579 results for “Disabled Students”.
children in the United States suffer from learning disabilities and disabilities that impair their ability to socialize properly with others. Social skill interventions are designed to help students with specific disabilities like autism understand how to learn and adapt while in a social setting like a classroom or school trip. One such project, the HANDS project, developed a way to support students with autism spectrum disorder learn important social and life skills. "The HANDS project has developed a mobile cognitive support application for smartphones, based on the principles of persuasive technology design, which supports children with ASD with social and life skills functioning -- areas of ability which tend to be impaired in this population" (Mintz, Branch, March, & Lerman, 2012, p. 53).
This kind of technology is not only easy to access, but easy to use making it feasible for any parent or teacher looking to help a student.…
MacFarlane, K. & Woolfson, L. (2013). Teacher attitudes and behavior toward the inclusion of children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties in mainstream schools: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 29, 46-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.08.006
Mintz, J., Branch, C., March, C., & Lerman, S. (2012). Key factors mediating the use of a mobile technology tool designed to develop social and life skills in children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Computers & Education, 58(1), 53-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.07.013
Walton, K. & Ingersoll, B. (2012). Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature. J Autism Dev Disord, 43(3), 594-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1601-1
A disabled student, majoring in Music, is attending a State University and uses a wheelchair to get to where he needs to go. The campus Music building is a 200-year-old, historical, structure with tall steps and does not have ramps for wheelchairs. The college argues that due to the significance of the historical architecture of the building it would cost over $1 million to add the ramps for the ADA compliance.
Does the college have legal obligation to provide accommodations for disabled individuals regardless of costs?
The American Disabilities Act relates to this scenario because the student is a disabled individual and the college is a state owned entity. "ADA Title II requires state and local governments give people with disabilities an equal opportunity to benefit from all their programs, services, and activities (example, public education, employment, transportation, recreation, health care, social services, courts,…
Rehabilitation Act. (1973). Retrieved from ED.gov: http://www.2.ed.gov/policy/speced/reg/narrative.html
A Guide to Disability Right Laws. (1990). Retrieved from Department of Justice: http://www.ada.gov/cguide.pdf
Teaching Students ith Disabilities
hat are the most important skills and requirements for teachers of students with emotional or behavioral disorders?
The Concordia University list of skills includes keeping the rules and guidelines "simple and clear." That means if a lengthy list of "complicated rules and demands" are made, that will lead to an evitable struggle with difficult students (i.e., students with behavioral and emotional problems). Keep classroom rules very simple and broad, in fact the Concordia University suggestion is that no more than 3 to 5 "main" rules should be enforced in a classroom with these students. Suggestions for those main rules include: a) be on time; b) try your best; c) be polite; and d) respect one another (Concordia University).
Also, Concordia suggests rewarding positive behaviors; certainly there will be moments when discipline is necessary; and in fact many students exhibiting emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) take discipline…
Concordia University (2010). 5 Tips for Handling EBD Kids (Emotional Behavior Disorder)
in an Inclusive Classroom. Retrieved June 6, 2015, from http://education.cu-portland.edu .
National Center for Special Education Research. (2010). The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults with Disabilities up to Six Years After High School: Key Findings From
The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Retrieved June 6, 2015, from http://ies.ed.gov .
ADA & Section 504
The author of this report is to answer two main questions when it comes to the law and its application. The first broad question relates to how IDEA, IDEIA, Section 504 and the ADA overlap to a fairly significant to degree. However, less focus is placed on Section 504 and the ADA a lot of the time and the author has been asked to highlight areas of those two laws and regulations that are significant as compared to IDEA. Second, there will be the description of two significant issues that relate to case law and overall court proceedings. The gist is that oen must ask which students are protected. egardless, there are concerns about things like placement, planning issues, evaluations, litigation and regulatory enforcement. While the enforcement of disability-related laws may seem cut and dry, there are some perceived gray areas and situations and there needs…
ADA. (2015). 2010 ADA regulations. ADA.gov. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from http://www.ada.gov/2010_regs.htm
A-Data. (2015). Peanut allergy at center of federal civil rights lawsuit for Michigan elementary student -- ADA National Network. Adata.org. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from https://adata.org/news/peanut-allergy-center-federal-civil-rights-lawsuit-michigan-elementary-student
Durheim, M. (2015). A parent's guide to Section 504 in public schools. GreatKids. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from http://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/section-504-2/
IDEA. (2015). IDEA - Building The Legacy of IDEA 2004. Idea.ed.gov. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from http://idea.ed.gov/
10. What was the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in Honig v. Doe?
In this case, the Supreme Court was of the opinion that free and appropriate public education also applied to children having behavioral difficulties. Further, the Supreme Court also concluded that when a student's misbehavior has a definite connection to his or her disability, such a student should not be excluded from school.
11. Explain when a school must hold a "manifestation determination hearing"
A manifestation determination hearing is held when as a result of a disabled student's inappropriate or wrongful behavior, the school deems it fit to have the student removed. Amongst other things, the said hearing is held to determine whether there is a connection between the student's disability and his or her faulty behavior.
