Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Because the father sees his death as attached to the coming to life of the son, the son's life is also representative, or so the author claims, of the father's return to life, and even his immortality. The logical leaps required to make this claim are legion. First, it must be assumed that the father sees his son's life as a continuation of his own because the son's life caused (through requiring sacrifice) the father's death. This is akin to saying that if a car runs over and kills a cat, the car -- as the agent of death -- somehow takes on the life of the cat. The coincidence of causation is not enough, to most minds, to imply a continual relationship of the sort ascribed to fathers and sons here. The author of this tract goes even further, though, not only asserting that this relationship will be automatically…
Plato conceived that there were two great causes of human corruption, viz., bad or ill-directed education, and the corrupt influence of the body on the soul. His ethical discussions, therefore, have for their object, the limiting of the desires, and the cure of the diseases produced by them in the soul; while his political discussions have for their immediate object, the laying down of right principles of education, and enforcing them by the constitution of the laws and the power of the State. His two great works, in fact, the Republic and the Laws, may be considered as theories and plans of civic education, rather than schemes of legislation and details of laws. The former, it is true, inquires more particularly into the principles on which a right government may be formed, and the latter presents a systematic view of the principles of legislation: but, comprising, as both works do,…
Plato. (1979). Platonis Opera. 5 vols. Edited by John Burnet. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Plato (1950/2001). Dialogues of Plato. Washington Square Press.
Plato (1973). The Republic and Other Works. Anchor Books.
Plato (1956/2008). Great Dialogues of Plato: Complete Text of the Republic, the Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Ion, Meno, Symposium. Signet Classic.
Dialectical method, sometimes referred to as the Socratic Method, is where there are two points of opinion that lie on opposite ends of a spectrum that "debate." Through the process of debate the participants as well as the audience can acquire a deeper understanding of the topic being investigated. The participants will institute a reasoned argument from each point-of-view and present this during the course of the dialectic. The dialectical method is heavily rooted in logic and reason and does not make provisions for emotional or ethical appeals; which would be included in "rhetoric."
In Classical Philosophy, Socrates and his dialogues represent the ideal representation of the dialectic. Through reason and debate two individuals could tease out inconsistencies with different theories to attempt to continually get closer to the truth. When an inconsistency is identified, it can be thought of as more of a starting point than an end. That…
Relational dialectics theory in part explains the success of Seinfeld in capturing the tension inherent in interpersonal relationships. In Seinfeld, humor allows the tension to dissipate. Yet there remains an underlying tension that makes viewers cringe, even as they laugh. The same is true for Larry David's Curb Your Enthusiasm. In Seinfeld, the titular character Jerry Seinfeld might be the least cringe-worthy of the central foursome. Even slapstick Kramer does little to convey relational dialectics in action. It is really George and Elaine who carry most of the deeper humor in the show, partly because of their relational dialectics. Even Jerry, though, gets involved with romantic partners and thereby exhibits several aspects of relational dialectics theory. George Costanza, though, practically embodies every aspect of relational dialectics in his tension-ridden relationships and conversations.
One of the ways George embodies relational dialectics is his pathological lying, which practically defines his character.…
His viewpoint is neither traditionally Christian and therefore subject to Church doctrine, nor strictly pagan and therefore subject to strict rationality. Hegel's working out of the thesis and antithesis of life and death, and the synthesis, which is love, is a kind of mystical interpretation of the Christian mysteries. What Hegel could not understand in light of objectivity destroyed, he attempts to explain in light of Love as the synthesis of life and death. Again, it is the crowning of passion as ultimate arbiter. Love cannot be explained except as it is accountable only to itself. Thus, Hegel may say that God is Love without risk of corrupting his doctrine. What Hegel fails to do, however, is unite it with reason, as Gardner states is necessary for a complete picture. Passion, according to Hegel, is still the de facto ruler. Passion, since it is essentially God-like, cannot be ruled. Therefore,…
Bjerke AJ, (2011), 'Hegel and the Love of the Concept,' HeyJ LII, 76-89.
Life (of Hegel), n.d.,
Smith, MK, (2008), 'Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences,' the encyclopedia of informal education,
In the conclusion to his chapter on "Perception," Hegel argues that since the "being-for-self' that is burdened with a 'being-for-another' [ ....] are essentially in a single unity, what we now have in unconditioned absolute universality, and consciousness here for the first time truly enters the realm of the Understanding" (Hegel 77). By this Hegel means that only by understanding the opposition of being-for-self and being-for-another that exists concurrently in the individual can one come to understand and order the variety of perceptions that make up consciousness. This is because the individual is made up of these constituent, oppositional states of being, both of which have no meaning or intelligibility with out the other, because only in their opposition are they able to define themselves and thus provide the individual with some sort of context for the understanding of consciousness.
By "being-for-self" Hegel means a thing's being in actuality…
Hegel, G.F.W. Phenomenology of the Spirit. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.
dialectic of the Enlightenment in terms of the values of truth, progress and liberation. We will tangentially see how these concepts are linked to modernity and post modernity. Also, we will see what the two alternatives to dealing with the demise of the Enlightenment as Ferraris and Taraboletti Segre argue. The author will also refer to Lyotard and Habermas's stance on the issue. We will answer the question of why one can not separate the concerns of modernity and postmodernity from each other. We will see how the two discourses inform each other in terms of above subjects.
The dialectic of the Enlightenment has almost always been known in terms of the values of truth, progress and liberation. ather than having to look upon it as having died Ferraris and Taraboletti Segre argue that by becoming a philosophical issue, it is now beyond being localized to one discipline. The modern…
Fairfield, P.. (1994). Habermas, Lyotard and Political Discours. Available:
http://www.*****/pdf/19/rp_19_5.pdf. Last accessed 20 Feb 2012.
2. elational Dialectics Theory
elational dialectics theory is defined as an "interpretive theory of meaning-making in familial and non-kin relationships" (Baxter a.L., 2008). The dialectical process of thinking increases in a major manner our general view of the conceptual framework on life and relationships that we form in life. Through the dialectical view, we are able to see what we could not see before in relationships, as well as seeing afresh the things that we saw at a surface level. The theory is very instrumental in crisis or conflict solution and mediation between two conflicting parties.
The dialectical theory has employed four approaches mainly in solving dialectical tensions described as follows:
(a). Totality; which recognizes that contradiction is part and parcel of the human existence and cannot be understood in isolation. It says that dialectics are related intrinsically to each other. Therefore there is a great interdependence of people in…
Counseling Central, (2011). Counseling Definition of the Week: Self-Disclosure. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from http://counsellingcentral.com/counselling-definition-of-the-week-self-disclosure/
Taylor D. & Altman I., (2008). Social Penetration Theory. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/900829/social_penetration_theory.html?cat=72
Baxter a.L., (2008). Relational Dialectics. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from http://www.communicationencyclopedia.com/public/tocnode?id=g9781405131995_yr2011_chunk_g978140513199523_ss24-1
German philosopher Hegel developed a philosophy that can be called phenomenology, or Philosophy and the Actual World. Whereas previous philosophers concerned themselves with abstractions, Hegel wanted to apply philosophical inquiry to the world that we can know directly. Hegel appears to be more concerned with effects than with causes. However, Hegel is a philosopher and as such he is eminently concerned with reason.
