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Descriptive Statistics Essays (Examples)

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Statistics the Intent of This
Words: 4324 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44895562
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There are also ethical issues pertaining to the observational method that will be discussed later in this paper.

Experience surveys are widely used throughout qualitative research studies, due to their focus on bringing greater insights into the study through the interviewing of experts in chosen fields. There is also a strong focus on how to gain insights of experts in the future definition of the methodology being created, and how the research objectives can be more effectively accomplished as well. Experience surveys also are often used in the first stages of a research project. Another qualitative research technique, the case study, takes the concept of gaining insight and applies it to an organization and its dynamics. A case study seeks to define and complete a thorough analysis of one or more specific circumstances within institution of interest. The goal of case studies is to measure the relationships, inter-dependencies and cause-and-effect…


IIT (2007). Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The Delphi Method. Definition and Historical Background. Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007: 

Joppe (2007) - Research Process Tutorial on Dr. Marion Joppes' website regarding exploratory research fundamentals:

Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007 from location:

Statistics Allowable With Nominal Ordinal
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 98111297
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This makes the response more concrete and increases the ability to be reliable and valid. It must always be remembered that an operational definition is a matter of degree; there is an infinite factors that can be considered. The goal is not to have a completely concrete definition, but rather one that can be replicated by another researcher. The more information that is found the less subjectivity and possible bias. There is more information gained on the reason for enjoyment, for example, as noted above with "I enjoy my work," and "I find satisfaction in my work because I can demonstrate my best abilities to others." a) the researcher's assumption is not valid. The person could be ordering the magazine for a variety of reasons, such as wanting to buy a car or looking for the most cost-efficient green products. The purpose of validity is to know that you are…

However, there are two difficulties with the word "attitude." First, the word attitude is not definitive, such as a number. It can be and has been defined in different ways. For example,

Jung defined attitude as a "readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way" (Jung, 1921). The other problem is that researchers use a wide variety of tools to measure attitude, so that it is difficult to compare oranges to oranges. This lessens the ability for reliability and validity. As Kulp (1935) states, "That there is chaos in the field of attitude testing is all too apparent. It is, therefore, a most important problem at present to define and standardize the use of such terms as attitude, opinion, belief, judgment, and fact. When examining the content of the tests in the field, one is amazed at the conglomeration of items."

2) Rating and ranking. Which is better? A ranking question lets respondents to a questionnaire put items on a list in order of personal preference by choosing a numeric value for each response. Each of the numeric values cannot be used more than one time. For example, the survey may ask respondents to rank several movies in order from 1 to 5. Instead, when asked for a rating scale matrix, the questionnaire respondent selects the ratings for a number of different aspects of a specific issue. The question and rating scale appears

Statistics in Workplace
Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79640955
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Statistics in the Hospital Setting

During the course of performing my professional duties at College Hospital, which is a psychiatric facility located in Cerritos, California, I encounter patients who are struggling to maintain some semblance of a normal life despite struggling with one or more mental illnesses or psychological impairments. College Hospital is a 187-bed, free-standing psychiatric care unit which is accredited by The Joint Commission and licensed by the California Department of Health Services, and part of my job is assist in providing a wide range of psychiatric services for a wide range of patient demographics. As the leader in Partial Hospitalization Programs throughout the greater Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas, College Hospital relies on the accurate and efficient use of statistics to ensure positive patient outcomes.

An Example of Descriptive Statistics Used in My Workplace:

While working at College Hospital the use of descriptive statistics has…


Costea, G., Gheorghiu, V., Buda, O., Popescu, I., & Trandafir, M.S. (2011). Statistical

Association Criteria in Forensic Psychiatry -- A criminological evaluation of casuistry. Journal of medicine and life, 4(1), 21.

Nielsen, J., Graff, C., Kanters, J.K., Toft, E., Taylor, D., & Meyer, J.M. (2011). Assessing QT

interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics. CNS drugs, 25(6), 473-

Statistic Data From Department of Epidemiology and
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63073192
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Statistic Data From Department of Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, National Institute of Health


Every second person in Armenia, irrespective of sex, is a smoker. Only 15% of the population have never smoked before WOMEN and SMOKING

53,6% smoked some time in the past

39,6% smoke

Chart indicates % of women smoke... cigarettes per day

Chart indicates that in Armenia among the smoking women the percentage of women with higher education is significantly more than those having secondary education.

Qui Hing

Tobacco and Teenagers

In Armenia about half of the smokers start smoking reaching the age of 18, 36,6% of teenagers are smoke

Number of cigarettes per day

Boys and girls

Boys and young men in Armenia start smoking much sooner than girls, more than a half of a yang men start doing it before reaching the age of 18. Absolute majority of girls in Armenia start smoking after the…

Healing With Statistics There Are Numerous Ways
Words: 795 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13252148
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Healing with Statistics

There are numerous ways in which statistics are used in a standard healthcare organization. Statistical measurements and analyses are used to track patient costs and hospital/healthcare organization expenses, to determine appropriate medication levels, to assign work staff and maintain proper human resource levels, and for a wide variety of other applications and areas of concern. In many ways, the quality and the cost-effectiveness of care provided by a typical healthcare organization is directly related to the quality of the statistical data the organization collects and assesses. Without such statistical analysis and manipulation, direct healthcare providers as well as administrators within the healthcare organizations would be left with little more than anecdotal evidence and subjective perceptions and judgments when it came to making decisions for patient health and/or organizational fitness, thus the importance of statistics in such organizations is difficult to overstate.

The most basic level of analysis…


Hill, J. (2012). introduction to descriptive statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. 

Lund. (2010). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. 

Trochim, W. (2006). Levels of measurement. Accessed 19 February 2012.

Hear the Word Statistics the
Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43849082
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Being able to express statistical results in ways non-statisticians can understand, and explaining those results correctly in language that does not mislead or confuse is becoming a lost art, if the popular media are any indication. Entrepreneurs will use these visual display techniques to increase productivity, notice patterns that may go unrecognized in tabular or numerical reporting, and communicate results quickly without requiring extensive and subjective verbal explanation.

Inferential statistics will become increasingly useful even before graduating college, if peer-reviewed studies in consumer psychology, economics and marketing become more rather than less proportional in coursework on the way through graduate school. Some of the coursework I read for other classes contains statistical procedures I am unfamiliar with even after this course, and thus learning more statistics should explain a significant improvement in grades in my other classes, hopefully with a strong (? = .001) effect size! Knowing how likely flaws…

Role of Research and Statistics
Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42191915
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Assessing descriptive statistics in the form of raw data is often a critical component of primary research when constructing an experiment, where the experimenter then can have control over the various variables affecting the specific phenomena that is being studied. the, in the actual experiment, the tendency of other information to influence statistical results can be restricted or taken into consideration, and a control, or unaffected group can be included to see what the population resembles without the experimental variable. Descriptive statistics, in short, can be useful, but many variables can affect their results, so they cannot always be relied upon.

