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Digestive System Diseases and Disorders
The digestive system is made up of the "digestive tract" -- which is, according to the National Institutes of Health, a "series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus" -- and additional organs that are part of the system that helps humans "break down and absorb food" (National Institutes of Health -- NIH, 2009). If something goes wrong in the digestive system it can have serious consequences for the individual. This paper identifies some of the disorders that are associated with the digestive system. The organs that are part of the digestive system include the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small and large intestines (the large intestine is also called the "colon"), the rectum and the anus (NIH, p. 1).
The digestive system is one of the most important parts of the human body because food…
Medline Plus. (2010). Digestive System. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved May 7, 2011,
Medline Plus. (2010). Foodborne Illnesses. National Library of Medicine / National Institutes of Health. Retrieved May 7, 2011, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html .
National Digestive Disease Information Clearinghouse. (2010). Your Digestive System and How
The gastrointestinal system extends from the mouth to the anus. It includes the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small and large intestine, rectum and the anus. The digestive system also includes other organs responsible for digestion, namely the liver, gall bladder and the pancreas. By way of the peristaltic movements of the tract and enzymes secreted from these organs, food is digested and absorbed; to be either stored in the body, or used as energy. Nerves and blood vessels also play a major role in the digestive system. (Kumar, 2007)
Diseases of the digestive system are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately ten percent of all general practitioner consultations in the United Kingdom are due to digestive problems, with a majority resulting from diarrhea. In the United States, approximately $85.5 billion are spent on GI and liver diseases. (Boon, 2006) The highest cost per year…
Nicholas A. Boon, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, John A.A. Hunter. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine (2006). India, Elsevier.
Kumar Abbas, Fausto Mitchel. Robbins Basic Pathology (2007).India: Elsevier.
RS, Sandler, JE, everhart, & M, Donowitz. (2002). The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States. National Institutes of Health, 122(5), Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11984534
Press Releases. (2011, March 2). Dent introduces bill to support colorectal cancer. Retrieved from http://dent.house.gov/index.cfm?p=PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=ee8261a6-50d9-407d-bc0c-e06dc6e0e0ab&ContentType_id=c6ec3657-dc1e-476f-8d55-369892a8b74d&Group_id=7a83093f-b0df-4c08-affb-9f5cf4ef7c2a
It is also at this point that other organs begin to play a major role in the digestive process. The pancreas, located adjacent to the small intestine, secretes several enzymes that variously break down carbohydrates much further than they were broken down in the mouth or the proteins that began to met their demise in the stomach (NDDIC 2008). The liver produces a bile that breaks down fats and makes the constituent parts into small enough droplets that they can be suspended in water and utilized in chemical processes in the body (NGS 2010). All of this digestion takes place in the duodenum.
The small intestine continues, however, and throughout the entire small intestine are countless villi, or little finger-like hills that greatly increase the inner surface area of the smooth-muscled tube that is the small intestine (Discovery 2000). It is through the cells of these villi that the nutrients,…
Discovery. (2000). "Your digestive system." Accessed 30 September 2010. http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000126.html
Enchanted Learning. (2010). "Human digestive system." Accessed 30 September 2010. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/digestive/
NDDIC. (2008). "Your digestive system and how it works." Accessed 30 September 2010. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/
NGS. (2010). "digestive system." Accessed 30 September 2010. http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/digestive-system-article.html
The blood and lymph systems are also vital to digestion's efficacy, transporting nutrients to the cells of the body where they are needed (Smith & Morton 2001). Again, most of the "action" of the accessory organs and their products takes place in the small intestine where the major work of both breaking down and absorbing nutrients takes place (SUNY 2010). It is here that the enzymes secreted by the pancreas and liver arrive to do their work, and it is through the small intestine -- and primarily through the duodenum -- that carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids (fats) as well as other vitamins and mineral nutrients reach the lymph and circulatory systems that carry them throughout the body where they are useful (MNSU 2010).
Pancreatic amylase, one of the enzymes secreted by the pancreas, continues the breakdown of starches that begins in the mouth, converting these carbohydrates into maltose (SUNY 2010).…
Advameg. (2010). "Digestion and absorption." Accessed 30 September 2010. http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Diab-Em/Digestion-and-Absorption.html
Gillson, S. (2005). "Absorption and transportation of nutrients." Accessed 30 September 2010. http://heartburn.about.com/od/understandingheartburn/a/digestivesystem_2.htm
MNSU. (2010). "Digestive system." Minnesota state university. Accessed 30 September 2010. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/digestive/index.shtml
Smith, M. & Morton, D. (2001). The digestive system. Philadelphia: Elseiver.
nervous and digestive systems at reptiles, emphasizing their main characteristics and briefly compare them to the nervous and digestive systems at other vertebrates.
In this sense, referring to the reptilian nervous systems, many authors have found common basis and similarities between the nervous systems of reptiles and other higher vertebrates, including mammals
These similarities manifest themselves both in the form of anatomical and physiological resemblances. The main difference between the reptilian brain and that of higher vertebrates such as mammals relates to "the size of the cerebral hemispheres"
As such, the reptilian nervous system is formed of two different components: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system is composed of all nervous tissues and structures that do not actually belong to the CNS.
As at other vertebrates, the…
1. Adaptive Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System of the Lizard. On the Internet at http://22.214.171.124/calnet/irish_cal/exotics/reptiles/lizards/digestive%20system.html
2. Digestive System of Snakes Class Reptilia Order Squamata. On the Internet at http://campus.murraystate.edu/academic/faculty/terry.derting/cva_atlases/Stephsnake/snakepage3.htm
3. Wyneken, Jeanette and Mader, Douglas R. Reptilian Neurology: Anatomy, Function and Clinical Applications.
4. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service. On the Internet at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=38471& ; query=brain& ct=eb
Human digestive system is composed of multiple parts, including the mouth (pharynx, throat, palate, tongue, teeth), stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, salivary glands, bowels, and many more. The sole purpose of the digestive system is to break down foods that are eaten, so that the food might be absorbed into the bloodstream. The existence of a digestive system sets animals apart from plants. Digestion consists of a physical and chemical breakdown of food. Because of the complexity and large size of the digestive system, diseases that can interfere this body system are numerous and varied in their modes of transmission, their symptoms, their treatments, and their possible short-term and long-term effects. This paper will focus on three such diseases: Cirrhosis of the liver (caused by viral Hepatitis), hookworm disease (caused by hookworms), and cholera (caused by Vibrio cholerae).