Like the ancient Greeks, Hegel appreciated the method of the dialectic. The dialectical tool is effective in philosophy because it phrases issues in a question and answer method. The reader places himself or herself in the role of the inquirer, and a knowledgeable philosopher can answer the probing philosophical questions. Using dialectic, Hegel was also able to "converse" with his predecessors in philosophical tradition such as Kant. The dialectic allowed Hegel to grapple with complex philosophical contradictions. Hegel could resolve those contradictions using the tool…
The country had been defeated in this war, it had lost all its colonies and many of its European lands, as well as being forced to pay a large sum of money to the winning allies. It could no longer have a navy or aircrafts and its army and number of soldiers, as well as armaments, was kept under strict supervision by the allied powers. Summarizing all this, in the period after the First World War and equivalent to the ascension of the Nazi Party, Germany was thoroughly defeated and, even more importantly, its national pride was put to great test. This may explain in part why a party that would promise to revive a great Germany that would take back its place among the world powers would gain popular support in the country.
On the other hand, the war, as well as the Depression that followed throughout the 1920s…
Finally, Marx supports the idea that the elements of the market economy are each and everyone determinant for the eventual outcome of the society.
3. What is the significance of the term dialectics in Marxist thought -- and how might this be relevant for the study of social change?
The term and the technique used are rather important for the way in which Marx created and supported his arguments. In this sense, dialectics includes a technique of arguments and counterarguments which are meant to underline the strength of one point or another. In this attempt, Marx uses for instance Aristotle's argument in relation to the man being a social animal. Another example of the use of dialects is the presentation of Proudhon's arguments in relation to the idea of social and of society.
4. What does Marx mean by describing "the production of life" as a "the production of life…
Mark, Karl. Early Writings. New York: Penguin Classics, 1975.
" He also confirmed to himself that God was the origin of his thought, and therefore because his thoughts were real, God must also be real.
3. Descartes -- Senses and Knowledge
When we went outside as a class, part of Descartes ideas was visible in our observations. All the students had a different perception of the external world. Some focused on certain people and certain objects, which were not seen in the same exact way as another student. This shows that the human mind sees a unique version of what our senses tell us is reality. Reality, might however, escape the limitations of the human mind. For instance, a particular relation to a person and an object, this case a tree, might be seen as being a certain way in my mind but a much different way in another student's mind. Each person's unique experience, through the perception of…
Adorno's Negative Theology And The Religious Dimension Of Art
Religion in art can perform a variety of roles. A religious picture, literary text or piece of music can be didactic in intent, spreading knowledge of religious teachings, ideologies and practices; it can serve a commemorative purpose, reminding present generations of the significance of past episodes, or the examples of particular individuals, in shaping present religious belief and practice; it can be inspiring in an emotional or spiritual sense, acting to create a suitable emotion or feeling of a religious nature in its audience. Art with religious content or purpose can be contemplative or bombastic in character, and can convey a message that is conservative or radical in political, social or cultural terms; it can operate on an individual or a collective level, and inspire engagement with the world or withdrawal from it; it can work through great formal simplicity or…
Adorno, Theodor W., Aesthetic Theory, trans. Hullot-Kentor, Robert (London: Athlone Press, 1996).
Adorno, Theodor W., Dialectic of Enlightenment (London: Verso, 1979).
Adorno, Theodor W., Kierkegaard: Construction of the Aesthetic, trans. Hullot-Kentor, Robert (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1989).
Adorno, Theodor W., Notes to Literature, trans. Nicholson, Shierry Weber (New York: Columbia University Press, 2 vols., 1992).
The crime rates in the western countries started when the Europe experienced a growth rate, which was the time of the 19th century industrial era. During the period, there was an influx of immigration from different part of the world that led to the urbanization and growth of the cities. Moreover, different thoughts were emanated during the period such as romanticism, modern western industrialization, rationalization of enlightenment, and Darwin theory of evolution. The book, "The Humanistic Tradition," (Fiero, 2010 p 1) illustrates the emergence of different thoughts that include realism and romanticism of the 19th century (Fiero, 2010). However, different thoughts in the books are reflected in the film titled the Seven (1995). The chapter 27 of the books reveals the industrial progress of the 19th century, the idealistic thought, nature of European literature, and Asian literature. However, the crime rates was part of the major characteristics of…
Fiero, G.K. (2010). The Humanistic Tradition Book 5: Romanticism, Realism, and the Nineteenth-Century World.(6th Edition). Chicago. Humanities & Social Science.
Claire, K. (2015). Synopsis for Seven (1995) . Amazon Company.
In that regard, the counselor would want to explore any possible connection between the social turmoil that might have been responsible for generating his subsequent social disillusionment. To the extent the counselor determines that the subject's social disenfranchisement is attributable to his involvement or response to those social conflicts he would assist the subject evaluate the objective conclusions and expectations that have shaped his outlook as an older adult in substantially different social circumstances and living in a very different society than the one responsible for his feelings about government representatives and authority figures in general (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
B. Preliminary Hypotheses of Main Apparent Problems
Hypothesis # 1 -- Multiple Causes of Intimacy Issues
First, it is likely that there are multiple concurrent causes of the subject's apparent difficulty establishing and maintaining close intimate relationships and effective communications within his marriage. The psychodynamic perspective teaches that it is…
Adler, a. (1927) Understanding Human Nature. Center City: Hazelden
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Volume 76,
No. 1; (2010): 13-21.
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life.. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Indeed, arguably he is playing a little loose with the terms here, for persuasion, while it may be based on logic, is rarely simply logic. Rather it is logic combined with at least a coating of emotion.
In the following passage toward the end of his speech Obama uses language that I believe to be persuasive in a way in which Aristotle would approve, for Obama is using facts to build a case for his point-of-view rather than simply trading in emotion that he has called up for the occasion: This is not sophistry.
And that's why this award must be shared with everyone who strives for justice and dignity -- for the young woman who marches silently in the streets on behalf of her right to be heard even in the face of beatings and bullets; for the leader imprisoned in her own home because she refuses to abandon…
Nietzsche's ideas center on the will-to-power to escape the triviality of the society. Nietzsche argued against the "slave mentality" that permeates society causing the people to live lives devoid of joy and grandeur (ibid).
