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Intervention for Mentally Disabled Children Due to Genetic Etiology
The objective of the study is to study degrees of response to early intervention among intellectually disabled children due to different genetic etiologies and estimating a possible underlying molecular genetics that could serve to modulate the degree of response to early intervention among children of different genetic causes and children of the same genetic cause.
The study reported herein is inclusive of 100 cases involving individuals with mental disabilities due to different genetic causes including those of Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome & Silver-ussell Syndrome in addition to controls matched for age (6M-4Y) and sex.
Each case was subjected to: (1) comprehensive history including family history and specifically maternal and paternal ages at birth in each case, similar conditions in the family, jobs and exposure to drugs or x-rays; (2) pedigree construction and analysis; (3) evaluation of social status of…
Nilholm, C. (1996) Early intervention with children with Down syndrome - Past and future issues. Down Syndrome Research and Practice. 1996;4(2);51-58. Online available at: http://www.down-syndrome.org/reviews/62/
Mahoney, G., Robinson, C. And Fewell, RR (2001) The effects of early motor intervention on children with Down syndrome or cerebral palsy: a field-based study.
J Dev Behav Pediatr 22 (3): 153-62 (2001 Jun)
Crombie, M. And Gunn, P. (1998) Early Intervention, Families, and Adolescents with Down Syndrome International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 45 (3): 253-281 (1998)
Rights of Disabled Children
In the United States, there are 4.5 million of youths who are considered disabled. asically, a disabled child is someone whose age is less than or equal to 21, and who possesses physical, mental, or behavioral disorder (ERIC Digest #E456). ecause of such handicaps, in terms of education, the disabled children are those who require certain amount of special assistance and attention to meet and achieve their needs and potentials.
Under the law governed by Education for All Handicapped Act of 1975, a child with disability has the right to special education. This Act directs a provision of funds to states and local districts for the education program of disabled children. It includes and mandates the provision of the following.
A comprehensive diagnosis of each child's disabilities by a qualified professional team, an annual review of each child's progress, the involvement of parents in educational decisions,…
Gus, Douvanid; Hulsey, David. The Least Restrictive Environment Mandate: How Has It Been Defined by the Courts? ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, Council for Exceptional Children. Arlington, VA: 2002. ED469442.
Henderson, Kelly. Overview of ADA, IDEA, and Section 504: Update 2001. ERIC Digest E606. ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, Council for Exceptional Children. Arlington, VA: 2001. ED452627.
Knoblaunch, Bernadette; Sorenson, Barbara. IDEA's Definition of Disabilities.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, The Council for Exceptional Children. Reston, VA: 1998. ED429396.
Depression for Young Mothers
Depression has emerged as one of the most common psychiatric disorders among mothers with disabled children. Actually, this condition is regarded as the second most incapacitating condition among psychological disorders that affect young mothers of disabled children. As a result several studies have been carried out to examine the various issues relating to this trend. An example of a quantitative study conducted on this issue is the study by Venetike Merkaj, Migena Kika and Artan Simaku on the symptoms of depression, stress and anxiety among parents of autistic children. The objective of the research was to compare these symptoms between parents of children with disability and those whose children are developing normally. As a quantitative study, the researchers employed a self-administered questionnaire i.e. DASS (Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Scale 42). They found that parents with children with this disability tend to suffer from depression as well as…
Merkaj, V., Kika, M. & Simaku, A. (2013, July). Symptoms of Stress, Depression and Anxiety between Parents of Autistic Children and Parents of Typically Developing Children. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(2), 345-352.
Depression for Young Mothers With a Disabled Child
One of the most common psychiatric illnesses that have become prevalent in the recent past across the world is depression, which is the second most incapacitating condition among psychological and physical disorders. The prevalence of this disorder and its severe impacts on patients has contributed to numerous studies that have focused on different issues regarding the condition. An example of a study that has been carried out on this issue is a research on levels of depression among mothers with children with disabilities by Seyed Hadi Motamedi, eza Seyednour, Morteza Noorikhajavi, and Susan Afghah. This study was not only carried out to examine the depression levels among mothers with disabled children but was also geared towards examine the need to support these parents and improve treatment for their children. The study found that depression levels for this population is equal to 3-5…
Motamedi et. al. (2007). A Study in Depression Levels among Mothers of Disabled Children. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 5(5,6), 3-7.
The Cook County CDED was formed in 1985 and is a private, non-profit organization supported by foundation and grants, as well as several individual donations annually.
To end disability-related discrimination and injustice through education and increased legal services for individuals and families with disabilities. This is accomplished through legal support and the support of local community families.
To fight for and increase the rights of children with disabilities by changing discriminatory practices, policies and laws.
To educate children, families and education professionals.
To provide assistance to families with disabilities in need.
To offer educational and extracurricular activities for children with disabilities as well as family members.
To increase awareness overall.
The CDED does not believe any individual or family should be denied the right to fair housing or education because of a disability. The CDED Community Center offers a place of solace for children with disabilities and families…
About Us. (n.d.). Children's Defense Fund (CDF): Health Care Coverage for All of America's Children, Ending Child Poverty, Child Advocacy Programs. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.childrensdefense.org/about-us/
Epilepsy Fdn.-Mission Statement. (n.d.). Epilepsy Foundation-Epilepsy Foundation-trusted, reliable information for people with seizures, and their caregivers. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsylegal/
Mission Statement. (n.d.). because a goblin is a terrible thing to waste.. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.goblindefensefund.org/mission.html
Children with autism tend to get 'stuck' -- either in the repetition of certain phrases, or 'stuck' on a particular idea in the case of children with Asperger's Syndrome. Teachers can attempt to use these words as a springboard to real communication, circumventing the repetition through responding and attempting to engage the child in dialogue. Specifically, with Asperger's Syndrome, teachers can try to use children's mechanical interests in facts and figures to ask them questions about, for example, how the animals or cars that the child is obsessed with might feel, which also encourages the children to engage in emotional responses. Or they can ask the children to engage in more spontaneous 'pretend' play to circumvent repetitive behavior (like pretending to be an animal or a car).
This chapter affirms the idea that there is no essential correlation between intelligence and the ability to speak. Many otherwise normal…
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities
Child With Disability
Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class
Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.
The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.
What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.
Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…
Berry, R.A.W. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489-529.
Cawthon, S.W. (2007). Hidden Benefits and Unintended Consequences of 'No Child Left Behind' Policies for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 460-492.
Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S.-R. (2003). The Effect of Early Childhood Intervention and Subsequent Special Education Services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95.
Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 307-320.
Disabled Bodies and Able Minds demonstrated more information to the reader about the DO-IT legislation to the reader, though it did not describe it in detail it demonstrated applications. The work also developed the idea that assistive technology has expanded in its capacities in the same manner as all other technology. Lastly the work was a great reminder of just how creative those with disabilities and their parents and other advocates have to be to develop ways for individuals to communicate and participate more fully in the experience of school, and therefore life.