12. Explain when a school must develop a "behavior intervention plan" (BIP) for a student
A school must develop the…
Merrell, K.W., Ervin, R.A., & Peacock, G.G. (2011). School Psychology for the 21st Century: Foundations and Practices (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
New York State Education Department. (2011, May). Behavioral Intervention Plans. Retrieved from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/publications/topicalbriefs/BIP.htm
Odom, S.L., Horner, R.H. & Snell, M.E. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of Developmental Disabilities. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Oyez. (2013). Schaffer v. Weast. Retrieved from http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2005/2005_04_698
Systems and Success of Students
American higher education is unique in its construction of student body as it is highly diverse today with students from various ethnic, social and racial backgrounds forming an integral part of the college environment. But apart from ethnicity and race, what makes higher education student body even more diverse is the presence of older students, students with disabilities and greater participation of women in educational pursuit. This has given a unique flavor and color to student body in American higher education institutions and hence also rendered it a complex mix of challenges, opportunities and excitement. This complexity also spurred the growth of support units on college campuses that would help students make an easy transition to the college life. With the passage of time, a new department of student affairs or student services emerged to handle all problems, opportunities and challenges related to a student's…
Biscaro, M. (2004, December). Self-efficacy, alcohol expectancy and problem solving appraisal as predictors of alcohol use in college students. College Student Journal, 38 (4), 541 -- 551.
Fisher, S. (1992). From margin to mainstream: the social progress of Black Americans (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield.
Luquis, R.R., Garcia, E., & Ashford, D. (2003, Spring/Summer). A qualitative assessment of college students' perceptions of health behaviors. American Journal of Health Studies, 18 (2/3), 156 -- 164.
National Association of Student Personnel Administrators. (1989).
The teacher is then given this goal oriented time specific goal development document to aide in supplementing or altering instruction to meet the needs of the specialized student in inclusion and seclusion. (Filler & Xu, 2006, p. 92) This document and its development are created whenever and individual child is observed and then designated to need such assistance based on his or her inability to meet age appropriate developmental goals, in large part based on standardized developmental scales that designate age appropriate ranges for physical and cognitive skill development and though they have been around almost since the inception of IDEA and the LE they were not always developed or used to their fullest extent for any given child. (Filler & Xu, 2006, p. 92) Filler & Xu also stress that inclusion is not successful if a child with special needs is simply placed in a classroom with average learning…
Filler, J., & Xu, Y. (2006). Including Children with Disabilities in Early Childhood Education Programs: Individualizing Developmentally Appropriate Practices. Childhood Education, 83 (2), 93-102.
Kavale, K., & Forness, S. (2000). History, Rhetoric and Reality. Remedial Special Education, 21 (5), 279-291.
National Collaberative on Workforce and Disability. (2004, December). Special Education Law Enacted. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from ERIC: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/1b/ac/d8.pdf
Odom, S. (2000). Preschool Inclusion: What We Know and Where We Go from Here. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20 (1), 20-25.
Students individualized education program (IEP)
The term IEP is used to refer to the special program or plan that is created with a specific student in mind due to the disability that they have in class which prevents them to learn as fast or with ease as the others in the class. In this instance, the student has special learning disability and needs to be helped through the IEP in order to get an environment that is conducive for his learning and a team that is assistive as much as possible. The student has difficulty in reading skills and also has difficulty in decoding, comprehension and fluency. These predispose him to be socially removed from peers and there is need to have IEP that would help him in the subjects in class and the social life too.
The seven components of the IEP to be use for the student with…
Davies R.D. (1192). 37 Common Characteristics of Dyslexia. 37 Common Characteristics of Dyslexia
This is important because it reflect the certain difficulties the government has to stimulate the employment of veterans in a line of work of their choice.
Other statistics mention that not only do a large number of veterans have a disability related to their position but rather the fact that they are part of a system which has a rate of unemployment too high for the United States. More precisely, "In 2007, the unemployment rate among veterans who served in the U.S. Armed Forces since September 2001 was 6.1%, the ureau of Labor Statistics (LS) of the U.S. Department of Labor reported today. About 17% of these veterans, also called Gulf War-era II veterans had a service-connected disability in August 2007. The jobless rate for veterans of all eras combined was 3.8% in 2007. About 12% of all veterans had a service-connected disability in August 2007" (ureau of Labor Statistics,…
Adams, K. (2008) "Disabled veteran promotes job program that met his needs." Pilot online. Accessed 18 July 2008, at http://hamptonroads.com/2008/07/disabled-veteran-promotes-job-program-met-his-needs
Appel, a. (2008) EEOC issues two guides on employing disabled veterans. TCPalm. Accessed 18 July 2008, at http://www.tcpalm.com/news/2008/apr/20/eeoc-issues-two-guides-employing-disabled-veterans/
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2006) Employment Situation of Veterans News Release. Accessed 18 July 2008, at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/vet.htm
Dept of Labor. (2007) Disabled Veterans' Outreach Program Marks 30-Year Anniversary. Accessed 18 July 2008, at http://www.ctdol.state.ct.us/communic/2007-11/vet.htm
During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.
Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…
Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3
Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:
Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
Best practices that help students with learning disabilities consistently focus on early intervention not only for educational benefit, but also because early intervention promotes greater social skills ability and development among children (Wong & Donahue, 2002). The sooner a child is integrated into the mainstream system and learns to "cope" with any perceived "deficits" the more likely they are to build healthy and long-lasting friendships that will help them as they age to become contributing members of society (Wong & Donahue, p. 93).
Personnel Implementing Plan
The key school personnel to implement this plan include the parents of the student, who must reinforce the actions taken by educational authorities to enhance student learning; the teacher of the student, who must be aware of what a student's needs are, and of special educational resources, so he or she may integrate the two curriculum's without disturbing any student's learning; and administrators, who…
Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Hallahan, Daniel P. (2002) Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brooten, K. (2007) "Writing about the holocaust, writing research report, poetry,"
HotChalk Inc., Retrieved December 13, 2007: http://www.lessonplanspage.com/
Jaffe-Gilla, E., & Benedictis, Tina, Ph.D., (2007) Learning Disabilities: Understanding the types, causes, symptoms, and diagnosis. HelpGuide.org, Retrieved December 13, 2007:
Instructional strategies for transitioning students with disabilities from high school to post-High school vocational programs.
Like all young people, students with disabilities want to go out in life and make a career and learn skills, which are necessary for their future use. Some students with disabilities have a strong desire to attend college or a vocational school and some want to operate independently in the community. Most of these students with disabilities work either in paid or subsidized jobs and this is the reason they need to learn, especially in the high school to be prepared for his or her adult life. Transition services are thus services, which help the students to prepare for their future work and devise strategies and learning skills to cope up with the coming challenges. These services allow the students to identify and increase the scope of their skills as they will need to pursue…
D.W., Grossi, T., & Keul, P. A functional analysis of the acquisition and maintenance of janitorial skills in a competitive work setting. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 1988, 13(1).
Sharon Lesar Judge. Computer Applications in Programs for Young Children With Disabilities: Current Status and Future Directions JSET E. Journal, Volume 16, Number 1, Winter 2001.
Katherine J. Inge, Stacy Dymond, Paul Wehman, Curtis Sutphin, Christopher Johnston, Marguerite Faina, Community-Based Vocational Preparation for Students with Severe Disabilities: Designing the process. Vocational Options Project: Chapter 1 Accessed on 8-4-2003 at http://www.vcu.edu/rrtcweb/techlink/iandr/voproj/chap1/chapter1.html www.vcu.edu/rrtcweb/techlink/iandr/voproj/chap1/chapter1.html
It also lists goals and objectives, which are used to measure a student's progress and determine whether the program and placement are appropriate" ("The IEP Cycle," DREF, 2007). Each student's IEP must be developed by a team of people who are knowledgeable and concerned about the student and must be at least reviewed annually. The team may include the child's teacher, the parents, the child, and agency representatives. "If parents disagree with the proposed IEP, they can request a due process hearing and a review from the State educational agency if applicable in that state" ("Guide to Disability Rights Laws," U.S. Dept. Of Justice, 2005).
IDEA lists 13 categories under which a student can qualify for special education services, including autism, deaf-blindness, deafness, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, serious emotional disturbance, specific learning disability, speech or, language impairment, traumatic brain Injury and visual impairment,…
Guide to Disability Rights Laws." U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (Sept 2005). Retrieved 18 Jun
The IEP Cycle." DREF: Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund. Retrieved 18 Jun
Federal legislation requires students with disabilities to participate in state assessments, partly because such assessments are important components of educational accountability. These assessments are used to classify students according to their educational needs, provide information regarding the progress of students with disabilities, and identify the extent to which students are attaining state academic standards. The large majority of classified students are classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). But classification is highly inconsistent, which should raise concerns about over-, under-, and misclassifying certain types of disabilities. Misclassification can result from failing to identify students with disabilities, from classifying students with disabilities they do not have, and from delaying classifying disabilities in students. Some of this inconsistency is accounted for by teachers and schools (McDonnell, McLaughlin, & Morison, 1997); however, when contrasting state classification data there are striking differences that indicate that state guidelines vary and lead to the…
Data Accountability Center (2009). Data Tables for OSEP State Reported Data, table 1-13, https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc6.asp. May, 9, 2011.
Jimerson, S.R., Burns, M.K., & VanDerHeyden, AM. (2007). Response to intervention at school: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. In S.R. Jimerson, M.K. Burns, & A.M. VanDerHeyden, Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Assessment and Intervention. New York: Springer.
Harry B. & Klinger, J.K. (2006). Why are so many minority students in special education?: Understanding race & disability in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
McDonnell, L., McLaughlin, M., & Morison, P. (Eds.). (1997). Educating one and all:
One trend that needs to be altered is the development of perceptions that stress the ways in which the environment of the classroom and school can be improved to better accommodate and support LD students, which will likely in turn assist all students with self-efficacy and self-perception. This should be done to alter the historical challenges that LD students face with regard to the perception that all LD students are alike or that they are all in need of self-development in order to fit into the mold of general education, rather than the reverse. Educator understanding of the individual and specific LD diagnosis will likely help a great deal as will advanced training for general educators with regard to these specific abilities and needs.