Phenomenology, on the other hand, focuses on the "essential structures found within the stream of conscious experience -- the stream of phenomena -- as these structures manifest themselves independently of the assumptions and presuppositions of science" (faxed material, date, p. 174).
Edmund Husserl, who is considered as the first great phenomenologist, developed transcendental phenomenology which very purpose is to investigate the phenomena of the world without making assumptions. This requires the exclusion of one's presupposition about the existence of the external, physical, and objective world. Phenomenology's end is to be able to describe the conscious experiences of human's "lifeworld" (ibid).
Heidegger, having heard Husserl's call for a need to develop a philosophical system which understands…
Faxed material author. (date). Title of the book. Location: Publisher.
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia (2008a). Idealism. Retrieved from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575556/Idealism.html on April 4, 2009
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia (2008b). Dialectic. Retrieved from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761551873/Dialectic.html on April 4, 2009
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2006). Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hegel / on April 4, 2009.
In this paper, he discusses the role of culturel in relation to the present age of "barbarism." He makes the important statement that in the age that has produces barbaric events such as Auschwitz, cultural activities such as the writing of poetry are no longer possible. By this he implies that the age that produces barbaric events can no longer act as if their cultural products or creations are exempt from the responsibility for these events. Therefore, to assume that one can continue to write poetry and engage in other cultural activities is "impossible."
If we unpack these views, we find that what Adorno is referring to is the underling way of thought or the submerged ideologies that are not "visible" but which tend to shape, motivate and determine the cultural output. In other words, Adorno in this article draws our attention to the underlying "forces" that exist in Western…
Law of Attraction
Metaphysical Law of Attraction
Need for consideration of Metaphysical Law of Attraction
Attitude and their Effects
Positive Effect in everyday interactions
In conflict management
Negative Affect As an indicator of an unhappy relationship
Paving the road to D-I-V-O--C-E
Positive Affect Paves the oad to espect and Admiration
Use of Law of Attraction and Intercultural Communication
Metaphysical Law of Attraction
"Thou, constrained by no limits, in accordance with thine own free will, in whose hand we have placed thee, shalt ordain for thyself the limits of thy nature"..Giovanni Pico della Mirranda, Oranto "De hominis dignitatis, " or "God's Address to Adam."
"If you're not an infinite being, what would be the purpose of your life?"..Wyne Dyer, The Power of Intention
What are your beliefs about the nature of the universe? Do you have believed in order, universal natural laws, cosmic intelligence, or chaos? Do you believe…
Bassili, J.N. Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 2008. 261-286.
Baxter, L.A. & Braithwaite, D.O. Introduction: Meta-theory and theory in interpersonal communication research. In L.A. Baxter & D.O. Braithwaite (Eds.), Engaging theories in interpersonal communication: multiple perspectives (pp. 1-18). 2008b Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Bochner, S.. Cultures in contrast: Studies in cross cultural interaction. New York, NY: Pergamon, 2007. Print 220-2509
Cialdini, R.B. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. 2001. Print
Karl Marx begins as an interpreter of the prior philosophy of Hegel, extremely popular in Marx's youth. Hegel espoused a philosophy known as "absolute idealism," which entails a complicated re-interpretation of Kant in order to arrive at a process which Hegel refers to as dialectic. The Hegelian dialectic proposes an original idea, thought or condition which Hegel calls the "thesis," this conjures its own opposite "antithesis," and the struggle between these two contraries eventually resolves itself in "synthesis." The result of the synthesis eventually emerges as a new thesis, and thus Hegel proposes a forward-moving philosophy of history, which Hegel saw as "unfolding the Absolute Idea of God."
Marx's philosophy is usually known as "dialectical materialism," which indicates his debt to the Hegelian dialectic. Hegel had after all proposed that the driving force of this unfolding historical process was essentially the "spirit of the age" (a sort of mystical atmospheric…
Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia: Current Criminological Themes" by ick Sarre (2006) focuses on the affect of British colonialism in Australia on the Aborigines, connecting it to a vast overrepresentation of Aborigines in the Australian penal system. "The Left ealist Perspective on ace, Class, and Gender" by Walter S. DeKeseredy (2006) illustrates the fact that, in the United States, it cannot be said that there is 'justice for all;' "First Nations people and African-Americans are much more likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than members of the dominant culture who commit the same crimes" (p. 49). Throughout most of the articles, different approaches to solving such attitudes are explored, such as the left realist theory and the postmodern perspective.
The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective…
Abu-Lughod, Lila (ed.). (1998). Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.). (1992). Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A
Quest for Consensus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
His underlying interest was to understand the basic forms of religious life for all societies. In Elementary Forms, Durkheim argues that the totems the aborigines venerate are actually expressions of their own conceptions of society itself. This is true not only for the aborigines, he argues, but for all societies (ibid).
eligion, for Durkheim, is not "imaginary," although he does deprive it of what many believers find essential. eligion is very real; it is an expression of society itself, and indeed, there is no society that does not have religion. We perceive as individuals a force greater than ourselves, which is our social life, and give that perception a supernatural face. We then express ourselves religiously in groups, which for Durkheim makes the symbolic power greater. eligion is an expression of our collective consciousness, which is the fusion of all of our individual consciousnesses, which then creates a reality of…
Cotterrell, R. (1999). Emile Durkheim: Law in a Moral Domain. Sanford, CA: Stanford
Univ. Press. p243.
Emile, D. (1947). Extract from the Division of Labor. New York, NY: The Free Press.
He is not longer alienated from the sector of society that she represents. Their relationship bridges the gap and provides the fuel to take the country into a new direction.
However, things are not all rosy for the couple. They have to overcome the prejudices that each group, Mexican and African-American, has for each other as well as battling prejudice and stereotypes from whites.
To recap, the author has considered the novel America by John Debrizzi. hat makes this a bit more difficult to digest the novel's contents is that Debrizzi is a sociologist. To properly understand the novel, one must understand the social theory behind it. Therefore, the author first considered the theoretical implications, specifically Debrizzi's working out of Mills dichotomy between individual and society. In this, they considered how the Marxist dialectic and the alienation from the means of production apply. Finally, they considered the novel, particularly the…
Debrizzi, John . America. Withita Falls, KS: Outskirts Press, 2009.
Mills, C. Wright. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1959.
Velasquez, Manuel. Philosophy. 8th. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth, 2001.