The most important information in this article is associated with the fact that schools are obligated to aide disabled children in ways that would seem sometimes extreme. Especially with regard to communication, and it is likely that the expense is relatively great given the specialization required. The article also does a great job making sure the reader…
classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?
A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction
The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency
serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,
Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…
Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)
In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…
Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64
Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
Lesson objectives enhance teacher-student and teacher-teacher communications. Pupils must understand exactly what they're supposed to do, which will lead them to commit time to the activities that facilitate attainment of objectives. Their ability to differentiate and prioritize important course-based learning tasks will increase, and thus, they will not waste precious time over irrelevant details. Also, students need to make guesses with regards to what the teacher deems important, as well as what is expected in the form of evaluation matter (UNESCO, n.d.).
Evaluating the developmental progress of children is a never-ending process; it offers an understanding of children's fortes, inclinations, interests, and requirements, which can be utilized for planning suitable, meaningful activities for promoting learning and development of children, individually (CCHP, 2006).
Inclusion denotes growth and learning of all children together irrespective of individual abilities. Inclusion in practice resembles inclusion in standard early childhood courses, since, in case of…
(2010, September). Retrieved from www.theinclusiveclass.com: http://www.theinclusiveclass.com/2011/07/supports-modifications-and.html
CCHP. (2006). Children with Disabilities and other Special Needs. San Francisco: California Child Healthcare Program.
Dowell, H. H. (2008). The Ausbelian Preschool Program: Balancing Child-Directed and Teacher-Directed Approaches. Retrieved from www.earlychildhoodnews.com: http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=114
EdTech. (n.d.). ESL Students with Assistive Technology. Retrieved from http://www.edtechpolicy.org/CourseInfo/educ477/Fall2005/yan_finalpaper.pdf
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
One study examined the impact that spiritual or religious faith had on families with autistic children. In this study 49 families of autistic children were examined for signs of stress either psychologically, emotionally or health wise. The study looked at participants who had autistic children between the ages of 4 and 20 years old. The study concluded that parents who have a strong religious or spiritual faith and support from religious groups showed a stress level that was no higher than families that do not have an autistic child (Pargament, 2001). The study attributed part of this contentment to the belief by parents that a higher power placed the autistic child in their life for a reason and he or she was one of God's gifts designed for that family. In addition, the support socially and emotionally that the parents derived from religious belonging helped the parents feel less alone…
Religious coping in families of children with autism.
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities; 12/22/2001; Pargament, Kenneth I.
Harris, S.L., & Handleman, J.S. (1994). Preschool education programs for children with autism. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Haworth, A.M., Hill, A.E., & Glidden, A.M. (1996). Measuring religiousness of parents of children with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 34(5), 271-279.
S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999).
Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs themselves. Moreover, the legislation raised awareness about the breadth and diversity of the disabled community and helped to reduce stigma. President Johnson followed well in the footsteps of his predecessor by establishing the Committee on Mental etardation and helping to pass Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, PL 89-10). The Act opened up funds to be used at the state level for special education and lead to the creation of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. Although focused on the needs of the mentally disabled community, the Johnson era legislation was integral in providing precedent for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.
Osgood (1999) also suggests that impetus for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act came from…
Ford, Gerald. (1975). Statement on Signing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.ford.utexas.edu/LIBRARY/speeches/750707.htm
Osgood, R.L. (nd). The History of Inclusion in the United States. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://gupress.gallaudet.edu/bookpage/HIUSbookpage.html
Raschke, D. & Bronson, J. (1999). "Inclusion." Excerpt from "Creative Educators at Work: All Children Including Those with Disabilities Can Play Traditional Classroom Games." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/benefits.html
Special Education Laws and Legislation." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/ATBasics/Foundation/Laws/specialed.php
memory as a child, when I was just four years old, continues to haunt me until this day nearly 50 years later. The eldest of five children in an impoverished dysfunctional family, my mother often made me look after my younger siblings. My mother was upstairs on the neighbor's phone while I watched my ten-month-old sister, (name). Suddenly, (name) started choking and turning blue. Petrified, I did not know what to do. I screamed for my mother, who came rushing down the stairs and immediately called for an ambulance. Although (name) had a freak heart attack, and I was not to blame, guilt plagued me for years as she became blind, deaf and mute. As I matured, I realized that I was not culpable for (name's) illness and death at a young age. I also realized that this experience so early on in life, along with my impaired home life,…
children in the United States suffer from learning disabilities and disabilities that impair their ability to socialize properly with others. Social skill interventions are designed to help students with specific disabilities like autism understand how to learn and adapt while in a social setting like a classroom or school trip. One such project, the HANDS project, developed a way to support students with autism spectrum disorder learn important social and life skills. "The HANDS project has developed a mobile cognitive support application for smartphones, based on the principles of persuasive technology design, which supports children with ASD with social and life skills functioning -- areas of ability which tend to be impaired in this population" (Mintz, Branch, March, & Lerman, 2012, p. 53).
This kind of technology is not only easy to access, but easy to use making it feasible for any parent or teacher looking to help a student.…
MacFarlane, K. & Woolfson, L. (2013). Teacher attitudes and behavior toward the inclusion of children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties in mainstream schools: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 29, 46-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.08.006
Mintz, J., Branch, C., March, C., & Lerman, S. (2012). Key factors mediating the use of a mobile technology tool designed to develop social and life skills in children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Computers & Education, 58(1), 53-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.07.013
Walton, K. & Ingersoll, B. (2012). Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature. J Autism Dev Disord, 43(3), 594-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1601-1
Stigma and Disability
The self-sufficiency of any person or group largely depends on the capacity to maintain a certain level of financial stability. As a group, people with disabilities are among those with the highest poverty rates and lowest educational levels despite typically having some of the highest out-of-pocket expenses of all other groups. Educational level is strongly related to financial status and independence in most of the studies performed on these variables. Despite regulations to attempt to provide an equal and fair education to students identified as having disabilities, the research indicates that the majority of these individuals do not reach the educational levels and financial status of their non-disabled peers. The limitations of a failed system of assistance for these individuals that creates a double-edged sword in the form of stigmatizing these students has resulted in it being next to impossible for this group to obtain even an…
Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279-299
Bjelland, M.J., Burkhauser, R.V., von Schrader, S., & Houtenville, A.J. (2011). 2010 progress report on the economic well-being of working-age people with disabilities. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1284&context=edicolle ct&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fhl%3Den %26q%3Ddisabilities%2Band%2Bpoverty%26as_sdt%3D0%252C23%26as_ylo%3D20 10%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22disabilities%20poverty%22.