The large size of the digestive system, along with the…
Carson-Dewitt, Rosalyn S. "Hookworm Disease." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. 1999 [Online edition] Accessed July 1, 2002 http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/g2601/0006/2601000682/p1/article.jhtml
Center for Disease Control (CDC). "Hookworm Infection Fact Sheet." Updated 08/15/99 [Online edition] Accessed July 3, 2002 http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/hookworm/factsht_hookworm.htm
McNeill, William H. Plagues and Peoples. New York: Anchor Press. 1976. 369 pages
Palmer, Melissa. Hepatitis and Liver Disease: What you need to know.New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc. 2000. 457 pages
Digestive Disorders: Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome
It is important to note that in some instances, the symptoms patient present could be tied to a myriad of disorders. This has in some quarters led to misdiagnoses. Both inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) present a number of similar symptoms. IBD includes a number of inflammatory conditions whereby sections of a person’s digestive system are attacked by his or her immune system. The said conditions are inclusive of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. IBS, on the other hand, “is a problem that affects the large intestine” (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2018). In essence, the movement of food in the intestines is enhanced by the relaxation and contraction of the intestines. When the said contraction as well as relaxation does not follow the normal pattern, symptoms of IBS are likely to present.
In basic terms, the…
Lipids and Proteins
Lipids are fats and they are important to our health. When chemically digesting these lipids or fats, these molecules are broken down into smaller ones that can be more readily passed through the digestive system and into the bloodstream. This fat is transformed into triglycerides and can be used by the body for energy at a later time.
Lipids like almost all food is first mechanically digested by the mouth. During this process the first chemical reaction begins when the saliva begins to break down the fat. As the fat is digested, enzymes called lipases within the mouth and stomach break the bonds of the lipid molecules an prepare them for absorption. The gall bladder and pancreas becomes involved in this process as bile salts are released from these organs and secreted in the small intestine. These chemicals signal to further digest the food by breaking…
Digestive Disorder: Diverticulitis
The patient is a 37-year-old female with a family history of colorectal cancer mandating regular colonoscopies before the age of 40. The patient's diverticulosis was discovered during a routine colonoscopy at age 35. She was asymptomatic for 2 years, but developed diverticulitis at age 37. When she began experiencing significant pain her lower left abdominal area, she suspected diverticulitis, called her gastroenterologist who referred her to the emergency room for a cat scan, which confirmed the diagnosis, and then given a course of antibiotics, which resolved the issue.
"Diverticulitis develops when feces become trapped in pouches (diverticula) that have formed along the wall of the large intestine. This allows bacteria to grow and cause an infection or inflammation and pressure that may lead to a small perforation or tear in the wall of the intestine. Peritonitis, an infection of the lining of the abdominal…
Davis B.R. & Matthews, J.B. (2006). Diverticular disease of the colon. In M. Wolfe et al., eds., Therapy of Digestive Disorders, 2nd ed., pp. 855-859. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Maconi, G., Barbara, G., Bosetti, C., Cuomo, R., & Annibale, B. (2011). Treatment of diverticular disease of the colon and prevention of acute diverticulitis: A systematic review. Dis. Colon Rectum, 54(10), 1326-38.
Martin, S.T., & Stocchi, L. (2011). New and emerging treatments for the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis. Clin. Exp. Gastroenterol., 4, 203-212.
Unlu, C., Daniels, L., Vrouenraets, B.C., & Boermeester, M.A. (2011). A systematic review of high-fibre dietary therapy in diverticular disease. Int. J. Colorectal Dis. doi: 10.1007/s00384-011-1308-3. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-011-1308-3
e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…
Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm
Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm
Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.
Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…
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eight, Ryan, John Viator, Charles Caldwell, and Allison Lisle. "Photoacoustic detection of metastatic…
Arnaudin, Mary, and Joel Mintzes. "Students' alternative conceptions of the human circulatory system: A cross-age study." Science Education 69.5 (2006): 721-733. Wiley Online Library. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
De Pater, L, and JW Van Den Burg. "An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.
Jodrey, Louise, and Karl Wilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
An organization can achieve a competitive edge only and only with the help of its employees. Therefore, it is necessary that right employees are selected then trained and developed and a performance-based reward system. The question then comes to the performance measurement system. In a furniture retail store where I work they stick to the old practice of a meeting of top managers and supervisor who sit down annually and critically review the performance of all customer service personnel. They carry out a thorough examination of employee performance with respect to the goal set for them by the management. In this setting where only goals are there to guide employees and performance appraisal system is vague and subjective, most employees are just interested in meeting their targets and they do not strive to exceed their employers expectations. Performance evaluation should be an evaluation and development tool with the…
Sims, R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Quorum Books. Westport, CT.
Kreiner, J. (2000). Examining the human Body. The Washington Times. March 18.
Prasad, S., Tata, J., & Thorn, R. (1999). The Influence of Organizational Structure on the Effectiveness of TQM Programs. Journal of Managerial Issue. Vol. 11.
More unfavorable publicity came in June when Jintao had to undergo medical checkups to ensure he was SARS-free when meeting President Bush and other G-8 leaders in France. There is little doubt that China's international standing was clearly badly damaged by its government's mishandling of the SARS epidemic.
On July 21, 2004, Dr. Bates Gill, Freeman Chair in China Studies Committee on House International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, stated official Chinese estimates show China now has roughly 840,000 persons living with the HIV virus and as of the end of 2003, only 62,159 persons had been tested and officially confirmed to be HIV-positive. "The remaining HIV-positive individuals in China, estimated at 780,000 persons or more, are not known to public health authorities, and the individuals themselves probably do not know their status, posing significant risks for the further spread of HIV." Yet, outside observers believe that…
China. World Health Organization. http://www.wpro.who.int/chips/chip01/chn.htm . Accessed 16 November 2004 review of evidence: China's path to better health and development. World Health
Organization. http://www.google.com/u/who?q=cache:dMwKxNx4q4YJ:www.who.int/entity/macrohealth/action/en/ShanghaiPaperRevJuly2004.pdf+china's+health+care+system&hl=en&ie=UTF-8. Accessed 16 November 2004
The Specter of SARS: China's failure to contain severe acute respiratory syndrome has economic causes and consequences. World and I. 01 July 2003; Pp.
Rask, Kolleen J. Healthcare Reform in Transitional China: Its Impact on Accounting and Financial Management. Research in Healthcare Financial Management. 01 January 2001; Pp.
The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.
The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by…
Lymphatic system is a sub-system of the circulatory system. It contains a network of nodes, or vessels and filters, which remove toxins from the body. The role of the lymphatic system in the homeostasis of the body is that it serves as the primary drainage for all of the body's other systems, removing all toxins and excess fluids. It is a major defense against disease and also helps carry nutrients throughout the body.