Bear, G.G., Kortering, L.J., & Braziel, P. (2006). School Completers and Noncompleters with Learning Disabilities: Similarities in Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Self and Teachers.…
Bear, G.G., Kortering, L.J., & Braziel, P. (2006). School Completers and Noncompleters with Learning Disabilities: Similarities in Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Self and Teachers. Remedial and Special Education, 27(5), 293.
Busch, T.W., Pederson, K., Espin, C.A., & Weissenburger, J.W. (2001). Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities: Perceptions of a First-Year Teacher. Journal of Special Education, 35(2), 92.
Gerber, P.J. (1992). Being Learning Disabled and a Beginning Teacher and Teaching a Class of Students with Learning Disabilities. Exceptionality, 3(4), 213-231.
Houston-Wilson, C., & Lieberman, L.J. (1999). The Individualized Education Program in Physical Education: A Guide for Regular Physical Educators. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 70(3), 60.
(Thompson, Morse, Sharpe and Hall, 2005, p.40)
The work of Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os (2002) entitled: "Reading Instruction for Students with LD and ED" published in the Journal of Special Education repots a synthesis of "previous observation studies conducted during reading with students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (ED)." (p.1) a systematic process of review of research conducted between 1975 and 2000 is stated to have "yielded a total of 16 studies 11 independent samples) that met all preestablished criteria." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os, 2002, p. 1) Finding from the study include: (1) There was substantial time allocated for reading instruction, though the time varied based on whether students were in special education or general education or both; (2) students were provided more individual and group instruction in special education; (3) the quality of reading instruction was low, overall, with excessive time allocated to waiting and…
Fletcher, Jack M. (2002) Researchers support early intervention for all children
Drummond, Kathryn (2005) About Reading Disabilities, Learning Disabilities, and Reading Difficulties. Reading Rockets. 2005. Online available at http://www.readingrockets.org/article/639
Mastropieri, Margo and Graetz, Janet (2003) Implementing Research-Based Reading Interventions to Improve Access to the General Education Curriculum
Lazarus, Belinda Davis and Callahan, Thomas (2000) Attitudes Toward Reading Expressed by Elementary School Students Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities. Reading Psychology 21: 281-282. Copyright 2002 Taylor & Francis. Online available at http://www.usm.maine.edu/~amoroso/edu621/4050957.pdf
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
Stigma and Disability
The self-sufficiency of any person or group largely depends on the capacity to maintain a certain level of financial stability. As a group, people with disabilities are among those with the highest poverty rates and lowest educational levels despite typically having some of the highest out-of-pocket expenses of all other groups. Educational level is strongly related to financial status and independence in most of the studies performed on these variables. Despite regulations to attempt to provide an equal and fair education to students identified as having disabilities, the research indicates that the majority of these individuals do not reach the educational levels and financial status of their non-disabled peers. The limitations of a failed system of assistance for these individuals that creates a double-edged sword in the form of stigmatizing these students has resulted in it being next to impossible for this group to obtain even an…
Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279-299
Bjelland, M.J., Burkhauser, R.V., von Schrader, S., & Houtenville, A.J. (2011). 2010 progress report on the economic well-being of working-age people with disabilities. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1284&context=edicolle ct&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fhl%3Den %26q%3Ddisabilities%2Band%2Bpoverty%26as_sdt%3D0%252C23%26as_ylo%3D20 10%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22disabilities%20poverty%22.
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)"
Burkhauser, R.V. & Houtenville, A.J. (2006). A guide to disability statistics from the current population survey - annual social and economic supplement (March CPS). In Rehabilitation research and training center on disability demographics and statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/edicollect/1233/
S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999).
Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs themselves. Moreover, the legislation raised awareness about the breadth and diversity of the disabled community and helped to reduce stigma. President Johnson followed well in the footsteps of his predecessor by establishing the Committee on Mental etardation and helping to pass Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, PL 89-10). The Act opened up funds to be used at the state level for special education and lead to the creation of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. Although focused on the needs of the mentally disabled community, the Johnson era legislation was integral in providing precedent for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.
Osgood (1999) also suggests that impetus for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act came from…
Ford, Gerald. (1975). Statement on Signing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.ford.utexas.edu/LIBRARY/speeches/750707.htm
Osgood, R.L. (nd). The History of Inclusion in the United States. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://gupress.gallaudet.edu/bookpage/HIUSbookpage.html
Raschke, D. & Bronson, J. (1999). "Inclusion." Excerpt from "Creative Educators at Work: All Children Including Those with Disabilities Can Play Traditional Classroom Games." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/benefits.html
Special Education Laws and Legislation." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/ATBasics/Foundation/Laws/specialed.php
Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among educators all across the country.