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)"
Burkhauser, R.V. & Houtenville, A.J. (2006). A guide to disability statistics from the current population survey - annual social and economic supplement (March CPS). In Rehabilitation research and training center on disability demographics and statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/edicollect/1233/
81). Ambrose and Corn (1997) further define "functional vision" as vision that can be used to derive input for planning and performing tasks; the extent to which one uses his or her available vision is referred to as "visual efficiency."
eading Skills. According to Carver (2002), "reading usually means to attempt to comprehend language in the form of printed words"; therefore, for the purposes of this study, the term "reading skills" will refer to an individual's ability to comprehend language in the form of printed words.
This chapter provided an introduction to the study, including the background and a statement of the problem of vision impairment on students' academic performance; a discussion of the purpose and significance of the study was followed by a description of the research questions that will guide the research process. An assessment of the study's limitations and delimitations was followed by a delineation…
Ambrose, G.V. & Corn, a.L. (1997). Impact of Low Vision on Orientation: an Exploratory Study. RE:view, 29(2), 81.
Balota, D.A., D'Arcais, G.B. & Rayner, K. (Eds.). (1990). Comprehension processes in reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Becker, C.A. (1980). Semantic context effects in visual word recognition. An analysis of semantic strategies. Memory & Cognition, 8, 493-512.
Blachman, B.A. (1997). Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
I chose the LABB School because it seems so innovative. They have a preschool program designed for children with special needs, but they also enroll children with no difficulties. Because of this, preschoolers who attend The LABB School get both specialized services and the normality of attending preschool with children who have no disabilities. I was very curious to see how The LABB School makes this concept work.
When I went in I expected to see the children with disabilities separated in some way from the children without disabilities. I also wanted to know how well both groups progressed. I observed in detail and interviewed a teacher, an occupational therapist and a teacher aid to gather information. I did not ask to interview a parent.
The LABB School is spacious and set against woods. The rooms are airy and bright. They have a playground that is brightly colored…
There is a growing body of support that indicates that while inclusion may be the best answer for mildly autistic children, it may not be the best setting for those with moderate to severe autism. Until now, research into the autistic child in the classroom has focused on taking the position of either for or against inclusion in the general classroom. However, when one takes the body of literature as a whole, it appears that inclusion is good for some and bad for others. This leads to the logical conclusion that differences exist between children who are successful under inclusion and those that are not. Understanding these differences is the key to taking the proper action for an individual.
Literature regarding autism and inclusion missed the important point that in order to make the program a success, we must decode the keys to success. One of these keys lies in…
Dybvik, a (2004). Autism and the inclusion mandate: what happens when children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms? Daniel knows. Education Next. Winter 2004. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJG/is_1_4/ai_111734750
Fighting Autism (2003). Autism Prevalence Reports, School Years 1992-2003. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://www.fightingautism.org/idea/autism-prevalence-report.php
Horrocks, J., White, G., & Roberts, L. (2008). Principals' attitudes regarding inclusion of children with autism in Pennsylvania public schools. J Autism Dev Disord. 38(8):1462- 73.
Humphrey, N. & Lewis, S. (2008). Make me normal': the views and experiences of pupils on the autistic spectrum in mainstream secondary schools. Autism. 2008 Jan;12(1):23-46.
empathy must be accorded to the child, that teacher helps child master words in ways that are most congruent to the child, that teacher must 'step into the child's shoes' (i.e. go down to his level) in order to help him best, that the child must be made to feel that he can succeed, and that progression of knowledge must proceed from lower to progressively more challenging levels
Teaching students who have learning disabilities is done as all teaching is done in the form of an assessment. Understanding that students with learning disabilities have difficulties spelling and reading a large number of commonly used words due to their being irregular, and thus avoiding them (Robinson, 2005), may help us conduct our assessment better and know how to better help these students within the format of the class assessment delineated by McMillan (). In this way, assessment are used for learning…
Learned Helplessness Theory www.iversonsoftware.com/reference/psychology/l/learned_helplessness_theory
Antoin, D. Depression and Learned Helplessness.
Arnold, NG. (n.d.) Learned Helplessness and Attribution for Success and Failure in LD Students. LDOnline.com www.ldonline.com/ld_indepth/self_esteem/helplessness.html
Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).
The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…
Banghan, H.; Johnson, K.; Liyao, W. 1998. "Infant Abandonment in China." Population and Development Review, 24(3):469
Greenhalgh, S. (2003). "Science, modernity and the making of China's one-child policy." Population and Development Review, 29(2):163
Hall, E. (1987). "China's only child: This strict policy is controlling China's population problem, but will only children make unwilling socialists." Psychology Today,
Johnson, D. Gale. 1994. "Effects of institutions and policies on rural population growth with application to China. Population and Development Review 20 (3): 503-531.
We are essentially powerless to prevent all dysfunctions - but, the mental health and social support structures within communities have the responsibility to do as much as they possibly can to promote healthy family life for all. This support often involves early identification of dysfunctional families, counseling, disruption of negative patterns. The schools, churches, hospitals and any other institution both public and private have a responsibility to reach out and try to help those who are suffering - and often that suffering must be alleviated at the source, the dysfunctional family.
Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant irthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).
Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).
Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk ehaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning…
Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant Birthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).
Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).
Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning Perspectivesq 33.5 (2001): 206(5).
Martin, Don and Maggie Martin. "Understanding Dysfunctional and Functional Family Behaviors for the at-Risk Adolescent." Adolescence 35.140 (2000): 785(4).
One teaching model that seems to be very effective within the portfolio framework is the "Process Model."
The process model is, at its most simple, a method of writing in which the "process" of writing and revision is emphasized. Perhaps one of the easiest ways to express its essence is that it is the method of using progressive "drafts" to arrive at a final product. Of course, this model can do much to alleviate the motivation and morale issues previously addressed, simply because it alleviates much of the "performance anxiety" that plagues many exceptional learners. Further, key supportive activities on the part of the instructor, including "conferencing, prompting, modeling, and dialoguing," serve to create a "writing environment designed to encourage the creative process and to reduce the fear that students often associate with writing (Newcomer, Nodine, Barenbaum, 1988)."
Of course, this process model is in direct opposition to the "product"…
Alber, Sheila. (1999). I don't' like to write, but I love to get published. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Oct-Dec 1999, Vol. 15 Issue 4, p. 355.
Hansen, C. Bobbi. (1998). Using portfolios as a tool to teach writing to students with learning disabilities. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Jul-Sep 1998, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p307.
Karge, Belinda. (1998). Knowing what to teach: Using authentic assessment to improve classroom instruction. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Jul-Sep 1998, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p319.
Newcomer, Phillis. Nodine, Barbara. Barenbaum, Edna. (1988).Teaching Writing to Exceptional Children. Exceptional Children, April 1988 Vol. 54 No. 6 p559.