The lymphatic system does not circulate blood. Lymph is its primary fluid and is formed from fluids surround cells throughout the body and passed into lymph vessels. If this fluid were not removed or filtered, the result would be toxins accumulating in the body. This would create swelling and also prevent the body from fighting against infection and disease.
Disorders or complications originated in the lymphatic system create serious illness in the body. This is because this…
Brown, P. (2005). Lymphatic system: Unlocking the drains. Nature, 436(7050), 456-458. doi:10.1038/436456a.
Digestive System Disorder Case Study: Gastroparesis
The paper opens with an introduction and definintion of Gastroparesis and its association to damaging of vagus nerves along the intestines and stomach muscles. This reduces their ability for function properly. People living with diabetes have a higher likelihood of advancing Gastroparesis against sequential Diabetic Gastroparesis. More persons are contracting Gastroparesis during surgical operations. The paper illustrates that more patients are yet to find a cause linking their illnesses with Gastroparesis because it triggers Idiopathic Gastroparesis. The scope of Gastroparesis has a close link to diseases of connective tissue such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as well as scleroderma. The neurological conditions worsen along Parkinson's disease. The paper concludes with proposals of Gastroparesis diagnosis through tests carried out on gastric emptying scans, x-rays, and manometry. Clinical Gastroparesis takes the definition of stomach emptying complications. There are beneficial adjustments to insulin dosage among diabetic people who…
Ellenburg, M.A., (2012). Gastroparesis: Causes, Tests and Treatment Options. New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
Parkman, H.P., & McCallum, R.W. (2011). Gastroparesis: Pathophysiology, Presentation and Treatment. New York: Springer
Sethi, A.K., & Murthi, R.K., (2011). Bowl Care and Digestive Disorders. New York: V&S Publishers
Planning and Reflection
During my student teaching experiences I kept a journal, which greatly helped me to organize my thoughts and clarify the areas in which I most needed to improve. My mentor also pointed out for me the key areas that need improvement. Therefore, as I look forward to a professional career as a teacher, I will be able to draw on these early experiences. I will remember what works and what doesn't and I already feel far more confident and proficient than I did before I undertook the student teaching challenge. In general a few major themes emerged through reviewing my journal entries and the statements written by my mentors. My strengths are my willingness to use a wide variety of teaching materials and teaching styles. An enthusiastic implementation of multimedia materials keeps students actively engaged, and keeps lessons more interesting. Moreover, my lessons are well-planned and incorporate…
Ballantyne, R & Packer, J 1995, making connections: gold guide no 2, Hersda, Canberra, pp 4-14
Department of Education and Training. Online at < http://www.eddept.wa.edu.au/ >.
Lorsbach, Anthony and Tobin, Kenneth. "Teaching"
The blood in which we are traveling in is composed of red blood cells called hemoglobin, plasma, platelets, and white blood cells. Blood is transported through the body by the heart's pumping action. As we continue, we will enter the hepatic portal vein, which delivers blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver, into the ascending aorta, up towards the heart. As we approach the heart, it's pumping will pull us up into its chambers and through to the lungs where we will get oxygen and continue our journey to the kidneys. As we return to the heart, we will pass through the aortic arch and descend through the thoracic aorta continuing past the descending abdominal aorta until we reach the renal artery. We will make a left turn and pass through the glomeruli through the kidney's tubules and conclude this phase of our journey into the left kidney.
Thibodeau, G. (1992). Structure and Function of the Body. Chicago: Mosby Year Book.
These cells have an enzyme on their surface that attracts fat. The number and distribution of adipose cells has a genetic component, and is usually determined in early childhood.
Describe the major metabolic diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage for humans?
Diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage included: high cholesterol, combined hyperlipidemia, familial hypercholesterolemia, high density lipoprotein, and hypertriglyceridemia,
How do unsaturated and saturated fatty acids differ from each other?
Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a single bond between them and as many hydrogen atoms as possible bonded to the carbon atoms. Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a double bond, and can therefore absorb more hydrogen atoms. Healthy diets are low in saturated fats, since they raise blood cholesterol levels.
What are the roles of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) in humans?
There are two essential fatty acids: the omega-3 fatty acids and the moega-6…
No Author Given (2007). Intestinal Uptake of Lipids, retrieved 6/20/2007 at http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/lipoproteins.html.
No Author Give (2007) Enzymes and Digestion of Lipids, retrieved 6/20/2007 at http://www.afs.ttu.edu/home/swkim/ANSC3301/001/11%20Lipid-Dig-001.pdf
No Author Given (2007). Lipids - 1, retrieved 6/20/2007 at http://scidiv.bcc.ctc.edu/rkr/Biology130/lectures/pdfs/lipids130.pdf
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…
Annelids are members of the Superphylum Lophotrochozoa. The division of the Phylum is in three classes Hirudineans (leeches), Oligochaetes (earthworms) and Hirudinean (Polychaetes and leeches). They inhibit marine aquatic with Parapodia, like nereis Meglitsch P, 1972()
They are worm like animals that have muscular body walls that elongate. They are also circular in cross section. The major difference between Phylum Annelida and other worm like creatures is that, they have segmented bodies (also known as metameric). Each segment has its own particular function. Phylum Annelida include different types of earthworms, leeches and marine polychaetes. There are those that live in fresh water, marine also terrestrial. Some of them live as parasites. Annelids are skilled in swimming, creeping and burrowing Badea, Gagyi-Palffy, Stoian, & Stan, 2010
( ADDIN EN.CITE )
Meglitsch P (1972)
, said that Annelids are connected to Molluscs and seem to have arisen from flatworms. Given…
Badea, A.B., Gagyi-Palffy, A., Stoian, L.C., & Stan, G. (2010). Preliminary studies of quality assessment of aquatic environments from Cluj suburban areas, based on some invertebrates bioindicators and chemical indicators. [Article]. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society (AACL Bioflux), 3(1), 35-41.
Meglitsch P. (1972). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press.
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…
Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.
Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…
Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC
Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall
Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)
Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:
Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html
Cirrhosis Treatment. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://health.allrefer.com/health/cirrhosis-treatment.html
Digestive System Organs. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/ImagePages/8710.html
Alcohol is classified as a depressant because it slows down the release of neurochemicals that inhibit certain behaviors. The subjective feelings associated with alcohol intoxication are due to its effects on the brain and central nervous system but that system also controls our behaviors. The depression of certain neurotransmitters often reduces reflex time and reduces general inhibitions.