In contrast, "inferential statistics are used to help psychologists draw inferences, or conclusions, from the data obtained from their research" ("Statistics in psychology," 2008, Encyclopedia of Psychology). For example, inferential statistics are collected when researchers test if watching a particularly violent film makes a group of subjects more apt…

Works Cited

Research: The scientific method. (2008). SIEM HI Research Retrieved 15 Oct 2008 at 

The Milgram Experiment. (2008). New Life. Retrieved 15 Oct 2008 at

Statistics in psychology. (2008). Encyclopedia of Psychology.

15 Oct. 2008.

Online Statistics and Probability Theory
Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17840313
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Online Statistics
Part 1
Probability theory is an aspect that is applicable on an everyday basis. A particular situation in which I may use probability theory to reach a decision in public management is to investigate equal employment prospects within the organization. For instance, there is a need to assess whether the organization hires women in the same manner as men, especially in positions that do not necessitate certain gender traits. Therefore, in this case, probability theory can be beneficial in probability theory, specifically Bernoulli process. That is, a process can either generate two possible outcomes, which are male or female. Probability plays a pivotal part in this regard because the probability of a certain results is the proportion of times that outcome would take place in a long and extensive run of repeated observations. In this instance if men and women are equally represented in the labor force, then…

Business Statistics Is the Study
Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76277450
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Therefore to form a basis of good decision making business people should be able to understand how statistics can be applied in the description of markets, advertising development, price setting and how they can best respond to the consumer demands that are often changing (Petryni, 2010).

Statistics can be used in various situations within a business for instances; incase a business wants to venture into new markets statistics can be used to inform the business decisions in the definition of target consumers. The statistical analysis of the trends of consumers, purchasing powers and preferences can be useful in making decisions before venturing into a particular business.

Another situation can be where decisions on the branding and advertising products or services the statistical analysis may aid in the definition of the consumers who are targeted, provide information about the industry one wants to venture in and description of the buying trends.…


Petryni, M. (2010). How Is Statistical Research Used in Business Decisions? Retrieved January 17, 2013 from

Calkins, K, .G. (2005).Applied Statistics. Retrieved January 17, 2013 from

Extra Credit Statistics
Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34567076
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NFL Team With Sports radar for Location-Based Statistics in 2015

This article discusses how the NFL will unveil a more expansive statistics package this season. This package will include location-based data such as speed, acceleration and distance traveled for each play. Statistics are core to the fan experience and the NFL is looking to capitalize on the trend.

The statistical analysis used by Sports radar will rely on regression analysis to provide player statistics. Through this regression Sports radar will prepare weekly histograms designed to showcase the top quarter of players in regards to acceleration, speed, and yardage.

The Very Stark Numbers on Young Black Men and Gun Violence

This article focuses on a statistically analysis conducted by the Pew Research Center regarding race in America. The article articulates the disparate lives between blacks and whites in America. The article explains how a young black man is fives more likely…

Statistics Consider This Scenario You
Words: 378 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 97797690
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You can include a table to show the comparison if you want to. Do not be concerned with the small number used in each group in the study.

TO: National Kidney Foundation, Board of Directors

FROM: Jon Doe, Staff Statistician

DATE: June 23, 2013

SUBJECT: Future Research Funding Recommendations

Upon examination of the data submitted by the two research groups using a graphical view (see below), it became obvious that Group I could have an outlier. Using the maximum value Grubbs test, it was determined that this value was indeed an outlier and was excluded from the data prior to further statistical analysis.

Once the outlier was removed from the data it became clear that mean of the Group II data (11) was higher than the mean of the Group I data (see table below), suggesting better results with the Group II treatment; however, the magnitude of the standard deviations…

Statistics in Sports Statistics Never
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 35830123
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The writer asserts that an ensuring study incororating a number of factors, external to team members deliberate contributions, may roffer additional insight to further enhance knowledge about rugby alications for coaches to consider with their ractices.

Study II

In the case study, "Effects of consecutive basketball games on the game-related statistics that discriminate winner and losing teams," Sergio-Jose Ibanez, Javier Garcia, and Sebastian Feu, all with the University of Extremadura, and Alberto Lorenzo, Technical University of Madrid, with Jaime Samaio (2009), University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro at Vila Real, analyzed data they obtained from the Sanish Basketball Federation; including games layed during the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 seasons in the Under20 league. Ibanez, Garcia Feu, Lorenzo and Samaio used the observational method to conduct their study which analyzed a total of 223 games with the following variables, "selected according to the FIBA (International Basketball Federation) normative for game analysis" (Ibid.,…

players somatic characteristics, taller and stronger players secure more rebounds;

technical and tactical preparation, pivoting, blocking, anticipation, securing and pulling the ball away, and, muscular fitness, particularly in stretch-shortening-cycle jumping performances.

The writer perceives the quality of the research invested into the second study to reflect the researcher's dedication to some details, which contributed their development of a somewhat detailed study that continues to leave unanswered questions regarding "the game-related statistics that discriminate winner and losing teams" (Ibanez, Garcia Feu, Lorenzo, & Sampaio, 2009, Title excerpt). The study left the writer wanting to

Organization Dynamics Basic Statistics
Words: 2349 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76781277
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Organizational Dynamics

L. Jones

In my job as a Health Readiness Coordinator, I am required to exercise a high level of skill in communication, leadership, organization, as well as basic statistical analysis. In specific, I have found the following principles of group and organizational dynamics, leadership styles, and basic statistics to be invaluable.

One of the first ways in which a Health Readiness Coordinator begins his or her relationship with a client is by helping them to make relevant decisions. Of course, the best way to begin this process is by utilizing a "break down" method that separates the decision into defined components. Specifically, these include defining the problem, collecting the relevant data on all possible choices, evaluating present alternatives, and finally, making an informed decision (Amos, 2004). Additionally, I have also found it useful to add a final reflection step in which I evaluate the success of the decision,…


Amos Web. (2004). Decision Making Process. Web page. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from,

ASC. The Animated Software Company. (2004). Internet Glossary of Statistical Terms: Population. Web site. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from,

Blair, Gerard. (1997). Leadership Styles. Web Page. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from,

Bresnahan. The Bresnahan Group. (2004). Talk is Cheap. Listening is Priceless. Web site. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from,

Prediction'so We Have to Assume That
Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91289389
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prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:

H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.

