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Disability and Society in Scotland, UK
Analysis of theoretical Perspectives on Disability in Scotland
Corbett (1991) is of the opinion that the idea of 'normality' that is present in the British culture has a contradiction. He says that it generally creates a fear of being different, while at the same time laying great stress on retaining ones individuality. To achieve this individuality people try to stand out in different areas of life which are valued by other people in the society, which may include sports. As a result they do not ponder over doing something that is very different, something that would not be accepted by the society. So according to Corbett this approach results in doing what has already been done and prevents experimentation on new things. Public responds to this difference through amelioration, punitive treatment or rehabilitation. This basically implies that a society where a sport is looked…
Abberley, P (1987) 'The concept of oppression and the development of a social theory of disability' Disability, Handicap & Society, 2(1) pp. 5-19.
Barnes, C. (1990) Cabbage Syndrome: The Social Construction of Dependence. Basingstoke: Falmer.
Barnes, C. (1991) Disabled People in Britain and Discrimination: A Case for Anti-Discrimination Legislation. Belper: British Council of Organisations of Disabled People.
Barton, L (1986) Disability and Society (Emerging Issues and Insights). Pearson Education.
Governments must also make sure that people who are dependent because of a severe disability have the same opportunity to achieve a standard of living that is equal to that of the rest of the people. Non-governmental organizations often assist Governments by devising needs, suggesting solutions and providing services balancing to those provided by Governments. Allocation of financial and material resources by all sections of the population, not leaving out the rural areas of developing countries could be of major implication to disabled persons by resulting in expanded community services and improved economic chances. It is thought that many disabilities could be prevented if measures were taken against malnutrition, environmental pollution, poor hygiene, inadequate prenatal and postnatal care, water-borne diseases and accidents of all types. The international community could make a major breakthrough against disabilities caused by poliomyelitis, tetanus, whooping-cough and diphtheria, and to a lesser extent tuberculosis, through a…
"Ableism, the Law, and Barriers to Equality for Persons with Disabilities." 2009. Web. 27 May 2010.
"Interacting with People with Disabilities." 2007. Web. 27 May 2010.
"Physically Challenged." 2010. Answers. Web. 27 May 2010.
Shah, Anup. 2009. "Health Care Around the World." Global Issues. Web. 27 May 2010.
Disability1 Rights Activists Demand that MDA. Retrieved September 16, 2005 from http://www.cripcommentary.com/demands.html
his page lists the demands from the Disability Rights Activists upon the MDA concerning the Jerry Lewis Labor Day elethon.
Disability Rights Movement. Retrieved September 16, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disability_rights_movement
his Web site describes a brief history of the disability rights movement within the United States.
Facts About the Americans with Disabilities Act. Retrieved September 16, 2005 from he U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission web site: http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-ada.html
he U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Web site provides a wealth of information regarding employment practices, as well as information not only on the ADA, but also on any Act regarding employment, such as age discrimination, civil rights, and equal pay.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. Retrieved September 16, 2005 at http://www.nps.gov/fdrm/fdr/struggle.htm
his National Park Service Web site proves information about Franklin D. Roosevelt, including his struggle with physical disability.
Jerry Lewis: Muscular…
This National Park Service Web site proves information about Franklin D. Roosevelt, including his struggle with physical disability.
Jerry Lewis: Muscular Dystrophy Association. Retrieved September 16, 2005 from http://www.mdausa.org/telethon/
This is the official Web site for the Jerry Lewis Muscular Dystrophy Association Labor Day Telethon. The site provides information concerning the disease as well as the telethon information.
One solution is to employ a trained banking host, who will assess the needs of each client. These do not refer only to disability assistance, but also to everyday banking activities such as making deposits, investing, withdrawals and the like. The banking host can then be stationed close to the entrance of the bank, with a prominent sign to the effect of "banking assistance" or something in the same vein. Persons with learning disabilities can then, without any loss to dignity or privacy, ask the banking host for help in performing their transactions. The banking host is available to all clients, not only to those with disabilities, and therefore there need be no element of self-consciousness when persons with special needs approach him or her for assistance.
If these persons have any problems with completing their transactions, they can also be referred back to the banking host, who can assist…
The story "The Village Watchman" by Terry Tempest Williams and the film "What's Eating Gilbert Grape" both depict families which include someone with developmental disability. In Williams' autobiographical story, it is the author's uncle, Alan, who is described as "special" because his "brain was denied oxygen" during a "breech" birth. In Lasse Hallstrom's film, it is Gilbert Grape's brother Arnie, played by Leonardo di Caprio, whose developmental disability is never specified. However, as with Alan in Williams' story, Arnie Grape's mental handicap is also accompanied by a physical frailty -- as Arnie says repeatedly in the film, "I could go at any time." In both of these stories, we can behold the effects that a developmentally disabled person can have upon his family environment. Gilbert Grape is effectively forced to parent his little brother, because his father is absent and this absence has caused his mother to become morbidly…
It should also be kept in mind that the employee will need regular and easy access to the bathrooms for the insulin shots that she needs. Disability bathroom facilities should be installed for this purpose. These facilities should be fairly close to the employee's workstation. Furthermore, the facility should be easily accessible for a person using a wheelchair or crutches.
In terms of emotional support, an on-site consultant can be hired to help the employee with her transition from convalescence to work, and with the emotional aspects of returning to work in a disabled state. This consultant can also be used for training fellow employees towards sensitivity for the needs of the returned worker.
The telephone switchboard operator who lost the use of his right hand and arm following a stroke can be treated in the same general manner as the checkout operator. A consultation with the employer can for…
In a case where an employee has epilepsy, the employer and all colleagues should be made aware of the exact circumstances of the condition in the individual employee. The primary concern is the safety of both the involved employee, his or her colleagues, and the workplace. Accordingly, equipment could be safeguarded in order to ensure that an employee is not hurt in the course of a seizure. Ideally, a worker that is epileptic should not be required to operate potentially dangerous machinery.
Reasonable adjustments for a person who is prone to panic or anxiety attacks may include a counseling service to help these persons adjust to their work environment and situation. As in the case of epilepsy, the employee should take responsibility to notify the employer and colleagues of his or her exact needs. The employee can for example be notified in advance of specifically stressful situations in the workplace,…
Another significant software that mobility impaired people can utilize is speech recognition by using this software a person can dictate the text which they want to type and this software will type it on the screen.
Hearing Impairment: People with hearing or speaking impairments have been using sign language to communicate with others. Technology developed and people with listening impairment were able to take help of assistive listening systems and devices to overcome their problem. Later on computer-assisted real-time transcription (CAT) further helped these people. Certain sounds and beeps that computer make becomes inaudible for the people suffering from hearing impairment. Appearance of visual warning on the screen when computer make any beep or sound works as a remedy for those people who cannot hear properly. Another way in which technology is playing a great part in solving this problem is the flashing of light for example flashing of light…
High-Tech Aids Offer New Options to Deaf, Blind'. (September-October 1989). The Futurist. 23(5): 50+.
Goals Still within Sight; Blind Striving to Live like Others'. (December 24, 2006). The Washington Times.
Lodato, J. (January-February 2005). Advances in Voice Recognition: A First-Hand Look at the Magic of Voice-Recognition Technology. The Futurist. 39(1): 7+.