Tracy Bowen set out in 2003 to ask six artists how they were "exchanging and integrating manual and digital procedures as a way of producing images" (Bowen, 2003, p. 220) and their comfort levels with the evolving, then still somewhat new, digital platforms like Photoshop or Paint. Themes emerged from the responses Bowen (2003) discovered, of which she focused on the increased access to images provided by the Internet (p. 222), ease of manipulation and reproduction of images using digital programs (p. 223), and a "tug-of-war between the seductive authority of digital imaging programs and the web, and the artists' yearning for the physicality of the material art object and being immersed in its hand-made realisation" (p. 224). This was the theme Bowen explored by interviewing six artists aged 25-55, who "represent many other artists" (219) balancing work and creative time. She concluded that moving into the digital platform came…
Bowen, T. (2003). Making art in a digital/cyber culture: exploring the dialectic between the manual creator and the digital self. Digital Creativity 14(4), 219-227.
Gerring, J. (2011). How good is good enough? A multi-dimensional, best-possible standard for research design. Political Research Quarterly 64(3), 625-636. Retrieved from people.bu.edu/jgerring/documents/ResearchDesign.pdf
Gwynne, R. (1999). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Introduction to Speech Communication.
University of Central Florida. Retrieved from http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~rbrokaw/maslow.htm
Authors From the Frankfurt and Birmingham Schools
The Frankfurt School and the Birmingham School are similar in that both partake in a critique of popular culture. Both have roots in Marxism, as well, though the latter rejected the fundamentals of Marxist thought. In one sense, the Birmingham School grew out of the Frankfurt School and expanded or deepened the critical interpretation of popular culture begun by the Frankfurt School authors. In another way, the Birmingham School established its own unique take on popular culture that broke with the perspective of the Frankfurt School and its assessment of why the working class failed to rise up and overthrow the ruling class, as Marx had predicted. This paper will compare the theories of two authors from these two schools and show how they are oppose one another at times, how they reflect one another on other occasions and how they complement one…
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. NY: Continuum.
Hoggart, R. (1957). The Uses of Literacy. UK: Chatto, Windus.
Hoggart, R. (1973). 'Culture: Dead and Alive,' in Speaking to Each Other, vol. 1:
About Society. UK: Penguin.
If dread enters as the knowledge that there is no knowledge from which to derive a decision, yet decision is all there is, then we reach a complicated idea of what comprises the individual. If there were a concrete and appreciable version of each person, ready at any time to assess, then the concept of dread would have less terrible implications. The fact is, when penetrated by the nothing of pure possibility, the reach of this nothing is beyond almost all conception. There never really is an individual, just some ongoing process of change. The nothing alienates the individual further than from mere others and the world. The nothing of dread brings into its fold, the individual. The individual supports this nothing and yet must determine itself on such grounds. hereas before, we had the Kierkegaardian maxim of individual as truth, we now have no grounds for determining anything. The…
Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus: And Other Essays. Alfred A. Knopf, 1955.
Translated by Justin O'Brien.
Kieregaard, Soren. "Dread and Freedom." Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre:
The Basic Writings of Existentialism. Trans. Walter Kaufman. New York.
There is much to the assertion by Nachman Syrkin that the Jews have persisted in history because the performed a socio-economic function that other peoples did not want to do or could not do. In his 1898 "The Jewish Problem and the Socialist Jewish State, " Syrkin lays out these ideas. Regarding this, Syrkin argued that a classless society and national sovereignty were the only means of solving the Jewish question completely. He felt that this social revolution would be the key to the normalization of the Jewish condition. ith this in mind, he argued that the Jew must therefore join the proletariat as the only way to end class struggle and redistribute power justly. Since the bourgeoisie betrayed the principles of liberalism, then Jews must be the torchbearers of Socialism.
hile Syrkin is many times seen as working on his own, however he had predecessors and contemporaries who had…
Borochov, Ber. "The national question and the class struggle." 1997. In the Zionist idea.
Edited by Arthur Hertzberg, 355-360. New York: Jewish Publication Society.
Hess, Moses. "Rome and Jerusalem." 1997. In the Zionist idea. Edited by Arthur
Hertzberg, 120-139. New York: Jewish Publication Society.
Synthesis: This quote is similar to a comment Nick makes about the Tom and Daisy Buchanan in F. Scott Fitzgerald's the Great Gatsby: "They were careless people, Tom and Daisy -- they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness or whatever it was that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made" (188). Though the Buchanans are not exactly like Mama Elena in their motives, and completely unlike her in their "carelessness" because Mama Elena's destructive impulses are controlled and purposeful, both quotes demonstrate the selfishness and amount of control that the characters involved like to exert on the others around them.
Dialectic Journal #2
Quote: "Each person has to discover what will set off these explosions in order to live, since the combustion that occurs when one of them is ignited is what nourishes…
The basic materials might include tin cans, fragments of speech, a cough, canal boats chugging or natural snatches of Tibetan chant (all these are in a work called Etude Pathetique).
Musical instruments are not taboo: one piece used a flute that was both played and struck. Differences in balance or performance can also be used to extend the range of materials. All of this is very similar to the way that the sample integrated into popular music have included news actuality, political statements and fragments of other people's compositions." (2003) Nisbett additionally relates that the "preliminary concrete recording was described analytically in terms of a variety of sound qualities" as follows:
Instantaneous content - frequency spectrum or timbre (which might contain separate harmonics, bands of noise or a mixture of the two);
The melodic sequence of successive sound structure; and Its dynamics or envelope (the way sound intensity varies in…
Bibliography of Electronic Music." Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966.
Darter, Tom. Greg Armbruster, ed. "The Art of Electronic Music." New York: Quill, 1984.
Davies, Hugh, ed. "International Electronic Music Catalogue." Cambridge: M.I.T Press, 1967.
Dennis, Brian. "Experimental Music in Schools." London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
Deutsch, Herbert a. "Synthesis: An Introduction to the History, Theory, and Practice of Electronic Music." New York: Alfred Publishing Company, Inc., 1976.
Carol Tenny wrote in a recent study that, "Verbs describing psychological states often form passive structures in the English spoken in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania." (Tenny 1998-page 591) She also states that there is no prohibition on verbal passives for non-agentive psych verbs produced by universal grammar principles, but English verbal passives are more felicitous as the verb becomes more eventive.
