Fosnight, S.M., Kropp, D.J., & ...
Pfister, E.W. (2011). The after-discharge care management of low income frail elderly (AD-LIFE) randomized trial: Theoretical framework and study
Design. Population Health Management, 14(3), 137-142.
psychiatrist, Viktor Frankl, while suffering numerous hardships in his life as a prisoner of war in a Nazi work camp that included being isolated from the rest of the world including his family along with the prospect of facing at the hands of his captors death every day began to question the meaning of his own existence and the meaning of life in general. Frankl eventually came to the conclusion that people derive meaning from their lives as either as result of their suffering, their ability to love another, and their work (Frankl, 1985). A person's work helps them to define a sense of themselves, contributes to their feeling that they are useful, and helps to keep them active (Frankl, 1985; Shacklock, 2006; Waddell & Burton, 2006). These benefits occur at any age; therefore, by continuing to remain in the workforce elderly people can both produce benefits to their community…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). Retirement and retirement intentions. Canberra: Author.
Beier, M.E., & Kanfer, R. (2013). Work performance and the older worker. Sage Handbook on Aging, Work, and Society, 16, 65-97.
Center for Disease Control. (2012). Older employees in the workplace. In National Center for chronic disease prevention and health promotion. Retrieved September 25, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov /nationalhealthyworksite/docs/issue_brief_no_1_older_employees_in_the_workplace_7-12-2012_final508.pdf.
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change. Stanford, CT:
Health care in the United States has evolved through governmental and private answers to historical trends, starting with the first days of the United States. Often arising as responses to serious gaps in health care, these remedies traditionally build on each other and have resulted in a uniquely American health care system. The trickle of Baby Boomers into "the elderly" is now posing new challenges for both governmental and private providers, which must be met by new responses and a newly adapted health care system.
Discuss the government's role in responding to historical trends that impact the delivery of hospital care and how this has added to the expansion of hospitals in the United States.
Commencing with the very existence of our Republic, the United States government has taken a leading role in dealing with historical trends, significantly impacting delivery of hospital care and expansion of hospitals in this…
Barton, P.L. (2010). Understanding the U.S. health services system, 4th ed. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press.
Hays Companies. (n.d.). Inpatient vs. outpatient care. Retrieved April 22, 2012 from contnt.mybenergy.com Web site: http://content.mybenergy.com/ContentTemplates/WellnessTemplate.aspx?view=user&userid=101412&link=799
Setness, P.A. (2002, June 20). The looming crisis in geriatric care: As baby boomeers age, healthcare policy fallout seems inevitable. Retrieved April 22, 2012 from ERMS.tourolib.org Web sit: https://erms.tourolib.org/url/http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=129196051&sid=4&Fmt=3&clientId=14844&RQT=309&VName=PQD
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Timeline of the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved April 22, 2012 from Healthcare.gov Web site: http://www.healthcare.gov/law/timeline/index.html
Diversity of Aging Population -- Innovative Healthcare
Over the past several decades there has been an avalanche of research and scholarly narratives focusing on the aging of millions of Americans -- among them the "baby boomers" that were born between 1946 and 1964 -- including their numbers and their health vis-a-vis the impact on the sometimes struggling healthcare system. But there has been a dearth of research on how American healthcare services will respond -- and is currently responding -- to an increasingly diverse older population when it comes to racial, cultural and ethnic identities. This paper points to the numerous issues and challenges that not only face an increasingly diverse older American population when it comes to healthcare, but also the challenges that the healthcare system itself faces as these Americans move into the twilight of their lives.
hat should be the Vision and Mission of Healthcare Professionals in…
Administration on Aging. (2010). A Statistical Profile of Black Older Americans Aged 65+.
Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.aoa.gov .
