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Children's Defense Fund-purpose Needs Statement Children's

Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 97370659

The Cook County CDED was formed in 1985 and is a private, non-profit organization supported by foundation and grants, as well as several individual donations annually.

Our Mission

To end disability-related discrimination and injustice through education and increased legal services for individuals and families with disabilities. This is accomplished through legal support and the support of local community families.

To fight for and increase the rights of children with disabilities by changing discriminatory practices, policies and laws.

To educate children, families and education professionals.

To provide assistance to families with disabilities in need.

To offer educational and extracurricular activities for children with disabilities as well as family members.

To increase awareness overall.

The CDED does not believe any individual or family should be denied the right to fair housing or education because of a disability. The CDED Community Center offers a place of solace for children with disabilities and families…… [Read More]


About Us. (n.d.). Children's Defense Fund (CDF): Health Care Coverage for All of America's Children, Ending Child Poverty, Child Advocacy Programs. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from 

Epilepsy Fdn.-Mission Statement. (n.d.). Epilepsy Foundation-Epilepsy Foundation-trusted, reliable information for people with seizures, and their caregivers. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from 

Mission Statement. (n.d.). because a goblin is a terrible thing to waste.. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from
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Children With Autism Tend to Get 'Stuck'

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82271632

Children with autism tend to get 'stuck' -- either in the repetition of certain phrases, or 'stuck' on a particular idea in the case of children with Asperger's Syndrome. Teachers can attempt to use these words as a springboard to real communication, circumventing the repetition through responding and attempting to engage the child in dialogue. Specifically, with Asperger's Syndrome, teachers can try to use children's mechanical interests in facts and figures to ask them questions about, for example, how the animals or cars that the child is obsessed with might feel, which also encourages the children to engage in emotional responses. Or they can ask the children to engage in more spontaneous 'pretend' play to circumvent repetitive behavior (like pretending to be an animal or a car).

Question Box:

This chapter affirms the idea that there is no essential correlation between intelligence and the ability to speak. Many otherwise normal…… [Read More]

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Child With Disability

Words: 2379 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41179199

fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).

Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…… [Read More]


Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.

Accessed March 30, 2004, from,

American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.

Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
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Child With Disability

Words: 1710 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59146135

Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities

Child With Disability

Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class

Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.

The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.

What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.

Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…… [Read More]


Berry, R.A.W. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489-529.

Cawthon, S.W. (2007). Hidden Benefits and Unintended Consequences of 'No Child Left Behind' Policies for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 460-492.

Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S.-R. (2003). The Effect of Early Childhood Intervention and Subsequent Special Education Services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95.

Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 307-320.
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Disabled Bodies and Able Minds Demonstrated More

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77014429

Disabled Bodies and Able Minds demonstrated more information to the reader about the DO-IT legislation to the reader, though it did not describe it in detail it demonstrated applications. The work also developed the idea that assistive technology has expanded in its capacities in the same manner as all other technology. Lastly the work was a great reminder of just how creative those with disabilities and their parents and other advocates have to be to develop ways for individuals to communicate and participate more fully in the experience of school, and therefore life.

The most important information in this article is associated with the fact that schools are obligated to aide disabled children in ways that would seem sometimes extreme. Especially with regard to communication, and it is likely that the expense is relatively great given the specialization required. The article also does a great job making sure the reader…… [Read More]

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Children With Disabilities

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26181354

classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?

A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction

The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency

serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,

Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…… [Read More]

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Child Obesity and Its Affects on Their Self-Esteem Learning and Development

Words: 7029 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71624181

Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development

Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)

In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…… [Read More]


Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64

Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: 

Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
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Child Development and Children With Special Needs

Words: 1183 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65310305

Lesson objectives enhance teacher-student and teacher-teacher communications. Pupils must understand exactly what they're supposed to do, which will lead them to commit time to the activities that facilitate attainment of objectives. Their ability to differentiate and prioritize important course-based learning tasks will increase, and thus, they will not waste precious time over irrelevant details. Also, students need to make guesses with regards to what the teacher deems important, as well as what is expected in the form of evaluation matter (UNESCO, n.d.).


Evaluating the developmental progress of children is a never-ending process; it offers an understanding of children's fortes, inclinations, interests, and requirements, which can be utilized for planning suitable, meaningful activities for promoting learning and development of children, individually (CCHP, 2006).

Inclusion denotes growth and learning of all children together irrespective of individual abilities. Inclusion in practice resembles inclusion in standard early childhood courses, since, in case of…… [Read More]


(2010, September). Retrieved from 

CCHP. (2006). Children with Disabilities and other Special Needs. San Francisco: California Child Healthcare Program.

Dowell, H. H. (2008). The Ausbelian Preschool Program: Balancing Child-Directed and Teacher-Directed Approaches. Retrieved from 

EdTech. (n.d.). ESL Students with Assistive Technology. Retrieved from
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Special Needs Children With Special Needs it

Words: 2213 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72002196

Special Needs

Children with Special Needs

It is difficult to imagine a more vulnerable group than that comprised by children and adolescents with special needs. The vulnerability lies in the fact that though they have a voice it is often ignored. This does not mean that people do not want to listen to them, but, unfortunately, adults often either have an agenda or they believe they know what is better for the child than the child him or herself. It is true that children who have a physical disabilities, behavioral disorders and mental disorders such as autism may not understand what is best for them, but they should be able to voice their desires also. This includes both the interactions that they have with caregivers, other authority figures and peers. The individual in this situation needs someone to advocate for them because "they are a particularly vulnerable group and have,…… [Read More]


Dixon, A.L., Tucker, C., & Clark, M.A. (2010). Integrating social justice with national standards of practice: Implications for school counselor education. Counselor Education & Supervision, 50, 103-115.

Knight, K., & Oliver, C. (2007). Advocacy for disabled children and young people: Benefits and dilemmas. Child and family Social Work, 12, 417-425.

Mulick, J.A., & Butter, E.M. (2002). Educational advocacy for children with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 17, 57-74.

Murray, F.R. (2005). Effective advocacy for students with emotional/behavioral disorders: How high the cost? Education and Treatment of Children, 28(4), 414- 429.
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Black's Law Dictionary 1991 Child

Words: 5968 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76815004

Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…… [Read More]


Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School

Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.

Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
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Stress Impact an Autistic Child

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74982274

One study examined the impact that spiritual or religious faith had on families with autistic children. In this study 49 families of autistic children were examined for signs of stress either psychologically, emotionally or health wise. The study looked at participants who had autistic children between the ages of 4 and 20 years old. The study concluded that parents who have a strong religious or spiritual faith and support from religious groups showed a stress level that was no higher than families that do not have an autistic child (Pargament, 2001). The study attributed part of this contentment to the belief by parents that a higher power placed the autistic child in their life for a reason and he or she was one of God's gifts designed for that family. In addition, the support socially and emotionally that the parents derived from religious belonging helped the parents feel less alone…… [Read More]


Religious coping in families of children with autism.

Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities; 12/22/2001; Pargament, Kenneth I.

Harris, S.L., & Handleman, J.S. (1994). Preschool education programs for children with autism. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Haworth, A.M., Hill, A.E., & Glidden, A.M. (1996). Measuring religiousness of parents of children with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 34(5), 271-279.
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Special Education Until 1975 Disabled

Words: 2069 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 62291897

S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999).

Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs themselves. Moreover, the legislation raised awareness about the breadth and diversity of the disabled community and helped to reduce stigma. President Johnson followed well in the footsteps of his predecessor by establishing the Committee on Mental etardation and helping to pass Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, PL 89-10). The Act opened up funds to be used at the state level for special education and lead to the creation of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. Although focused on the needs of the mentally disabled community, the Johnson era legislation was integral in providing precedent for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.

Osgood (1999) also suggests that impetus for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act came from…… [Read More]


Ford, Gerald. (1975). Statement on Signing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at

Osgood, R.L. (nd). The History of Inclusion in the United States. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at 

Raschke, D. & Bronson, J. (1999). "Inclusion." Excerpt from "Creative Educators at Work: All Children Including Those with Disabilities Can Play Traditional Classroom Games." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at 

Special Education Laws and Legislation." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at
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Memory as a Child When I Was

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30236222

memory as a child, when I was just four years old, continues to haunt me until this day nearly 50 years later. The eldest of five children in an impoverished dysfunctional family, my mother often made me look after my younger siblings. My mother was upstairs on the neighbor's phone while I watched my ten-month-old sister, (name). Suddenly, (name) started choking and turning blue. Petrified, I did not know what to do. I screamed for my mother, who came rushing down the stairs and immediately called for an ambulance. Although (name) had a freak heart attack, and I was not to blame, guilt plagued me for years as she became blind, deaf and mute. As I matured, I realized that I was not culpable for (name's) illness and death at a young age. I also realized that this experience so early on in life, along with my impaired home life,…… [Read More]

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Social Promotion in Disabled Students

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69734157

children in the United States suffer from learning disabilities and disabilities that impair their ability to socialize properly with others. Social skill interventions are designed to help students with specific disabilities like autism understand how to learn and adapt while in a social setting like a classroom or school trip. One such project, the HANDS project, developed a way to support students with autism spectrum disorder learn important social and life skills. "The HANDS project has developed a mobile cognitive support application for smartphones, based on the principles of persuasive technology design, which supports children with ASD with social and life skills functioning -- areas of ability which tend to be impaired in this population" (Mintz, Branch, March, & Lerman, 2012, p. 53).

This kind of technology is not only easy to access, but easy to use making it feasible for any parent or teacher looking to help a student.…… [Read More]


MacFarlane, K. & Woolfson, L. (2013). Teacher attitudes and behavior toward the inclusion of children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties in mainstream schools: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 29, 46-52. 

Mintz, J., Branch, C., March, C., & Lerman, S. (2012). Key factors mediating the use of a mobile technology tool designed to develop social and life skills in children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Computers & Education, 58(1), 53-62. 

Walton, K. & Ingersoll, B. (2012). Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature. J Autism Dev Disord, 43(3), 594-615.
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Circle of Poverty Among the Disabled

Words: 4661 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35972874

Stigma and Disability

The self-sufficiency of any person or group largely depends on the capacity to maintain a certain level of financial stability. As a group, people with disabilities are among those with the highest poverty rates and lowest educational levels despite typically having some of the highest out-of-pocket expenses of all other groups. Educational level is strongly related to financial status and independence in most of the studies performed on these variables. Despite regulations to attempt to provide an equal and fair education to students identified as having disabilities, the research indicates that the majority of these individuals do not reach the educational levels and financial status of their non-disabled peers. The limitations of a failed system of assistance for these individuals that creates a double-edged sword in the form of stigmatizing these students has resulted in it being next to impossible for this group to obtain even an…… [Read More]


Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279-299

Bjelland, M.J., Burkhauser, R.V., von Schrader, S., & Houtenville, A.J. (2011). 2010 progress report on the economic well-being of working-age people with disabilities. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from  ct&seiredir=1& %26q%3Ddisabilities%2Band%2Bpoverty%26as_sdt%3D0%252C23%26as_ylo%3D20 10%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22disabilities%20poverty%22.

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)"

Burkhauser, R.V. & Houtenville, A.J. (2006). A guide to disability statistics from the current population survey - annual social and economic supplement (March CPS). In Rehabilitation research and training center on disability demographics and statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from
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Vision Therapy on Children's Reading

Words: 4751 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73045955

81). Ambrose and Corn (1997) further define "functional vision" as vision that can be used to derive input for planning and performing tasks; the extent to which one uses his or her available vision is referred to as "visual efficiency."

eading Skills. According to Carver (2002), "reading usually means to attempt to comprehend language in the form of printed words"; therefore, for the purposes of this study, the term "reading skills" will refer to an individual's ability to comprehend language in the form of printed words.

Chapter Summary

This chapter provided an introduction to the study, including the background and a statement of the problem of vision impairment on students' academic performance; a discussion of the purpose and significance of the study was followed by a description of the research questions that will guide the research process. An assessment of the study's limitations and delimitations was followed by a delineation…… [Read More]


Ambrose, G.V. & Corn, a.L. (1997). Impact of Low Vision on Orientation: an Exploratory Study. RE:view, 29(2), 81.

Balota, D.A., D'Arcais, G.B. & Rayner, K. (Eds.). (1990). Comprehension processes in reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Becker, C.A. (1980). Semantic context effects in visual word recognition. An analysis of semantic strategies. Memory & Cognition, 8, 493-512.

Blachman, B.A. (1997). Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Ethnography of Special Needs Preschool Children

Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78853558

LABB School

I chose the LABB School because it seems so innovative. They have a preschool program designed for children with special needs, but they also enroll children with no difficulties. Because of this, preschoolers who attend The LABB School get both specialized services and the normality of attending preschool with children who have no disabilities. I was very curious to see how The LABB School makes this concept work.

When I went in I expected to see the children with disabilities separated in some way from the children without disabilities. I also wanted to know how well both groups progressed. I observed in detail and interviewed a teacher, an occupational therapist and a teacher aid to gather information. I did not ask to interview a parent.