Advanced technology played a big role in infanticide as it allowed couples to check the gender of the child before it was born. Ultrasounds helped couples check the sex of their child and allow them to make a decision on abortion easier. Infanticide managed to unbalance the sex ratio in china as there were far too many males and not so many females. Women do not have a big role to play in determining the gender of their children as the husbands are the ones who make the decisions. There have been cases where a husband has beaten his wife to abort her child. Then are cases where the wife has to go into hiding so that people won't be able to know if she is pregnant. This helps a lot if they are expecting a girl and they need to abort it. There have been a lot of families…
Greenhalgh, Susan. June 2003. "Science, Modernity, and the Making of China's One-Child Policy," Population and Development Review 29-Page.165
Hardee, Karen. (2004) Family Planning and Women's Lives in Rural China, International Family Planning Perspectives. Volume: 30 Issue
Johnson, Kay Ann. (2004)Wanting a Daughter, Needing a Son. Yeong and Yeong Book Company
Faison, Seth. (2004) South of the Clouds: exploring the hidden realms of China, St. Martin's Press
disabled had nothing or little to contribute to the world in the educational, social, or employment arena. For the most part those that were disabled either physically or mentally were shuffled off to the side and largely ignored. They would be taken care of by family members or institutions and any discussion of growth or accomplishment was quickly discouraged. While this seemed natural for many years, recent history has discovered that this was cruel in several ways. Those who are disabled still have feelings, hopes, goals and desires that they have a right to pursue and explore. In addition the world was missing out on the many contributions to the work, school and social arenas that the disabled could provide.
The United Kingdom has not been known for its kind treatment of the disabled and it has only been in recent history that things have begun to change.
Huang, Weihe; Rubin, Stanford E., Equal access to employment opportunities for people with mental retardation: an obligation of society.. Vol. 63, The Journal of Rehabilitation, 01-12-1997, pp 27(7).
Author not available, UNUM Corporation Sponsors Tom Whittaker, First-Ever Person With a Disability to Stand 'On Top of the World'., Business Wire, 11-11-1998.
Scott-Parker, Susan; Holmstrom, Radhika, The outsiders.(UK disability rights movement)(Cover Story). Vol. 8, New Statesman & Society, 02-10-1995, pp 29(2).
EDITIONS Change to World Wednesday, 6 December, 2000, 11:41 GMT Anti-bias law for disabled pupils http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/1057570.stm
In retrospect it is incredible how much time and energy went into this endeavor and how little came out of it.. Hull perhaps added somewhat more to our knowledge of the behavior of the rat than Titchener did to our understanding
Clark Hull 7 of human consciousness, but not much. His basic approach turned out to be, to use a precisely appropriate metaphor in his world of rats and mazes, a blind alley.
One of Hull's starting points was in noting that conditioning theory failed to deal convincingly with motivation. He was astute enough to recognize that motivation may be viewed as either a learned aspect of behavior (as Guthrie viewed it) or as a behavioral determinant independent of learning (as Tolman viewed it). Either way, it needed to be given greater importance. Hull drew on Freud's "instincts" as motivating forces, but changed the word to "drives" in his own…
Hull, C.L.. (1933) Hypnosis and Suggestibility: An Experimental Approach. Whales: Crown House Publishing.
Hull, C.L. (1943) Principals of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. Appleton.
Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E. (1987). A History of Modern Psychology. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publications.
Hothersall, D. 1995. History of Psychology, 3rd ed., Mcgraw-Hill:NY
Hallahan, D., Keogh, B. (2001). Research and Global Perspective in Learning Disabilities. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Jacobson, J., et al. (2004). Controversial Therapies for Developmental Disabilities. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
atterwhite, M. (2008). Access to Academies for All tudents: Critical Approaches to Inclusive
Curriculum, Instruction and Policy. Journal of Thought. 43 (1-2): 45-53.
Part 2 - In many ways, the IEP meeting has a great deal in common with arbitration: the goal is to find a win-win situation for all parties concerned based on fact, concern, and care, but not so much on emotions and misperceptions. The first issue is to define the reasons that everyone is participating in the IEP -- for the betterment of the child. Both the parent and teach want to advocate for the child, but there are differing perspectives about what the child is capable of within the school system. During the IEP meeting,…
When The IEP Team Meets. (2012). Nataional Dissemination Center for Children With Disabilities. Retireved from: http://nichcy.org/schoolage/iep/meetings
Bollero, J. (2010). 8 Steps to Better IEP Meetings. WrightsLaw. Retrieved from: http://www.wrightslaw.com/advoc/articles/iep.bollero.hearts.htm
Watson, S. (2011). Preparing for the IEP Meeting. About.com Special Education. Retrieved from: http://specialed.about.com/od/iep/a/IEPMeeting.htm
1) Connor (2002) states that studies report findings that mothers of children with Autism "who showed greater satisfaction" in life were those "who made the clearest redefinitions and who were most willing to follow alternative ways of gaining self-fulfillment." (p. 1)
II. EFFECTS on LIFE of FAMILY in NORMAL ACTIVITIES
In the work entitled: 'Autism and the Family" reported is a study conducted in a 12th grade classroom at 'Our Lady of Loures High School through survey instruments completed by the children of mothers with autistic children in the age range of 4 to 36 years of age. This study reports that family outings "can be quite an ordeal for these families." (Hart, nd, p.1) for instance, when these families go on an outing, in families where it is possible two cars travel to the outing in case the child needs to be suddenly removed from the public setting due…
Greenspan, Stanley I. (2008) Understanding Autism. Parent & Child. 2008. Online available at: http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10118
Parents of Autistic Children Twice as Likely to be Mentally Ill (2008) Fox News 5 May 2008. Online available at: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,354192,00.html?sPage=fnc/health/mentalhealth
Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Best Practice Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Assessment (2002) California Department of Developmental Services: 2002. Online available at: http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/Autism.html
Gold N. 1993 Depression and social adjustment in siblings of boys with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 23 147-163
Tourette Syndrome in Children
hat is Tourette Syndrome?
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is an inherited neurological disorder generally associated with tics. Tics are defined as either involuntary body movements, or involuntary vocal sounds that are usually repetitive. The occurrence of TS in children is about 1 of every 2000 children, with an increased occurrence in boys as opposed to girls. The syndrome itself is named for the French neurologist Dr. George Gilles de la Tourette, who diagnosed the first patient with the illness in 1885.
How do you know if you have it? (Symptoms and Diagnosis)
Diagnosis specifics vary from one source of information to the next. Some publications, such as the website for the Jim Eisenreich Foundation for Children, suggest waiting until the tics are present for at least one year, and that multiple tics must be shown - vocal and physical (though not at the same time). Other sites…
Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome http://www.tourette-syndrome.com/tourette-syndrome-facts.htm3Apr 2002
Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome" 3 Apr 2002. http://www.tourette-syndrome.com/tourette-syndrome-facts.htm3Apr 2002
Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. "Tourette Syndrome's Frequently Asked Questions" 3 Apr 2002. http://www.tsa-usa.org/wrapper.php.3/00/Faqs.html
Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome" 3 Apr 2002. http://www.tourette-syndrome.com/tourette-syndrome-facts.htm
Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared with Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents
I Situations Faced by Children of Alcoholic Parent(s)
II ehavior of Children with Alcoholic Parent(s)
II Hypothesis #2
I The Possibility of Developing Alcoholism on ACOA's
II ACOA's have Lower Self-Esteem Compared to Non-ACOA's
Comparing the Differences etween ACOAs and Non-ACOAs in Terms of Social and Intimate Relationships
IV Protective Factors For Resiliency
Children of Alcoholics Screening Test
Are You an Alcoholic?