Bookman, A. (2008). Innovative models of aging in place: Transforming our communities for an aging population. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 419-438.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). The State of Aging and Health in America
Assessing the ability of these individuals to perform basic tasks in their daily lives can also have much significance (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). Many older Americans are able to feed and clothe themselves without apparent problems, but others are not as fortunate (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). If they are unable to do these things correctly without help, their nutritional status will often suffer (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). Patients who are older should be assessed for their ability to do these simple tasks, and also for their ability to perform slightly more complex tasks such as fixing their own meals, cleaning their house, and balancing their checkbook (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). Sometimes cognitive impairment will lead to a lack of nutrition, and when this is the case, it often shows up in forgetfulness and an inability to perform even…
Bartholomew LK, Parcel GS, Kok G, & Gottlieb NH. 2001. Intervention Mapping: Designing Theory and Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Collinsworth, R., & Boyle, K. 1989. Nutritional assessment in the elderly. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 15(12): 17-21.
Gambrell, K.A. 2003. White House rolls out Medicare reform plan. United Press International.
Industry Group 91, 2000. President Clinton releases new state-by-state report demonstrating urgent need for Medicare reform. Regulatory Intelligence Data.
Nursing - Discharge planning
Discharge Planning in Nursing
Mr. Trosack's Case
The three main health issues include movement hindrance where by Mr. Trosack will move with the help of a walker. Mr. Trosack diabetic condition is main health issue. Mr. Trosack is depressed and lonely and requires a special care and assistance. Mr. Trosack lives in a crowded apartment located at a second floor in a 3-storey building. The building does not have an elevator and thus Mr. Trosack has to use the stairs to reach to his apartment. The house has furniture and personal valuables and thus making it hard for him to use his walker once inside the room. e takes the garbage by himself since he lives alone because his wife died two years ago. e fears climbing up the stairs because of pain that emanate from the strain. is family works for 60 hours a week…
Hip fracture is a main health issue that happens in the United States. This study uses the baseline (1993) and data collected in 2006 in order to evaluate the aftermath of hip placement discharge. Patient discharge depends on the status code from the Medicare inpatient claim. They categorize discharge status depending on the condition of the patient. Mr. Trosack would fall for nursing facility because he would not get the required professional assistance from his family. In this study, most of the hip fracture patients went to a nursing facility.
An evaluation in this study reveals that at the time of placement, the patients had gone home for 90 days, and 180 days for patients discharged at a nursing facility. The evaluation of the care of hip placement patients needs consideration when choosing a discharge placement for them. Mr. Trosack, in addition to the surgery, is diagnosed with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. The family, despite knowing all this, does not provide or hire a medical officer for a regular check up on him.
In order for Mr. Trosack to get well, it is crucial to refer him to a nursing facility. In this study, the home and rehabilitation discharge seems to decline while many people opt for the nursing placement, which increased. In these nursing facilities, patients are not likely to report any health issue compared to those placed at their homes. In addition, these nursing facilities offer functional needs to patients and may reduce hip fractures in elderly people.
Transition Into Late Adulthood
While at one hand an old man in his 60s would cherish the past years of his life sharing experiences about college sports, dating spots and holiday fun, an elderly woman would act grumpy showing discontent on every dish being served at a dinner. Such scenarios are commonly noticed in day-to-day life which surrounds people in their late adulthood; a period in 60s where according to Erik Erikson (1963), individuals aim at finding satisfaction in their lives instead of becoming disillusioned. Hence, the transition to late adulthood is a time marked with physical, social and emotional challenges which are usually faced by almost every person.
Life is divided into different phases where a child eventually grows up and is faced by the reality of life. With time, he has school, parties and fast food revolving around him when suddenly this is replaced…
Bennett, T. (2001). Understanding Everyday Life, Oxford: Blackwell
Carstense, L.L, Isaacowitz, D. & Charles, S.T. (2003). Life-span personality development and emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton
Fry, P.S & Debats, D.L. (2009). Perfectionism and the five-factor personality traits as predictors of mortality in older adults. Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 14 (4).