The LABB School is spacious and set against woods. The rooms are airy and bright. They have a playground that is brightly colored…… [Read More]

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Inclusion for Children With Autism

Words: 2883 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 93312546

There is a growing body of support that indicates that while inclusion may be the best answer for mildly autistic children, it may not be the best setting for those with moderate to severe autism. Until now, research into the autistic child in the classroom has focused on taking the position of either for or against inclusion in the general classroom. However, when one takes the body of literature as a whole, it appears that inclusion is good for some and bad for others. This leads to the logical conclusion that differences exist between children who are successful under inclusion and those that are not. Understanding these differences is the key to taking the proper action for an individual.

Literature regarding autism and inclusion missed the important point that in order to make the program a success, we must decode the keys to success. One of these keys lies in…… [Read More]


Dybvik, a (2004). Autism and the inclusion mandate: what happens when children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms? Daniel knows. Education Next. Winter 2004. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at 

Fighting Autism (2003). Autism Prevalence Reports, School Years 1992-2003. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at 

Horrocks, J., White, G., & Roberts, L. (2008). Principals' attitudes regarding inclusion of children with autism in Pennsylvania public schools. J Autism Dev Disord. 38(8):1462- 73.

Humphrey, N. & Lewis, S. (2008). Make me normal': the views and experiences of pupils on the autistic spectrum in mainstream secondary schools. Autism. 2008 Jan;12(1):23-46.
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Empathy Must Be Accorded to the Child

Words: 1634 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6522112

empathy must be accorded to the child, that teacher helps child master words in ways that are most congruent to the child, that teacher must 'step into the child's shoes' (i.e. go down to his level) in order to help him best, that the child must be made to feel that he can succeed, and that progression of knowledge must proceed from lower to progressively more challenging levels

Teaching students who have learning disabilities is done as all teaching is done in the form of an assessment. Understanding that students with learning disabilities have difficulties spelling and reading a large number of commonly used words due to their being irregular, and thus avoiding them (Robinson, 2005), may help us conduct our assessment better and know how to better help these students within the format of the class assessment delineated by McMillan (). In this way, assessment are used for learning…… [Read More]


Learned Helplessness Theory

Antoin, D. Depression and Learned Helplessness.

Arnold, NG. (n.d.) Learned Helplessness and Attribution for Success and Failure in LD Students.
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Child Han China's One Child

Words: 3495 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66771740

Ethnographic/Social Considerations

Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).

The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…… [Read More]


Banghan, H.; Johnson, K.; Liyao, W. 1998. "Infant Abandonment in China." Population and Development Review, 24(3):469

Greenhalgh, S. (2003). "Science, modernity and the making of China's one-child policy." Population and Development Review, 29(2):163

Hall, E. (1987). "China's only child: This strict policy is controlling China's population problem, but will only children make unwilling socialists." Psychology Today,

Johnson, D. Gale. 1994. "Effects of institutions and policies on rural population growth with application to China. Population and Development Review 20 (3): 503-531.
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Children in Dysfunctional Families the

Words: 1730 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 67754779

We are essentially powerless to prevent all dysfunctions - but, the mental health and social support structures within communities have the responsibility to do as much as they possibly can to promote healthy family life for all. This support often involves early identification of dysfunctional families, counseling, disruption of negative patterns. The schools, churches, hospitals and any other institution both public and private have a responsibility to reach out and try to help those who are suffering - and often that suffering must be alleviated at the source, the dysfunctional family.


Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant irthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).

Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).

Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk ehaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning…… [Read More]


Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant Birthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).

Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).

Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning Perspectivesq 33.5 (2001): 206(5).

Martin, Don and Maggie Martin. "Understanding Dysfunctional and Functional Family Behaviors for the at-Risk Adolescent." Adolescence 35.140 (2000): 785(4).
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Children Reading L Jones Teaching

Words: 1475 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48168732

One teaching model that seems to be very effective within the portfolio framework is the "Process Model."

The process model is, at its most simple, a method of writing in which the "process" of writing and revision is emphasized. Perhaps one of the easiest ways to express its essence is that it is the method of using progressive "drafts" to arrive at a final product. Of course, this model can do much to alleviate the motivation and morale issues previously addressed, simply because it alleviates much of the "performance anxiety" that plagues many exceptional learners. Further, key supportive activities on the part of the instructor, including "conferencing, prompting, modeling, and dialoguing," serve to create a "writing environment designed to encourage the creative process and to reduce the fear that students often associate with writing (Newcomer, Nodine, Barenbaum, 1988)."

Of course, this process model is in direct opposition to the "product"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alber, Sheila. (1999). I don't' like to write, but I love to get published. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Oct-Dec 1999, Vol. 15 Issue 4, p. 355.

Hansen, C. Bobbi. (1998). Using portfolios as a tool to teach writing to students with learning disabilities. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Jul-Sep 1998, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p307.

Karge, Belinda. (1998). Knowing what to teach: Using authentic assessment to improve classroom instruction. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Jul-Sep 1998, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p319.

Newcomer, Phillis. Nodine, Barbara. Barenbaum, Edna. (1988).Teaching Writing to Exceptional Children. Exceptional Children, April 1988 Vol. 54 No. 6 p559.
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Child Policy in China It

Words: 1923 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37028849

Advanced technology played a big role in infanticide as it allowed couples to check the gender of the child before it was born. Ultrasounds helped couples check the sex of their child and allow them to make a decision on abortion easier. Infanticide managed to unbalance the sex ratio in china as there were far too many males and not so many females. Women do not have a big role to play in determining the gender of their children as the husbands are the ones who make the decisions. There have been cases where a husband has beaten his wife to abort her child. Then are cases where the wife has to go into hiding so that people won't be able to know if she is pregnant. This helps a lot if they are expecting a girl and they need to abort it. There have been a lot of families…… [Read More]


Greenhalgh, Susan. June 2003. "Science, Modernity, and the Making of China's One-Child Policy," Population and Development Review 29-Page.165

Hardee, Karen. (2004) Family Planning and Women's Lives in Rural China, International Family Planning Perspectives. Volume: 30 Issue

Johnson, Kay Ann. (2004)Wanting a Daughter, Needing a Son. Yeong and Yeong Book Company

Faison, Seth. (2004) South of the Clouds: exploring the hidden realms of China, St. Martin's Press
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Disabled Had Nothing or Little to Contribute

Words: 4444 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80887425

disabled had nothing or little to contribute to the world in the educational, social, or employment arena. For the most part those that were disabled either physically or mentally were shuffled off to the side and largely ignored. They would be taken care of by family members or institutions and any discussion of growth or accomplishment was quickly discouraged. While this seemed natural for many years, recent history has discovered that this was cruel in several ways. Those who are disabled still have feelings, hopes, goals and desires that they have a right to pursue and explore. In addition the world was missing out on the many contributions to the work, school and social arenas that the disabled could provide.