Riemer-Reiss, M. & Wacker, R. (2000). Factors Associated with Assistive Technology Discontinuance among Individuals with Disabilities. The Journal of Rehabilitation. 66(3): 44.
Slotting summer jobs or paid internships specifically for high school, college and post-grad students with disabilities; (2) Affirmative action and mentoring for people with disabilities. (Whether and how to implement affirmative action depends on organizational culture and applicable law.); (3) Training and professional development for people with disabilities; (4) Accomplishments of goals, services available, etc. In your organization's newsletter, bulletin board and reports, to the extent that other groups and people are included; (5) Track the speed of handling of reasonable accommodation requests and the satisfaction of employees and supervisors with outcomes; (6) Ensure the assignment of people with disabilities in management and other leadership positions; and (7) Managers and employees to be trained and re-trained within time guidelines. (Cohen, 2006)
Stated as necessary evaluation that is ongoing in nature of the success of the organization in making the necessary accommodations provisions for individuals with disabilities are those as follows:…
Bruyere, S. (2000a). Disability employment policies and practices in private and federal sector organizations. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations Extension Division, Program on Employment and Disability.
Bruyere, S. (2000b). Managing disability in the workplace. . Equal Opportunities Review, 92,26-33. Bureau of National Affairs (2001, June 28). SHRM-BNA No. 66, Human Resources Activities, Budgets, and Staffs: 2000 -- 2001. . Bulletin to Management, 52, S1-S42. 26, Suppl., Part II
Bruyere, Susanne M., Erickson, William, and VanLooy, Sara (2004) Comparative Study of Workplace Policy and Practices Contributing to Disability Nondiscrimination. Rehabilitation Psychology 49(1) Cornell University 2004.
Burkhauser, R., & Daly, M. (1998). Disability and work: The experiences of American and German men. . Economic Review, 2, 17-29.
esearch into possibilities for the prevention of psychopathology among people with ID is of the utmost importance. Furthermore, awareness and education of ID among healthcare professionals, teachers, employers and the general public would serve to provide support for people with this disability, which could facilitate the development of social and life skills, and improve their quality of life.
Clarke, A.., Tonge, B.J., Einfeld, S.L., Mackinnon, A. (2003). Assessment of change with the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Journal of Intellectual Disability esearch, 47(3), 210-2.
Einfeld, S.L., Piccinin, A.M., MacKinnon, A., Hofer, S.M., Taffe, J., Gray, K.M.., Bontempo, D.E., Hoffman, L.., Parmenter, T., Tonge, B.J. (2006). Psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296)16), 1981-9.
Esbensen, A.J., Benson, B.A. (2006). A prospective analysis of life events, problem behaviours and depression in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability esearch, 50(4), 248-58.
Hamilton, D., Sutherland, G.,…
Clarke, A.R., Tonge, B.J., Einfeld, S.L., Mackinnon, A. (2003). Assessment of change with the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(3), 210-2.
Einfeld, S.L., Piccinin, A.M., MacKinnon, A., Hofer, S.M., Taffe, J., Gray, K.M.., Bontempo, D.E., Hoffman, L.R., Parmenter, T., Tonge, B.J. (2006). Psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296)16), 1981-9.
Esbensen, A.J., Benson, B.A. (2006). A prospective analysis of life events, problem behaviours and depression in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(4), 248-58.
Hamilton, D., Sutherland, G., Iacono, T. (2005). Further examination of relationships between life events and psychiatric symptoms in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(1), 839-44.
Disability Rights Movement and How it Affected Employment
According to the oxford advanced leaner's dictionary disability is the state of being disabled or lack of something that is considered necessary, disabilities could be of sight, hearing, speech and diseases among others. Baron (2002, 585-599) in his studies gave a broader definition of disability in which he termed it as a complex phenomena that reflects on the interaction between the physical body of a disable person and the features of the society in which he or she habitats' in. Important to note is that disability can be present from the birth of a person or it can occur during one's lifetime. Beiser et al.(1994,857-863) in his studies highlighted the types of disabilities to include of physical disability, intellectual disability, developmental disability, mental health and emotional disabilities, sensory disability which is further categorized into visual impairment, balance disorder, hearing impairment, somato-sensory impairment,…
Baron RC, Salzer (2002) Accounting for unemployment among people with mental illness. Behavior Science Law
Beiser M, Bean G, Erickson D, Zhang J, Iacono WG, and Rector NA.(1994) Biological and psychosocial predictors of job performance following a first episode of psychosis. Am J. Psychiatry
Boardman J, Grove B, Perkins R, and Shepherd G (2003). Work and employment for people with psychiatric disabilities Br J. Psychiatry
Carone BJ, Harrow M, and Westermeyer J., (1991) Post hospital course and outcome in schizophrenia, Arch Gen Psychiatry
In some respects, I suppose the filmmaker was illustrating that disabilities can be overcome and that external or superficial aspects about people that seem to be serious disabilities often belie great talent and alternative types of awareness. From my perspective, that serious element or message of the film was largely undermined by the exaggeration of Forrest's accomplishments and by the endless list of his triumphs. The stereotypes that were addressed had to do with the inaccuracies of first impressions and with the incorrect assumptions that the disabled cannot be insightful or physically capable.
4. Images: Discuss how the story line included images in how the person(s) with a disability were portrayed.
One of the more poignant aspects of the film, especially in relation to the manner in which the protagonist benefited from the support of loved ones, had to do with Forrest's relationship with his mother and her constant spiritual…
The book goes on to say that normalization "would lead to closing institutions and mainstreaming in every aspect of life."
The first question relative to the Linton book asks how cultural and environmental contributions have influenced how one thinks about responses to people with disabilities. Linton's treatise is a great example of how the author of this paper has used a cultural offering (a book, in this case) as she sums it up beautifully when she says that "it wasn't until then that I gained the vantage point of the atypical, the out-of-step, the underfooted." Being exposed to something like this is a pivotal way to consider it because only being exposed indirectly via movies and such is never going to match a personal experience. The author of this paper has a person very close that had polio and it was clear that he was more self-sufficient than most…
Linton, S. (2007). My body politic: A memoir. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Shapiro, J.P. (1993). No pity: People with disabilities forging a new civil rights movement. New York: Times Books.
Wendell (1996) wrote an article to explore the idea of disability, which is a common issue in the modern society. Disability has generally been utilized to refer to people with certain deformities and inability to function like normal human beings. This general definition has in turn been utilized to create the category “people with disabilities”, which is erroneously based on the perception that disabled people are similar in various major ways. The article examines the concept of disability across different dimensions including the definition of disability, purposes of such definitions, disability identity, and politics of disability identity. One of the ideas emerging from this article is that existing definitions of disability are very narrow and do not incorporate the broad spectrum of issues and experiences of disabled people. Wendell (1996) suggests that definition of disability is influenced by the person/entity defining disability and their objectives in doing so. Therefore, people…
Hahn, H. (2016). Toward a Politics of Disability: Definitions, Disciplines, and Policies. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from https://www.independentliving.org/docs4/hahn2.html
Wendell, S. (1996). Who is Disabled? Defining Disability. In The rejected body: Feminist philosophical reflections on disability (chap.1, pp.23-33). New York: Routledge.
Zeilinger, J. (2015, July 7). 6 Forms of Ableism We Need to Retire Immediately. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from https://mic.com/articles/121653/6-forms-of-ableism-we-need-to-retire-immediately#.g9rfCzkDR
disability sport levels. - people disability extreme sports mixed comedy disability..