H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.

The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…

Teaching Measures of Central Tendency
Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27359200
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The third measure of central tendency is the mode. Despite it being the last option of consideration by many analysts, it is a mostly utilized measure. The mode represents the most frequent observation in a data set. For example, if total scores of a football tournament in every match were tabulated as 2, 4, 6, 5, 2, 4, and 2, then the mode of these observations is 2 scores because this observation occurs thrice in the distribution.

The median contributes to the fourth measure of central tendency and it represents the value in the distribution that lies in the middle of the observations of interest. To obtain the median, arranging the observations in ascending order establishes the observation that lies in the middle of the arranged data. For example, in the above given observations of football scores, they can arranged in ascending order as 2, 2, 2, 4, 4,…


Distributions. (2003, May 11). Wading through the data swamp: Distributions. Pathway courses.

Retrieved from

Donnelly, R.A. (2004). The complete idiot's guide to statistics. Indianapolis, in: Alpha books.

Salkind, N.J. (2009). Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics, (2nd ed.). London, UK:

Science if Conducting an Experiment
Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36325672
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It is often easier to impose this sort of control in a laboratory setting. Thus, true experiments have often been erroneously identified as laboratory studies" (Woolf, 2012). True experiments rigidly control for validity by attempting to isolate variables so that only a single independent variable is studies. The independent variable "is the variable that the experimenter manipulates in a study. It can be any aspect of the environment that is empirically investigated for the purpose of examining its influence on the dependent variable" (Woolf, 2012). Furthermore in true experiments, the subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Finally, true experiments are double blind, which means that neither the experimenter nor the subjects know whether the subjects are in the experimental or control groups (Woolf, 2012).

True experiments differ from experimental designs in the level of control that exists in each different type of research. An experimental design,…


Brogan, R. (Unk.). Single case design and small n research. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Psychometrics website:

Lund Research Ltd. (2012). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Laerd Statistics website: 

Woolf, L. (2012). Research methods. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Webster University


Larger Population of Cases Term
Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54437136
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Part 2

One of the important issues that this type of statistical sampling conducted by the substitute teacher was her choice of students to inquire about their test results. In a class size of 30, 5 students hardly represent the whole class; in fact, in order to accurately determine the performance of the class as a whole, it is recommended that all students be asked of their test results. The sub-teacher can also generate a sample, group of students who will represent the total population, which is the whole class. The sample should be objectively chosen, and since the method of choosing the students to report on their exam performance was based only on the fact that they all belonged to the front row of the class, then the sample generated by the teacher is biased. An alternative to this problematic method of sampling would be to choose one student…

Neuman 2003 Researchers Frequently Need
Words: 1578 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64518944
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The median is the middle point in a series and represents the 50th percentile, meaning about half the cases are above it and half below it. The easiest application of this technique is to organize the scores from highest to lowest, and then count to the middle. Therefore, in those cases where there is an odd number of scores, the calculation is straightforward; even numbers require some extra analysis to identify the median (Neuman, 2003).

This measures if the easiest to use (Lomax, 2001) and can be used with nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio data (Neuman, 2003). The mode is simply the most common or frequently occurring number in such a series, but a distribution can have more than one mode (Neuman, 2003).

Sources: As indicated.


The research showed that the three common measures of central tendency are mean, median and mode, although other indexes also exist. The research…


Cai, J., Lo, J.J., & Watanabe, T. (2002). Intended treatments of arithmetic average in U.S. And Asian school mathematics textbooks. School Science and Mathematics, 102(8), 391.

Leavy, a.M. (2004). Indexing distributions of data: Preservice teachers' notions of representativeness. School Science and Mathematics, 104(3), 119.

Lomax, R.G. (2001). An introduction to statistical concepts for education and behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Goldenberg Et Al 2001 and Titled Cause
Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48342686
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Goldenberg, et al. (2001), and titled "Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance." (p. 547). The authors collected data using the longitudinal study from randomly selected immigrant Latino families whose children were mostly born in the United States. The research used the mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research, and the authors tracked N= 121 families of schools children in two Los Angeles school area districts, and the families of the children were tracked from "kindergarten to sixth grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001, p 547),

The procedures used in the research are by randomly selecting N= 32 families for the case study and the interviews were conducted for the families "10 times between the time their children were admitted into kindergarten and completed 6th grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001 p 554). The interviews were conducted within three years…


Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., et al. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582.

Consumption of Alternative as Opposed
Words: 1477 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99707765
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These dynamics suggest sample means may indicate questionable results without further testing to verify if skew distorts generalizability. There are plausible cases where such an extreme value would be kept, say if we were testing for risk of a rare event, in which case that would be the data point of interest compared to the rest.

Table 4. Partial Data Sample

from Q6, hours exercising


















n =


















To investigate potential variables of interest, the data was sorted into male and female, and health-care related questions of interest displayed for both groups. This convenient procedure shows that while both groups scored similarly on many questions, the difference between means for questions 20-23 may yield interesting results with…

M8D1 Questions Like This One
Words: 517 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 7198188
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However, because I am now more familiar with the different ways that data can be analyzed and presented, I am more likely to examine the underlying statistics used to support a claim than I was prior to taking this class.


Excel file

1. Descriptive statistics will describe the data given. The data describes minutes (interval), grades (intervals), gender (categorical), and number of times that the students considered running away (ordinal).

1. Number of students = 20

2. Average quality time is the mean of the quality time spent and is 8.2 minutes

3. Average number of times they thought of running away is the mean of the number of times they considered running away and is 4.

4. There are 10 males and 10 females, which means that the sample is bimodal with male and female modes.

5. Average gpa is the mean of the GPA and is 3.06.…

Conselling Master Questionnaire Describe the Boolean Approach
Words: 4070 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 6118072
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Conselling Master Questionnaire

Describe the Boolean Approach (Hauser, 2009 p. 18)

In order to use counseling databases to search for information, it is important to develop appropriate search practices. The terms one types when searching will most likely provide the results owing to their meaning. Therefore, it is up to an individual to come up with a search strategy and learn the tips of using counseling databases. The tips will assist an individual in acquiring high quality information in the required amount. Additionally, an individual is likely to add intelligence to their search strategies, the more one knows the tips of searching, and they are likely to obtain better results.