The purpose of this investigation is to discuss the increase in the American special education population. We will discuss the factors that have contributed to the increase including; the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms, pressure from parents, the disproportionate amount of minorities that…
Digest of Education Statistics. (2001) U.S. Department of Education.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Presidents Commision on Revitalizing Special Education. 2002. United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 28, 2003, from. http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/assessment/Pres_Rep.pdf
This is when everyone will have clearer understanding of the goals, strategies and programs. The assessment of the transition plan will occur with a consultant conducting a survey to determine the weaknesses of the strategy and how it can be improved. They will make recommendations to the committee about the best way to implement these changes. This is the point that the committee will be able to adapt their policies and procedures to real world transformations.
Describe the role of an advocate in the IEP process. When might an advocate be necessary?
An individual education program (IEP) is when the parents and educators of disabled students are working with them to create a customized learning strategy. During this process, the role of an advocate can be another educator, who is encouraging everyone to take a more active interest in the child's education. They have a responsibility of pushing educators and…
Individual Education Programs. (2011). Kids Health. Retrieved from: http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/learning/iep.html
Adams, K. (2011). Special Education Teamwork. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_6863020_special-education-teamwork-games-activities.html
Reeder, exceptional students don't always fit into the system. In many if not most cases, no amount of well-meaning programs, classroom exercises, or academic work can change at-risk or disabled students: They are the ones "for which no class or workshop can prepare us." Therefore, it is the teacher's responsibility to be "exceptional." Reeder's article can help young educators grapple with the most challenging teaching situations, the ones involving behavioral problems. Exceptional students, from those who have severe physical impairments to those who come to school drunk, require extra concern, energy, and attention, but they need not overwhelm young teachers. Reeder advises her readers to cultivate acceptance and to "prepare for anything."
Teachers, many of whom begin their careers with starry-eyed idealism, believe that they can make a difference in every student's life. They might feel that they alone can transform a bad attitude into a good one, failing grades…
inclusion, which calls for integration of students with disabilities to the regular classroom/education system in the United States. Specifically, it will provide arguments in favor of using full inclusion in the classroom. hat's so special about special education? The children and what they can learn from educational experiences with their peers, that's what's special. Including special education students in the classroom benefits everyone, from the teachers, to the students, to the parents.
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142) first discussed the issue of full inclusion of students with disabilities in 1975. The act guaranteed "free and appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment" for all children with disabilities. In 1991, the act was amended and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). However, the act did not mandate full inclusion, and the courts have ruled on several different conceptions of the Act and…
Crockett, Jean B. "Viable Alternatives for Students with Disabilities: Exploring the Origins and Interpretations of LRE." Exceptionality 8.1 (1999): 43-60.
Crockett, Jean B., and James M. Kauffman. The Least Restrictive Environment: Its Origins and Interpretations in Special Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999.
Kozleski, Elizabeth B., and Lewis Jackson. "Taylor's Story: Full Inclusion in Her Neighborhood Elementary School." Exceptionality 4.3 (1993): 153-175.
Steele-Carlin, Sherril. "Assistive Devices Help Challenged Kids Get the Most from Learning." EducationWorld.com. 1 June 2001. 15 Oct. 2002. http://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/tech086.shtml
A description of sexual harassment behavior or conduct and three major examples of their intolerable effects in an organizational or educational setting.
There are two main forms of sexual harassments that can occur in schools. These are Hostile environment harassment and Quid pro quo.
Hostile environment harassment: This takes place when annoying sexual conducts occur in persistent, severe, or pervasive degree. Such form of sexual harassment keep the victim away from school activities or make the educational environment intimidating or abusive to her. This hostility can come from a staff of the school, another student, a visitor, or student or school worker from a different school. (Library.findlaw.com, 1997)
Quid Pro Quo Harassment: This occurs when the offensive school employee makes the victim of harassment believe he or she must agree to the offensive sexual behavior before the student can take part in any school activity or program. It…
Cedar Rapids v. Garrett, 526 U.S. 66 (1999).
http://www.wrightslaw.com/law/caselaw/case_Cedar_Rapids_SupCt_990303.htm (accessed October 27, 2015)
Meador, D. (2008). Special Education: What is a Least Restrictive Environment
http://teaching.about.com/od/J-Rteachingvocabulary/g/Least-Restrictive-Environment.htm (accessed October 27, 2015)
Disabled Bodies and Able Minds demonstrated more information to the reader about the DO-IT legislation to the reader, though it did not describe it in detail it demonstrated applications. The work also developed the idea that assistive technology has expanded in its capacities in the same manner as all other technology. Lastly the work was a great reminder of just how creative those with disabilities and their parents and other advocates have to be to develop ways for individuals to communicate and participate more fully in the experience of school, and therefore life.
The most important information in this article is associated with the fact that schools are obligated to aide disabled children in ways that would seem sometimes extreme. Especially with regard to communication, and it is likely that the expense is relatively great given the specialization required. The article also does a great job making sure the reader…
Many of the students at the school are intelligent, but they do not know how to put that intelligence to good use, because no one has ever taught them that they are capable of doing many things that they may want to do. Since this is the case, the teachers at the school must be given tools that are practical and can be easily incorporated into what they already do, which will help to stimulate the minds of the students that they work with when it comes to teaching them language literacy. While not an easy task, it is a worthwhile one that should be considered. Children are the future of this country and it seems wrong to neglect any of them, regardless of their race, ethnicity, background, language ability, or mental capabilities.