Memo: Inclusivity in sports
Memo: To the general public
e: Disabilities and sports -- what you can do to change the image of disabled athletes
ecently, there has been a great deal of concern expressed about the modern image of sports: sports have been criticized for being insensitive to the concerns of people who do not reflect the image of the 'typical' athlete, including women, gay people, and persons with disabilities. In fact, people from all of these categories can be extraordinary athletes. The media image of whom and what is constructed as an athlete must begin to change and shift and there must be a national education about the possibilities of persons who defy conventional stereotypes of what it means to be disabled. "People with disabilities have historically been excluded in the realms of sport - where they…
Hardin, Marie. (2003). Marketing the acceptably athletic image: Wheelchair athletes, sport related advertising and capitalist hegemony. Disability Studies Quarterly, 23 (1): 108
125. Retrieved: http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/403/553
Staurowsky, Elaine. (2013). New guidance from the Office for Civil Rights regarding athletes with disabilities. College Business News. Available: http://collegesportsbusinessnews.com/issue/march-2013/article/new-guidance-from-the-office-for-civil-rights-regarding-athletes-with-disabilities-utm_source=College+Sports+Business+News+Subscribers&utm_campaign=7cf9981ff3-Mar21-Staurowsky&utm_medium=email
Census Bureau in the United States, there are about 54 million Americans that have some sort of disability. Out of these persons, 26 million persons have a severe disability. While employment rates are concerned, it should be seen that 82% of the people in America without a disability have a job or some sort of business. Keeping this in mind, it should be seen that the employment rate of individuals with disabilities has not improved since the 1990s when the ADA was passed. Even though the economy was gotten better since that time, employment still hasn't improved. Now with the economy in a decline and inflation going up, there is an urgent need for disabled people to be employed so that they can better take care of themselves. In this part of the paper we shall be discussing the results that were obtained with respect to the research questions that…
Ashworth, K., Hartfree, Y & Stephenson, A. (2001). Well enough to work? Research Report No. 145, (UK) Department of Work and Pensions, Corporate Document Services, Leeds.
Baker, M. & Tippin, D. (2003). More than just another obstacle: Health, Domestic Purposes Beneficiaries, and the transition to paid work, paper presented at the Social Policy, Research and Evaluation conference Connecting Policy, Research and Practice, 29 -- 30 April, Wellington.
Berkowitz, M., & Hill, M. (1986). Disability and the labor market (1st ed.). Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.
Berthoud, R. (1998). Disability benefits: A review of the issues and options for reform, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York.
Huber v WalMart
In the United States, the 1990 American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) was a huge step forward in Civil and Individual ights that protects against discrimination and requires access to all public organizations. To broaden this, the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA) includes a major list of life activities and enhances the requirements for accessibility. Broadly defined, an individual has a disability if they have something physical or mental that prevents them from engaging in a major activity that most people take for granted. The law already addresses equal employment opportunities, (Title 1 of the ADA), but other parts of the ADA are more focused to what is known as "reasonable accommodation." This means that if an individual is otherwise qualified for a position, their disability, or impairment, must not be a factor in being hired, promoted, or otherwise actualized within the position.
In the case of…
Huber v. Wal-Mart. (2007, May). United States Court of Appeals, 8th Circuit. No. 06-2238. Retrieved from: http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-8th-circuit/1289819.html
Wal-Mart Worker Cancels High Court Clash. (2008, January). Bloomberg TV. Retrieved from: http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=a5gjEo3pYRDU&refer=home
Lavin, H. And DiMichele, E. (2011). Split Circuits: To Reassign or Not to Reassign. Employee Relations Law Journal. 36 (4): Retrieved from: http://www.stroock.com/SiteFiles/Pub1042.PDF
U.S. Department of Justice. (2013). Americans With Disabilities Act. Retrieved from: http://www.ada.gov/
The concept of disability continues to confound our society. Whether it is Barnes & Mercer (2010) just randomly throwing out an absurd straw man that lumps all of Western society into a singular hate-filled ball that they can tear apart, or it is just government and business seeking to find reasonable, compassionate solutions to a complex social issue, disability is something that we collectively have a hard time understanding. Thus, it seems that even though we have umpteen definitions already, we need another. This essay will attempt to seek out such a definition, by understanding what exactly a disability is.
The paper will begin with a brief overview of some of the issue that challenge us when seeking a definition of disability. Some of these issues are objections to current frameworks, while others simply reflect that there are many different lens through which disability can be examined. The paper…
Barnes, C. & Mercer, G. (2010). Exploring disability: A sociological introduction. Polity Press.
Davis, L. (2013). The Disability Studies Reader. Routledge.
Gibson, O. (2012). Drop the word 'disabled' from Games coverage, demands Paralympics committee president. The Guardian. Retrieved October 18, 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2012/aug/26/paralympics-philip-craven-disabled-disability
US Airways Inc. v. obert Barnett (United States Supreme Court 2001)
Type of Action
The type of action brought before the Supreme Court was an appeal from a lower court. The appellate court affirmed part of the prior decision, reversed part of the prior decision and remanded the rest. Prior to reaching the Supreme Court, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals heard the court (196 F.3d 979)
Facts of the Case
The facts of the case are pretty basic. An employee named obert Barnett became disabled due to a back injury and thus requested to be transferred to a mail room position that was less demanding physically. Subsequent to that, the employee then lost that job due to be bids being made by employees who were more senior in nature. Mr. Barnett sued U.S. Airways under the Americans with Disability Act for not making proper accommodations and allowing…
NCD. (2014, May 24). National Council on Disability. Policy Brief Series. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://www.ncd.gov/publications/2003/March52003
Oyez. (2014, May 24). U.S. AIRWAYS v. BARNETT. U.S. Airways v. Barnett. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2001/2001_00_1250
Vries, L. (2002, April 29). Disability Vs Seniority. CBSNews. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/disability-vs.-seniority/
Disability needs to be defined in ways that empower the disabled and create a more egalitarian society. Although some progress has been made to define disability in ways that prevents discrimination, there is still a lot that can be done to promote equality. According to the World Health Organization (2014), "people with disabilities face barriers in accessing the health and rehabilitation services they need in many settings." Barriers need to be torn down, to ensure that all persons have equal access to services, resources, and opportunities. In order to remove all types of barriers, it is necessary to define disability. This paper will present a medical definition of disability, connect that definition to the social stigma and perceived inequality, and suggestion solutions that can be applied in the public and private sectors. The thesis of the research is that disability is defined best as being any restriction or lack, resulting…
ADA National Network (n.d.). What is the definition of disability under the ADA? Retrieved online: https://adata.org/faq/what-definition-disability-under-ada
Barnes, C. & Mercer, G. (2010). Introduction: Analysing Disability. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Diverse Cymru (2011). Disability inequality in Wales. Retrieved online: http://www.diversecymru.org.uk/disability/
Social Security Administration (n.d.). Disability planner. Retrieved online: http://www.ssa.gov/dibplan/dqualify4.htm
Attention grabber: Everyone is disabled in some way, as no one is able to do everything.
Defining disability is problematic because it presumes homogeneity among the disabled community, and presumes that there are only certain types of ability.
oad Map: This paper will explore legal, ethical, and social dimensions of disability with the goal of suggesting a paradigm shift.