The Boolean approach is among the techniques that will generate useful results when using counseling databases, and it aims at supporting scholarly research. On the other hand, Boolean operators are words, which have unique meanings that instruct the database to…


Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application.

Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counselling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Actuarial Science Modeling the Objective of This
Words: 1119 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70350331
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Actuarial Science: Modeling

The objective of this report is to investigate dependence structure between the home line of business and domestic motor line of business to determine the global amount of capital to hold for both lines of business. The paper uses the regression analysis and descriptive statistics to analyze the raw data collected for the losses on both lines of business. The results from the analysis reveal that there is little or no positive dependence structure between the two lines of business because the . Square value from the regression analysis output is 0.29, which is closer to 0. Moreover, there are higher losses in the domestic motor line of business than the home line of business. There is also higher volatility in the domestic motor line of business than home line of business. Thus, the report recommends that home line of business should attract more global capital than…


Benfield (2009).Insurance Risk Study Modeling the Global Market. (Fourth Edition). Taon Benfield Publication.

North Carolina State University (2004). Linear Regression in Excel. NC State University Publication.

Bmx Racers Research Whether it Is Qualitative
Words: 1359 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46987083
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BMX Racers

Research, whether it is qualitative or quantitative in design, must be succinct, thorough, and best fit in order to achieve the intended results. Without proper controls, definition, and well-defined objectives the research endeavor is simply an ad hoc attempt to gather data and explain a particular phenomenon. Research must also command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment to that which is being investigated. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the differences that possibly exist in and amongst BMX (Bicycle Motocross Racing) racers with respect to the effect this extreme sport has on those who participate.

In order to accomplish the goals of the intended research project data will be collected by way of a short survey questionnaire wherein participants will be asked four (4) questions relative to the following:

The number of body scars received while participating in the sport.

The individual participants relative ranking in…

Job Outing This Research Was Done to
Words: 473 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83068714
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Job Outing

This research was done to identify any relationship to job satisfaction and a recent company outing to Camp Feel Good. Essentially, the manager is doing this experiment to determine how effective Camp Feel Good attendance is on employee's attitudes.

u1= mean of employees who attended meeting and did not increase job satisfaction u0 = mean of employees who attended meeting and increased job satisfaction

u1 > u0

Null: H0: u1 / u0

Meeting attendance: This variable is discrete since it can either be yes or no, with no in between. This is a quantitative measurement and is the independent variable.

Job Satisfaction Score: This variable is continuous and is nominal. It is a qualitative variable that needs to be converted to understand its meaning. It is the dependent variable in this analysis.

Descriptive Statistics

The descriptive statistics infer some important points about the research question posed.

The first…


Week 3 SPSS Output. Provided by student.

National Atlas.GOV. (nd). Understanding Descriptive Statistics. Viewed 22 July 2013. Retrieved from

Function of This Study Is
Words: 3518 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84974468
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In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.

Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…

Sources of information . nd.

Quasi-Experiments Observational and Archival Studies and Secondary Analysis
Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8702595
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Illegal Corporate Activities

Clinard's publication concerns corporate violations of stipulated laws by 582 public corporations in the United States of America. In addition, the extent and nature as well as the economic settings the violations occurred are also looked at. The study used data from the firms' sales to calculate their levels of diversification and levels of concentration among other variables. In this paper, the publication in scrutiny used sources of data though they never gave in-depth information on all violations; this makes this analysis lean on one side and may not give the actual results.

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics is used here to summarize the study sample as well as the observations that have been made. The main summary used is quantitative form of the data. From the data outlined in the first codebook, the five-year mean for corporate sales is 99. This is the logged value for the…


Boies, J.L. (1989). Money, Business, and the State: Material Interest, Fortune 500 Corporations, and the Size of Political Action Committees . American Sociological Review, 821-833.

Clinard, M.B., & Yeager, P.C. (1987). Illegal Corporate Behavior, 1975-1976. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.

Caring Nurses
Words: 1329 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55082621
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Palese et al. (2011). According to Wood & Haber (2014) " the critique is process of critical appraisal that objectively and critically evaluates a research report's content for scientific merit and application to practice." Using the text's understanding of this examination this essay will explore the article and examine it for practical use and valid argument.

The problem that this research is premised upon is the idea that nurse's caring has gone mostly under examined in relation to patient's view of quality of care. The role of caring within the nursing profession is described as the factor which inspired this research. The variables within this examination are the patients' satisfaction measured against the practice of caring executed by nurses in their professional duties.

This problem is clearly identified and can be empirically tested as the article revealed in its conclusions. To help lessen the distortion of the ideas and values…


LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (Eds.). (2014). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Palese, A., et al. (2011). Surgical patient satisfaction as an outcome of nurses' caring behaviors: A descriptive and correlational study in six European countries. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(4), 341-350.

International Business Management
Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83674346
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Personal Income Probabilities

Based on this sample, and clearly showing workings, appropriate graphics and your response to blank values in the data, calculate the following:

(a) the probability of randomly picking two men over 35 from the sample

The sample consists of both men and women, however the question does not delineate segmentation by gender in regard to men vs. women, but solely requests "from the sample" the possibility of selecting men over 35 years of age each draw. Therefore the equation is:

Men over 35 years of age total in the sample.

121 participants total in the sample

239 = P of men in sample

Percentage of men over 35 in the sample 23.9%

Each draw is discreet with a 23.9% chance that a man over 35 years of age will be selected on random selection each time.

For example of work in excel: Appendix

(b) given that we…

Culturally Responsive School Counseling for
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Through descriptive statistics, the mean, mode and percentiles will be obtained in regards to the answers in each item in the questionnaires.

The flow of discussion of results followed by the conclusion is clear and properly written. The purposes of the study stated in the beginning were all given due consideration and were all achieved.

In general, this research paper is very simple. What is good in it is the fact that the topic is very profound and yet the researchers were able to simplify it and formulate their own research questions based on the general topic. However, the methodology involved needs some minor modification because some of the most important aspects of research were not clearly stated.

There was not specific number of audience or participants stated. This is important because this will show if the conclusion will be able to generalize the overall population. Is the number of…

Measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Experimental the Researchers
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The researchers analyzed the data as though it were at the interval/ratio level since they calculated means (the measure of central tendency that is appropriate only for interval/ratio level data) and standard deviations (the measure of dispersion for interval/ratio data) to describe their study variables.

What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?

Mean = 97.12.

Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The experimental group subjects scored lower on the depression posttest (mean = 13.36 vs. The baseline score of mean = 14.00), meaning that they were less depressed after the completion of the empowerment program. This was an expected

finding, because the researchers hypothesized that the empowerment program would be beneficial to ESRD patients and result in a decrease in their depression scores. However,…

Families Society Purpose The Purpose Exercise Conduct
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Families Society" PURPOSE: The purpose exercise conduct a detailed, critical evaluation research design, methods analysis a study written published a peer-reviewed journal.

Valentine, K., Thomson, C., & Antcliff, G. (2009). Early childhood services and support for vulnerable families: Lessons from the Benevolent Society's Partnerships In Early

Childhood Program. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 44(2), 195-213,120.

Yes, it is very specific.

Do subtitles, if present, provide important information regarding the research?

Yes, they bullet-point the basic components of the article although they do not label all of the conventionally-expected components of a research article like a literature review.

Are the main variables expressed in the title?


Are the terms in the title easily understood by most people?

To some extent: the general subject matter is clear, although not what is meant by vulnerable families, nor is the Partnerships In Early Childhood Program (PIEC) well-known.

5) Does the title avoid any…

Structure the Research to Show How All
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structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research project -- the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment -- work together to try to address the central research. Creating an effective research design is likely to be one of the most difficult and eminently useful tasks in drafting a proposal. An effective research design links abstract and stylized concepts and questions with the empirical world's complexities and challenges.

A research design must at once be specific and highly flexible. It must be expansive enough to adapt these very complexities while still pointing you towards relevant data. The methods you use should be extensions of your substantive question and epistemological orientation. Contrary to some disciplinarians' claims, there is no single research model that one can or should follow. Numerous alternatives must always be considered and choices made.

By the time you…

Consumer Internet Commerce a Rhetorical Approach
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complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.

Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of…


VI.Appendix (ces)(please write around 2-3 pages)

Survey Questionnaire


1.To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come?" But also if we build it, will they come to purchase and repeat purchase?" A scenario closer to the truth is that many online companies experience disappointment in converting consumers' clicks into purchases. It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers. Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!

Welcoming Homosexual Lifestyles at Historically Black Colleges and Universities
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Black Colleges Homosexuality

In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.

Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…


Burleson, Douglas A. "Sexual orientation and college choice: Considering campus climate." About Campus 14, no. 6 (January 2010): 9-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 14, 2013).

Eisen, V., & Hall, L. (Eds.). (1996). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and education [Special issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 66(2).

Griffin, H. (2000). Their Own Received Them Not: African-American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality, 6(12), 1.

Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2011). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161-174. doi:10.1037/a0023226

Patient Perceptions of Maternal HIV Testing Ob-Gyn
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Patient Perceptions of Maternal HIV Testing

Ob-Gyn Maternal HIV Testing Study

Coleman et. al., (2009) Patient Perceptions of Obstetrician-gynecologists' Practices Related to HIV Testing. Maternal Child Health Journal 13: 355-363.

The study objectives were to identify the percentage of women who had been tested for HIV, explore the perceptions of women patients about HIV testing and ascertain their knowledge about their own HIV risk status, to determine the primary reasons patients refuse to be tested for HIV, and to learn what patients recall about how their obstetrician-gynecologists' introduced the topic of HIV testing.

The authors hypothesized that pregnant women, women seeking preconception care, and women with risk factors for HIV infection would recall their obstetrician-gynecologists recommending HIV testing" (Coleman, et al., 2009)

Overall research goal & recommendation. The purpose of the study was to identify if patient-physician communication about HIV risks and testing to pregnant women is consistent with current…

Nursing That Individuals Employed Within
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Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)


Sum of Squares and Cross-products





There is no statistically significant correlation between age of the participant and the self-assessed knowledge regarding the use of computers.

Descriptive Statistics


Std. Deviation












Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)


Sum of Squares and Cross-products








Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)


Sum of Squares and Cross-products






**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

There is a statistically significant correlation between the gender of the participant and their self-assessed degree of experience relating to the knowledge regarding and use of computers. Women (f=2) outnumber men astronomically within this sample, as such this result is highly biased and should not be taken to represent…

Human Factors Affecting Safe Operation
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Table 5: Summary of the Findings of Survey Question 1, 2 and 3


Survey Questions


Standard Deviation

% of Important

% Not important

% Not Sure


Graduate from Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT







Pilot should be Under 40 years old







Having Minimum of 100 Flying Hours







Mean %



Mean Difference


Fig 5: Bar Chart Comparing esponses of Survey 1, 2 and 3

Based on the findings in the Fig 5, it is revealed that the second survey, which indicates that a Pilot should be under 40 years to demonstrate the effective aviation safety, supports the first null hypothesis and rejects the first alternative hypothesis. From the bar graph in Fig 5, 66.72% of the respondents agree that to be fewer than 40 is not important to demonstrate…


Alexander, P.J. (2007). The impact of computer technology in the clinical setting: a nursing perspective. [Thesis _PhD/Research).

Correa, M.A. Camargo, J.B. Gimenes, R.A.V. et al. (2007). Integrating UAV Into Control Airl Space Using Cooperative Multiagent Negotiation, Journal of the Brazilian air Transportation Research Safety.3(1): 24-36.

Dixon, S. & Wickens.C.D. (2003). Imperfect Automation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control. Technical Report. Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation.

Hou, M. Kobierski, R.D. & Brown, M.(2007). Intelligent Adaptive Interfaces for the Control of Multiple UAVs. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making.1(3): 327 -- 362.

Conducting Analysis in Research Studies
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statistics statistics and inferential statistics.

Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics are used for different types of designs. For example, correlational studies will utilize descriptive statistics to measure a set of data's central tendency along with the way variables vary and relate to one another. A Pearson r would be a type of descriptive statistics test conducted to evaluate the strength of the relationship or if there relation goes in any one direction but descriptive statistics can also be used in causal-comparative design studies to measure data variability (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 70). Inferential statistics on the other hand are used to compare means (typically a t-test is conducted) and statistical significance is determined by whether the p value is > or < than alpha (commonly .05) (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 61).