The digestive system is also strongly affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol is absorbed almost entirely by the small intestine, from where the alcohol seeps into the blood. The liver is strongly affected by the absorption of alcohol and is in fact the main organ responsible for metabolizing alcohol. hen too much alcohol is consumed, the liver becomes overtaxed and cannot filter the toxins from the body as fast as it normally can. Over the long-term, the liver can become permanently damaged from too much alcohol consumption.
The heart and circulatory system are also…
Alcohol Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination." California DUI Help. Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.californiaduihelp.com/dui_investigation/alcohol.asp
Boggan, Bill. "Alcohol Chemistry and You." Kennesaw State University, 2003.
It is a well acknowledged truth that memory related diseases like Alzheimer's are common in older people rather than younger ones. Memory tends to becomes less competent with age. It might take longer to learn new things or remember familiar words or names. Many measures can be adopted to reduce the increasing adverse effects of memory like eating a healthy diet, including physical exercise as a part of daily routine and by being social. Despite of adopting these measures to reduce the effects of growing age on health, these problems cannot be eradicated completely. Young people are more energetic and are less viable to diseases because of the strength of their immune system. They have a stronger defense system against diseases because of the age. There is a strong relationship between age and support of health. Aging is inevitable. It is tend to occur but applying few important measures cannot…
Annandale, E., & Hunt, K. (2000). Gender Inequalities in Health. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Athenstaedt, U. (2002). Gender Role Self-Concept, Gender Role Attitudes and the Participation in Gender-Typed Vocational and Leisure Sport Courses . Psychologische Beitrage, 33-45.
Manuck, S.B., Jennings, R., Rabin, B.S., & Baum, a. (2000). Behavior, Health, and Aging. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Norton, F.E. (1946). Readings in the Theory of Income Distribution. Philadelphia: The Blakiston Company.
scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.
Smoking and its effects
Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli.…
Timmins, William. (1989). Smoking and the workplace. New York: Quorum Books.
Klarreich, Samuel. (1987). Health and fitness in the workplace. New York: Praeger.
Weiss, Stephen. (1991). Health at work. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
Bunton, Robin. (2002). Health Promotion. London: Routledge.
Modality and Public Health
Naturopathic medicine is a system for primary healthcare described as a science, an art, philosophy and the practice of diagnosing, treating and preventing illnesses. This is usually practiced by registered or licensed naturopathic physicians (Meadows, 2013). Naturopathic medicine is a tradition which is science-based which promotes the wellness of patients through the identification of unique aspects of every patient and then employs natural therapies that are non-toxic in order to restore their psychological, physiological as well as structural balance. Naturopathic medicine is not usually defined by the type of substances that are used rather it is defined by principles which underlie and therefore determine its practice (The Healing Arts Center, 2010). These principles include; the healing power that exists in nature, finding the cause of illnesses, causing no harm to patients, treating the whole person, prevention of illnesses and doctors acting as teachers to patients. Naturopathic…
Meadows, C. (2013). Naturopathy. Retrieved August 21, 2013 from http://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/explore-healing-practices/naturopathy
Wardle, J, & Oberg, E.(2011).The Intersecting paradigms of naturopathic medicine and public health: opportunities for naturopathic medicine. Retrieved August 21, 2013 from http://pcori.org/assets/gravity_forms/2-11659cf47a59e2684bfbe9aba8241776/2012/03/Oberg-Wardle-ND-Public-Health.pdf
Oppel, L.(2009). Naturopaths' expanded scope: In the best interests of the public? Retrieved August 21, 2013 from http://www.bcmj.org/council-health-promotion/naturopaths%E2%80%99-expanded-scope-best-interests-public
Piscopo, G.(2011).Natural medicine articles. What is Naturopathic Medicine? Retrieved August 21, 2013 from http://www.healingmountainpublishing.com/articles/NPmedicine.html
Digestion and diabetes: Overview of the process
The digestive process begins even before food is consumed. Looking at or anticipating food causes salivation. Saliva aids digestion, along with chewing. For example, when Jane Doe looks at a plate consisting of a whole wheat turkey sandwich (garnished by vegetables and mayonnaise), potato chips, and apple juice, her body will begin to anticipate eating by secreting digestive juices. The first major involuntary muscular movement for Jane Doe will not occur until she consciously decides to swallow the food in front of her. "Although you are able to start swallowing by choice, once the swallow begins, it becomes involuntary and proceeds under the control of the nerves" (Your digestive system, 2010, NIH). The swallowed food is pushed into the esophagus, the organ that connects the teeth, mouth, and tongue through the throat to the stomach. "At the junction of the esophagus and…
What is Cnidaria? What is it made up of? Who are the members that belong to his group? Cnidaria is an exclusively aquatic phylum. It is a group that is represented by the members, who are also called 'polyps', and these are sea anemones and corals, and also by 'medusae', which are creatures like the jellyfish. In general, both a polypoid as well as a medusoid cnidarian will be either radially or biradially symmetrical and it is an uncephalized animal with one single body opening, which is the mouth. Stinging capsules, which are embedded in the tentacles that are placed around the mouth, generally surrounds the mouth. These stinging capsules are also known as 'nematocysts', and these are capable of acting both as agents of defense as well as of offense. The most important distinguishing feature of a phylum is the presence of the intrinsic nematocysts, and in turn,…
"About Corals, anemones, and their kin" Retrieved From
http://www.augsburg.edu/biology/aquaria/SpecialTopicsFiles/AboutCoralsAnemonesAndKin.html Accessed on 21 June, 2005
"Features unique to Cnidarians and to Ctenophores" Retrieved From
These biologically-based practices of alternative medicine include the use of vitamins, herbs, and food supplements found in nature, chief among which are probiotics: the living, beneficial bacteria found in the intestines. These benign bacteria counteract the presences of the malignant variety, which often cause digestive problems if allowed to overpopulate. Probiotics can be obtained as supplements or found in certain foods, and have been known to prolong periods of remission in ulcerative colitis patients, with no sever side effects.