The United Kingdom has not been known for its kind treatment of the disabled and it has only been in recent history that things have begun to change.

While the…… [Read More]


Huang, Weihe; Rubin, Stanford E., Equal access to employment opportunities for people with mental retardation: an obligation of society.. Vol. 63, The Journal of Rehabilitation, 01-12-1997, pp 27(7).

Author not available, UNUM Corporation Sponsors Tom Whittaker, First-Ever Person With a Disability to Stand 'On Top of the World'., Business Wire, 11-11-1998.

Scott-Parker, Susan; Holmstrom, Radhika, The outsiders.(UK disability rights movement)(Cover Story). Vol. 8, New Statesman & Society, 02-10-1995, pp 29(2).

EDITIONS Change to World Wednesday, 6 December, 2000, 11:41 GMT Anti-bias law for disabled pupils
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Child and Young Adult Hull

Words: 2887 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81947379

In retrospect it is incredible how much time and energy went into this endeavor and how little came out of it.. Hull perhaps added somewhat more to our knowledge of the behavior of the rat than Titchener did to our understanding

Clark Hull 7 of human consciousness, but not much. His basic approach turned out to be, to use a precisely appropriate metaphor in his world of rats and mazes, a blind alley.

One of Hull's starting points was in noting that conditioning theory failed to deal convincingly with motivation. He was astute enough to recognize that motivation may be viewed as either a learned aspect of behavior (as Guthrie viewed it) or as a behavioral determinant independent of learning (as Tolman viewed it). Either way, it needed to be given greater importance. Hull drew on Freud's "instincts" as motivating forces, but changed the word to "drives" in his own…… [Read More]


Hull, C.L.. (1933) Hypnosis and Suggestibility: An Experimental Approach. Whales: Crown House Publishing.

Hull, C.L. (1943) Principals of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. Appleton.

Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E. (1987). A History of Modern Psychology. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publications.

Hothersall, D. 1995. History of Psychology, 3rd ed., Mcgraw-Hill:NY
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1159 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: Array


Hallahan, D., Keogh, B. (2001). Research and Global Perspective in Learning Disabilities. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Jacobson, J., et al. (2004). Controversial Therapies for Developmental Disabilities. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

atterwhite, M. (2008). Access to Academies for All tudents: Critical Approaches to Inclusive

Curriculum, Instruction and Policy. Journal of Thought. 43 (1-2): 45-53.

Part 2 - In many ways, the IEP meeting has a great deal in common with arbitration: the goal is to find a win-win situation for all parties concerned based on fact, concern, and care, but not so much on emotions and misperceptions. The first issue is to define the reasons that everyone is participating in the IEP -- for the betterment of the child. Both the parent and teach want to advocate for the child, but there are differing perspectives about what the child is capable of within the school system. During the IEP meeting,…… [Read More]


When The IEP Team Meets. (2012). Nataional Dissemination Center for Children With Disabilities. Retireved from: 

Bollero, J. (2010). 8 Steps to Better IEP Meetings. WrightsLaw. Retrieved from: 

Watson, S. (2011). Preparing for the IEP Meeting. Special Education. Retrieved from:
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Autistic Children and the Effect

Words: 2503 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 36537320

1) Connor (2002) states that studies report findings that mothers of children with Autism "who showed greater satisfaction" in life were those "who made the clearest redefinitions and who were most willing to follow alternative ways of gaining self-fulfillment." (p. 1)


In the work entitled: 'Autism and the Family" reported is a study conducted in a 12th grade classroom at 'Our Lady of Loures High School through survey instruments completed by the children of mothers with autistic children in the age range of 4 to 36 years of age. This study reports that family outings "can be quite an ordeal for these families." (Hart, nd, p.1) for instance, when these families go on an outing, in families where it is possible two cars travel to the outing in case the child needs to be suddenly removed from the public setting due…… [Read More]


Greenspan, Stanley I. (2008) Understanding Autism. Parent & Child. 2008. Online available at:

Parents of Autistic Children Twice as Likely to be Mentally Ill (2008) Fox News 5 May 2008. Online available at:,2933,354192,00.html?sPage=fnc/health/mentalhealth 

Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Best Practice Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Assessment (2002) California Department of Developmental Services: 2002. Online available at: 

Gold N. 1993 Depression and social adjustment in siblings of boys with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 23 147-163
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Tourette's in Children

Words: 1840 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86979836

Tourette Syndrome in Children

hat is Tourette Syndrome?

Tourette Syndrome (TS) is an inherited neurological disorder generally associated with tics. Tics are defined as either involuntary body movements, or involuntary vocal sounds that are usually repetitive. The occurrence of TS in children is about 1 of every 2000 children, with an increased occurrence in boys as opposed to girls. The syndrome itself is named for the French neurologist Dr. George Gilles de la Tourette, who diagnosed the first patient with the illness in 1885.

How do you know if you have it? (Symptoms and Diagnosis)

Diagnosis specifics vary from one source of information to the next. Some publications, such as the website for the Jim Eisenreich Foundation for Children, suggest waiting until the tics are present for at least one year, and that multiple tics must be shown - vocal and physical (though not at the same time). Other sites…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome 2002

Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome" 3 Apr 2002. 2002

Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. "Tourette Syndrome's Frequently Asked Questions" 3 Apr 2002. 

Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome" 3 Apr 2002.
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Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared With Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents

Words: 10855 Length: 39 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27647890

Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared with Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents

I Situations Faced by Children of Alcoholic Parent(s)

II ehavior of Children with Alcoholic Parent(s)

II Hypothesis #2

I The Possibility of Developing Alcoholism on ACOA's

II ACOA's have Lower Self-Esteem Compared to Non-ACOA's

Comparing the Differences etween ACOAs and Non-ACOAs in Terms of Social and Intimate Relationships

IV Protective Factors For Resiliency

I Participants

II Instruments

Annotated ibliography

Children of Alcoholics Screening Test

Are You an Alcoholic?

Intimate ond Measure

Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale

Self-Esteem Scale

The family is one of the most important institutions in our society today. It is from our family where we are able to develop ourselves and start the journeys we take in life. Usually, the upbringing of each family member depends on the psychological nature of the other members who are able to provide influence or may have cause effects…… [Read More]


Velleman, R. (2002). The Children of Problem Drinking Parents.

Institute of Health & Medicine, University of Bath.

1996). Children of Alcoholics. Alcohol Health.