By speaking in a more verbally passive style, Pittsburghers are quite distinct in their word usage. Pittsburghese includes words that may or may not be recognized in other locales or by people traveling to or through Pittsburgh. ords such as; gesundheit, a word used to express goodwill to a person who has sneezed, or gumband, another word for rubberband are examples of Pittsburghese.
ords that are included in Pittsburghese but are also used throughout the area surrounding Pittsburgh (eastern Ohio and northwest est Virginia) includes; berm, which is the shoulder of…
Andrus, J., Johnstone, B., Danielson, a.E., (2006) Mobility, Indexicality, and the Enregisterment of "Pittsburghese," Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 77-104
Bodnar, J.E., Weber, M.P., Simon, R.D. (2000) Lives of Their Own: Blacks, Italians, and Poles in Pittsburgh 1900-1960, Springfield, Illinois: University of Illinois Press
Creative Host opens City of Bridges Cafe at Pittsburgh Airport, (2005) Nation's Restaurant News Vol. 39 Number 32, p. 28 From General Reference Center Gold
Furniss, Charlie.(2007) "Modern languages: more than half of the world's languages could be extinct by the end of the century, and many may not last beyond 2050. But an unikely saviour is at hand: far from bringing about cultural homogenisation, as many had predicted, the internet seems to be keeping endangered languages alive" Geographical, Vol 79 Number 4, pp 53-62
The capitalist, in Marx's view, merely accumulated wealth and used that wealth to unjustly make more wealth, like an aristocrat of old. The capitalist's exploitation of the worker was no progress at all. It was merely the latest manifestation of the age-old dialectic of the haves vs. The have-nots. The have-nots inevitably overthrew the haves, came to power, and exploited the lower orders once again, as had occurred in the new economic system. Likewise, Nietzsche questioned the idea that Christianity had made human beings more moral and civilized, he felt it had merely made them less creative and more complacent. Progress should not be measured through the creation of more social controls. Nietzsche advocated a return to a Dionysian worship of the body, not a containment of the body.
However radical these critiques, however, both Marx and Nietzsche in their own ways created visions of progress that were fundamentally utopian…
elational satisfaction as a function of relational maintenance techniques and relational satisfaction as a function of type and frequency of contact between spouses.
There are two contradictory maxims that complicate the military phenomena: the first is "out of sight out of mind." The second is "absence makes the heart grow fonder." As applied to the military situation with one spouse separated from the other over long periods of intermittent time, the first maxim denotes that connection of one spouse to the other will be weakened, whilst the second maxim indicates that the opposite effect will occur and that their relationship will be strengthened due too the intensity of their longing for one another. Most research studies on military relationships seem to tend to the former indicating that the marital dynamics often seem to be at risk due to the periodically long and consistent separation of one spouse from the other…
Baxter, L.A., & Montgomery, B.M. (1996). Relating: Dialogues and dialectics. New York: Guilford Press.
Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2007). Research methods in psychology. Sage, USA.
Galloway, J. (1987) Women in Combat Air University Review, Pdf. airpower.maxwell.af.mil
Sahlstein, EM (2004). Relating at a distance: Negotiating being together and being apart in long-distance relationships Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 21(5): 689 -- 710
Greek and Roman times, rhetoric and rhetoric theory has been one of the issues that were discussed and improved, appearing in almost every aspect of life. There was rhetoric in politics, but also in everyday life, in discussions or seminars. When declaiming something and sustaining your point-of-view, you were actually exercising rhetoric.
This constant evolution of rhetoric theory gave way today to a new theoretical description. According to our source, "the new rhetoric is a theory of argumentation." The theory of argumentation, as part of the new rhetoric theory, comes as a completion to the theory of demonstration and he two are closely linked. Indeed, even instinctively, we argument something in order to demonstrate our conclusion, in order to prove our interlocutory our point-of-view. Argumentation and demonstration are such complementary.
As follows, as in any rhetoric theory, the argumentation, as an act of rhetoric, is given by the orator, in…
1. Golden, James; Berquist, E. Goodwin. The Rhetoric of Western Thought. Eighth Edition. Pp. 336-356
Geology was one of the sources of Marx's views about social system and it's structure (the idea of formation). Among the biological discoveries that influenced on Marx's sociological views were the discovery of cell, cell theory of the organism's structure and the most important was evolutionary teaching of Darwin that was stated in work "The origins of species." Marx saw biological analogue of his theories in Darwin's work and it was a stimulus for further work as well.
The basic question of sociology is a question about interaction of material and spiritual values in the life of society.
Marx introduced a new and independent variable in this process, which plays a key role in the relations that exist in society and it was a mode of material production. Besides he supported the views about the initial role of being in relation to society's consciousness, but not in the sense of…
Korsch, Karl Marxism and Philosophy, Article 1923 available on web: http://www.marxists.org/archive/korsch/1923/marxism-philosophy.htm
Marxism, Article available on web: http://www.webref.org/sociology/m/marxism.htm
Cliff Slaughter Marxism and the class struggle, Article 1975 available on web: http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/en/slaughte.htm
Blunden, Andy Origins of Marxism Article available on web: http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/help/marxism.htm
The central focus of the book is the search for self and identity and an attempt to answer the question of what happens when men leave the protective normative and restraining influence of society. The central figure of Kurtz is a man who has broken free of the constraints of a sick society. However the novel also questions whether Kurtz too has become evil and lost his own sense of direction. The question is posed questions whether the human "heart of darkness" is not the real problem. If one interprets the book from this perspective, as a work that states that human nature or the human heart is essentially flawed, then one could conclude that Heart of Darkness is in fact more gloomy or pessimistic then the Wasteland.
The Heart of Darkness is a complex work that can be interpreted on many different levels: psychological, sociological, ethical and political. The…
Bloom, Harold, ed. 1(986). T.S. Eliot's the Waste Land. New York: Chelsea House,
Conrad, Joseph. (1946) Youth: Heart of Darkness, the End of the Tether; Three Stories. London J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1946. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24227703
Eder, Doris L. (1984).Three Writers in Exile: Pound, Eliot & Joyce. Troy, NY: Whitston, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=75053211
Adorno's theories on mass culture and commoditization were one of the fundamentals of postmodernism as it appeared in the 20th century. Even if rejected by many, nevertheless, his theories help explain some of the cultural phenomenon, such as the success of the American type culture, with its Hollywood movies and McDonald culture, against the traditional European one.
The tango dance is one of the most representative forms of manifestation of the Argentinean spirit and people. orn in the mid-1800s, tango was quickly exported to Europe and became a true success story, until its downfall in 1955. It was reborn in 1983 and has been a success ever since.
Investigating Adorno's theories and applying them in the case of tango, we may wonder whether this is the best example we may choose to argument the truth in Adorno's statements. Indeed, while on one hand, tango can be considered an element of…
1. Watson, Ben. THEODOR ADORNO & MASS CULTURE. Goldsmiths College. October 1995. On the Internet at http://www.militantesthetix.co.uk/adorno/twaprimer.htm
2. Theodor W. Adorno. On the Internet at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/adorno/
3. Watson, Ben. THEODOR ADORNO & MASS CULTURE. Goldsmiths College. October 1995. On the Internet at
His career at school and university was undistinguished - his certificate mentioned his "inadequate grasp of philosophy." At Tubingen university he studied not philosophy but theology - and in a sense all his philosophy was essentially a theology, an exploration of the workings of the world-spirit which he identified with God."
He spent time as a family tutor and worked in Frankfurt and Berne. His work as a tutor gave him a lot of free time that he could devote to his private examination of the world and history. His private studies were not impeded by a hard or long houred job.