Another way to think of descriptive statistics is that they are "used to synthesize and…


Dormann, C. et al. (2012). Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 35: 1-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07348.x Retrieved from 

Junco, R., Elavsky, M., Heibegger, G. (2012). Putting twitter to the test: Assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement and success. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x Retrieved from

M& m Project Report This Project Is a
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M&M Project Report

This project is a quantitative study involving descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics allow for summations about objects (FAQs-Descriptive & Inferential Statistics), in this case m&ms. With the exception of measurement error, descriptive statistics can clarify large volumes of data with no uncertainties about the values. Each descriptive statistic reduces lots of data into a simpler summary (Trachim, 2006). The sample was collected by purchasing 1.67 oz. bags from different retailers from around the U.S. The colors were individually counted with the total number of candies per bag. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine whether the distributions were as the targets required, including the mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence intervals. Half of the colors of the m&ms were off target, which indicates problems in the manufacturing and packaging processes. The blue, yellow, and brown did not show sufficient evidence, meaning they were off target for the target distributions.…


FAQs-Descriptive & Inferential Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from Laerd Statistics: 

Trachim, W.M. (2006, Oct 20). Descriptive Statistics. Retrieved from Research Methods Knowledge Base:

Criminal Justice and Criminology Interpreting
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This result is somewhat different from that of a colleague which found that teenagers who are more likely to be at the high school level of education responded in higher numbers. This difference can be attributed to the differences existing in the posts. The other post was on the use of the GPS feature on smart phones. Teenagers are more likely to engage in tech talk compared to other age groups.

Conclusion that can be drawn about interpreting data

ata interpretation is an important exercise that comes after the data is analyzed. It helps to draw conclusions from the data itself. In the data interpretation process, it is possible to tell whether the hypothesis has been accepted or not. It is also possible to know how the sampling or data collection methods affected the results that have been collected. ata interpretation also helps to provide the answer to the research…

Data interpretation is an important exercise that comes after the data is analyzed. It helps to draw conclusions from the data itself. In the data interpretation process, it is possible to tell whether the hypothesis has been accepted or not. It is also possible to know how the sampling or data collection methods affected the results that have been collected. Data interpretation also helps to provide the answer to the research question. This is because the data collected is integrated with the hypothesis in order to find an answer to the initial research question. It is also learnt that data interpretation helps to discuss the summaries and data presentation methods in order to know whether they were appropriate for the type of data collected. Predictions regarding the elements of uncertainty that result from the data collection exercise and data presented can then be discussed and analyzed to acknowledge the role that variation plays in hypothesis testing. The inferential analysis was conducted in order to help draw conclusions about the results of the small data collection exercise. The statistical tests that have been used which are the ANOVA and t-test also show the relationships that exist between the variables. Data interpretation is also an essential step towards making evidence-based predictions for future related research questions.

Reaching research conclusions

Chicago is a famously polarized city in terms of racial and class tensions, thus focusing on community needs generates an important sense of unity between members of the police force and specific community members. It has been praised for its effective implementation of POP. It recently began a much-heralded initiative to bring POP to its public school system. Killings occur with alarming regularity in the city's public schools. There were 67 deaths during the first half of 2007 -2008 academic year alone, the year that POP was instituted to combat the problem within the school system. "If this doesn't sound bad enough, the 67 doesn't include the hundreds of students who were shot or beaten but managed to survive" (Waldek 2009). To implement POP, the Chicago police first surveyed the assessed patterns of school violence and causation possibilities. Over 500 students who suffered school violence were studied. "The students at the highest risk of violence, by statistics, are most likely to be black, male, without a stable living environment, in special education, skipping an average of 42% of school days at neighborhood and alternative schools, and having a record of in-school behavioral flare-ups that is about eight times higher than the average student" (Waldek 2009). Violent outbursts also tended to occur within a relatively narrow window of opportunity, either two hours before or after school and

Nursing I Include Notes &
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The stengths of this design ae elated to the ease of application and usage. The design of the suvey was easy to administe and self explanatoy. While the weakness was elated to the willingness of the paticipant to Chapte Thee 5

paticipate complete the suvey and povide tuthful esponses. An additional weakness is elative to the age goup that was pesent fo the suvey and thei elationship to the use of computes.


Afte appoval of the study fom the Institutional Review Boad at Indiana

Wesleyan Univesity and Methodist Hospitals, Inc. Nusing staff wee ecuited to paticipate in fo the study. Paticipants wee eligible fo the study if they wee cuently an employee of the employed by Methodist Hospitals, Inc., It was also necessay that they hold a cuent nusing license, paticipated in online leaning, and wee able to ead and wite English. A egisteed nuse who has paticipated in…


Student characteristics for online learning success

The Internet and Higher Education, Volume 9, Issue 2, 2nd Quarter 2006, Pages 91-

105 Marcel S. Kerr, Kimberly Rynearson, Marcus C. Kerr

Chapter Three 13

Human Factor in Aviation
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Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.

Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents

The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…


Balk, A.D. & Bossenbroek, J.W. (2010). Aircraft Ground and Human Factors, A comparative study of the perceptions by ramp staff and management. NLR Air Transport Safety Institute.

Boeing (2013). Commercial Jet Statistical Summary of the Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959 -- 2012. Boeing 707.

Eldredge, D. Mangold, S.J. & Dodd, R.S. (1992). A Review and Discussion of Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. U.S. Department of Special Programs & Transportation Research Administration

Deitz, S.R. & Thomas, W.E (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance: Human Behavior & Stress in the Skies.

Collects Data to Test the
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The survey will not take much of your time. It will take approximately 5-10 minutes to complete.

The objective of this study is to determine human factors affecting the safe operation of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) at the United States Air Force. The study is a part of research project for a Master's degree program in aviation/aerospace management. The phrase "heavy" aircraft refers to cargo, transport, or refueling aircraft. Aviation incident refers to an incident in which either the military or the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) conducts a safety investigation.

Following is a list of possible attributes of UAV pilots. The scale is rated from 1 to 5; "1" being "not very important" and "5" being "very important."

Please Tick an appropriate answer from 1 to 6.

For a UAV pilot to demonstrate effective aviation safety, he or she should be a:

1. Graduate from Undergraduate Pilot Training…


Barribeau, P. Butler, B. Corney, J. et al. (2005). Survey Research. [email protected] Colorado State University Department of English. Retrieved [26 August 2011] from .

Trochim, W & Donnelly, J.P. (2007). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, (3RD Edition). Atomic Dog Publishing.USA.


Appendix 1: Survey of Perceived Characteristics of UAV Pilots

Prevention of Caries in Children
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Prevention Statistics

Children and young adults often have a much harder time adhering to dental hygiene routines that prevent decay and the progression of caries. Often times, they fail to understand the importance of the routines and the damage that could be caused. In order to strengthen primary prevention strategies, many local municipalities have begun adding fluoride to water sources. This is a great way to augment other prevention strategies because it requires no extra effort on behalf of those benefiting from its treatment. This current research aims to explore whether or not this secondary strategy has been successful in reducing rates of untreated caries in children and young adults, ages 6 to 19. The research used regression, z-Test, and t-Test analysis in order to test the hypothesis that adding fluoride to water does help prevent caries. All three tests suggested that this is true and that ultimately; adding fluoride…


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Water fluoridation data & statistics. Community Water Fluoridation. Web. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Untreated dental caries (cavities) in children ages 2-19, United States. CDC Feature. Web. 