The use of fish oils is another alternative medicinal treatment for ulcerative colitis. Fish oils contain omega-3 fatty acids, which are known for their anti-inflammatory properties (Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, 2011). Omega 3 fatty acids are found in certain green vegetables and in nuts, salmon, sardines and herring, as well as in oral supplemental form and are used to treat intestinal inflammation when ulcerative colitis is active. Aloe Vera…
1. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America. (2011). Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://www.ccfa.org/frameviewer/?url=/media/pdf/FactSheets/CAM.pdf
2. Life Extension. (2011).Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.lef.org/protocols/gastrointestinal/inflammatory_bowel_disease_01.htm
3. National Digestive Diseases Clearinghouse. (2006) Ulcerative Colitis. Retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/colitis/
4. Street, Erin. (2010, December). Nutritional Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis. Livestrong.com Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/335380-nutritional-therapy-for-ulcerative-colitis/
Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products. This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers (Hakkak, 2001). Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake (6 or more glasses of milk per day), also increase the chance for prostate cancer (Chen, 2007; Giovannucci, et.al. 1998). Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel ("How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" 2007).
The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Champe, P. (2008). "Introduction to Carbohydrates." Lippincott's Illustrated
Reviews: Biochemistry. Williams and Williams.
Chen, H., et.al. (2007). "Consumption of Dairy Products and Risk of Parkinson's
Disease." American Journal of Epidemiology. 165 (9): 998+.
Animal Nutrition and Feed Evaluation
Qualitative, scientific-based evaluations of animal feed and the resultant nutrition of the animal are crucial for maintaining optimal animal health and responding to problems that develop as a result of diet. In the case of ruminants, this can be particularly important as their unique digestive system can complicate providing optimal nutrition from traditional feed sources and techniques. A balanced nutrient approach to ruminant diet must take into account not only the feed that is being given to the animal, but also, crucially, the way in which the animal's digestive system will process that feed and provide (or not) nutrition to the animal. Creating this type of qualitative knowledge about the digestive system and nutrition needs of rumens with regard to different feeds "developed most rapidly when isotope dilution techniques became easy to apply, facilitated by improved instrumentation and mathematical approaches" (1). From this information,…
Leng, R.A. "Quantitative Ruminant Nutrition -- A Green Science." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 1993. 16 Dec. 2009 .
Spina Bifida is one of the many birth defects neonates are at risk of. However, this particular defect is unique because it is characterized by problems in the central nervous system (CNS) and it has a low death rate. The causes of this medical condition are quite difficult to determine as they are subject to hereditary and environmental elements. Simply put, Spina Bifida refers to a situation where the spinal cord is not fully developed. In extreme cases, the spinal vertebrae could be so badly formed that the delicate spinal cord is left unprotected. In most cases, the spinal cord suffers damage due to this. The baby could suffer from reduced brain function and poor transmission of commands to affected organs. This slightly damaged link from the brain to the body tissues and organs leads to poorly developed body systems. There are other associated problems with this spinal defect even…
Liegl-tzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher (2010) pointed out that the exact incidences of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the United States and Europe is not easy to determine. This is attributed to the fact that GISTs got proper recognition as well as diagnosis from the late 1990s.Studies carried out in Iceland ( Tryggvason et al.,2005), Sweden (Nilsson et al.,2005), as well as Holland (Goettsch,2004) have indicated that close to 11,14.5 and 12.7 cases per million people per year respectively.Incidences if GISTs have been shown to be higher as a result of the fact that most patients live with it for several years and it gets detected only during gastrectomy or autopsy all of which are usually performed for other reasond. study by gaimy et al.,(2007) which was performed consecutively on autopsies indicated that small GISTs having between 1-10 mm in about 22.5% of the individuals aged above 50 years.These small GISTs…
About 50% of the GISTs exhibit a loss of gene off the arm of chromosome 22. This discovery is associated with the progression of the malignant GIST (Fukasawa et al.,2000;Bergmann et al.,1998;Kim et al., 2000;Lasota et al.,2007). There are however some losses that are less frequent on the chromosomes 9q,17q,1p and 11p.Gains are however noted on chromosomes 17q and 8q all of which have a strong association with malignant behavior (El-Rifai et al.,2000;Schurr et al.,2006).
Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of the clinical features of GISTs.GISTs are mentioned by Liegl-Atzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher (2010) to occur in almost every part of the GI tract.They are however more common in the stomach regions ( about 60%), ileum and jejunum (close to 30%), colorectum (about 4%) and duodenum (about 5%).GISTs are rarely seen in the appendix and esophagus (Miettinen et al.,2006;Miettinen, Sobin and Lasota,2005;DeMatteo eat al.,2000). Tumors that lack any form of association with the wall of the bowel are given special name- extragastrointestinal stromal sarcomas are noted to occur in the mesentery, omentum and retroperitoneum (Miettinen et al.,1999;Reith et al.,2000). The clinical symptoms that are associated with GIST are abdominal pain, dysphagia, obstruction, fatigue and satiety.It has been noted that patients may be presented with chronic bleeding to from their GI (Causes anemia). The patient may also present acute bleeding to GI ( as a consequence of the erosion via the gastric or the bowel mucosa). There could also be a rupture into the patient's abdominal cavity thus causing a life-threatening condition called intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Nilsson et al. (2005) indicated that a population-based research indicated that close to seventy percent of GISTs were related to clinical symptoms while twenty percent were not. 10% were detected at the time of autopsies.
CHIEF COMPLAINT: Constant abdominal pain with N/V for 4 days
HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS: The patient is a 24-year-old African American female who presents to the clinic with abdominal pain, nausea, as well as vomiting. According to the patient, she has not experienced fever and she has not noticed any blood in her stool or vomit.
A 24-year-old African American woman presents to the clinic complaining of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Upon enquiry, she denies any blood in the stool or vomit. She also denies any fever. Patient medical history is not available. Although acute gastritis is suspected, there will be need to conduct a few tests to ascertain the exact cause of the symptoms the patient presents. It is important to note that acute gastritis could be caused by many factors. These, according to Emergency Nurses Association – ENA (2007) include, but they are not limited to,…
lactose intolerance, and a description of its' relevance to nutrition; consumers, health care professionals, and patients. Lactose intolerance is a disease aggravated by milk sugars. It can be controlled by diet, but often other measures must also be used to control the disease, such as the use of dietary aids such as "Lactaid." Health care professionals must understand the treatment and problems associated with the disease to help their patients combat the disease, and a major portion of understanding lies in the principles and understanding of proper nutrition.
Lactose intolerance affects millions of Americans. In fact, the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) estimates that 50 million Americans suffer from the disease, and it can make their lives miserable if it is not treated. The symptoms of lactose intolerance include stomach cramps, diarrhea, nausea, gas, painful bloating, and flatulence ("Living" 66). These symptoms can begin as soon as 30 minutes after consuming…
Author not Available. "Why Does Milk Bother Me?" Niddk.nih.gov. 2004. 8 July 2004. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/lactoseintolerance_ez/index.htm
Editors. "Lactose Intolerance." Gastro.org. 2004. 8 July 2004. http://www.gastro.org/clinicalRes/brochures/lactose.html
Living with Lactose Intolerance: If You Take Some Simple Steps, You Can Continue to Enjoy a Variety of Dietary Favorites." Ebony Oct. 2002: 66+.