In 1801 he won his first university post at the University of Jena. After the Battle of Jena in 1806 when Napoleon defeated the Prussians, Hegel saw the emperor riding past."
He soke of this years later and said it had a huge and significant impact on his…
HISTORIAN LOOKS at HEGEL PHILOSOPHICALLY:
CRITICAL EXAMINATION of HEGELIAN DIALECTIC, DETERMINISM, and CONTINGENCY
G.W.F. Hegel: Introduction to the Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1840 edition)
Master and Margarita by Bulgakov
Mikhail Bulgakov's novel "The Master and Margarita" is one of the brightest pieces of Soviet literature on the hand with such masterpieces as One day of Ivan Denisovich by Alexander Soljenitzin and Quite follows Don by Mikhail Sholohov.
'The Master and Margarita" impresses by the unity of philosophy, religion and satire on Soviet society. "The Master and Margarita" may be also considered as one of the greatest philosophical novels of modern times. Bulgakov touches immortal human problems in the novel: relationships of individual and society on the hand with vales of his contemporaries. Deep philosophical and ethic meaning of the novel is supplemented by bitter irony and witty sarcastic description of Soviet ussian society. Bulgakov's innovation in The Master and Margarita is obvious. Disposing vices and lawlessness of Soviet Moscow he doesn't choose a common method of justice, relying on God and good powers. Instead…
Bulgakov, Mikhail The Master and Margarita Penguin Classics 2001
During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and put forth his views in a plethora of writings known as the Economic and philosophical Manuscripts, that remained unpublished until the 1930s. It was also in Paris that Marx developed his life long association with Friedrich Engels. (Karl Marx, 1818-1883)
At the end of 1844 Marx was debarred from Paris and with Engels migrated to Brussels. In the initiation of 1848, Marx moved back to Paris when a revolution first emerged and onto Germany where he instituted again in Cologne, the Neue heinishce Zeitung. In later periods Marx settled in London, and was optimistic about the imminence of a new revolutionary emergence in Europe. He re-entered the Communist League and wrote two prolonged pamphlets on the 1848 revolution in France and its repercussions, the Class Struggles in France and the 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. He had a…
Adams, John. Ideology. Retrieved at http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/Ideology.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Biography: Mao Zedong. Retrieved at http://il.essortment.com/maozedongbiogr_rkok.htm. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Bunton, Hedley P. Forty Years of China: Chapter 11 - the thoughts and acts of Mao Tse-tung. 1988. Retrieved at http://www.acay.com.au/~bunton/china40y/chap11.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Karl Marx, 1818-1883. Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Retrieved at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
So, clearly, a progression of thought has occurred to bring mankind to the brand of reality that Berman endorses; however, he seems unable to clearly delineate or characterize what this progression has been on a historical level. Doubtlessly, he is successful in pointing out some early examples of modernist thought and expression, and that such points-of-view culminated in social changes -- the French Revolution and the Bolshevik Revolution -- but specifically what the boundaries are between his three different stages of modernity remains exceedingly vague. This may seem like an arbitrary objection to Berman's argument, but it is meaningful because his attempt to place modernism into a historical context demands that the abstract aspects of his dialectical system be grounded in physical events. If the reader is to believe that the individual social actor behaves in a way that balances the overarching power of society, then there should be some…
Berman, Marshall. All that is Solid Melts into Air. New York: Penguin Books, 1988.
Jimenez-Munoz, Gladys M. "Review Essay: All that is Solid Melts into Air." A New African Journal of Culture, Politics and Consciousness, vol. 1, issue 1, 2002.
Marx, Karl. Communist Manifesto. New York: Labor News Company, 1933.
McGreal, Ian P. Great Thinkers of the Western World. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1992.
Postcolonial Theory on Imperialism
The Strains of Living in a Postcolonial orld
In the wake of Colonialism and Imperialism, much of the world still finds itself in pieces -- unable to remember life before being conquered. hat has resulted is great turmoil in many areas of the world caused by a confusion of cultural identity and a complete lack of national identity. Yet, this move to revive individual cultures has also set off a sharp debate within the field of postcolonial theory; these cultures become protective blankets which then keep nations separated in their own twisted visions. Conquerors such as the United States and Great Britain continue on this bravado of the superior nations who still power over their former colonies. This then results in estern literature romanticizing the East as to reaffirm those chauvinistic beliefs. Thus, the conquered people face a crucial internal dilemma -- adoption into what the…
Bahri, Deepika. "Introduction to Postcolonial Studies." Department of English. Emory College. 1996. Retrieved 9 Dec 2008 at http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Intro.html .
McLeod, John. "Postcolonial Fictions of Adoption." Critical Survey. 18(2). 2006. 45-63.
McCormack, Brian. "Postcolonialism in an Age of Globalization: Opening International
Relations Theory to Identities in Movement." Alternatives: Global, Local, Political. 27(1). 2002. 99-136.
Plato's Crito And The Law
Among the celebrated treatises on reason and logic known as the dialogues of Plato, it is the relatively short discourse between and the condemned philosopher Socrates his concerned companion Crito which today stands as the most lasting monument to the ancient Greek tradition of pedagogically examining the realm of ethics. The Crito is an artfully constructed depiction of an intensely logical dialectic between the sober and systematic Socrates, who has refuses to defy his impending death sentence as an extension of his conception of justice and injustice, and a wealthy patron willing to finance an attempt at escape. After allowing his friend Crito to present a series of arguments, which include the provision of financing for the flight to freedom and several provocative moral appeals, Socrates responds by reaffirming his commitment to remaining guided by reason. Socrates' subsequent defense of his own imminent execution is…
Komorowska, Joanna. "Examina Antiqua." Examina Antiqua. 1.2 (2011): 169-182. Web. 24 Oct.
Plato. "Crito." Classics of Moral and Political Theory. Michael L. Morgan. 5th. Indianapolis, IN:
Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2011. 64-71. Print.
SENSIBILITY AND PAUL DE MAN "CONCLUSIONS"
Despite the fact that De man was not a trained philosopher his post war theoretical work is majorly concerned with the nature of the subject and the language in addition to the role played by language and subject in the larger epistemological question of how and what one can claim to know. As a scholar in the field of literature, however, he often took his departure from, and kept returning to, the problems that mostly affect literature in terms of language and criticism. De man did some work in literary theory and criticism dating back to 1950s, although this work cannot be associated with any previous school of criticism that were flourishing during that era. (De man 567)
What major theme does Austen bring about in her book 'sense and sensibility'
What styles does she use to build on the major theme?…
Moore, Lisa L. Dangerous Intimacies: History of the British Novel. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2000.
O'Farrell, Mary Ann. The Nineteenth-Century English
Novel and the Blush. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1995.
Stoval, Bruce. The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen. 4th Ed.