Intimate ond Measure
Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale
The family is one of the most important institutions in our society today. It is from our family where we are able to develop ourselves and start the journeys we take in life. Usually, the upbringing of each family member depends on the psychological nature of the other members who are able to provide influence or may have cause effects…
Velleman, R. (2002). The Children of Problem Drinking Parents.
Institute of Health & Medicine, University of Bath.
1996). Children of Alcoholics. Alcohol Health.
Common Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.
If the child's needs are not met at home or at school -- for example, if he or she is a traumatized recent immigrant from Haiti or lives in a food insecure household in the inner city -- the child may not be able exhibit the maximum extent of his or her ability.
Even children who are accustomed to testing can experience environmentally-related problems. In fact, children who are already classified as special needs or learning-disabled may be all too familiar with assessment, and bring an assumption that they are 'stupid' or incompetent to the process, even before the assessment begins. "Facet-based instruction centers around the idea that students, faced with a problem situation, apply preformed ideas from previous experiences or construct ideas and reasoning to make sense of the situation," including ideas about themselves (Facet-based instruction, 2010, the Hunt Lab). The assumptions that students bring to the testing environment…
Lewejohann, L., C. Reinhard, a. Schreww, J. Bandewiede, a. Haemisch, N. Gortz, M.
Schachner, N. Sachser. (2006, February). Environmental bias? Effects of housing conditions, laboratory environment and experimenter on behavioral tests.
Genes Brains Behavior. 5(1):64-72.
Facet-based instruction. (2010). The Hunt Lab. The University of Washington.
Mirror Neuron Dysfunction in Autistic Disorder
Autistic disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction. Autistic children also often display restricted behaviors and repetitive behaviors. These signs of autism usually appear before the age of three. The inability to display empathy and imitate others in autism, a skill crucial to learning communication and social skills, has been hypothesized to result from defects in the mirror neuron system (Williams, Whiten, Suddendorf, & Perrett, 2001). The role of mirror neuron system and how dysfunctions in this system may relate to the deficits observed in autistic disorder are discussed.
Mirror neurons fire when animals or people act or observe the same action performed by another. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons is located the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex (izzolatti & Craighereo, 2004). There are two chief…
Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Estes, A., & Liaw, J. (2004). Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress. Developmental Psychology, 40, (2), 271 -- 283.
Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R.M., Snyder, J., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2006). Anatomical Differences in the Mirror Neuron System and Social Cognition Network in Autism. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 1276-1282.
Receveur, C., Lenoir, P., Desombre, H., Roux, S., Barthelemy, C., & Malvy, J. (2005). Interaction and imitation deficits from infancy to 4 years of age in children with autism: a pilot study based on videotapes. Autism, 9, (1), 69-82.
Rizzolatti, G. & Craighereo, L. (2004). The mirror neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169 -- 192.
Bryna Towb works for the Jewish Child and Family Services (JCFS) but her lobbying activities for education go beyond that.
As veteran educator, Bryna has a way with children and adults that have long inspired me. She has been promoted from position to position starting off as a worker in special education and as a nursery teacher. Somewhere along the road, concerned at the apathy towards children and the gaps in special education, she started her lobbying career approaching senators and congress people in her area. Her diplomatic skills became known. She became renowned as the person who left no child behind, and the one who could get any child into any school regardless of difficulties with child or parent. She has been awarded and recognized four years in a row (and time and again before that), and familiar with her success, I decided that Bryna Towb was the person…
The Effects of Watching Television in Young Children
The current technological era has ensnared the young generation into a web of virtual reliance, making them dependent on various types of media outlets. The user – friendly components of media outlets have equipped the youngsters with the ability to customize any content into their own individual preferences. Young people are not limited to feeding but also they are able to design media materials which suit them. This situation is a far cry from what the older generation was inclined to while growing up, hence in most cases, this creates a generational conflict (Radesky, 2015).
The prevalence of technological and digital devices has created exposure among youngsters, with some being as young as 4 months. This is in comparison to children in the 1970s who became exposed to media such as the television from the age of 4 years. Research has shown…
During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.
Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…
Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3
Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:
Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
African-American Children in Special Education Programs
The large amount of minority children, specifically African-American children, who have ended up in special education programs for students who have learning disabilities, behavioral disabilities, emotional disabilities, or mental disabilities, has remained a very strong reality even though it has been recognized for more than 20 years (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996). After looking at many of these patterns and how often they recur, it is important to look at the assumptions, beliefs, worldviews, and epistemologies that are often used by many who work in special education in order to determine what is causing the disproportionate amount of these individuals in special education programs throughout the country (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996).
This problem, being extremely persistent, is affecting large groups of African-American individuals and their families in a negative way (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996). It also affects society in…
Apple, M. (1990). Ideology and curriculum. New York: Routledge.
Aronowitz, S., & Giroux, H.A. (1991). Postmodern education: Politics, culture, and social criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Artiles, A.J., & Trent, S.C. (1994). Overrepresentation of minority students in special education: A continuing debate. The Journal of Special Education, 22, 410-436.
Gordon, E.W., Miller, F., & Rollock, D. (1990). Coping with communicentric bias in knowledge production in the social sciences. Educational Researcher, 19(3), 14-19.
Furthermore, Vgotsky's held that the bond between word and meaning is a bond that is associative in nature and is established through the repeated simultaneous perceptions of a certain sound and a certain object.
Most of the children in this class had good motor skills and followed instructions very well. Furthermore the children used "please" and "thank you" in their interactions with teachers. Also observed was the fact that Tarek, a student, acts like group-leader among other students and the children in the class try to please him. Tarek is very considerate and caring. This shows early development on the part of the children, which can be expected, in "advanced curriculum" preschool programs.
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) contended that children and adults both pass through stages of moral development in their reasoning ability via judgments of a moral nature. Kohlberg's theory is called the "cognitive-developmental theory and suggests a tri-level sequence…
CEU Station - Child Development - Introduction and Theory Theoretical Framework for Child Development [Online available at: http:/ / www.ceus tation.com / childdeve lopment1.html
Vgotksy: Thinking and Speaking, Thought and Word Online at: http://www .marxists.org/archive/vygotsky/works/words/vygotsky.htm
A to increase academic engagement and achievement in math, reading, and spelling for general education and at-risk students;
to increase spelling achievement for general education elementary students and for students with mild disabilities in self-contained classrooms;
to increase social studies comprehension for junior high students with mild disabilities in a resource room setting;
and to increase reading achievement for high-functioning students with autism and their typical peers in an inclusive, general education classroom
Advantages and Disadvantages of Peer Tutoring
ased from the effects of peer tutoring that have been mentioned in the previous section, and from the number of studies conducted on peer tutoring, it is apparent that this teaching method for students with disabilities and special needs are beneficial and can support the improvement of their learning process and acquisition of knowledge and skills. Following is a summary of the advantages from peer tutoring.