Earthworms are hermaphrodites since they can generate both sperm and eggs. Mating involves 2 earthworms inseminating each other where sperms are exchanged. The male and female sexual cavities are located near the clitellum. They connect the lower ends of their anteriors with heads positioned in reverse directions. Mucous secreted joins the openings with slime. Sperm is pushed into the longitudinal channels formed by the mucous. They reach the sperm receptacles of their partner, which then break apart. Laying of the eggs and fertilization follows ("Native Australian," 2006)
The circulatory system is constituted of the heart, blood and blood vessels. It is needed to distribute nutrition to different areas in the body and is of two types -- open and closed. An open circulatory system (used by earthworms) is the simpler of the two where the heart drives blood into open spaces. The organs and tissues in the body are soaked…
n.a.(n.d.) Earthworm. Retrieved from http://animals.howstuffworks.com/worms/earthworm-info.htm
Sherwood, R. (2010, May 25) How many hearts does an earthworm have?. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_4597386_many-hearts-earthworm-have_.html
n.a.(2006, Feb 19) Native Australian Earthworms. Retrieved from http://www.wormdigest.org/content/view/209/2/
Higgins, J.(2010, June 6) Difference Between a Closed & Open Circulatory System. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_6594843_difference-closed-open-circulatory-system.html
First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…
.... (n.d.). The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://mrgrg-ms.org/
Best, R. (2003, August 7). Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-17.
Birkey, a. (2010, July 21). Fraudulent vets charity raised big money in Minnesota. The Minnesota Independent, p. 3.
Burrelli, D. (2008, August 12). Military Health Care: The Issue of Promised Benefits. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-14.
These worms play an integral part of the community. They do not have any digestive capacities, as they lack mouths and digestive systems. ather, they absorb the nutrient-rich waste products of the bacteria through their epidermal layers. They use hemoglobin produced inside their bodies to combine hydrogen sulfide, which is a necessity of many of the bacteria living in and around the vents. The worms transfer this hydrogen sulfide to the bacteria upon contact, and in return, the absorb the nutrients being produced by the bacteria. Additionally, one study examining vents off the coast of South Africa also found the presence of a new species of nematode, known as Halicephalobus mephisto (Borgonie et al., 2011). There are also a number of annelids as well as typical crustaceans, like snails, crabs, and shrimp are often common (Edmonds et al., 2003). There are also species of fish and octopi that form some…
Borgonie, G., Garcia-Moyano, a., Litthauer, D., Bester, a., van Heerden, E., Moller, C., Erasmus, M., & Onstott, T.C. (2011).Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa. Nature, 474(June). 79-88. Doi: 10.1038/nature09974
Ericsson, Magnus. (2008). Seabed deposits generate a new wave of interest in offshore mineral recovery. Offshore Mining (September).
Edmonds, H.N., Michael, P.J., Baker, E.T., Connelly, D.P., Snow, J.E., Langmuir, C.H., Dick, H.J.B., Muhe, R., German, C.R., & Graham, D.W. (2003). Discovery of abundant hydrothermal venting on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge in the Arctice Ocean. Nature, 421(16).
Lemonick, Michael D. & Dorfman, Andrea. (2002). Microbes at the extremes may tell us how life began. Time Europe, 160(6), 34-38. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&an=7091367&site=ehost-live
Magic Johnson and HIV
Science knows that although HIV can transition into AIDS, it does not automatically become AIDS. Magic Johnson, new president of the Los Angeles Dodgers and a member of the NBA Hall of Fame, was diagnosed with HIV several years ago. One of the immediate responses from Magic Johnson's body (with HIV) was the weakening of his immune system, which made him -- and makes all HIV-positive patients -- susceptible to the following infections and cancers:
Tuberculosis: an infectious disease "caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis" (Medical News Today).
Salmonellosis Enterocolitis: a very common kind of food poisoning that causes severe dehydration (NCBI)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV): this is a virus infection from a "member of the herpesvirus family" (Medline Plus).
Candidiasis: an infection of the mouth and tongue (Mayo Clinic).
Cryptococcal meningitis: this is an inflammation of those membranes and the fluid that is found around the…
Aidsinfonet.org. Fact Sheet 801: "Vitamins and Minerals." Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view.801. 2012.
Cancer.org. "Kaposi Sarcoma: What is Kaposi Sarcoma?" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.cancer.org . 2009.
Mayo Clinic. "HIV / AIDS" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.mayoclinic.com . 2011.
Medical News Today. "What is Tuberculosis? What Causes Tuberculosis?" Retrieved June 24,
Environment Influences the Body Plan of Organisms
The distinction between adiata and Bilateria, or organisms with a radial or bilateral symmetry, is that the latter have a dorsal/ventral polarity resulting in bilateral body axes (reviewed by Martindale and Henry, 1998). By comparison, species with radial symmetry, the adiata, have a single anterior/posterior axis in their body plan and no dorsal/ventral polarity. Another general distinction is the presence of three germ layers in the Bilateria, which are the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. These three pluripotent cell types will give rise to organs and internal epithelial layers, skin and nervous tissues, and muscle and connective tissues, respectively.
ole of Environment
adiata contain a digestive tract that is perpendicular to radial structures (reviewed by Martindale and Henry, 1998). For example, the cnidarians have a mouth that is surrounded by radial pattern of tentacles. After the food enters the mouth, it collects in a…
Martindale, Mark Q. And Henry, Jonathan Q. (1998). The development of radial and biradial symmetry: The evolution of bilaterality. American Zoologist, 38, 672-684.
Yoshimura, Kazuya and Motokawa, Tatsuo. (2010). Bilaterality in the regular sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina is related to efficient defense not to efficient locomotion. Marine Biology, 157, 2475-2488.
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
Gum Chewing Following Cesarean
In their research article entitled "Gum-Chewing Speeds Return of First Bowel Sounds but Not First Defecation after Cesarean Section," Harma et al. (2009) explore a two-fold research question. First, they looked into the duration of postoperative ileus if gum was chewed following a cesarean section. Secondly they looked at whether there was a difference in the results when comparing patients who chewed sugar-free gum with the results of those who chewed gum with sugar substitute in it. In the experiment, 76 women were divided into three categories, the control group, the sugar-free gum group, and the group who were given sugar-substituted gum. The patients who got to chew gum did so every fifteen minutes starting two hours after their surgery. hat the researchers found was that there was no marked difference between the three groups in comparing the time it took to their first episode of…
Harma, M.I., Barut, I., Arkian, I.I., & Harma, M. (2009). Gum-chewing speeds return of first bowel sounds but not first defecation after cesarean section. Anatolian Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1-3.