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
Republic is Plato attempting to demonstrate through the character and discourse of Socrates that justice is better than justice is the good which men must strive for, regardless of whether they could be unjust and still be rewarded. Heuses dialectic, the asking and answering of questions which led the hearer from one point to another, with logic by obtaining agreement to each point before going on to the next, and so building an argument.
The Republic is an expansive work that touches on many areas of Plato's philosophy. And if we can understand it, we have moved a long way toward an understanding of Plato, who stands as one of the cornerstones of the Western philosophical tradition. The question at the center of the Republic is whether it is better to live justly or unjustly. To answer this question, Plato first constructs a perfectly Just City.
The two young listeners…
Breaking into the Asian Market:
The Marketing Strategies of the Body Shop and Its Competitors
e live in a global world. Technology, in particular television and the Internet, link together different peoples. They cross the barriers of oceans, mountains, and political frontiers. The decisions that governments make, the actions of environmental activists, and the marketing campaigns of large corporations affect hundreds of millions across the Planet. Time was when a retail operation consisted of a privately-run neighborhood store. The storeowner knew, and interacted with his customers. Goods and services were provided locally. Only rare or unusual objects needed to be imported from far away. The high costs of transportation and communication guaranteed that the horizons of our daily lives extended little further than the distances traversed by long familiar roads and byways.
Today, however, a fashion retailer can manufacture a man's suit in Malaysia or Thailand; ship it to…
Barth, Karen, et al. "Global Retailing: Tempting Trouble." The McKinsey Quarterly (1996): 117+.
Ehrlich, Richard S. "Anita Roddick Calls Bush A War Criminal." Environmentalists Against War. 6 March 2004. URL: http://www.envirosagainstwar.org/edit/index.php?op=view&itemid=1186.
eligion and the Critique of Political Economy
The 19th century philosopher Karl Marx was considered so revolutionary because it offered a unique view of history and reinterpretation of the Hegelian dialectic. Marx stressed that worker's growing alienation from the means of production was producing a form of wage slavery that only benefited a narrow segment of society in the form of the bourgeoisie. The laborer no longer owns what he or she produces: under capitalism, the factory owner owns the fruits of that labor by virtue of owning property. The laborer not only produces commodities but becomes in and of himself a commodity. The more labor the worker produces, the cheaper he becomes as a commodity because of the wear and tear upon the worker's physical equipment, i.e. The worker's own body. The capitalist profits more while the worker profits less.
"Theology explains the problem of evil from the fall…
Marx, K. (1844). Economic and philosophic manuscripts of 1844, 66-81.
Learning in Organizations
This assignment is a review journal for the book 'Continuous Learning in Organizations: Individual, Group, and Organizational Perspectives', by Sessa & London (2006).
Preface & Preliminary Material
I like to read the introductory material for books before diving in. It gives one a hint of the author's personal thinking, motivations, and other insights. In this preface the authors explain how the book was put together, with the input from individuals as well as corporate involvement, including 'focus' or discussion groups addressing the topic of 'Continuous Learning: what does it mean?'.
I found this statement about the rapidity of ongoing change to be thought-provoking: 'These changes raise the potential of rewards for those with insight' (Sessa & London, 2006: ix). The authors define learning for each of the three categories (individual, group, and organization), and talk about its importance. They also state that their purpose is…
Sessa, V.I. & London, M. (2006). Continuous Learning in Organizations: Individual, Group, and Organizational Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN: 0-8058-5018-X.
Overhead eduction Task Force
Dixon (General Manager)
Williams (Controller), OTF Head
Burns (Sales Manager)
Erickson (Product Dev Manager)
Chase (Marketing Manager)
Wilson (Personnel Manager)
Dougherty (Production Manager)
What should Williams expect at the first meeting of the task force?
Each manager defending his/her own interests
equest to put GM's office on the table as well
There will be strong pushback on this plan
How should he prepare for that meeting, and how, specifically, should the first meeting be conducted?
He needs to communicate the crisis
He needs to have a vision that he can elaborate
This is essentially stating the purpose for the meeting
He needs support from up top -- Dixon at least, and preferably the CEO. This formal authority is critical to creating buy-in from the team
He needs a plan -- as in how these cost reductions fit with the strategic direction the…
Whetten, D. & Cameron, K. (no date). Developing management skills. Prentice Hall.
Cosier, R. & Schwenk, C. (1990) . Agreement and thinking alike: Ingredients for poor decisions. Academy of Management. Vol. 4 (1) 69-74.
ig vs. Small Government
The problem of government and public administration in the U.S. today is one that affects many people. The trend in politics in recent years is for voters to voice their anger and frustration with government by voting for outsiders, such as Rand Paul, Donald Trump and ernie Sanders -- candidates who challenge the status quo, overreach of big government, lack of accountability and lack of representation. However, what representatives like Ron Paul assert is that government is too big and that smaller government, according to the Constitution as it was initially devised, needs to be adhered to in order to protect citizens from big government.
The main point of this study is to understand whether the common citizen is in favor of big government or small government and what their perception of the role of government is in today's world.
This study uses relevant literature on…
Creswell, J. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five
Approaches. CA: Sage, 2007.
McCarthy, Justin. "In U.S., 65% Dissatisfied with How Gov't System Works." Gallup,
22 Jan 2014. Web.
17th century and our contemporary world began with an early, optimistic outlook of hope and promise of a better future, exemplified by movements like the Enlightenment, the Scientific and Industrial Revolutions, culminating in the Information Age, environmental awareness and globalisation. It is during this period that a paradigm shift from faith (religion) to reason as the principal source of legitimacy and authority occurred (Badger). The shift occurred against the backdrop of ideals such as science, tolerance, liberty, democracy, secularism, free will and humanism. However, the period is also scared with false starts and failures, violent schisms, world wars, imperialism, terrorism, irrational nationalism, extreme religious war, information overload, pollution and the threat of nuclear annihilation that indicate failure of the rational model promised by the Enlightenment. On the premise of this dichotomy of hope and failure, this essay critically demonstrates the failure of the Enlightenment project, especially from a social and…
' ut I am not simply rejecting this: I am demanding an explanation of how it could be so. How could this intuitive process justify something unless the process is empirical? The a priori is mysterious because we do not have even a hint of a satisfactory answer. It seems like magic that a process in someone-s [SIC] mind can justify her belief in an external worldly fact without that justification arising from some sort of experiential link to that fact."
Although onJour unarguably demonstrates admirably the inadequacies of empiricism as a means of explaining a priori knowledge, it is not clear, at least not within onJour's paradigm, that rationalism is more successful. In fact, many would argue that onjour's account of rationalism is precisely the one that has led so many to be wary of the a priori in the first place.