Those that can be educated should be educated, and ways must be found to ensure that this…
The language employed did not obfuscate the points the authors were making and generally assisted in ensuring that their argument was lucid and efficient. This is an important feature because very often writers will produce work where the reader is sentenced to time reading the work, not in this case. More substantively, however the thesis was well supported by the argument presented. While, I concur with most of the positions advanced there are some elements that seem discordant and required further elaboration by the authors. In particular, the section on the limitation of CBM was not thoroughly balanced. It appeared as though the authors were attempting to place limited scrutiny on the weaknesses rather than give the complete picture.
An additional concern is the actual transition from clinical practice by a trained professional to the use of the techniques by those who are uninitiated in the specific discipline. The authors…
Mayer, M., Lochman, J., & Van Acker, R. (2005). Introduction to the Special Issue:
Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions with Students with EBD. Behavioral Disorders,
30(3): 197-212. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from ProQuest Psychology Journals.
(Document ID: 938654351).
disabled had nothing or little to contribute to the world in the educational, social, or employment arena. For the most part those that were disabled either physically or mentally were shuffled off to the side and largely ignored. They would be taken care of by family members or institutions and any discussion of growth or accomplishment was quickly discouraged. While this seemed natural for many years, recent history has discovered that this was cruel in several ways. Those who are disabled still have feelings, hopes, goals and desires that they have a right to pursue and explore. In addition the world was missing out on the many contributions to the work, school and social arenas that the disabled could provide.
The United Kingdom has not been known for its kind treatment of the disabled and it has only been in recent history that things have begun to change.
Huang, Weihe; Rubin, Stanford E., Equal access to employment opportunities for people with mental retardation: an obligation of society.. Vol. 63, The Journal of Rehabilitation, 01-12-1997, pp 27(7).
Author not available, UNUM Corporation Sponsors Tom Whittaker, First-Ever Person With a Disability to Stand 'On Top of the World'., Business Wire, 11-11-1998.
Scott-Parker, Susan; Holmstrom, Radhika, The outsiders.(UK disability rights movement)(Cover Story). Vol. 8, New Statesman & Society, 02-10-1995, pp 29(2).
EDITIONS Change to World Wednesday, 6 December, 2000, 11:41 GMT Anti-bias law for disabled pupils http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/1057570.stm
deficits of students with mathematics disabilities?
Mathematical skills are definitely just as crucial as literacy and reading skills when it comes to succeeding at school and beyond. Of late, researchers and policymakers have focused considerably on reading; the latter's attention was manifest in the 2001 No Child Left ehind (NCL) Act. While reading deficiencies are commonly believed to be one among the main characteristics of learning-disabled pupils, mathematical disabilities pose an issue just as serious as reading in case of several learning-disabled pupils and might, in fact, be just as common as reading deficits.
Although cognitive skills (including intelligence quotient), educational experience, drive, etc. might challenge mathematical ability development, a major probable barrier is DD or Developmental Dyscalculia, a numeracy-specific developmental learning problem impacting roughly three to six percent of persons' school-level mathematical skill acquisition (Price, 2013). DD-related studies have revealed a broad array of mathematical skill-related behavioral deficiencies. ut…
MCUE. (2008). Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Strategies. New York: New York University.
Morin, A. (2014, March 10). Understanding Dyscalculia. Retrieved from Understood.org: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/dyscalculia/understanding-dyscalculia
NASET. (2014). Characteristics of Children with Learning Disabilities. National Association of Special Education Teachers.
O'Connell, T., Freed, G., & Rothberg, M. (2010). Using Apple Technology to Support Learning for Students with Sensory and Learning Disabilities. WGBH Educational, 9.
Inclusion of Disabilities in the Classroom
During the later years of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium, it has become abundantly clear that we are living in an increasingly diverse world. Indeed, the diversity of the world has increased not only in terms of race and nationality, but also in terms of ability and aptitude. So recognized have these differences become that that accommodations have been made for them in work, educational, and social settings. The same is true for persons with learning disabilities, or LD. Although there has been much controversy around including such children in general education settings, the trend has been to opt for this choice rather than excluding them from the general education classroom. Interestingly, studies such as the one by McLesky and Waldron have proved that such an idea may indeed be worth the considerable time and money involved in setting…
Lauchlan, F. And Boyle, C. (2007). Is the use of labels in special education helpful? Support for Learning. 22(1).
McLeskey, J. And Waldron, N.L. (2011, Apr.). Full inclusion programs for elementary students with learning disabilities: Can they meet student needs in an era of high stakes accountability? Council for Exceptional Children Convention.
search "students with disabilities in higher education" consist of themes that focus on the need to assist learning disability students in universities by extending their test taking time (Spenceley, Wheeler, 2016; Hadley, 2011), by identifying their disability and providing extra assistance and resources (Budd et al., 2016; Callens, Tops, Brysbaert, 2013; Diez, Lopez, Molina, 2015; Kimberley, Laurie, 2011), and by applying programs designed to assist students with learning disabilities in particular classes in which they consistently struggle (King-Sears et al., 2015; Sachs, Schreuer, 2011; yan, 2011; Hutcheon, Wolbring, 2012).