Lafon, C., & Lawson, L. (2012, April). Gum chewing as a strategy to reduce the duration of postoperative ileus. Gastrointestinal Nursing. Mark Allen. (10:3). 18-22.
Angiography;, Types Categories, , Signs & Symptoms, Treatment, Imaging Modality
An angiography involves the use of water-soluble X-ray contrast media by injecting it into blood streams in arteries or veins with the purpose of imaging blood vessels. The process is meant to observe normal or pathological conditions of the vessel organization. By seeing the lumen of blood vessels and organs, an angiography can provide information concerning conditions like luminal narrowing and aneurismal widening. Vessel access is essential and serious complications can appear if the substance is unable to pervade the veins and arteries, but this is rare and unlikely to occur. hile these are some of the conditions that are frequently detected through an angiography, it can also play an important role in analyzing sources of bleeding, tumors, and diverse malformations in veins and arteries.
The discovery of X-rays led to some of the first experiments with angiographies as…
Ford-Martin, P.A. (2002). Angiography. Retrieved November 14, 2013, from http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/angiography#1
Osborne, A.G. (1999). Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Snellen, H.A., Dunning, A.J., & Arntzenius, A.C. (1981). History and perspectives of cardiology: catherization, angiography, surgery, and concepts of circular control. Leiden University Press.
Thomas, A.M.K. & Banerjee, A.K. (2013). The History of Radiology. Oxford University Press.
The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation where a forty-four-year-old patient has contracted scleroderma within her lung tissue. There are many implications to having this medical disorder and they are not limited to the medical realm. Indeed, this report will cover a number of these implications and byproducts including stereotyping by all of society including medical professionals, the overall predisposition for the disease, daily life of scleroderma, comorbidities that might exist or end up happing and social issues such finances, the environment and so forth. While there are a good number of things that can be done to mitigate, treat or even prevent scleroderma, there are a lot of implications that any scleroderma patient must face and it can be very difficult for the patient.
Scleroderma is rare but it can take on many forms. Indeed, while the patient in this…
IDA. (2014). Don't Judge by Appearances - Invisible Disabilities Association - IDA. Invisible Disabilities Association - IDA. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from https://invisibledisabilities.org/ida-books-pamphlets/accessibleparking/dontjudgebyappearances/
Joachim, G. & Acorn, S. (2003). Life with a rare chronic disease: the scleroderma experience. - PubMed - NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12787233
Mayo. (2016). Overview - Scleroderma - Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/scleroderma/home/ovc-20206014
Military.com. (2016). Navy Vet Says She Got Apology Note after Parking in Vets-Only Space. Military.com. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from http://www.military.com/daily-news/2016/06/22/navy-vet-says-she-got-apology-note-parking-in-vets-only-space.html
Still, others claim that the physical resemblance of Lotus Root to the lungs holds the clue to understanding its healing properties ("Health enefits of Lotus Root"). Lotus Root is said to treat various respiratory problems. Small doses of the juice extracted from raw, finely grated Lotus Root is recommended for lung-related ailments such as tuberculosis, asthma, and coughing, for heart disease, and to neutralize toxins. Also, macrobiotic remedy combining Lotus Root and akuzu is often recommended to treat colds accompanied by fever and/or troubled stomach and intestines. Lotus Root is also said to be helpful for treating colds because it melts mucus accumulation in the respiratory system. When a Lotus Root plaster is applied to the face, it is believed to relieve sinus congestion and inflammation.
Still, there's no concrete medical authority that backs up the claims that practitioners of Alternative Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine make regarding the benefits…
Health Benefits of Lotus Root." http://www.naturalimport.com/health_benefits_of_lotus_root
Lotus Root. http://www.foodsnherbs.com/new_page_29.htm
Nutrition Facts. http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-C00001-01c20dz.html
The National Park Service (NPS, 2008) explains that "Numerous scientific studies have reached a consensus: lead poisoning is the biggest threat facing the successful recovery of the California condor." The NPS asserts that "More than 500 scientific studies published since 1898 have documented that worldwide, 134 species of wildlife are negatively affected by lead," including condors.
Meanwhile, the leadership of the NRA -- an organization that indeed does a lot of good, and has millions of responsible hunters as members -- has attacked the science regarding lead poisoning and has taken the position that the law in California calling for non-lead ammunition in condor habitat areas is really an attempt to "ban firearms." That is ridiculous. This has always been the NRA mantra when gun safety advocates try to pass legislation: they're trying to take NRA members' guns away. This is a patently absurd but powerful piece of propaganda. As…
Fry, D. Michael. (2003). Assessment of Lead Contamination Sources Exposing California
Condors. Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis. Retrieved July
21, 2011, from http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/swcbd/SPECIES/condor/Fry-Report-040703.pdf .
National Park Service / U.S. Department of the Interior. Lead Bullet Risks for Humans & Wildlife / Condors and Other Wildlife. Retrieved July 22, 2011, from http://www.nps.gov/pinn/naturescience/leadinfo.htm .
human DNA sequence composed of a series of letters such as 'accagacagt' and the objective was to decipher this jumble of letters and interpret the results. I suppose I should report that the process went smoothly and that after a bit of research I now consider myself an expert in regard to the new science of DNA Sequencing. However, I have a thousand more questions now than before I began and even the answers I came up with may or may not be correct. I do know for a fact that this is a pretty new art or science and its potential seems limitless. "DNA itself has thus far shown only modest evidence of possessing any intrinsic catalytic activities, although the prospect that more will be discovered in the future is surely plausible." (Cantor & Smith, 1999, xv)
The internet has made so many sites and processes available to the…
Obviously, enterokinase gene being tied to this chromosome entails a great deal of research interest into the biological functions of the gene and the manner by which it contributes to disease. Defects in PRSS7 therefore are a direct cause of enterokinase deficiency which is a life-threatening intestinal malabsorption disorder. The disorder can be characterized by severe bouts of diarrhea and failure to thrive and thus create a situation of initiating activation of pancreatic proteolytic proenzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase a).