Rozier, R. Gary. (2008). Effectiveness of methods used by dental professionals for the primary prevention of dental caries: A review of the evidence. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Web. 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. Web.

Women at Five State Prison
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5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66)

The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003)

The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties…

Normal Distribution
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Probability and Normal Distribution

In the study of statistics, probability is a key concept that illustrates and describes the randomness and likelihood of an event from happening given the number of ways it can happen and the number of outcomes that this event could probably happen. That is, probability in statistics helps determine how likely an event is going to happen, as the certainty of the event happening cannot be determined specifically and how many times, but the likelihood of it happening can be determined. Using probability for the researcher, statistician or business decision-maker would mean going through all possible outcomes for an event or outcome to happen. andomness and probability makes it possible for an event to not happen at all; or there is an even chance that the event may or may not happen; but there is also a likelihood that the event could happen after all. These…


DePaul University Quantitative Reasoning Center. Accessed on April 28, 2014. Available at: 

Urdan, T. (2005). Statistics in Plain English. NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates.

Statistical Analysis with SPSS Linear Regression Models
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Run a linear regression of time spent studying (Study; independent) predicting time spent watching TV (TV; dependent). Copy and paste your output and answer the following questions.


Descriptive Statistics



How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?

How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?


How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?

How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?

Pearson Correlation

How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?

How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?

Sig. (1-tailed)

How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?


How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?



How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?



How much time do…

Using Analysis of Variance to Study Student Achievement
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populations, factors, or variables.

The objective of carrying out this statistical analysis is to learn more about the relations between variables that may influence student performance in the Lincoln County schools. The specific variables of interest in this analysis are the region of the county and the curriculum. One relationship of interest is whether a difference in student performance can be attributed to the region of the county in which the schools are located and the curriculum that is being used at the various schools. There is also interest in exploring if student performance seem to change based on the combination of curriculum used at the school the students attend and the region in which the school is located.

(a) Data Samples

A randomization generator accessible on the Web was used to select the sample. Twenty individual students were selected with each student identified only by the number indicating their…

PTSD Comparative Study of Post
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Furthermore, the severity of the initial condition cannot be determined in relation to long-term affects.

VA clinics are the best source of information pertaining to older veterans and PTSD. It is not known where all veterans of previous wars are at the current time, but VA does have scattered statistics on older veterans. According to VA WWII veterans received a hero's welcome home, as opposed to Vietnam Veterans who were the targets of an angry public (National Center for PTSD, 2007b). The welcome that they received had a tremendous affect on the ability to cope and recover from the traumas associated with war. According to VA, the affects of PTSD on older veterans is often more subtle than in Vietnam Veterans or those from more recent conflicts. For instance, the older veteran may experience irrational fears, which can later be traced to trigger memories related to the war. Therefore, there…


Calhoun, P.S., Beckham, J.C., & Bosworth, H.B. (2002). Caregiver burden and psychological distress in partners of veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15, 205-212.

Henkel V, Mergl R, Kohnen R, Maier W, Moller HJ, Hegerl U. (2003). Identifying depression in primary care: a comparison of different methods in a prospective cohort study. BMJ 326:200-201.

Hoge, C., Castro, C., Messer, S., McGurk, D., Cotting, D., and Koffman, R. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems and Barriers to Care. 351:13-22. Retrieved June 30, 2008 at 

Kang HK, Natelson BH, Mahan CM, Lee KY, Murphy FM. (2003) Post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness among Gulf War veterans: a population-based survey of 30,000 veterans. Am J. Epidemiol 157:141-148.

EMV in Iranian Banks EMV
Words: 3023 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Methodology Chapter Paper #: 37609481
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This is largely due to time and logistical issues involved in conducting the face-to-face interviews. However, this still represents 50% of the entire sample population. Therefore, it is expected that the opinions expressed in the interviews will be a good representation of Iranian banks.

3.5 Data Collection

The primary aim of the study is to identify the challenges that Iranian banks face in the implementation of EMV. This research is divided into two portions. The first part will be the survey questionnaire. The second will be face-to-face interviews. Where possible, the researcher will visit the bank and administer the questionnaire in person. However, is some cases, this will not be possible, either because of the distances that need to be traveled or the schedule of the bank official. In these cases, the questionnaire will be emailed to the participant and they can return it at their convenience. As the sample…


Hall, C. 2009. New study pinpoints risk issues for Hispanic business owners. Houston Business Journal. Friday, May 8, 2009.

"List of Banks in Iran." 2010. Available at: [accessed August 29, 2010].

Sumner, M. 2000. Risk factors in enterprise-wide/ERP projects Journal of Information Technology 15, 317 -- 327

Coleman Et Al 2009 Patient Perceptions of
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Coleman et. al., (2009) Patient Perceptions of Obstetrician-gynecologists' Practices elated to HIV Testing. Maternal Child Health Journal 13: 355-363.

What were the objectives and hypothesis of the study?

The Coleman and colleagues (2009) study had four main objectives. The researchers sought to determine (1) the number of patients who were tested for HIV by their obstetrician-gynecologist (OBGYN); (2) investigate the attitudes of knowledge of patients concerning HIV testing and their personal risk status; (3) elucidate the key reasons that lead to declining an HIV test; and (4) examine how patients recall their OBGYN's approach to HIV testing.

The researchers hypothesized that women in their sample who were pregnant, seeking preconception care or who were women with risk factors for HIV infection would demonstrate recall for their OBGYN recommending an HIV test.

What was the overall goal/recommendation of the study?

The studying was predominantly seeking to determine whether or not female…


CDC (2008). Training: Policy Research and Development. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from .

Coleman, (2009). Patient Perceptions of Obstetrician-Gynecologists' Practices Related to HIV Testing. Maternal Child Health Journal, 13, 355-363.

DIGISTATS (2007). Descriptive Statistics; Inferential Statistics; Graphical Analysis. Retrieved on May 16, 2010 from .

Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.