Spenceley and Wheeler (2016) find that extending the test times for students with disabilities is one way in which universities can help such students work towards graduating college. Hadley (2011) likewise identifies the need for universities to extend more welcoming and favorable conditions to students with disabilities in order to facilitate their academic aims. This theme is essentially supported by the…
Budd, J. et al. (2016). Postsecondary students with specific learning disabilities and with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder should not be considered as a unified group for research or practice. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(4): 206-216.
Callens, M., Tops, W., Brysbaert, M. (2012). Cognitive profile of students who enter higher education with an indication of dyslexia. PLoS ONE, 7(6): e38081. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038081
Diez, A., Lopez, R., Molina, V. (2015). Students with disabilities in higher education: a biographical-narrative approach to the role of lecturers. Higher Education Research and Development, 34(1): 147-159.
Hadley, W. (2011). College students with disabilities: A student development perspective. New Directions for Higher Education, 154: 77-81.
The author of this report has been asked to offer a review of the graduate program that is in the process of being completed by the author. The author is to reflect on the "nature and extent of their professional growth and development." This is to include development when it comes to philosophies about education. There was also some observations to be made about the practicum that was undertaken. There was skill-building and strengthening of teaching skills as well as work with children. As part of this analysis the author will consult at least five scholarly journals and use them as a reference point that new teachers might face in the current culture, society and overall teaching paradigm. In particular, there will be a focus on data-supported instruction with children. While some people may think it is easy, learning to become a teacher and then actually starting to…
Admiraal, W., Janssen, T., Huizenga, J., Kranenburg, F., Taconis, R., & Corda, A.
(2014). E-Assessment of Student-Teachers' Competence as New
Teachers. Turkish Online Journal Of Educational Technology - TOJET, 13(4), 21-
Education Structures for Deaf Students
The paper focuses on six different studies that focus on two different viewpoints on the higher education learning structures for deaf students. The paper first highlights the viewpoints of the students towards their learning structure and then highlights the perceptions of the teachers on the teaching structures and how they highlight the teaching characteristics and structures that prove to be most effective for the deaf or hard of hearing students.
Deaf Student Perceptions of Higher Education
Deaf students generally have trouble in learning the English language across all academic levels despite their linguistic expertise or knowledge. In an earlier study conducted by Berent and colleagues (2000), the researchers highlighted that the deaf individuals or even those who are hard of hearing usually experience learning disabilities (LD) when learning the English language. The combined impact of deafness and LD for English language is difficult to analyze,…
Berent, G.P., Samar, V.J. And Parasnis, I. (2000). College Teachers' Perceptions of English Language Characteristics That Identify English Language Learning Disabled Deaf Students. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 145, No. 4.
Lang, H.G., McKee, B.G. And Conner, K. (1993). Characteristics of Effective Teachers: A Descriptive Study of the Perceptions of Faculty and Deaf College Students. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 138, Number 3, pp. 252-259.
Marschark, M. Richardson, J.T.E. Sapere, P. And Sarchet, T. (2010). Approaches to Teaching in Mainstream and Separate Postsecondary Classrooms. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 155, No. 4.
Nickerson, J.F. (2003). Deaf College Students' Perspectives on Literacy Portfolios. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 148, No. 1.
If this study skill is practiced enough, it will eventually become second nature to make connections between new and old concepts.
Compare and Contrast information. This is an effective approach to categorize concepts and results in a greater understanding of the subject matter. Essentially, this greater level of understanding facilitates retrieval of learned information when it is needed.
Even if you do not have time to do some in-depth studying, expose your mind to new material.. Taking a few minutes to quickly scan over new concepts and information that needs to be learned can prepare your mind for an understanding of these concepts, even if they don't sink in at first. epetition in this fashion can be very beneficial.
Always have questions. Continually approach learning new concepts with questions. While progressively learning and understanding more about a concept or subject, it is helpful to remain mindful about what still needs…
Gillman, S. (2007). Learning skills - eight great ones. Ezine Articles, retrieved 6/27/2007 at http://ezinearticles.com/?Learning-Skills - -- Eight-Great-Ones&id=306794.
Milsom, a. & Hartley, M.T. (2005). Assisting students with learning disabilities transitioning to college: what school counselors should know. Professional School Counseling, June.
Proctor, B.E., Prevatt, F., Adams, K., Hurst, a., Petscher, Y. (2006). Study skills profiles of normal-achieving and academically-struggling college students. Journal of College Student Development, January/February.
Student Support Services
Education is a critically important aspect of survival in our society. Educators have long sought out ways to improve the post-secondary educational experiences of students. Many educators feel that first generation students in particular are at a disadvantage when entering college. To address student needs the federal government has created the Student Support Services SSS Program.