Allows the student to participate.…
Ryan, J. et. al, (2004). Peer-mediated intervention studies on academic achievement for students with EBD: a review. (Emotional and Behavior Disorders)
Remedial and Special Education, Vol. 25, Issue 6, pp 330-341.
Hunt, P., et. al. (2004). Collaborative teaming to support preschoolers with severe disabilities who are placed in general education early childhood programs.
A ics in Early Childhood Special Education, Vol. 24, Issue 3, pp 123-142.
Lesson for Children With Learning Disabilities
Developing a Lesson for Children with Learning Disabilities
Learning disability is a term misused severally. In essence, it applies to students who have different learning challenges. Most people associate learning disability to the development of a child, thus assuming that it is a short-term condition and disappears as the person matures. The accepted definition, provided by the National Adult Literacy and Learning Disability Center states that; learning disability is generic and refers to a composite group of disorders that become evident in the person; through observing that they have challenges in the acquisition and use of speaking, listening, reading, reasoning and execution of mathematical concepts, as well as, understanding social skills. As teachers process the learning procedure in class, they encounter various children with varied challenges, which constitute the learning disorders (Aster & Shalev, 2007). Thus, they have the obligation to accommodate those children…
Aster, M.G. v., M.D., & Shalev, R.S., M.D. (2007). Number development and developmental dyscalculia. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(11), 868-73. Retrieved
Canizares, D.C., Crespo, V.R., & Alemany, E.G. (2012). Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia. The Spanish Journal
of Psychology, 15(3), 952-66. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1439791245?accountid=458
For Bush, the "formation and refining of policy proposals" (Kingdon's second process stream in policymaking) came to fruition when he got elected, and began talking to legislators about making educators and schools accountable. Bush gave a little, and pushed a little, and the Congress make its own changes and revisions, and the policy began to take shape. The third part of Kingdon's process stream for Bush (politics) was getting the necessary votes; Bush had his handlers buttonhole certain conservative politicians, and united them with Democrats, to get enough votes to pass the NCLB.
Meantime, it was truly "organized anarchy" as the debate in the House and Senate lasted seven weeks, and some members of Congress rejected the idea of having the NAEP double check state statistics that show whether test scores have gone up or not. Civil rights groups attacked the bill, saying it would be unfair to minorities.
American Federation of Teachers. "NCLB - Let's Get it Right." Retrieved 7 Dec. 2007 at http://www.aft.org/topics/nclb/index.htm .
American Teacher. "Harvard study cites NCLB implementation flaws." (April 2004) Retrieved Dec. 2007 through http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_teacher/apr04/nclb.html .
Nation at Risk. "An Open Letter to the American People: The Imperative for Educational
Reform." April 1983. Department of Education. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 at http://www.ed.gov /pubs/natAtRisk/findings.html.
health care for the disabled. The writer explores the health care stages that are available for the disabled in every stage of life. The writer uses published works from various sources to illustrate and underscore the need for solid health care access for all disabled individuals in the nation. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
"Different stages of available health care for people with disabilities"
The issue of health care has been a hot topic of debate in this country for many years. Health care costs are skyrocketing, available services are dwindling and the public is screaming with outrage and demand for improvements to the entire health care system. While those who can speak for themselves are having no trouble voicing their upset about the current state of the nation's health care system, there is a population that cannot always speak up. The disabled in this country…
HEALTH CARE DECISIONS FOR THOSE WHO CANNOT CARE FOR:DIANE COLEMAN THEMSELVES. Congressional Testimony; 4/19/2005
Congressional Testimony. 04-19-2005
LONG-TERM HEALTH CARE:MARK R. MEINERS
Congressional Testimony; 4/19/2005
Looping on at-isk Children
eview of the Literature
Instruments and Materials
F. Design and Procedures
G. Data Analysis
EFFECTS OF LOOPING ON AT-ISK CHILDEN
This chapter will introduce the educational process of looping, as well as evaluate the benefits that looping can have on students. It will also address the individual needs of at-risk children, and explain how looping effects these children.
Looping, which is also known as multiyear teaching or multiyear placement, occurs when teachers are promoted with their students to the next grade level, staying with the same group of children for two or three years.
For example, in a looping situation, the teacher would teach a class of first grade students and then remain with those students another year as their second grade teacher. At the end of the second grade, the same teacher would return to first grade to teach a new…
Milburn, Dennis (1981). "A Study of Multi-Age or Family Grouped Classrooms." Phi Delta Kappan, 62. 513-514.
Haslinger, John, Patricia Kelly and Leonard O'Hare (1996). "Countering Absenteeism,
Anonymity and Apathy." Educational Leadership, 54. 47.
Hampton, Federick M., Dawne Mumford and Lloyd Bond. "Enhancing Urban
Avni (name changed for anonymity) is a forty-year-old empowered HIV+ woman currently employed in the position of community coordinator with an ART (anti-retroviral therapy) facility. She was able to transform from a bias and social stigma victim (on account of her status as an HIV+ individual) to her current self because of her resolve and the social assistance of a medico-social work organization (Kushwaha & Kumkar, 2012).
orn on December 10, 1977 in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, Avni was the only daughter of an agrarian family. She never knew her father, who passed away of an unfortunate accident just weeks after her birth. She was condemned by all, even her mom, as having brought misfortune to their family. Her widowed mother was forced to leave her deceased husband's home and make a home for herself elsewhere. Avni grew up ignored, scorned, and constantly reprimanded by her mother for…
Kushwaha, A., & Kumkar, M. (2012). Journey from victim to a victor -- a case study of people living with HIV and AIDS. MJAFI, 58 -- 60.
Miller, D. (2006, July 07). An Unconventional AIDS Patient. Retrieved from http://barnesworld.blogs.com/barnes_world/2006/07/an_unconvention.html
e. ELL students in public schools. Data provided in the literature demonstrates that by 2030, more than half of all students in American public schools will speak a language other than English (Devoe, 35). In some schools the total number of students whose first language is not English is much higher. Specifically, Devoe reports that in Lawrence, Massachusetts more than 90% of all children enrolled in public schools are ELLs. Devoe argues that in these districts, a catch-22 has developed which makes it difficult for schools to provide educational services to ELLs. Specifically, ELL students that do not pass reading and math competence tests are labeled as "in need of improvement." Although efforts have been made to improve outcomes for these students, basic English competency remains a significant challenge limiting the progress of the students and the school on standardized tests. As ELL students fail to meet standards, schools that…
2006-07 APR glossary." California Department of Education. . Accessed November 19, 2007 at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/ac/ap/glossary07e.asp#gg1 .