Disability occurs when the person's body or mind does not conform to environmental conditions or social norms.
elational definitions of disability is legally relevant because it will allow persons who are temporarily disabled to access services.
Defining disability in a way that stresses relational activity highlights the role of politics and social stratification.
b. How this definition stands out:
Compare with United States Department of Education (2014), which defines disability as "a person with a disability as a person who has a physical or mental impairment…
Barnes, C. & Mercer, G. (2010). Exploring Disability. Malden, MA: Polity.
"Definition of disability under the Equality Act 2010," (2014). Retrieved online: https://www.gov.uk/definition-of-disability-under-equality-act-2010
United States Department of Education (2014). What is the definition of disability under the ADA? Retrieved online: https://adata.org/faq/what-definition-disability-under-ada
White, E.B. (2000). The Elements of Style.
Provide a description of each component below.
Type of Law/Administrative Office/Enforcing Agency
The IDEA is a four-phased public law that ensures children with disabilities across the United States have access to Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE), which is suited for their unique needs. The act is enforced by the ministry of education through the national education system and through groups such as the Society for Disability studies, Disabled Peoples' International USA, and the local education agency (LEA).
Section 504 is a provision of American Civil rights law that ensures people with disabilities are not discriminated. The school, district, and regular education leaders are responsible for the government of this act. The legislation is enforced through higher education institutions by making their academic programs accessible to students with disabilities who are qualified. The provision also necessitates the K-12 school to render their benefits equivocally to children…
Brennan, J. (2018). The ADA National Network Disability Law Handbook | ADA National Network. Retrieved from https://adata.org/publication/disability-law-handbook
Ellis, K. (2005). Disability rights in practice: the relationship between human rights and social rights in contemporary social care. Disability & Society, 20(7), 691-704. doi: 10.1080/09687590500335675
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): What You Need to Know. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/your-childs-rights/basics-about-childs-rights/individuals-with-disabilities-education-act-idea-what-you-need-to-know
Series, L. (2015). The development of disability rights under international law: from charity to human rights. Disability & Society, 30(10), 1590-1593. doi: 10.1080/09687599.2015.1066975
A child is said to have a disability when he/she exhibits some limitation in his physical, sensory, cognitive, speech, language, communication or social functions. Such impairments vary in severity, depending on the extent to which core mobility, self-care activities and communication is affected. Statistics have it that about 4% of children in developed countries aged between 0 and 5 years are disabled. The majority of these are boys. Normally, as children develop, they find much joy in playing, either alone or with others. Children’s playing takes different forms, including object, locomotor, pretense, language and socio-dramatic play. For a child with disability, all these forms of play may not be practically possible (Jenvey, 2013).
Children with disabilities have different characteristics, each one unique from the other. Thus, it becomes quite difficult to address them in general, even in this particular topic of play. Researchers have done much study on this topic,…
Buchanan, M., & Johnson, T. G. (2009). A Second Look at the Play of Young Children with Disabilities. American Journal of Play, 2(1), 41-59.
Doheny, K. (2010). Playtime for Children with Physical Disabilities. Retrieved October 20, 2018, from https://www.webmd.com/children/features/playtime-physical-disabilities#1
Frost, J. L., Wortham, S. C., & Reifel, R. S. (2001). Play and child development. Merrill, Prentice Hall.
Jenvey, V. D. (2013). Play and Disability. Encyclopedia of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved October 20, 2018, from http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/play/according-experts/play-and-disability
Reflective Assignment: barriers, challenges, controversies affect disability sports movement
Almost all individuals encounter problems and adversities at some or other time. However, in case of disabled individuals, obstacles may be more impactful and recurrent. Some environmental facets which, on account of being present or absent, give rise to disability and restrict functioning are:
· An inaccessible physical climate;
· Absence of appropriate adaptive, rehabilitative and assistive technologies;
· Negative societal views of disabled individuals; and
· Absence of appropriate policies, services, and systems, or the presence of those hampering participation of individuals suffering from an ailment in every walk of life (CDC, 2017).
Disabled individuals continue to depict low participation rate in sporting activities despite profiting more from such activities as compared to their able-bodied counterparts. Disabled individuals’ participation in competitive sports has been increasing; nevertheless, the pool continues to be rather small. The numerous potential causes for disabled individuals’…
CDC. (2017). Common Barriers to Participation Experienced by People with Disabilities. Retrieved 29 December 2017 from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/disability-barriers.html
Committee for Disability Sports. (n.d). DISABILITY SPORTS MASTER PLAN. Retrieved 29 December 2017 from https://www.mccy.gov.sg/~/media/MCCY-corp/Topics/Sports/Attachments/Disability_Sports_Master_Plan-Full_Report.ashx
DePauw, K. P., Gavron, S. J., & DePauw, K. P. (2005). Disability sport. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics.
Longmuir P. E. & Axelson P. W. (n.d.) Chapter Ten: Sport Equipment.
Teo, J. (2016). Sports for those with disabilities. Retrieved Retrieved 29 December 2017 from http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/health/sports-for-those-with-disabilities
By analyzing the critical issues of diversity in today’s world through the lenses of history, the humanities, the natural and applied sciences, and the social sciences, one can see how the feedback loop within society is created. This paper explores the issue of physical and mental disabilities in the workplace. Until recently in this nation’s history, individuals with disabilities were viewed as liabilities—but now the very language that people use when discussing individuals who have physical or mental disabilities is changing. Even the term “disabled” seems to stem from the problematic concept of ableism: as the Center for Disability Rights points out, some managers still operate under “the assumption that disabled people need to be 'fixed' in one form or the other.” That assumption is being challenged across the country as the rights of disabled people are asserted and defended—and this paper shows how. Historically, the disabled population has been one…
Disabled in the United States: From Segregation to Integration
As the quote from Jane Addams shows at the end of Lost in Laconia, the purpose of learning from the past is to ensure that the moral reaction we have to mistakes made will ensure that those same mistakes are not repeated (1L Media, 2013). The factors that led to our abuse of the disabled in the past is partly due to the lack of oversight and regulation regarding the disabled community and partly because of the cultural influences of the time. When the culture is insensitive to the needs of others and views a certain type or class or population as sub-human, the result is going to be abuse. Today, some people still grow up in such cultures, but in general today’s culture is more sensitive to the needs of the under-privileged and marginalized.
However, that is not to say…
Work Disability in Small Firms
Work Disability Thesis Proposal
Is There a Problem? What is the Contribution?
ivermore, Whalen, Prenovitz, Aggarwal and Bardos (2011) explain how the connection between disability, work productivity and income benefits the whole society by reducing reliance on tax-funded support programs (p. 1). All of us have an interest in ensuring the most productivity from all workers, if stable employment for workers with disabilities frees up resources for other public or private endeavors, and turning tax consumers into tax payers will help reduce the burden for those who now pay. Given public perceptions of funding constraints and increased challenges to public services posed by an aging population majority, ensuring stable employment for everyone especially workers with disability grows more rather than less urgent over time. Even at current levels, ivermore et al. (2011) assert, "it is especially important for policymakers to have access to a wide…
A major confound undermining many survey-based research claims is selection bias, where researchers impute generalizations from convenience samples without ensuring truly random selection. This study will sidestep that issue simply by avoiding claims of incidence, because copious such data already exist in general as Markesich (2008) and Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Statistics and Demographics (2011) demonstrate, even if those data do not speak to workers' productivity and satisfaction in precisely the category of interest between large and small firms and disability compared to workers without. Avoiding claims of prevalence will enhance focus on qualitative inquiry as to satisfaction and productivity given the qualification that those responses indicate perceptions or intent, like perceived job fit or intent to quit or search for different employment. Claims couched in terms of perception and ex-ante intent rather than as ex-post quantitative events, will avoid the type of subjectivity Hotchkiss (2002) e.g. finds underlying much of the research on incidence or causality.