Common Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.
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Function of a Child's Environment

Words: 892 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32318262

If the child's needs are not met at home or at school -- for example, if he or she is a traumatized recent immigrant from Haiti or lives in a food insecure household in the inner city -- the child may not be able exhibit the maximum extent of his or her ability.

Even children who are accustomed to testing can experience environmentally-related problems. In fact, children who are already classified as special needs or learning-disabled may be all too familiar with assessment, and bring an assumption that they are 'stupid' or incompetent to the process, even before the assessment begins. "Facet-based instruction centers around the idea that students, faced with a problem situation, apply preformed ideas from previous experiences or construct ideas and reasoning to make sense of the situation," including ideas about themselves (Facet-based instruction, 2010, the Hunt Lab). The assumptions that students bring to the testing environment…… [Read More]


Lewejohann, L., C. Reinhard, a. Schreww, J. Bandewiede, a. Haemisch, N. Gortz, M.

Schachner, N. Sachser. (2006, February). Environmental bias? Effects of housing conditions, laboratory environment and experimenter on behavioral tests.

Genes Brains Behavior. 5(1):64-72.

Facet-based instruction. (2010). The Hunt Lab. The University of Washington.
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Foster Children

Words: 8637 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87113745

Foster Children/Foster Care

Issues of a Foster Child

Child Abuse

Families and Children Served through Foster Care

The Policy Framework

This thesis reviews foster care in the United States: the reasons why children fall into the category of children who need to be taken out of their families and placed in care, the numerous emotional and psychological responses of children in foster care, and the psychological and emotional care that is given to children that are placed in foster care. The numerous laws covering foster care institutions and the policies they implement regarding the treatment of children in their care are also discussed. An extensive list of references is also given at the end of the thesis.


Everyday more children are born into this world. Yet everyday there is a mother or a father who child is placed in a foster care facility, for many different reasons. Children are…… [Read More]


Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. PL. 105-89.

Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980. P.L. 96-272.

Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1994). Sex and America's teenager. New York: Author.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Planning for children whose parents are dying
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Autistic Children

Words: 1703 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47452496

Mirror Neuron Dysfunction in Autistic Disorder

Autistic disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction. Autistic children also often display restricted behaviors and repetitive behaviors. These signs of autism usually appear before the age of three. The inability to display empathy and imitate others in autism, a skill crucial to learning communication and social skills, has been hypothesized to result from defects in the mirror neuron system (Williams, Whiten, Suddendorf, & Perrett, 2001). The role of mirror neuron system and how dysfunctions in this system may relate to the deficits observed in autistic disorder are discussed.

Mirror neurons fire when animals or people act or observe the same action performed by another. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons is located the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex (izzolatti & Craighereo, 2004). There are two chief…… [Read More]


Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Estes, A., & Liaw, J. (2004). Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress. Developmental Psychology, 40, (2), 271 -- 283.

Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R.M., Snyder, J., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2006). Anatomical Differences in the Mirror Neuron System and Social Cognition Network in Autism. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 1276-1282.

Receveur, C., Lenoir, P., Desombre, H., Roux, S., Barthelemy, C., & Malvy, J. (2005). Interaction and imitation deficits from infancy to 4 years of age in children with autism: a pilot study based on videotapes. Autism, 9, (1), 69-82.

Rizzolatti, G. & Craighereo, L. (2004). The mirror neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169 -- 192.
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Bryna Towb Works for the Jewish Child

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95747513

Bryna Towb works for the Jewish Child and Family Services (JCFS) but her lobbying activities for education go beyond that.

As veteran educator, Bryna has a way with children and adults that have long inspired me. She has been promoted from position to position starting off as a worker in special education and as a nursery teacher. Somewhere along the road, concerned at the apathy towards children and the gaps in special education, she started her lobbying career approaching senators and congress people in her area. Her diplomatic skills became known. She became renowned as the person who left no child behind, and the one who could get any child into any school regardless of difficulties with child or parent. She has been awarded and recognized four years in a row (and time and again before that), and familiar with her success, I decided that Bryna Towb was the person…… [Read More]

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Young Children Impact of Television Watching

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68165101

The Effects of Watching Television in Young Children
The current technological era has ensnared the young generation into a web of virtual reliance, making them dependent on various types of media outlets. The user – friendly components of media outlets have equipped the youngsters with the ability to customize any content into their own individual preferences. Young people are not limited to feeding but also they are able to design media materials which suit them. This situation is a far cry from what the older generation was inclined to while growing up, hence in most cases, this creates a generational conflict (Radesky, 2015).
The prevalence of technological and digital devices has created exposure among youngsters, with some being as young as 4 months. This is in comparison to children in the 1970s who became exposed to media such as the television from the age of 4 years. Research has shown…… [Read More]

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Learning Disabled During the Course of a

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24918403

Learning Disabled

During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.

Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…… [Read More]


Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: 

Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available: .

Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
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Factors That Determine the Increasing Number of African-American Children in Special Education

Words: 4428 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25424527

African-American Children in Special Education Programs

The large amount of minority children, specifically African-American children, who have ended up in special education programs for students who have learning disabilities, behavioral disabilities, emotional disabilities, or mental disabilities, has remained a very strong reality even though it has been recognized for more than 20 years (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996). After looking at many of these patterns and how often they recur, it is important to look at the assumptions, beliefs, worldviews, and epistemologies that are often used by many who work in special education in order to determine what is causing the disproportionate amount of these individuals in special education programs throughout the country (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996).

This problem, being extremely persistent, is affecting large groups of African-American individuals and their families in a negative way (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996). It also affects society in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Apple, M. (1990). Ideology and curriculum. New York: Routledge.

Aronowitz, S., & Giroux, H.A. (1991). Postmodern education: Politics, culture, and social criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.

Artiles, A.J., & Trent, S.C. (1994). Overrepresentation of minority students in special education: A continuing debate. The Journal of Special Education, 22, 410-436.

Gordon, E.W., Miller, F., & Rollock, D. (1990). Coping with communicentric bias in knowledge production in the social sciences. Educational Researcher, 19(3), 14-19.
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Preschool Children in a Group

Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98684549

Furthermore, Vgotsky's held that the bond between word and meaning is a bond that is associative in nature and is established through the repeated simultaneous perceptions of a certain sound and a certain object.

Most of the children in this class had good motor skills and followed instructions very well. Furthermore the children used "please" and "thank you" in their interactions with teachers. Also observed was the fact that Tarek, a student, acts like group-leader among other students and the children in the class try to please him. Tarek is very considerate and caring. This shows early development on the part of the children, which can be expected, in "advanced curriculum" preschool programs.

Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) contended that children and adults both pass through stages of moral development in their reasoning ability via judgments of a moral nature. Kohlberg's theory is called the "cognitive-developmental theory and suggests a tri-level sequence…… [Read More]


CEU Station - Child Development - Introduction and Theory Theoretical Framework for Child Development [Online available at: http:/ / www.ceus / childdeve lopment1.html

Vgotksy: Thinking and Speaking, Thought and Word Online at: http://www
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Peer Tutoring for Children With

Words: 2572 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1490932

A to increase academic engagement and achievement in math, reading, and spelling for general education and at-risk students;

to increase spelling achievement for general education elementary students and for students with mild disabilities in self-contained classrooms;

to increase social studies comprehension for junior high students with mild disabilities in a resource room setting;

and to increase reading achievement for high-functioning students with autism and their typical peers in an inclusive, general education classroom

Advantages and Disadvantages of Peer Tutoring

ased from the effects of peer tutoring that have been mentioned in the previous section, and from the number of studies conducted on peer tutoring, it is apparent that this teaching method for students with disabilities and special needs are beneficial and can support the improvement of their learning process and acquisition of knowledge and skills. Following is a summary of the advantages from peer tutoring.

Allows the student to participate.…… [Read More]


Ryan, J. et. al, (2004). Peer-mediated intervention studies on academic achievement for students with EBD: a review. (Emotional and Behavior Disorders)

Remedial and Special Education, Vol. 25, Issue 6, pp 330-341.

Hunt, P., et. al. (2004). Collaborative teaming to support preschoolers with severe disabilities who are placed in general education early childhood programs.

A ics in Early Childhood Special Education, Vol. 24, Issue 3, pp 123-142.
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Developing a Lesson for Children With Learning Disabilities

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36667199

Lesson for Children With Learning Disabilities

Developing a Lesson for Children with Learning Disabilities

Learning disability is a term misused severally. In essence, it applies to students who have different learning challenges. Most people associate learning disability to the development of a child, thus assuming that it is a short-term condition and disappears as the person matures. The accepted definition, provided by the National Adult Literacy and Learning Disability Center states that; learning disability is generic and refers to a composite group of disorders that become evident in the person; through observing that they have challenges in the acquisition and use of speaking, listening, reading, reasoning and execution of mathematical concepts, as well as, understanding social skills. As teachers process the learning procedure in class, they encounter various children with varied challenges, which constitute the learning disorders (Aster & Shalev, 2007). Thus, they have the obligation to accommodate those children…… [Read More]


Aster, M.G. v., M.D., & Shalev, R.S., M.D. (2007). Number development and developmental dyscalculia. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(11), 868-73. Retrieved


Canizares, D.C., Crespo, V.R., & Alemany, E.G. (2012). Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia. The Spanish Journal

of Psychology, 15(3), 952-66. Retrieved from
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No Child Left Behind -

Words: 5384 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87005254

For Bush, the "formation and refining of policy proposals" (Kingdon's second process stream in policymaking) came to fruition when he got elected, and began talking to legislators about making educators and schools accountable. Bush gave a little, and pushed a little, and the Congress make its own changes and revisions, and the policy began to take shape. The third part of Kingdon's process stream for Bush (politics) was getting the necessary votes; Bush had his handlers buttonhole certain conservative politicians, and united them with Democrats, to get enough votes to pass the NCLB.

Meantime, it was truly "organized anarchy" as the debate in the House and Senate lasted seven weeks, and some members of Congress rejected the idea of having the NAEP double check state statistics that show whether test scores have gone up or not. Civil rights groups attacked the bill, saying it would be unfair to minorities.

There…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Federation of Teachers. "NCLB - Let's Get it Right." Retrieved 7 Dec. 2007 at .

American Teacher. "Harvard study cites NCLB implementation flaws." (April 2004) Retrieved Dec. 2007 through .

Nation at Risk. "An Open Letter to the American People: The Imperative for Educational

Reform." April 1983. Department of Education. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 at /pubs/natAtRisk/findings.html.
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Health Care and the Disabled

Words: 2341 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97956325

health care for the disabled. The writer explores the health care stages that are available for the disabled in every stage of life. The writer uses published works from various sources to illustrate and underscore the need for solid health care access for all disabled individuals in the nation. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

"Different stages of available health care for people with disabilities"

The issue of health care has been a hot topic of debate in this country for many years. Health care costs are skyrocketing, available services are dwindling and the public is screaming with outrage and demand for improvements to the entire health care system. While those who can speak for themselves are having no trouble voicing their upset about the current state of the nation's health care system, there is a population that cannot always speak up. The disabled in this country…… [Read More]



Congressional Testimony. 04-19-2005


Congressional Testimony; 4/19/2005
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Effect of Looping on Children at Risk

Words: 4552 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12208187

Looping on at-isk Children


eview of the Literature

Operational Definitions


Instruments and Materials

F. Design and Procedures

G. Data Analysis


This chapter will introduce the educational process of looping, as well as evaluate the benefits that looping can have on students. It will also address the individual needs of at-risk children, and explain how looping effects these children.

Looping, which is also known as multiyear teaching or multiyear placement, occurs when teachers are promoted with their students to the next grade level, staying with the same group of children for two or three years.

For example, in a looping situation, the teacher would teach a class of first grade students and then remain with those students another year as their second grade teacher. At the end of the second grade, the same teacher would return to first grade to teach a new…… [Read More]


Milburn, Dennis (1981). "A Study of Multi-Age or Family Grouped Classrooms." Phi Delta Kappan, 62. 513-514.

Haslinger, John, Patricia Kelly and Leonard O'Hare (1996). "Countering Absenteeism,

Anonymity and Apathy." Educational Leadership, 54. 47.

Hampton, Federick M., Dawne Mumford and Lloyd Bond. "Enhancing Urban
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interview with a disabled person

Words: 1564 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Interview Paper #: 92560367

Avni (name changed for anonymity) is a forty-year-old empowered HIV+ woman currently employed in the position of community coordinator with an ART (anti-retroviral therapy) facility. She was able to transform from a bias and social stigma victim (on account of her status as an HIV+ individual) to her current self because of her resolve and the social assistance of a medico-social work organization (Kushwaha & Kumkar, 2012).

orn on December 10, 1977 in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, Avni was the only daughter of an agrarian family. She never knew her father, who passed away of an unfortunate accident just weeks after her birth. She was condemned by all, even her mom, as having brought misfortune to their family. Her widowed mother was forced to leave her deceased husband's home and make a home for herself elsewhere. Avni grew up ignored, scorned, and constantly reprimanded by her mother for…… [Read More]


Kushwaha, A., & Kumkar, M. (2012). Journey from victim to a victor -- a case study of people living with HIV and AIDS. MJAFI, 58 -- 60.