Agazie, Maxine. "Makeover needed for No Child Left Behind." Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 23(24), (2007): 39.
Devoe, Jeanne. "ELL testing: A state of flux." District Administration, 43(10), (2007): 35-40.
Facts and terms every parent should know about NCLB." U.S. Department of Education. . Accessed November 19, 2007 at http://www.ed.gov /nclb/overview/intro/parents/parentfacts.html.
ADA & Section 504
The author of this report is to answer two main questions when it comes to the law and its application. The first broad question relates to how IDEA, IDEIA, Section 504 and the ADA overlap to a fairly significant to degree. However, less focus is placed on Section 504 and the ADA a lot of the time and the author has been asked to highlight areas of those two laws and regulations that are significant as compared to IDEA. Second, there will be the description of two significant issues that relate to case law and overall court proceedings. The gist is that oen must ask which students are protected. egardless, there are concerns about things like placement, planning issues, evaluations, litigation and regulatory enforcement. While the enforcement of disability-related laws may seem cut and dry, there are some perceived gray areas and situations and there needs…
ADA. (2015). 2010 ADA regulations. ADA.gov. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from http://www.ada.gov/2010_regs.htm
A-Data. (2015). Peanut allergy at center of federal civil rights lawsuit for Michigan elementary student -- ADA National Network. Adata.org. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from https://adata.org/news/peanut-allergy-center-federal-civil-rights-lawsuit-michigan-elementary-student
Durheim, M. (2015). A parent's guide to Section 504 in public schools. GreatKids. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from http://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/section-504-2/
IDEA. (2015). IDEA - Building The Legacy of IDEA 2004. Idea.ed.gov. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from http://idea.ed.gov/
Teaching Students ith Disabilities
hat are the most important skills and requirements for teachers of students with emotional or behavioral disorders?
The Concordia University list of skills includes keeping the rules and guidelines "simple and clear." That means if a lengthy list of "complicated rules and demands" are made, that will lead to an evitable struggle with difficult students (i.e., students with behavioral and emotional problems). Keep classroom rules very simple and broad, in fact the Concordia University suggestion is that no more than 3 to 5 "main" rules should be enforced in a classroom with these students. Suggestions for those main rules include: a) be on time; b) try your best; c) be polite; and d) respect one another (Concordia University).
Also, Concordia suggests rewarding positive behaviors; certainly there will be moments when discipline is necessary; and in fact many students exhibiting emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) take discipline…
Concordia University (2010). 5 Tips for Handling EBD Kids (Emotional Behavior Disorder)
in an Inclusive Classroom. Retrieved June 6, 2015, from http://education.cu-portland.edu .
National Center for Special Education Research. (2010). The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults with Disabilities up to Six Years After High School: Key Findings From
The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Retrieved June 6, 2015, from http://ies.ed.gov .
Homeschooling Quality of Education
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Definitions and Abbreviations of Terms
Methodology for investigating problems identified as subproblems
Note on the Anti-Homeschooling Debate
Specific data by subproblem
Conclusion by subproblem
Growth in Homeschooling, 1978-1999
NCES Reasons for Homeschooling
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Homeschooling is providing a child's main educational program at home. (ebster) Homeschooling takes the place of full-time school attendance, whether at public or private schools, and should meet all the state requirements for each grade and for graduation from high school and the interim graduations, such as middle-school and so on.
Homeschooling is not a new idea, but rather one that has returned to the forefront of educational discussion in the past generation.
Until public education became widely available in the United States during the…
Fact Sheet IC." 2001. National Home Education Research Institute. 14 July 2003. http://www.nheri.org/ content.php?menu=1002&page_id=24.
Fact Sheet II b. 2000. National Home Education Research Institute. 13 July 2003.
No Child Left Behind Law
On January 8, 2002 President George . Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act of2001 (NCLB Act). This historic piece of education legislation reauthorized and considerably expanded the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, first endorse in1965. Its most important title, Title I, has focused federal government attention and money on students in high poverty schools for over 35 years. Congress made noteworthy changes to the law in 1994, and the most recent changes build upon them dramatically. It also provided momentous funding increases. The new Act is the result of bipartisan leadership among five political leaders -- President Bush, Senators Kennedy and Gregg and Representatives Boehner and Miller -- and a large majority of the U.S. Congress who were clearly fed up with insufficient learning among the groups of students that federal programs are most supposed to help.(Dickard, 2001)
hile a determined band of…
Dickard, Norris. March 14, 2001. "No Child Left Behind" and the Bottom Line: The Case of Edtech. (www.benton.org/DigitalBeat).
Flanagan, Ann and Grissmer, David. 2001. "The Role of Federal Resources in Closing the Achievement Gap of Minority and Disadvantaged Students." Arlington, VA, The Rand Corporation.
Haycock, Kati, Jerald, Craig & Huang, Sandra. 2001 "Closing the Gap: Done in a Decade," Thinking K-16. Washington, D.C., Education Trust, Spring.
Available on the internet at www.edtrust.org
Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, iehl JC, MacQueen, and lackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year ook, Inc. 1997.
Evans O, Tew , Laurence KM. The fathers of children with spina bifida. Zeitschrift fur Kinderchirurgie [Surgery in Infancy and Childhood]. 1986;41 Suppl 1:42-44.
Fagan J, Schor D. Mothers of children with spina bifida: factors related to maternal psychosocial functioning. (1993) American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1993;63:146-152. [
Holmbeck GN, Gorey Ferguson L, Hudson T, Seefeldt T, Shapera W, Turner T, Uhler J. (1997)Maternal, paternal, and marital functioning in families of preadolescents with spina bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1997;22:167-181. [
Kazak AE. Families with disabled children: stress and social networks in three samples. (1987)Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 1987;15:137-146. doi: 10.1007/F00916471. [
Minnesota Title V MCH Needs Assessment Fact Sheets…
Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1992) Children with physical handicaps and their mothers: The interrelation of social support, maternal adjustment, and child adjustment. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1992;17:725-739. [
Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1994) Optimism, appraisals, and coping in the adjustment of mothers and their children with spina bifida. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 1995;4:303-320.
Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, Biehl JC, MacQueen, and Blackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc. 1997.
child who is a non-reader is hard to deal with. Although they should not be discouraged to read or look at books, providing books to a disabled child who is a non-reader will not allow the child to learn and discuss fully the learning experience because the child will not be able to read anything provided. A book with pictures only, which the teacher can make will not only let the child associate images with words, but also provide him/her with something to do. B. A child will also have the ability to share his or her thoughts verbally which will teach him/her to communicate (the child can say which colors are on the pictures and repeat what each part of the plant on the pictures are so he/she remembers). Yes the child is easily distractible and poorly organized, but putting attention on the child and letting him/her communicate is…
special education from the standpoint of the students' parents. The writer explores the opinions on the accessibility and quality of special education afforded their children in Massachusetts. The writer examines the opinions through the use of research project that is proposed here. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
For the last four decades the nation has been steadily working to improve the special education system within its public schools. A Supreme Court decision in the 1960's mandated that special education children be given many more services than they had in the past and that they receive that education within the least restrictive learning environment possible. Over the last four decades as these changes have taken place there have been many articles published on the changes, and the success or failure of those changes. Massachussets has enjoyed the cutting edge of special education reform with prototype programs as…
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
Another concern is the lengthiness of the survey -- 35 items -- that may have fatigued some of the respondents and may have resulted in rushed and insufficient care in answering the questions.
Furthermore, attributions may have been incorrectly placed. The participant, too, may have erred due to subjective bias (i.e. A 'falling out' with the principal may have led her to incorrectly accusing administrator of reluctance to integrate); furthermore, few teachers would readily admit to negative attitudes in integrating children, teachers may over-rate or under-rate their abilities (as, for instance, with the question: "I find that my knowledge about teaching pupils with physical disabilities in PE class is satisfactory"), and teachers may have deliberately or unwittingly deviated in order to protect their identity and their identity of the school.
Finally, although the survey was built on earlier studies of inclusion, it would be interesting to know amongst which population…
Jerlinder, K., Danermark, B., & Gil, P. (2010). Swedish primary-school teachers' attitudes to inclusion - the case of PE and pupils with physical disabilities, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 25, 45 -- 57
Pruitt, D. (2000). Your adolescent: Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive development from early adolescence through the teen years. Washington, DC: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Spencer-Cavaliere, N. & Watkinson, E.J. (2010). Inclusion Understood From the Perspectives of Children With Disability, Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27, 275-293
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2007). Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities Innocenti Digest No. 13
Visual Impairment on the Family
The incidence of visual impairment among young and old people alike is on the rise, and is expected to increase in the future. The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of the problems that typically confront families when one or more of their family members has a visual impairment. The background of the problem is followed by a discussion of how visual impairments affect the individual child, followed by an analysis of how such conditions affect other family members. A summary of the research is provided in the conclusion.
Physical impairments can assume a variety of forms, such as a loss of limbs or a paralysis due to accident or disease. When one family member becomes disabled in one fashion or another, it will naturally have profound consequences for other family members, but it is important to remember that every family is…
Bailey, B.R. & Head, D.N. (1993). Providing O& M. Services to Children and Youth with Severe Multiple Disabilities. RE:view, 25(2), 57.
Corn, A.L., Lewis, M.C. & Lippmann, O. (1990). Licensed Drivers with Bioptic Telescopic
Spectacles: User Profiles and Perceptions. RE:view, 21(4), 224.
Dodson-Burk, B., Hill, E.W. & Smith, B.A. (1989). Orientation and Mobility for Infants Who
The following is a partial list of organizations that provide services for the parents of children with Emotional Behavioral Disorders (EBD). These resources offer a diverse selection of services that range from direct instruction to parents, referrals to professional help, and involvement in legislation and advocacy. The specific strategies of the organizations are listed in the descriptions; however, as can be seen by reviewing these descriptions the public agencies mostly rely on education, training, and referrals to professionals in order to assist children with EBDs.
The Child Developmental Institute (CDI) originated in 1999 and has a website that provides information for parents regarding a number of issues, especially for parents with children that have EBD's (CDI, 2015). The CDI is an important resource for parents who are looking for information, services, or products related to the development of their child, the child's health, parenting, learning, media, psychological issues…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2015). AACAP homepage. Retrieved on March 25, 2015 from http://www.aacap.org/Default.aspx .
Center for Parent Information and Resources. (2015). About CPIR. Retrieved on March 25, 2015
from http://www.parentcenterhub.org/about-us/ .
Child Developmental Institute. (2015). Retrieved on March 25, 2015 from http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/about/#ixzz3Vxc3I9rt .
e. The exceptions made for impairment and age would open a Pandora's Box of legal precedence. The Death with Dignity Act and any other forthcoming active euthanasia laws will likely continue to follow the same line of reasoning, i.e. that it is the unimpaired individual who must shoulder the full responsibility of the decisions he or she is making regarding the end of his or her life. That is in fact the point of the law, that a physician's responsibility as well as the responsibility of anyone who is active in the act of euthanasia is relinquished entirely to the will of the dying individual. In the case of a child this decision cannot be made by a proxy, nor can this decision be made for an individual who is mentally impaired, by his or her guardians or care takers. Though the parents in this case have fundamentally compelling arguments…
Gilmore, J. (2005, April 4). Court-Ordered Euthanasia: Euthanasia Advocates Claim It Is Not a Crime to Kill as Long as the Victims Cannot Speak for Themselves. The New American, 21, 27.
Kamisar, Y. (1998). Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Problems Presented by the Compelling, Heartwrenching Case. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 88(3), 1121-1146.
The Ghost of Canterville Hall adapts Oscar Wilde's fairy tale and plays upon the middle school fascination with English ghosts and haunting: it depicts a ghost who has grown tired of haunting a family who needs the help of a young girl to be free of a curse.
The Magic Garden by Irene Corey is designed for theatre-goers between ages 5-9 and unfolds a nutritional tale: the battle of vegetables vs. sweets.
A Midsummer Night's Dream adapted by Aurand Harris uses William Shakespeare in a humorous fashion to introduce children to the Bard in this tale of mistaken identity, love, and mischievous fairies.
Dramatists Play Service
Dragonwings by Lawrence Yep is the story of a Chinese boy who comes to America and his struggles adjusting to life in his new country.
The Children's Crusade by Paul Thompson tells the tale of the failed idealism of young children in the 13th…
It is felt that an important part of this process is the family since that is where the child spends the majority of their time. The family situation and the experiences that are provided to the child within this situation are critical to a child's development (Bruder, 2000).
Physical Therapy is one type of early intervention that is often used with disabled children. The idea of family-centered care brings many wonderful things to the practice of pediatric physical therapy. Physical therapy is the profession of developing, maintaining and restoring maximum movement and function to a patient. Treatments often focus on improving gross and fine motor skills, balance and coordination, strength and endurance as well as cognitive and sensory processing. For a child with a disability all of these practices are things that they need to work on and improve in order to be able to grow up and care for…
Bruder, Mary Beth. (2000). Family-Centered Early Intervention: Clarifying Our Values for the New Millennium. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. 20(2). p.105-115.
****Johnson, Beverly H. (1999). Family-Centered Care: Creating Partnerships in Health. Group Practice Journal. p. 18-21.
****- This citation needs the journal number and volume number in order to be complete…..it wasn't on the article itself and I couldn't locate it anywhere.