Laurence onJour's Epistemic Justification: Internal-ism vs. Externalism,…
BonJour, Laurence. "The Dialectic of Foundationalism and Coherentism." A Companion to Epistemology. Eds. E. Sosa and J. Dancy. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.
BonJour, Laurence. Epistemic Justification: Internalism vs. Externalism, Foundations vs. Virtues. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003.
BonJour, Laurence. Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.
BonJour, Laurence. In Defense of Pure Reason. London: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
In this scenario, the forum makes an attempt to recognize the specific circumstances of each case, making serious efforts to hold each member of the organization liable "in so far as, and according to the extent to which, he has personally contributed to the malperformance of the agency" (pp. 191-192).
Turning to the actual question of why public accountabilities are necessary, Bovens expands upon five crucial functions that public accountability plays in democratic governance: democratic control, the enhancement of the integrity of public governance, the improvement of performance, the enhancement of the legitimacy of public governance, and providing public catharsis.
Bovens holds that aside from "just" being the hallmark of democratic governance, it is moreover the sine qua non-for democratic governance (p. 192). If we conceive of modern democracy as a series of "principal-agent relations," we can see how public accountability is the thread that strings the sequence together:…
Adelberg, S. & Batson, C.D. (1978). "Accountability and Helping: When Needs Exceed
Resources," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 343-50.
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, J.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.
This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…
Durkheim, E. (1997). The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Free Press.
____. (2008). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York: Oxford University
Grusky, D., ed. (2000). Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological
In the final purpose of accountability, where the goal is to enhance the learning capacity and effectiveness of the executive branch, we should realize that what needs to happen in this situation is that public authorities act on feedback about their own performance (Deutsch, 1963; Luhmann, 1966; Behn, 2001 as cited in Bovens et al., 2008). Thus, a good accountability mechanism, from this angle, is one that illustrates how the actor in question is learning and becoming more efficient as a result of the mechanism itself.
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, . (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management eform." International eview of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
Arnull, a. And D. Wincott. (2001). Accountability and Legitimacy in the European Union.
Oxford: Oxford University…
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, R. (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management Reform." International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
One student comments at the end of the video that the most difficult part of the experiment was setting it up, and that the project mostly proceeded by trial and error. Although trial and error is an important mode of learning, it should not necessarily be the primary one. Perhaps if student learning had better incorporated the "artifacts" of scientific equipment, students would have been better able to focus their work and determine which tools and strategies would have been effective in advance (John-Steiner and Mahn, 1996, p. 199). To combat this, part of the lesson could have been redesigned to include information on the various equipment students could employ, and, for future work, could include a review of this information at the end of the experiment.
Another strategy that could be used to help solidify learning in this community of practice would be to ask the student pairs to…
Annenberg Media -- Investigating Crickets. (1999). Retrieved February 27, 2011, from http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1413
Ash, D. And Levitt, K. "Working Within the Zone of Proximal Development: Formative Assessment as Professional Development." Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14(1): 1-313, 2003.
John-Steiner, V., and Mahn, H. "Sociocultural Approaches to Learning and Development: A Vygotskian Framework." Educational Psychologist. 31(3/4): 191-206. 1996.
Ormrod, J.E. (2011). Educational psychology: Developing learners (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.
At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.
Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke…
Amendments to Section 225 Cyber Security Enhancement Act, 2002 (2003). Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.
Antal, J. Counter-terrorism multipliers needed (2010). Military Technology, 34(4), 4.
Ashley, Col. (S) B.K, USAF (2004). The United States Is Vulnerable to Cyberterrorism. Signal Online. Retrieved from: http://www.afcea.org/signal/articles/templates/SIGNAL_Article_Template.asp?articleid=32&zoneid=10
Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 409 F.2d 718, (U.S.App. LEXIS 12867 2d Cir. N.Y., 1969).
If we take the average cost of just one text, say a science text ($40), add 3-4 public domain novels (e.g. Huckleberry Finn at $5 ea.), and then a set of encyclopedias per classroom ($750), we find that even one small classroom of 25 students can save almost $2,000; which is now enough to purchase 4-5 computer stations at educational discount rates.
Math and Science teachers are often at the cutting edge of technology integration into the classoom, largely due to their networking and personal interests. The skills required to function at all levels in 21st century society are different than even those needed in the 1990s (Bitner, 2002). Primarily, this is due to the efffects of technology, cultural advancement and particularly how information is accessed, organized, proceeded, and distributed. In the 21st century classroom there are now far more motivating tools used to teach, reinforce, and apply what might…
Aguirre, J. e. (1990). Student-Teachers' Conceptions of Science, Teaching, and Learning. International Journal of Science Education, 12(4), 381-90.
"Alternative Techniques for Teaching About HIV / AIDS in the Classroom."
(March 1994). Peace Corps Information Center. Cited in:
" (Arnove & Torres, p. 14)
This is a shift in perspective that has carried significant implications for educators, who have been given a greater directive to promote the virtues of other nations, cultures and traditions. I have personally found that in addition to the degree to which this allows us to seize on practical and philosophical advances in the field, there is also a tremendous opportunity to bring a greater sense of multiculturalism to the classroom. I often take every chance available to help students avoid the pitfalls of ethnocentrism that have historically impeded on the quality of American education. As Arnove & Torres (2007) tell, "the study of cross-national currents and interactions is closely linked to notions of global and education and, in many ways, to world-systems analysis." (p. 7)
This has inclined me to couch the focus of all discussions in a way that challenges student assumptions.…
Arnove, R.F. & Torres, C.A. (2007). Comparative Education: The Dialectic of the Global and the Local. Rowman & Littlefield.
Bray, M. (2003). Methodology and Focus of Comparative Education.
Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao. p. 237-251.
106). This is an increasingly popular view among the ancient astronaut theorists, for example, with the reference to "Nephilim" being used by some to mean angels, others to mean demons, and yet others who believe these were extraterrestrial visitors and there is enough tangential evidence to fuel additional interest in this explanation concerning these alternative identities of the sons of God.
A final explanation is provided by Eastman (2002) who maintains that the reference to the sons of God in the Genesis narrative are the basis for the same treatment of human disobedience to God's will that are used in the New Testament in omans. From Eastman's perspective, God was just setting mankind up in Genesis 6:2 so he could then demonstrate his mercy by forgiving them. According to Eastman, Genesis 6:2 is similar to omans 8:20:22 in that "With God as the implied subject, [both] suggest that futile thinking…
Bulgakov, S. & Jakim, S. (2002). The bride of the Lamb. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans.
Eastman, S. (2002). Whose apocalypse? The identity of the sons of God in Romans 8: 19.
Journal of Biblical Literature, 121(2), 263-264.
Robbins, V.K. (1996). The tapestry of early Christian discourse: Rhetoric, society, and ideology. New York: Routledge.