Mitigating isks from Dementia
Providing adequate care for an individual suffering from dementia presents many difficulties for nurses. Patients with dementia often have debilitating conditions such as Alzheimer's or similar neurologic diseases which are progressive, thereby making it challenging for them to remember, think lucidly, communicate effectively or complete activities of daily living. Furthermore, dementia can cause rapid variations in mood or even modify personality and behavior. With the tremendous number of elderly in society more and more nurses are required to care for patients with progressive dementias. It is imperative that a diagnosis be reached early in the course of the cognitive impairment and that the patient is closely monitored for coexisting morbidities. Nurses have a central role in assessment and management of individuals with progressive dementia. This essay provides some evidence-based practical strategies for managing the behavioral problems and communication difficulties often encountered in this population.…
Aud, M.A., Oliver, D., Bostick, J. And Schwarz, B. 2011. Effectiveness of Social Model Care Units for Dementia. International Nursing Research Congress 2005.
Care, N.D. 2010. Teaching and Learning. Pulse. Winter Edition.
Fletcher, S. And Zimmerman, S. 2010. Trainee and trainer reactions to a scripted dementia care training program in residential care/assisted living settings and nursing homes. Alzheimer's Care. 11(1): 61-70.
Goodman, C. 2011. The organizational culture of nursing staff providing long-term dementia care is related to quality of care. Evidence-Based Nursing. 47:1274-1282.
The focus of the article is upon the unique constitution and needs of the elderly, not upon herpes zoster or influenza as a national phenomenon particular to the United States. However, all of the studies it cites are based in the United States, and SV has been primarily studied as a phenomenon occurring in the U.S. The prevalence of nursing homes in the United States might also make the article more relevant to U.S. practitioners, and the regulatory and drug treatments it discusses are particular to North American, such as the FDA.
Supporting evidence: What scientific evidence does the author(s) present to support his or her claims?
The article's most conclusive evidence is found in its treatment of influenza. It notes that in the 40% to 60% of elderly patients in whom the influenza vaccine produces the desired immunity, an effective immune response can be mounted within 10 to 14…
Bader, Mazen & David S. McKinsey. (2005, Nov). "Viral infections in the elderly."
Postgraduate Medicine. 118.5: 45-54
Getting old is not very fun when considering the opinions of the elderly. This is true because many hard and difficult decisions must be made in terms of health and health care. Two options immediately arise when one is not able to take care of themselves and seek the assistance of others. The first option is home health care and the other is nursing home health care. The purpose of this essay is to examine, weigh and discuss these two options. This essay will then conclude on when it is best to choose nursing home care and when it is not wise or advisable to do such a thing.
Home Health Care
What exactly is home health care and what does it entail? Home health care helps seniors live independently for as long as possible, given the limits of their medical condition. It covers a wide range of…
Berger, Joseph, (2012). A Shift From Nursing Homes to Managed Care at Home. The New York Times, 23 Feb 2012. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/24/nyregion/managed-care - keeps-the-frail-out-of-nursing-homes.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Bojorquez, Manuel, (2013). Eleven states get failing grades for nursing home care. CBS News, 9 Aug 2013. Web . http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-18563_162-57597944/eleven-states - get-failing-grades-for-nursing-home-care/
Friedland, R. (2009). Home Care vs. Nursing Home Care. Care, 25 Nov 2009. Retrieved from http://www.care.com/senior-care-home-care-versus-nursing-home-care-p1017- q14698.html
Klauber, M. (2001). The 1987 Nursing Home Reform Act. Public Policy Institute, Feb 2001. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org /home-garden/livable-communities/info- 2001/the_1987_nursing_home_reform_act.html
My work as a research assistant in a cognitive psychology lab added to my theoretical knowledge by giving me practical experience in encoding and analyzing data. This experience provided me with the opportunity to use analytical tests and interpret statistical data. Bookkeeping of participants' demographic information also further developed my organizational skills. Having been a research assistant, I have gained a reasonable understanding of research design and the statistics needed to conduct research. For my senior major project, I wrote a research paper on an empirical study that investigated the role of change detection in studies of visual attention in the field of cognitive psychology. This paper was awarded the Sharon Borine award for the best major project in Psychology because of its successful presentation of research and adherence to American Psychology Association guidelines. I strongly believe my research experience will help me attain success in conducting graduate research as…
The prescriptions include wisdom, honesty, and courage, as well as human dignity, integrity, respect, health, and independence.