Miller, D. (2006, July 07). An Unconventional AIDS Patient. Retrieved from
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No Child Left Behind NCLB

Words: 4495 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52605949

e. ELL students in public schools. Data provided in the literature demonstrates that by 2030, more than half of all students in American public schools will speak a language other than English (Devoe, 35). In some schools the total number of students whose first language is not English is much higher. Specifically, Devoe reports that in Lawrence, Massachusetts more than 90% of all children enrolled in public schools are ELLs. Devoe argues that in these districts, a catch-22 has developed which makes it difficult for schools to provide educational services to ELLs. Specifically, ELL students that do not pass reading and math competence tests are labeled as "in need of improvement." Although efforts have been made to improve outcomes for these students, basic English competency remains a significant challenge limiting the progress of the students and the school on standardized tests. As ELL students fail to meet standards, schools that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

2006-07 APR glossary." California Department of Education. [2007]. Accessed November 19, 2007 at .

Agazie, Maxine. "Makeover needed for No Child Left Behind." Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 23(24), (2007): 39.

Devoe, Jeanne. "ELL testing: A state of flux." District Administration, 43(10), (2007): 35-40.

Facts and terms every parent should know about NCLB." U.S. Department of Education. [2005]. Accessed November 19, 2007 at /nclb/overview/intro/parents/parentfacts.html.
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Functional Curriculum Goals Special Needs Children Integration

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32774052

Functional Curriculum Goals

Special needs children: Integration vs. self-contained classrooms

Under the auspices of the 1975 federal law IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Act), every child with a disability is entitled to receive a public education in the least restrictive environment possible, as determined by the extent and the nature of his or her disability. "IDEA strives not only to grant equal access to students with disabilities, but also to provide additional special education services and procedural safeguards" (IDEA, 2011, Help4ADHD). IDEA supports the value of mainstreaming the education of students with disabilities, but not at the expense of the quality of the child's instruction.

Still, here is a great deal of value in the use of an integrated classroom for student with special needs. While mainstreaming is not warranted in all instances, often an inclusive classroom is superior vs. A self-contained classroom because of its ability to teach social as…… [Read More]


Chang, Grace. (2009). Understanding self-contained classrooms. Public School Review.

Retrieved February 14, 2011 at 

IDEA (The Individuals with Disabilities Act). (2011). Help4ADHD. Retrieved February 14,

2011 at
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Laws Regarding Disabled Students

Words: 822 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36822008

ADA & Section 504

The author of this report is to answer two main questions when it comes to the law and its application. The first broad question relates to how IDEA, IDEIA, Section 504 and the ADA overlap to a fairly significant to degree. However, less focus is placed on Section 504 and the ADA a lot of the time and the author has been asked to highlight areas of those two laws and regulations that are significant as compared to IDEA. Second, there will be the description of two significant issues that relate to case law and overall court proceedings. The gist is that oen must ask which students are protected. egardless, there are concerns about things like placement, planning issues, evaluations, litigation and regulatory enforcement. While the enforcement of disability-related laws may seem cut and dry, there are some perceived gray areas and situations and there needs…… [Read More]


ADA. (2015). 2010 ADA regulations. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from

A-Data. (2015). Peanut allergy at center of federal civil rights lawsuit for Michigan elementary student -- ADA National Network. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from

Durheim, M. (2015). A parent's guide to Section 504 in public schools. GreatKids. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from 

IDEA. (2015). IDEA - Building The Legacy of IDEA 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from
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What Steps Need to Be Taken to Help Disabled Students After High School

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13079937

Teaching Students ith Disabilities

hat are the most important skills and requirements for teachers of students with emotional or behavioral disorders?

The Concordia University list of skills includes keeping the rules and guidelines "simple and clear." That means if a lengthy list of "complicated rules and demands" are made, that will lead to an evitable struggle with difficult students (i.e., students with behavioral and emotional problems). Keep classroom rules very simple and broad, in fact the Concordia University suggestion is that no more than 3 to 5 "main" rules should be enforced in a classroom with these students. Suggestions for those main rules include: a) be on time; b) try your best; c) be polite; and d) respect one another (Concordia University).

Also, Concordia suggests rewarding positive behaviors; certainly there will be moments when discipline is necessary; and in fact many students exhibiting emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) take discipline…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Concordia University (2010). 5 Tips for Handling EBD Kids (Emotional Behavior Disorder)

in an Inclusive Classroom. Retrieved June 6, 2015, from .

National Center for Special Education Research. (2010). The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults with Disabilities up to Six Years After High School: Key Findings From

The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Retrieved June 6, 2015, from .
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What Is the Number One Reason Parents Home School Their Children

Words: 6151 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72233972

Homeschooling Quality of Education

The Need for and the Purpose of the Project

The Subproblems

Definitions and Abbreviations of Terms


Methodology for investigating problems identified as subproblems

Note on the Anti-Homeschooling Debate

Specific data by subproblem

Conclusion by subproblem

Subproblem one

Subproblem two

Subproblem three

Sources Cited

Growth in Homeschooling, 1978-1999

NCES Reasons for Homeschooling

The Need for and the Purpose of the Project

Homeschooling is providing a child's main educational program at home. (ebster) Homeschooling takes the place of full-time school attendance, whether at public or private schools, and should meet all the state requirements for each grade and for graduation from high school and the interim graduations, such as middle-school and so on.

Homeschooling is not a new idea, but rather one that has returned to the forefront of educational discussion in the past generation.

Until public education became widely available in the United States during the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fact Sheet IC." 2001. National Home Education Research Institute. 14 July 2003. content.php?menu=1002&page_id=24.

Fact Sheet II b. 2000. National Home Education Research Institute. 13 July 2003.
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No Child Left Behind Law

Words: 1884 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24060341

No Child Left Behind Law

On January 8, 2002 President George . Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act of2001 (NCLB Act). This historic piece of education legislation reauthorized and considerably expanded the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, first endorse in1965. Its most important title, Title I, has focused federal government attention and money on students in high poverty schools for over 35 years. Congress made noteworthy changes to the law in 1994, and the most recent changes build upon them dramatically. It also provided momentous funding increases. The new Act is the result of bipartisan leadership among five political leaders -- President Bush, Senators Kennedy and Gregg and Representatives Boehner and Miller -- and a large majority of the U.S. Congress who were clearly fed up with insufficient learning among the groups of students that federal programs are most supposed to help.(Dickard, 2001)

hile a determined band of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dickard, Norris. March 14, 2001. "No Child Left Behind" and the Bottom Line: The Case of Edtech. (

Flanagan, Ann and Grissmer, David. 2001. "The Role of Federal Resources in Closing the Achievement Gap of Minority and Disadvantaged Students." Arlington, VA, The Rand Corporation.