Industrial and Organizational Psychology
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Industrial/organizational Psychology deals with the human component of organizations as well as clarifying primary motivational drives together with implications of people, socially, that work at the same place within a setting of an organization. Its research as well as the way it is being applied tries to put up characteristic human nature to be a way of efficiency and productivity in the process of facilitating environment which is conducive and safe as per their effect to the employee. All through I/Q psychology's rich history, it has applied statistical analysis and scientific researches in determining application of real-world in the work environment in trying to uphold efficiency in the process of offering an environment which is safe and is conducive to the satisfaction and well being of the employees.

Evolution of Industrial/Organizational Psychology

The genesis of I/Q psychology is from the early history of psychology in late 1800s at the time…


Kanfer, R. (2005). Self-Regulation Research in Work and I/O Psychology. Applied Psychology,

54(2), 186-191. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00203.x

Kanfer, R. (2009). Work Motivation: Advancing Theory and Impact. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2(1), 118-127. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2008.01120.x

Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and organizational psychology. Research and practice (5th ed.).

Tourism After September 11
Words: 11294 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53060413
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Terrorist Attacks on New York City

Consumer ehavior and Risk

Terrorism and Consumerism in the Melting Pot

How has September 11 Impacted Americans

Economic Impact of terrorism

Outlook for the New York Economy

Examination of the Effects on usiness

Regaining Consumer Confidence

Sampling Procedures

Survey Construction

Survey results

Recommendations for Further Studies

Survey of Consumer Patterns After The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Towers

Survey Results presented Graphically

Store Owner Interviews

The Impact of the Terrorist Attacks on New York City: One Year Later Chapter 1

The attacks on the World Trade Towers on September 11, 2001 threatened the American People's sense of security in a way that had not been felt since the attack on Pearl Harbor. To say that the attacks changed the lives of many people would be an understatement. The attacks literally brought the country to a halt for nearly three days. It can…


American Bankers Association. 2001. "Post Sept. 11 Survey Shows Nation's Bankers Are Optimistic." ABA Press Release, December 3, 2001.

Atkinson, J.W. 1957. Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review,

Barone, Ronald; M. Rigby, Peter;Schwartz, Bruce; Simonson; Arthur F; Chew; William H;

Eiseman, Barbara A, and Shipman, Todd A. 2002. Consequences of Sept. 11 Attacks Put

Percentile Ranks
Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39975758
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person's ability/skill/standing relative to other people in order to design an intervention (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2013; unyon, Coleman, & Pittenger, 2000). Summary statistics (descriptive statistics) allow for the assessor or researcher to summarize the raw data and scores from people being tested. The percentile rank or percentile score represents a person standing relative to other individuals on a particular test (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2013). There are some drawbacks to percentile scores. Obviously if the percentile rank is obtained without consideration for the data then the percentile rank may not be a meaningful or accurate summary statistic. For example, if one uses a standard distribution such as a Z. distribution to determine the percentile rank of a particular score and the distribution of raw scores is not normal then the percentile rank will not be an accurate reflection of the person standing on that particular measure (Huck, 2012). Perhaps, one of…


Cohen, J. R & Swerdlik, M. (2013). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurements (8th Ed). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

Huck, S.W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6th ed.).Columbus, OH: Allyn & Bacon.

Runyon, R.P., Coleman, K.A., & Pittenger, D.J. (2000). Fundamentals of behavioral statistics

(9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Americans and Canadians Differ in Their Online
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Americans and Canadians Differ in their Online Spending Habits?

It is no secret that the economies of most industrialized nations have been sluggish over the first part of the 21st century. However, consumer confidence in North America may be on the rise. For instance, according to a March 2012 euter report consumer confidence for Americans and Canadians remained stable as 26% of Americans (the highest level in over a year) and 28% of Canadians believed that their economies would improve over the next year. These figures are taken from the BC U.S. Consumer Outlook Index and the BC Canadian Consumer Outlook (BC COI and BC CCO respectively; euter, 2012). Of course this is really not as optimistic as the researchers depict it, because 26 or 28% does not represent a majority. Therefore, the real news is that the majority of citizens in these countries DO NOT believe there economy will…


Miller, G.E. (July 5, 2011). U.S. Vs. Canada consumer spending: Who is more budget savvy? In 20 Something Finance. Retrieved April 18, 2012, from - s-vs.-canada-consumer-spending/.

Reuters (March 22, 2012). Canadians and Americans share more than a border - we have similar concerns about economy, employment: RBC. In Reuters. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from .

IQ Testing
Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44167514
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person is given a raw score on a particular test the person has no way of knowing how their score compares with other scores on the same test. For example, if a person got a raw score of 62 on a test of reading the person really does not know what that score means relative to the scores of other people who took the same test. When people describe themselves or someone else being as scoring at a particular percentile on a certain ability or test they are referring to the percentile rank scored on a particular test. The percentile rank represents the number of people at or below a particular score on the test (unyon, Coleman, & Pittenger, 2000). For instance, the statement such as, "My child is in the 75th percentile in reading," means that the child scored higher than 75% of other children who took the same…


Cohen, J. R & Swerdlik, M. (2013). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurements (8th Ed). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

Huck, S.W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6th ed.).Columbus, OH: Allyn & Bacon.

Runyon, R.P., Coleman, K.A., & Pittenger, D.J. (2000). Fundamentals of behavioral statistics

(9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Social Sciences and its Statistical Package
Words: 806 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42631769
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Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Describe ways in which MS Excel can be used by a manager of an organization as a tool for interpreting data
There are different ways in which a manager of an organization can employ MS Excel as a tool for data interpretation. One of the uses of MS Excel is collating, which encompasses collecting associated data items into a single item. The layout and formatting of the worksheet can enable the managers to perceive data sets in a structured and organized formation, which augments clarity of the data. The second benefit is processing. Excel cells can include functions, formulas as well as references to other excel cells, that permit one to glean information in prevailing data sets. Therefore, excel functions can facilitate the process of interpreting a data set in a manner that is suitable to the data itself and the system in position.…

Marketing Case Study Funky Threads
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89379061
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Of 109 females respondents, 66.4% indicated that they had an intent to purchase. However, only 33.6% of the 61 males who responded indicated that they had an intention to purchase. This means that the brand appears to appeal more to women than men. Women will represent a higher percentage of the target market than men.

Gender * Purchase intention Crosstabulation

Purchase intention


No, not likely

Yes, likely






% within Purchase intention









% within Purchase intention







% within Purchase intention

The first section of the research examines the likelihood of being able to develop a loyal customer following. Five questions were included in this section of the study. All five questions related to the willingness of customers to remain loyal to the brand, and if they would be willing to pay…