Part 3: Formulate possible evidence-based practices and an action plan that could work towards achieving improvement outcomes.
Provide insight into the diagnostic processes (e.g., root cause analysis) used to determine the primary causes of the problem. Consider both qualitative (cause-effect diagram, barrier analysis), and quantitative (theory testing or drill down analysis) methods.
Analyze the cost-effectiveness of your initiative and how your initiative mitigates risk and improves health care outcomes.
Countless interventions have been used for fall prevention amongst the elderly population. These include risk-assessment and management programs, I.e. Designed to screen those who are most at risk and to design interventions that will reduce their risk of falling; exercise programs slanted dot enhancing flexibility, endurance, and strength; education programs (including one-to -one counseling on methods to prevent falls); environmental modification in homes or…
ANA Nursing-Sensitive Indicators. http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/PatientSafetyQuality/Research-Measurement/the-National-Database/Nursing-Sensitive-Indicators_1
Butts, JB Ethics in professional Nursing Practice
Broe, K et al. (2007) a Higher Dose of Vitamin D Reduces the Risk of Falls in Nursing
Caregiving to Elderly People
In this document, interactive caregiving training is briefly discussed.
Caregiving to Elder People
ecent developments at the medical industry and more health conscious diet increase the life expectancy. According to the Census, 36.3 million Americans were 65 and over in 2004 and the numbers are expected to increase as 71.5 million in 2030. Aging brings serious memory problems, emotional and physical declines along with the natural changes of inner and outer organs. Taking a good care of an elderly person with memory loss, dementia and Alzheimer's disease is a very demanding job requiring serious physical and mental efforts. Therefore, intellectual and mental training of the caregivers is very important. The physical work caregivers undertake is very hard including bathing elderly people, feeding them, running errands and trying to understand what they really need. The result of this long-term care is exhaustion, anxiety and depression. egardless of…
Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer's disease and Other Dementias" American Psychiatric Association. October 2007. http://www.psychiatryonline.com/pracGuide/loadGuidelinePdf.aspx?file=AlzPG101007 . Retrieved 2007-12-28.
He is still deeply in love with his wife, as though he just met her . He expresses his love on a daily bases with his wife, with hugs, kisses, and showers her with lavish gifts . They cuddle in the evenings in the family room for an evening of relaxation watching television or reading . Although the sexual physical part of their life as slowed down, they still do have a very high sexual relationship which is shown in different ways or expressions .
Fears / Concerns
Mr. P expressed his biggest concern related to aging is being without his wife one day . He also expressed that he doesn't want to die the same way this mother did with Alzheimer's disease, as it was a horrible experience for anyone to live with and watch a loved die . This has played on his mind as he has aged,…
Buchman, a., Boyle, P., Wilson, P., Fleischman, D., Leurgans, and Bennett, D. ( 2009). Association between late -- life social activity and motor decline in older adults. Achieves of Internal Medicine, 169 (12), 139-1146.
Donni, L., Savina, C., & Cannella, C. ( 2009). Nutrition in the elderly: Role of fiber. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 49, 61-69
Hassanein, S. & Narsavage, G. ( 2009). The does effect of pulmonary rehabilitation of physical activity, perceived exertion, and quality of life. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention. 29 (4), 255-260.
A driver came to the house and picked Robert up five days a week at 7:30 and brought him home at around 4:00 P.M. The couple received a grant from United ay to fund the service they received from the Respite Center, which cost around $200 per week. The Respite Center had well-thought-out activities designed for seniors with dementia and Alzheimer's, and those activities "helped slow down his Alzheimer's" (Claunch). Those activities include arts and crafts, chair aerobics, games, socializing, breakfast, lunch and a snack, Claunch explains. On many days a special visitor or group comes to entertain the seniors; among those groups are the Gulf Coast omen's Club, the Garden Club, PAS Ministry, gospel groups, line dancers, pianists and sing-along singers.
hen an Alzheimer's patient is stimulated (by being entertained, walking, or engaging in a game of some kind that challenges the mind but does in minimally) the nerve…
Assist Guide Information Services. (2009). Caregiving. Retrieved November 10, 2009,
From http://www.agis.com .