Likewise reporting perceptions of ability, performance and satisfaction seeks to avoid confounding subjectivity of language but also of disclosure, because counting disability as only those conditions with medical documentation or real accommodation in the workplace, would omit workers with invisible disability they may have declined to report. That official definitions restricted by documentation and disclosure understate incidence of disability in the workplace is not only logically coherent, but becoming more recognized as a growing body of research demonstrates (e.g. Hotchkiss, 2002, pp. 8-13, or Kukla & Bond, 2012, p. 14). Kruse and Schur (2003), for example, raise plausible doubt about comparing statistics as definitions
Work Disability in Small Firms Chapter II
Work disabled ChII Lit Review
Review of Literature Demonstrates Information Gap and Identifies Methods
This chapter justifies the problem statement and research questions, and locates the results among existing research. Copious data and analysis describes pronounced unemployment for potential workers with disabilities and lower income where workers with disabilities are employed, compared to the general U.S. workforce, extensive policy intervention notwithstanding. Fewer studies focus on workers or potential workers with disabilities in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, Georgia metropolitan statistical area, and even at the national level, very few juried reports describe productivity and job satisfaction for workers with disabilities in firms smaller than fifteen employees. Firms with fewer than fifteen employees are exempt from compliance with Title I of the ADA, but stimulating employment for workers with disabilities in these firms may improve economic self-sufficiency for this historically disadvantaged population. Conversely, if productivity and…
Policy disincentives probably affect productivity, satisfaction and employment.
Where consensus agrees is around a strong disincentive to work if medical costs covered by Medicaid exceed the level of income qualifying them for SSDI reimbursement. As numerous experts, administrators and disability employment program consumers testified to the 111th U.S. Congress in 2009 (U.S. Congress, 2011), once an individual earns more than a threshold that qualifies them for Medicaid coverage, they have to pay their medical costs out of pocket, and if those costs are more than the new earnings plus the SSDI transfer income, then the result is negative earnings plus often considerable effort and expense getting to work along with the labor of work itself. The result, not surprisingly, is often that potential workers with disability live off $674 per month income support in order not to lose Medicaid eligibility by earning more than qualifies them for federal health care coverage, i.e. $940 in one month (C. Bates-Harris, qtd. In U.S. Congress, 2011, p. 23-25), if total earnings become less or negative covering medical costs out of pocket, especially given exclusion from insurance for the pre-existing condition that justified Medicaid coverage in the first place before the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). PPACA made such exclusion illegal, but the results are still too new for empirical analysis as yet. The perverse incentive generated by high-enough out-of-pocket medical costs meant that a potential worker with disability had to go from earning little enough to qualify for Medicaid, to enough that they could cover those costs out of pocket and also the foregone monthly income transfer. This might often mean many thousands of dollars per year or month if disability required ongoing medical attention, a situation experts often call the "Cash Cliff" (Tremblay, Porter, Smith and Weathers, 2011, p. 19) due to the abrupt income threshold.
Extensive testimony to Congress (2011) described problems within SSDI programs themselves. Income verification requirements where employment was successfully accomplished, for example, resulted in overpayment and then reversal of awarded transfers that left workers with obligations to reimburse SSDI for in one case $115,000 where a worker with psychiatric disability had benefits retroactively revoked for the prior six years, for "sporadically, very occasionally exceeding the substantial gainful activity level by small amounts, due to his disability, and there is no dispute that he reported his work attempts" (Landry, Anderson, Lacava and Bronstein, qtd. In 111th Congress, 2011, p. 88). Another was overpaid $60,000; another over $56,000; none of these individuals have worked since, which their program administrators attributed to their
The question is not whether the students are truly disabled but rather what constitutes a child who is a low achiever? Is there something in the pedagogy, the methodology or the manner of instruction that fails to tap into what the child is good at and expounds on that to improve learning? For those students who are non-native English speakers, is that a problem of the student or the teacher who may not be bi-lingual or impatient in his or her instruction? As suggested by Kaufman, Hallahan, ills and others, it is incumbent upon the educational system to determine a universal way to classify students as learning disabled and stop school systems from using it as a catch all for the students they find difficult to instruct.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: what, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly.…
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: what, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly.
Gresham, F., MacMillan, D., & Bocian, K. (1996). Learning disabilities, low
Achievement and mild mental retardation: more alike than different? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 570-581.
Hale, J., Naglieri, J., Kaufman, a., & Kavate, K (2004). Specific learning disability
disabilities as 'deficits.' Even though I did not harbor prejudices against the disabled or regard people who had disabilities as 'inferior,' I viewed disabilities as challenges that had to be overcome. This class has helped me see persons with disabilities as people with particular conditions or differences, not as people defined by a singular characteristic. Everyone has personal deficits and strengths, but needing 'talking books' to read a book does not make a blind or dyslexic person defined by their condition any more than someone who needs glasses to see the same text. Defining persons with disabilities as people 'with' specific conditions, such as saying that Johnny is a child 'with ADHD' rather than a 'hyperactive kid,' much as you would say someone is 'a person who wears glasses' rather than a 'glasses-wearing friend' has been helpful in changing my mindset.
Before I took this course, I also had a…
Stocker, deaf since birth, admittedly attempted to compensate for her disability, her imperfection, through the relentless pursuit of achieving perfection physically and athletically, and even when she excelled, Stocker confesses, for a long time she remained emotionally tortured by disability for which no amount of body shaping or athletic skill in sports could change that disability (2001, p. 154). Stocker's struggle with her self-image, her identity and hers sexuality were in large part shaped by her disability.
While it is not an attempt here to disparage Stocker, or to belittle the significance of her disability; Stocker is a woman who suffered her hearing impairment from birth. Stocker suffered emotionally as a result of her disability, struggled with it for most of her life in the ways in which it impacted her self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. So, might not a woman who acquired a disability at that point her life when…
Barker-Benfield, G.J. (2000). The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108011402 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
Bellerose, S.B., & Binik, Y.M. (1993). Body Image and Sexuality in Oophorectomized Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22(5), 435+. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
DeFries, Z., Friedman, R.C., & Corn, R. (Eds.). (1985). Sexuality: New Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=51035002 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105657669
Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools
The connecting theory application in the system of basic education has contributed to the development and establishment of a trans-disciplinary scientific strategized framework. This framework bases on the specified reverence for a considerable orientation in long-term and the engagement of decision makers in the education system on its application. The connecting theory involves work that cuts across education disciplines. This is with the aim of exposing the aspects perceived to be of outdated assumptions in the education system. This happens with their respective enrichment in the technological and social practice. The theory constitutes well-strategized research with knowledge meant for informing a scientific framework designated. This is to enable direct transformation towards the education system future with worldview fit (Fenton-Smith, & Stillwell, 2011).
The concrete developed strategic objectives aim at addressing the advancements with accuracy in understanding the aspect of science. This…
Albrecht, G.L. (2003). Handbook of disability studies. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage.