Haycock, Kati, Jerald, Craig & Huang, Sandra. 2001 "Closing the Gap: Done in a Decade," Thinking K-16. Washington, D.C., Education Trust, Spring.

Available on the internet at
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Psychosocial Difficulties That Parents of

Words: 1500 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39599935


Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, iehl JC, MacQueen, and lackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year ook, Inc. 1997.

Evans O, Tew , Laurence KM. The fathers of children with spina bifida. Zeitschrift fur Kinderchirurgie [Surgery in Infancy and Childhood]. 1986;41 Suppl 1:42-44.

Fagan J, Schor D. Mothers of children with spina bifida: factors related to maternal psychosocial functioning. (1993) American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1993;63:146-152. [


Holmbeck GN, Gorey Ferguson L, Hudson T, Seefeldt T, Shapera W, Turner T, Uhler J. (1997)Maternal, paternal, and marital functioning in families of preadolescents with spina bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1997;22:167-181. [


Kazak AE. Families with disabled children: stress and social networks in three samples. (1987)Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 1987;15:137-146. doi: 10.1007/F00916471. [


Minnesota Title V MCH Needs Assessment Fact Sheets…… [Read More]


Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1992) Children with physical handicaps and their mothers: The interrelation of social support, maternal adjustment, and child adjustment. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1992;17:725-739. [


Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1994) Optimism, appraisals, and coping in the adjustment of mothers and their children with spina bifida. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 1995;4:303-320.

Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, Biehl JC, MacQueen, and Blackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc. 1997.
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Planting Seeds

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94260043

child who is a non-reader is hard to deal with. Although they should not be discouraged to read or look at books, providing books to a disabled child who is a non-reader will not allow the child to learn and discuss fully the learning experience because the child will not be able to read anything provided. A book with pictures only, which the teacher can make will not only let the child associate images with words, but also provide him/her with something to do. B. A child will also have the ability to share his or her thoughts verbally which will teach him/her to communicate (the child can say which colors are on the pictures and repeat what each part of the plant on the pictures are so he/she remembers). Yes the child is easily distractible and poorly organized, but putting attention on the child and letting him/her communicate is…… [Read More]

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Special Education From the Standpoint of the

Words: 4060 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5653440

special education from the standpoint of the students' parents. The writer explores the opinions on the accessibility and quality of special education afforded their children in Massachusetts. The writer examines the opinions through the use of research project that is proposed here. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.

For the last four decades the nation has been steadily working to improve the special education system within its public schools. A Supreme Court decision in the 1960's mandated that special education children be given many more services than they had in the past and that they receive that education within the least restrictive learning environment possible. Over the last four decades as these changes have taken place there have been many articles published on the changes, and the success or failure of those changes. Massachussets has enjoyed the cutting edge of special education reform with prototype programs as…… [Read More]

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Gap Early Childhood Intervention and the Development

Words: 6336 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82658447

Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child

Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.

There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.

Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.

Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.

Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
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Conflicting Studies on the Attitude

Words: 2155 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 86004724

Another concern is the lengthiness of the survey -- 35 items -- that may have fatigued some of the respondents and may have resulted in rushed and insufficient care in answering the questions.

Furthermore, attributions may have been incorrectly placed. The participant, too, may have erred due to subjective bias (i.e. A 'falling out' with the principal may have led her to incorrectly accusing administrator of reluctance to integrate); furthermore, few teachers would readily admit to negative attitudes in integrating children, teachers may over-rate or under-rate their abilities (as, for instance, with the question: "I find that my knowledge about teaching pupils with physical disabilities in PE class is satisfactory"), and teachers may have deliberately or unwittingly deviated in order to protect their identity and their identity of the school.

Finally, although the survey was built on earlier studies of inclusion, it would be interesting to know amongst which population…… [Read More]


Jerlinder, K., Danermark, B., & Gil, P. (2010). Swedish primary-school teachers' attitudes to inclusion - the case of PE and pupils with physical disabilities, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 25, 45 -- 57

Pruitt, D. (2000). Your adolescent: Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive development from early adolescence through the teen years. Washington, DC: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Spencer-Cavaliere, N. & Watkinson, E.J. (2010). Inclusion Understood From the Perspectives of Children With Disability, Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27, 275-293

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2007). Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities Innocenti Digest No. 13
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Impact of Visual Impairment on the Family

Words: 1703 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98701170

Visual Impairment on the Family

The incidence of visual impairment among young and old people alike is on the rise, and is expected to increase in the future. The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of the problems that typically confront families when one or more of their family members has a visual impairment. The background of the problem is followed by a discussion of how visual impairments affect the individual child, followed by an analysis of how such conditions affect other family members. A summary of the research is provided in the conclusion.

Physical impairments can assume a variety of forms, such as a loss of limbs or a paralysis due to accident or disease. When one family member becomes disabled in one fashion or another, it will naturally have profound consequences for other family members, but it is important to remember that every family is…… [Read More]


Bailey, B.R. & Head, D.N. (1993). Providing O& M. Services to Children and Youth with Severe Multiple Disabilities. RE:view, 25(2), 57.

Corn, A.L., Lewis, M.C. & Lippmann, O. (1990). Licensed Drivers with Bioptic Telescopic

Spectacles: User Profiles and Perceptions. RE:view, 21(4), 224.

Dodson-Burk, B., Hill, E.W. & Smith, B.A. (1989). Orientation and Mobility for Infants Who
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EBD Directory

Words: 2457 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89300850

EBD esources

The following is a partial list of organizations that provide services for the parents of children with Emotional Behavioral Disorders (EBD). These resources offer a diverse selection of services that range from direct instruction to parents, referrals to professional help, and involvement in legislation and advocacy. The specific strategies of the organizations are listed in the descriptions; however, as can be seen by reviewing these descriptions the public agencies mostly rely on education, training, and referrals to professionals in order to assist children with EBDs.

The Child Developmental Institute (CDI) originated in 1999 and has a website that provides information for parents regarding a number of issues, especially for parents with children that have EBD's (CDI, 2015). The CDI is an important resource for parents who are looking for information, services, or products related to the development of their child, the child's health, parenting, learning, media, psychological issues…… [Read More]


American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2015). AACAP homepage. Retrieved on March 25, 2015 from .

Center for Parent Information and Resources. (2015). About CPIR. Retrieved on March 25, 2015

from .

Child Developmental Institute. (2015). Retrieved on March 25, 2015 from .