Claunch, Shannon. (2009). Council on Aging: Respite Center Cares for Community.
News Herald. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from http://www.newsherald.com
Fear and Access to Mental Health Support
Mental health treatment is, in a certain regard, a widely accepted sector of the healthcare community. However, in spite of continued advances in this field, there remain many demographics which present a heightened and unmet need for mental health support. The review here, which assess two recent newspaper articles on the subject to mental health, reports on the need for an expansion and refinement of the responsibilities assumed by the mental health community.
Craft, C.H. (2012). U.S. mental health programs little help to Latinos, UC Davis study says. The Sacramento Bee.
A 2012 article by Cynthia H. Craft, published in The Sacramento Bee and entitled "U.S. mental health programs little help to Latinos, UC Davis study says," evaluates the relative experience of disenfranchisement from mental health treatment and counseling among Latinos living in the United States. The article evaluates the various…
Craft, C.H. (2012). U.S. mental health programs little help to Latinos, UC Davis study says. The Sacramento Bee.
Ortega, J.R. (2012). Behavioral health expert talks future of mental, primary health care. Victoria Advocate.
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
S. History, 2011).
Only after aggressive government intervention did the Dust Bowl conditions improve. The government, even before the drought was broken in 1939, was able to reduce soil erosion by 65% through the actions of the Civilian Conservation Corps, which planted 200 million trees to "break the wind, hold water in the soil, and hold the soil itself in place" ("Disasters: The 1930s," U.S. History, 2011). Farmers received instruction by the government on "soil conservation and anti-erosion techniques, including crop rotation, strip farming, contour plowing, terracing and other beneficial farming practices" ("Disasters: The 1930s," U.S. History, 2011). For the first time, the government took an interest not simply in preserving some of its land from development in the form of national parks, but gave counsel to farmers how to use the land.
The gap between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots,' already wide even before the Great Depression, grew into…
"Disasters: The 1930s." U.S. History. February 20, 2011
"The Great Depression: What happened and how it compares with today." The Great
Depression. February 20, 2011.
interview was to learn the life of Mr. Mike obinson, my 65-year-old retired neighbor from the town next to me, in Sudbury. I selected this person because it will allow me to understand some of the core issues related to aging. My interactions with Mike obinson before this interview were cordial and I believed that his example might shed light on some of the theories of aging we are covering in class. I believe that he is a good example of how aging theories can be applied to help people, because Mr. obinson is aging in a way that is healthy due to his strong social support system and positive attitude on life.
Within this report, I intend to learn about his life conditions as well suggest and inform ways to improve the person's life. After interviewing Mr. obinson on two different occasions, I gained some knowledge on how he…
Dowd, J.J. (1975). Aging as exchange. Journal of Gerontology 30(5): 584-594
Havighurst, R.J. (1961). Successful aging. The Gerontologist 1(1961): 8-13.
The Health Authority (2010).
Miller, S.M. & Barrow, G.M (2010). Aging, the Individual, and Society. Cengage.
articles seem to be saying same thing or do they contradict each other? Is the tone similar in each article, meaning can you tell what the researchers feel about the subject? Do they support the same idea, did they hypothesize similar ideas?
The following are two research essays on the burden of caregivers. The similarities of both essays are that both demonstrate the huge responsibility and unmitigated onus that caregivers carry that consequent in causing them stress and hardship. Differences include the fact that one was carried out on a population in Italy, whilst the other was carried out on a sample in America.
It is striking, too, to note, that although both concluded that caregivers needed more support, the American study recommended ways that individuals could create this for themselves, whilst the Italians-based study placed the responsibility on the community and social work profession. The tone of the articles,…
Sansoni, J et al. (2004) Anxiety and depression in community-dwelling, Italian Alzheimer's disease caregivers, retrieved from International Journal of Nursing Practice: 10: 93-100.
Hayslip, B et al. (2008) Predictors of Alzheimer's disease caregiver depression and burden: what noncaregiving adults can learn from active caregivers. Educational Gerontology, 34: 945-969, 2008