Dan Goodley & Michele Moore. (2010). Doing Disability Research: Activist lives and the academy. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cdso20
Danforth, S. (2006). Vital questions facing disability studies in education. New York: Lang.
Fenton-Smith, B., & Stillwell, C. (2011). Reading Discussion Groups for Teachers:
He would sometimes be wheel chaired to the door through which he would enter to make a public appearance, but once at the door, his leg braces would be put on him, and he would rely on his son's arm for support and balance (43-48). Later, with his son's support, he was able to use a cane, and the extent of his disability was successfully downplayed by the force of his political platform and the attention he commanded with powerful words and the presentation of himself in a dignified way with strong posture (43-48).
"Deeply concerned that the image of a 'permanently crippled man' seeking to lead a crippled nation out of the Depression would be damaging to his campaign, oosevelt's aides every effort to portray the Democratic nominee as a man who had conquered polio and who could walk. As he traveled across the country, his leg braces, without…
Bardes, Barbara A., Shelley, Mark C., Schmidt, Steffen W. (2008).
American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials,
Coates, Peter A. (2006). American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive
Species: Strangers on the Land,
One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.
This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…
Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., & Haritou., M. et al. (2005). Identifying factors contributing to child and family outcome 30 months after traumatic brain injury in children. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 76(3):401-408,
Family Village. (2006). Cognitive Disability/Mental Retardation. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_cdmr.htm
Feldman, M., Varghese, J., Ramsay, J., & Rajska, D. (2002). Relationships between social
support, stress, and mother-child interactions in mothers with intellectual disabilities.
In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.
1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.
2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.
3. Stowe, M., 2000. Interpreting "place of public accommodation" under Title III of the ADA: A technical determination with potentially broad civil rights implications. Duke Law Journal, pp. 297- 329.
4. Grabois, R., Nosek, M., & Rossi, D., 2005. Accessibility of primary care physicians' offices for people with disabilities: An analysis of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, pp. 44- 51.
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…
Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.
Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.
Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.
Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.
What works for one patient may not work for the next. If everyone is treated according to the way that everyone else has always been treated then it may be that no one ever gets any better.
Every child should be treated so that they have the opportunity to have the best life possible. I definitely think that it would be unethical to not treat a child who I believe could minimize the consequences of a disabling condition. Every child deserves the chance to have the best life possible and if a medical professional has the ability to make sure that this happens then they should be bound to do just that. What constitutes a successful intervention for one child may not be viewed as being successful for the next, but they will find something that is successful for them. Every child has potential and it is up to the…
2). Like students who have trouble acclimating themselves to life in the classroom, emotionally disabled students need the resources that the school can provide in order to make a successful life for themselves. When subject to zero-tolerance policies, they are often kicked out into areas with limited supervision and resources for their special circumstances. Without them, they have trouble continuing on a path to success.
Thus, the current state of zero-tolerance policies does a disservice to emotionally disabled students through its poorly implemented status. Today, zero-tolerance policies are unfairly applied that will be likely to target emotionally disabled students if they are "problem students," and even more likely to victimize them if they are black (Eggert, 2009). Further, teachers and administrators are barred from making decisions on a case-by-case basis, even when they are the ones who know the students best, because of zero-tolerance. In addition, zero-tolerance policies may inadequately…
Eggert, D. (2009). ACLU: Michigan's zero-tolerance law unfair to students. Retrieved August 3, 2009, from Michigan Education & School News: http://www.mlive.com/education/index.ssf/2009/06/aclu_michigans_zerotolerance_l.html
Jull, S. (2000). Youth Violence, Schools, and the Management Question: A
Discussion of Zero Tolerance and Equity in Public Schooling. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 17. Retrieved from http://www.umanitoba.ca/publications/cjeap/articles/jull.html
Skiba, R.J. (2000). Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence: An Analysis of School
This level is comprised of early detection and treatment of diseases, disorders, and poor health; including those which are occupational in nature. This level simply states that by eliminating the cause of the disability, the impairment caused by the disability will diminish. For example, the lowering of one's stress level will prevent future illnesses and diseases; and in the long run, may prevent an impairment caused primarily from the stress that occurred in the past. Therefore, preventing, limiting, or reversing the disability caused by impairment is an effective way of preventing disabilities before they occur.
Finally, the third level deals with preventing the transition of the disability into unacceptable challenges or handicap. This level includes surgical or therapeutic measures in the treatment, training in self-care, provision of technical and engineering aids, social and vocational counseling, and educating the public to improve public awareness, acceptance of, and behavior towards those people…
They find talking while walking difficult because of the attention talking demands. This is why less than 24% of trips were made by them without company. Researchers pointed to this as an important aspect of training mobility in disabled adults who travel with a companion and engage in multi-task conditions Furthermore, community mobility also requires many postural transitions, such as starts and stops, changing direction and reorienting the head accordingly, and reaching out for certain objects. These transitions are believed to be a basic part of mobility that exacts a lot from the balance control system beyond the requirement of steady walking. Disabled older adults were observed to take fewer postural transitions than those without disabilities. They make fewer transitions partly because of deficiencies in postural control mechanisms and partly because most of them have company when they shops and do the reaching out for distant objects for them (Cook).…
Carlson, J.E. (1999). Disability in Older Adults 2: Physical Activity as Preventive. Behavioral Medicine, Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOGDC/is_4_24/ai_55052020
Cook, a.S. (2002). Environmental Demands Associated with Community Mobility in Older Adults With and Without Mobility Disabilities. Physical Therapy: American Physical Therapy Association. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3753/is_200207/ai_n9104853
Harper, D.C. (1996). Emerging Rehabilitation Needs of Adults with Developmental Abilities. Journal of Rehabilitation. National Rehabilitation Association. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_n1_v62/ai_18562553
Lewis, M.A. (2002). The Quality of Health Care for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. Public Health Reports: U.S. Government Printing Office. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0835/is_2_117/ai_94042627
People With Disabilities in the Business Place
First Article: Equality and Human Rights Commission. "Working Better: he perfect partnership -- workplace solutions for disabled people and business." May 2012. . 11 September 2014.
his article on the topic, "Working Better: he perfect partnership -- workplace solution for disabled people and business" is by the Equality and Human Rights Commission of the United Kingdom. It focuses mainly on the people living with disability in the workplace and the discrimination they encounter on a daily basis. It brings out the present reality at the workplace in London, where there are several people with disabilities, but only a handful are hired compared to their colleagues with no disability. herefore, the commission went out to engage the people living with disabilities, asking them about their aspirations and experiences in the workplace. his was with the goal of finding new solutions to eliminate discrimination against…
The article by YMCA is titled, "How Does Disability Discrimination Affect All of Us?" The article addresses the topic in question form as a way of reasoning with its audience on this crucial topic bedeviling the society. First, it begins by giving the readers the recent statistics about the people living with disabilities in America and the world at large. The statistics shows how these people have been increasing since the early 1990's and their approximate current population. The article further brings out the various ways in which people living with different disabilities are affected in different places in the society. The various places identified where people with disabilities are discriminated include employment, education, healthcare and insurance, housing, law enforcement, legislation and advocacy, media and entertainment industry, and transportation. Ideally, employment tops the list of the discrimination avenue for people living with disabilities.