Animals, like humans, have to handle digestion of exogenous macromolecules without destroying endogenous constituents so the serine protease or enterokinase seems to be a fundamental digestive system requirement. In other words, all vertebrates such as mice or dogs have adapted a two step enzymatic cascade that is used to change pancreatic zymogens over to active enzymes in the lumen of the gut as discovered by researchers in Pavlov's laboratory in the early 1900's. "Extracts of the proximal small intestine were shown strikingly to activate the latent hydrolytic enzymes in pancreatic fluid. Pavlov considered this intestinal factor to be an enzyme that activated other enzymes, or a 'ferment of ferments' and named it enterokinase." (Stone, 2002)
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…
1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?
2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?
Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
Mold Spore Trapping
Current Scientific Knowledge
People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.
Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.
Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…
Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.
Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.
CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.
CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
It normalizes blood pressure by dilating the blood pathways throughout the body, destroys poisonous carbon dioxide, releases free oxygen and promotes higher metabolism and stimulated enzyme systems. Consuming chlorophyll from wheatgrass has been shown to be a very highly successful way to alkalize and energize the body (Wheatgrass Juice Benefits, 2010).
Wheatgrass has been used to treat a number of conditions including the common cold, coughs, bronchitis, fevers, infections, and inflammation of the mouth and throat. Many years ago, wheatgrass was used to treat cystitis, gout, rheumatic pain, chronic skin disorders, and constipation. Even though most people use wheatgrass juice as a dietary supplement, some proponents claim that a dietary program frequently called the wheatgrass diet can cause cancer to retreat and can actually extend the lives of people who have cancer. They believe that the wheatgrass diet strengthens the immune system, kills harmful bacteria in the digestive system, and…
Fowlkes, KK. (2009). The History of Wheatgrass. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from Wheatgrass
Kits Web site: http://www.wheatgrasskits.com/issue1.htm
Wheatgrass. (2008). Retrieved June 26, 2010, from the American Cancer Society Web site:
Diversity and Psychology
There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.
Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San
Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
Dermatology- The dermatology department deals mostly with skin related illnesses. The most common issues within this department pertain to skin, scalp, hair and nails. Many of our clients are female with more cosmetic needs. Many would like to retain their youthful appearance and believe minor surgery is the best solution. As such, our departments offer many cosmetic treatments including hair removal, hair transplants, laser therapy and tattoo removal. This past fiscal year has been quite difficult as many of our affluent clients have postponed treatment due to economic concerns with the U.S. We believe this trend to be transitory in nature, with a steady increase in treatments to occur in early 2012.
Oncology- The oncology department pertains mostly to cancer, its detection and diagnosis. The most common diseases in this department are various forms of cancer with the most common being breast cancer. We have recently overhauled our…
Contraindications include false sugar readings in diabetic patients. This medication can also cause a black tongue or dark stool.
Irritable bowel syndrome is another gastrointestinal disorder. Irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is a problem that affects mainly the bowel, which is also called the large intestine. The bowel is the part of the digestive system that makes and stores stool. The word syndrome means a group of symptoms. IBS is a syndrome because it can cause several symptoms. For example, IBS causes cramping, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation. Two medications that are used to treat irritable bowel syndrome are: 1.) laxatives and 2.) antispasmodics. Oral laxatives are medicines taken by mouth to encourage bowel movements to relieve constipation, which is a common symptom of IBS. Side effects include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cramping, gas, and increased thirst. A contraindication of any laxative is dehydration. Advice to the patient and the patient's…
After atropine has prevented acetylcholine from binding and has produced its effects on the body, it will then need to be removed from the body so as to not be constantly blocking the muscarinic receptors. This would mean that if the atropine isn't metabolized and then excreted, a constant influx of acetylcholine would build up, causing lethal effects on the individual (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). The body alters the drug in Phase I and Phase II through oxidation by adding a hydroxyl group to the atropine molecule in order to make it hydrophilic, allowing it to travel to the renal system for excretion for rapid and successful elimination. While half of the atropine drug is metabolized and hydrolyzed to tropine and tropic acid, half of it is excreted unchanged through the renal and urinary system. Atropine follows the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, so in order for excretion to occur,…
Katzung, B.G., Masters, S.B., & Trevor, A.J. (2012). Basic and clinical pharmacology. (12th ed.). New York: McGrawHill.
quality of indoor air has received and increasing amount of attention, including a large amount of discussion about sick building syndrome, which has been recognised since the 1970's. Certainly, most North Americans spend the majority of our lives indoors, and the quality of our indoor air environment has been shown to play a huge role on our health. A wide variety of indoor pollutants can have an effect on human health, including environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and biological pollutants. iological indoor pollutants include dust mites, cockroaches, effluvia from pets like birds, rodents, dog and cats and mold.
Early investigations into sick building syndrome often gave a multi-factorial explanation for the symptoms of occupants. However, these investigations often could not explain the long duration of effects. Further, investigations into indoor air quality have historically ignored the problem of mold, and failed to give a clear history of water…
Ammann, Harriet M. Ph.D., D.A.B.T. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health? (20 May 2002). http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/oehas/mold.html
Carlile, M.J. The Fungi, 2nd ed. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 2001.
Indoor Air - Mold/Moisture. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (20 May 2002).
1997, the average pass rate for first time test takers on the NCLEX-RN was 93%. Since 1997, the national average pass rate on the NCLEX-RN has declined to 83.8% (National Organization for Associate Degree Nursing, 2002). The pass rate for the state of North Carolina and many other states has also declined in recent years.
Community colleges are the prime educators of new registered nurses in the United States. In 1997, 701 community colleges awarded 41,258 associate degrees in nursing (National Center for Education Statistics 1997). The combined ADN graduate pool constituted 60% of the U.S. graduates who took the NCLEX-RN exam in 2000,and these graduates represent the largest group of nurses entering the profession (National Council of State oards of Nursing 2001). On the other hand, baccalaureate programs graduated 37% of the total; and diploma or hospital-based educational programs, graduated 3%.(Teich, et al.)
In addition to educating the majority…
Adams, Carolyn, Valiaga, Theresa, Murdock, Jane. McGinnis, Susan & Wolfertz, Joanne (2002). Trends in Registered Nurse Education Programs: A Comparison Across Three Points in Time. In National League for Nursing (Ed.), pp. 1-10).:.
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (1999). Temporary Nurses Called A Serious Risk Threat At Hospitals. In (Ed.), p.).: American Association of Colleges of Nursing.
American Health Care Association.(1999).Facts and Trends, The Nursing Facility Sourcebook.Washington, D.C.:American Health Care Association.
American Hospital Association.1999.Trendwatch:RN Shortages in Hospitals. Washington, D.C.: American Hospital Association.
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…
Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.
Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.