Relation to class readings
The article proves the desperation suffered by many employees living with disabilities at the workplace. The contents also relate closely with the class discussions. This can be from the session when the class discussed on the various ways in which and how people living with disabilities are affected at the workplace. The article concurs with the reality that the class came to terms with, during the discussion sessions where every member seemed to suggest an urgent need for intervention to protect the rights of people living with disabilities at the workplace.
It also lists goals and objectives, which are used to measure a student's progress and determine whether the program and placement are appropriate" ("The IEP Cycle," DREF, 2007). Each student's IEP must be developed by a team of people who are knowledgeable and concerned about the student and must be at least reviewed annually. The team may include the child's teacher, the parents, the child, and agency representatives. "If parents disagree with the proposed IEP, they can request a due process hearing and a review from the State educational agency if applicable in that state" ("Guide to Disability Rights Laws," U.S. Dept. Of Justice, 2005).
IDEA lists 13 categories under which a student can qualify for special education services, including autism, deaf-blindness, deafness, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, serious emotional disturbance, specific learning disability, speech or, language impairment, traumatic brain Injury and visual impairment,…
Guide to Disability Rights Laws." U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (Sept 2005). Retrieved 18 Jun
2007 at http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/cguide.htm#anchor65310
The IEP Cycle." DREF: Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund. Retrieved 18 Jun
2007 at http://www.dredf.org/special_education/iep_cycle.shtml
Temporary Disability Law
What laws apply to temporary disability at the workplace?
Temporary Disability Insurance (TDI) programs are designed to provide wage replacement for non-work-connected sickness or injury. The TDI program complements the UI program by providing benefits to individuals who do not meet the UI program's "able" to work requirement. Although Federal law does not provide for a Federal-State TDI system, the SSA and the FUTA both authorize the withdrawal of employee contributions from a State's unemployment fund for the payment of TDI. (Temporary Disability Insurance, n.d..)
Another law providing for temporarily disabled workers injured on the job is Workers' Compensation. Workers' Compensation laws are designed to ensure that employees who are injured or disabled on the job are provided with fixed monetary awards, eliminating the need for litigation. These laws also provide benefits for dependents of those workers who are killed because of work-related accidents or illnesses. Some…
Workers compensation: an overview. Retrieved from:
'Temporary Disability Insurance" Retrieved August 10, 2005 from
Personal Perspectives on Living With a Disability
The objective of this work is to examine a work in writing that provides a first-hand perspective on the psychosocial issues involved with living with a disability of a disabling illness. personal perspectives on living with a disability. Questions addressed in this study include those as follows: (1) what type of disability or disabling illness did the person have? (2) provide a description of how this disability/illness affects the individual's perceptions of his/her identity? (3) What forms of prejudice or discrimination did he/she encounter from others? How did he/she cope with it? And (4) What did you learn from this individual's account of his/her experience that would help you as a therapist in working with another individual who has a similar illness or disability?
Type of Disability or Illness
Anthony Galvez relates that in September 2005 he was diagnosed with a "non-malignant brain…
Galvez, Anthony (2010) Reversal: When a Therapist Becomes a Patient. Health and Fitness. Google Books. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=3E1hch-CMDcC&dq=Reversal:+When+a+Therapist+Becomes+a+Patient+by+Eric+Anthony+Galvez+ (PT+with+brain+tumor)&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Living with disabilities certainly exposes life to a variety of challenges including the challenge of securing and keeping a job. But today fortunately for most people with disabilities, increased awareness and technological advancements have given a boost to their quality of life. Also societal and legislative changes have reduced the discriminations against disabled peopled especially at work by making it mandatory on employers to make reasonable accommodations for people with disabilities. For example one such disability can be visual impairment. We are using this example to explain how disabilities are viewed under Americans with disability act and how they must be taken care of at workplace. Visual disability or vision loss can have various forms and degrees and have many different causes. Each person with visual impairment or blindness is affected differently. Some people might have low vision since birth but most have vision problems because of a disease or…
ADA, (2008). Questions and Answers About Blindness and Vision Impairments in the Workplace and the Americans with Disabilities Act, The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, retrieved 28 March 2012 from http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/blindness.html
CDC, (n.d.). National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD), http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dd/ddvi.htm .
NCHS, (2002). National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Dept. Of Health and Human Services, Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2002, Vital and Health Statistics, Series 10, No. 222 (DHHS Publication No. 2004-1550).
WHO, (2011). Visual impairment and blindness, World Health Organization, Retrieved March 28, 2012 from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/
pecifically, the ADA recognizes disability that results from physical or psychological disabilities that have detrimental effects on any part of life that is considered a "major life activity." Generally, those activities are those that are, ordinarily, "basic components" of a person's life. Typical examples of "basic components" of a "major life activity" would be seeing, hearing, walking, communicating, and learning.
Title I also prohibits any form of discrimination in hiring and promotions against the disabled. American with Disabilities Act Title II requires all state and local governments and municipalities to make "reasonable accommodations" to enable the disabled fair access to their buildings and facilities, and to the equipment of their public transportation systems. American with Disabilities Act Title III establishes similar obligations on private businesses and on most other commercial facilities that are generally open to the public.
Relevance to the Modern Workplace and Health Information Management
In the modern…
Edwards, G.C., Wallenberg, M.P., and Lineberry, R.B. (2009). Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy. New York: Longman.
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
America: A Social and Political History. New Jersey: Pearson.
Education: Teaching Math to Students ith Disabilities
orking with students with disabilities (SD) can be quite challenging, especially for teachers working on a full-time basis. Almost every classroom today has one or more students dealing with either an emotional, educational, or physical disability; and teachers are likely to find themselves looking for resources or information that would enable them teach all their students in the most effective way. There are numerous special-education websites from which teachers and instructors can obtain information or lessons on teaching their respective subjects. Five websites available to the math special education teacher have been discussed in the subsequent sections of this text.
Teachers Helping Teachers: http://www.pacificnet.net/~mandel/
This online resource provides teaching information for all teachers, with a 'Special Education' segment that provides a number of activities meant specifically for instilling basic conceptual skills in learners with special needs. The activities are submitted by…
Oldham County Schools. "Instructional Resources for Math." Oldham County Schools, n.d. Web. 17 August 2014 http://www.oldham.k12.ky.us/files/intervention_resources/Math/Instructional_Resources_for_Math.pdf
Starr, Linda. "Teaching Special Kids: Online Resources for Teachers." Education World, 2010. Web. 17 August 2014 from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr139.shtml
The Act is not adaptable, it is not distinct in nature and it is costly to implement (eynolds, 1995). These factors have allowed the public to disregard the members of the society that were supposed to be protected by the Law. It has been difficult to distinguish the groups that are protected by the Act, to ensure the Act is understood and applicable, the Act should be refined, reworded and simplified to ensure that it is easily understood and adapted (Lande, 1998).
Employers have in a greater way been able to deny disabled people employment although the disabled person may be in a position to perform most of the responsibilities; they are not given the opportunity to prove their ability to perform. The employer refuses to hire the person not on the basis of inability to perform but because they are physically disabled (Shaw, 2008). Whenever an employee is terminated…
Shaw, K. (2008). The Disability Rights Movement -- The ADA Today. Academic Search Premier 4(2), 20-25.
Meneghello, R., & Russon, H. (2008). Creating a Movement: The First 18 Years of the ADA. Academic Search Premier. 4, 21-25.
Hermes, J. (2008). Attempt to Broaden Disabilities Act Concerns Some College Officials. Chronicle of Higher Education. 40, A23-A23
Lande, R. (1998). Disability law: Problems and proposals. Southern Medical Journal, 6, 518.
Specifically, the parents want their son's teachers to help him not only learn, but to be able to receive instruction from others. So far, they are fairly pleased with the progress that they have seen their son make in the classroom, but wish the teachers could develop more large-group activities and take the time to really make sure their son was a full participant, which they feel would help him to progress socially more than the often individualized instruction he receives.
The difficulty, they acknowledge, is that individualized instruction is how he learns best, and with a class the size of his they understand that the teachers couldn't focus their attention on him during a large group project. Still, they are hopeful that new ideas might come up that will improve his situation even more, and they continue to work closely with the teachers regarding his progress.
LDA. (209). Learning disabilities association of America. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.ldanatl.org/
WV Dept. Of Education. 92009). "Schools of Brooke County." Accessed 2 October 2009. http://wvde.state.wv.us/ed_directory/index.html?county_id=10
Disorder / impairment Characetristics Teaching Strategy Example
The basic idea is to provide these individuals with technology that they can use to help them effectively deal with the issues that they are facing. A few of the most notable solutions that we will be using include: the Braille / Braille Embosser, FM radio systems, Hear It devises, tape recorders, victor reader waves for audio books, victor reader streams for audio books, Handi Cassette II (talking book), MP 3 Players, Neo-Alpha Smart Note Pad, TTY Communication, Digital Voice Statistical Calculators, Speaking Dictionaries and Cannon Scanner for text books. At the same time, we will use different programs to support these various solutions that are being introduced to include: JAWS, Kurzweil, open book, and zoom text. Once this occurs, this will help to address the needs that are facing a wide variety of individuals who suffering from various disabilities. As, these tools can be used to help them be…
Characteristics on Mild/Moderate Disabilities
Special Education and Inclusion: Characteristic on Moderate Disabilities
The inclusion of special needs students in a standard classroom continues to be a topic of debate among educators that covers an array of issues including academic, social, emotional, medical, and economic concerns. Opinions range greatly; however, at the heart of debate lies the question, which parents and educators on all sides attempt to answer, is "what is best for the child?" One approach is the inclusion of children with mild disabilities into standard classrooms. This paper shall give a brief overview of the meaning of inclusion, and present characteristics and classroom strategies for the inclusion of a child who is hard-of-hearing in a standard classroom.
A discussion on inclusion would be benefited by clarifying two common terms that mark distinct approaches in special education. These terms are 'integration' and 'inclusion.' The concept of integration implies that a…
Thomas, G, (1997), Inclusive schools for an inclusive society. British Journal of Special Education. 24, pp. 103-107.
American Disability Act and Affirmative Action Act
Critique of Modern Civil ights Acts
The quest to ensure that every American's civil rights are guaranteed is still being waged today. New populations of disadvantaged are continuing to be guaranteed by modern legislation the same every day benefits the majority of the population often takes for granted. Acts like the American Disability Act and the Affirmative Action Act are continuing to provide for the American people to ensure that everyone gets the same benefits and rights; although some of these acts have been more successful than others.
The American Disability Act was a monumental piece of legislation aimed at helping protect the rights of vulnerable populations. For generations, there was little vocational protection for the disabled in the work environment. This often led to wrongful termination and even a complete lack of hiring people with disabilities. In 1990, the president Bush passed…
Dale, Charles V. (2005). Federal affirmative action law: A brief history. CRS Report for Congress. Web. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rs22256.pdf
U.S. Equal Opportunity Employment Opportunity Commission. (2008). Facts about the American Disability Act. Web. http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-ada.html
JAMES' CASE STUDY
Case Study on James in IDEA
Case Study on James in IDEA
James is a six years old boy living with his parents in first grade. With his intellectual disability, he has been placed under special education classroom having 15 other students. James has some challenges related to learning due to the poor memory and delays in language development. One of the strengths that James has is that he is confident in school and is not easily frustrated. He can communicate effectively with adults but socializing with his peers is a challenge. One of the major challenges that he faces is the fact that he has low achievement in most of the academic areas. These include reading comprehension, mathematics, and written expressions. His interests are in sports, games although he is challenged by isolation from his peers. He has faced delays in cognitive, social and adaptive behavior…
hear the word 'disability' is someone in a wheelchair or someone whose mobility is otherwise restricted because of his or her physical condition. Upon further reflection, I would also consider someone who is blind or hard of hearing to be 'disabled.' Of course, not all disabilities are visible to the naked eye. For example, someone who is epileptic can be said to have a disability, even though when he or she is not having a seizure he or she seems normal. People who are autistic, particularly those who are high-functioning, might not seem to be disabled at all, until intimate relationships develop with the person and their social deficits become evident.
Of course, the term 'disability' is itself problematic, given that it has been taken to mean 'inferior' rather than simply 'different from most abled persons.' Everyone has a disability in some shape or fashion, even though not everyone has…
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…
Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities
Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature
classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?
A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction
The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency
serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,
Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…
American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
American Association of People with Disabilities
The American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
Purpose and structure
The American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD) is the largest cross-disability membership organization in the nation. The agency serves multiple purposes, the most fundamental of which is advocacy. Established in 1995, the agency's original objectives were twofold: (1) to be a voice for and implement the policy goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) -- which had been enacted in 1990 -- and (2) to unite a wide diversity of people with disabilities into a community, bringing together the many disability-specific organizations that made up the landscape. The American Association of People with Disabilities holds that joining the diverse constituencies of the disability community -- people with physical disabilities, intellectual disabilities, developmental disabilities, sensory disabilities, psychiatric disabilities, and chronic health conditions --…
Affirmative Action, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.(2009). Retrieved http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
American Association of People with Disabilities Annual Report 2008-2009. Retrieved
Buskey, F., and Pitts, E.M. (2009). Training subversives: The ethics of leadership preparation. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 57-61. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from EBSC host, http://web.ebscohost.com/
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
Human Rights: Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Human Rights
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was adopted in 2007 by the United Nations General Assembly after disability rights organizations pushed to petition the Assembly to recognize disability as a human rights issue. Today, the Convention serves as the primary reference point for identifying and safeguarding the rights and freedoms of persons with disabilities. This text identifies the basic rights protected under the Convention, and the various measures that states have put in place to safeguard the same.
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has been selected for analysis in this assignment. It basically is a civil rights treaty designed to ensure that persons with disabilities are treated with dignity and that they receive equal treatment…
California Department of Justice. "Legal Rights of Persons with Disabilities." California Department of Justice, last modified 2006. Accessed November 9, 2015. http://www.ag.ca.gov/consumers/pdf/disabled.pdf
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. "Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities." Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2015. Accessed November 9, 2015. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CRPD/Pages/ConventionRightsPersonsWithDisabilities.aspx#16
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. " Monitoring the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities." office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2010. Accessed November 9, 2011. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/Disabilities_training_17EN.pdf
United Nations. "Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities." The United Nations, 2006. Accessed November 9, 2015. http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/convention.shtml
Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities
Child With Disability
Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class
Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.
The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.
What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.
Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…
Berry, R.A.W. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489-529.
Cawthon, S.W. (2007). Hidden Benefits and Unintended Consequences of 'No Child Left Behind' Policies for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 460-492.
Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S.-R. (2003). The Effect of Early Childhood Intervention and Subsequent Special Education Services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95.
Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 307-320.