The purpose of this discussion is to analyze the impact and effectiveness of the Student Support Services Program. We will pay close attention to the effectiveness of the mentorship programs that are provided by the SSS program. In addition, we will explain both the negative and positive impacts of SSS programs at various Universities across the country.
Before we can understand the impact and effectiveness of the program, we must understand the purpose of the program and how it came about.
The Student Support Services Program
The Student Support Services Program…
Barnhardt, C. (1994). Life on the Other Side: Native Student Survival in a University World. PJE. Peabody Journal of Education, 69(2), 115-139.
According to the US Department of Education (USDE), seclusion restraints should be avoided as much as possible, unless there is no other alternative to control the child's behavior. "Physical restraint or seclusion should not be used except in situations where the child's behavior poses imminent danger of serious physical harm to self or others and restraint and seclusion should be avoided to the greatest extent possible" ("Restraint and Seclusion," 2012, p.2). Of course, many people are still concerned that this is too subjective a standard and that it may be abused. Guidelines have also been issued by the Department to emphasize that restraints must never be used to punish a child but rather should only be used to prevent the child doing further harm to self or others ("Restraints and Seclusion," 2012, p.12). The preferred strategy to enhance safety in the classroom is behavioral modification, not using repeated…
Despite increased student fees, the UC still encountered a $500 million shortfall or $2,500 per student. It has been undergoing severe pressure from the impact of the cuts. The quality of education at the U.S. has remained high, but there have been disturbing signs of erosion, nevertheless. The widening gap between the UC and the best private university has been alarming because the UC competes for the top teachers and students with these private universities. This widening gap should be a critical concern to the state and the federal governments because even excellent private universities are too small to meet California's or the nation's needs for a well-educated workforce in the future, to come up with innovations needed to fuel the economy and to generate jobs, and to introduce medical advances for the use and care of the sick and disabled. In the past decade, California's private research universities, Stanford,…
Clinton, P. (2002). The student aid conundrum. University Business: 4 pages.
Professional Media Group LLC
Darling, B.B. (2005). Hearing testimony. 5 pages. California Senate Subcommittee on Higher Education. Retrieved January 26, 2007 at http://www.ucop.edu/uersvp/speeches/Speier_Hearing_Nov_9_2005.pdf
Dervarics, C. (2006). Congress approves cuts to student loan programs. 1 page. Diverse Issues on Higher Education: Cox, Matthews and Associates
winter, 200 students from Waymarsh State College traveled to the state capitol building to protest against proposed cuts in funding for various state college programs. The other 12,000 Waymarsh students evidently weren't so concerned about their education; they either stayed on campus or left for winter break. Since the group who did not protest is far more numerous, it is more representative of the state's college students than the protesters. Therefore, the state legislature need not heed the appeals of the protesting students."
At first glance the above editorial comment seems like a reasonable observation. It is only when I took a second look that I discovered three points that proves it to be a false observation.
The first thing that makes this an unreasonable statement is the belief that the 12,000 who did not travel to the state capitol were in support of the proposed cuts. Anyone who studies…
Secondary Students |
Some Particular issues with Secondary Students
How have you adjusted both the types of questions you ask as well as how you ask questions to developmentally suit students with disabilities in grades 7-12?
Explaining my question and extensively describe what am I asking to assure that the student has understood what information is been asked.
Giving them Time to process my question.
elate my question with images.
Answers of two choices.
Eye contact and sense of my role to be supportive and trusting me to express themselves.
Explaining my question and extensively describe what am I asking to assure that the student has understood what information is been asked.
elate my question with images
e. Eye contact and sense of my role to be supportive and trusting me to express themselves.
Making questions clearer to learning-disabled pupils through description and explanation will aid both their academic…
Cohen, J., Cardillo, R., & Pickeral, T. (2011). Creating a Climate of Respect. Promoting Respectful Schools, Vol 69, No. 1. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept11/vol69/num01/Creating-a-Climate-of-Respect.aspx
Pella, S. (2012). What Should Count As Data For Data Driven Instruction? Middle Grades Research Journal, Vol 7, Issue 1, 57 -- 75. Retrieved from EBSCOHostConnection: http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/78098255/what-should-count-as-data-data-driven-instruction-toward-contextualized-data-inquiry-models-teacher-education-professional-development
Vaughn, S., Schumm, J. S., & Forgan, J. W. (2016). Instructing Students With High-Incidence Disabilities in the General Education Classroom. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: http://www.ascd.org/publications/curriculum_handbook/413/chapters/Instructing_Students_With_High-Incidence_Disabilities_in_the_General_Education_Classroom.aspx
Teacher Gestures Affect Student Problem Solving
Learning is a process of brain development and change that is caused by diverse factors contributing to the learning experience of humans. Such includes mechanisms like speech and gestures.
This paper aims to study and provide information on the role of gesture mechanism in the learning process of students. From written articles and previous studies, this paper aims to gather and analyze data on how gestures affect change and development in the problem solving capabilities of children. It addresses issues on the fundamental role of using gestures in teaching: How are children's problem solving methods and approaches influenced by teachers' gestures?
Speech, naturally, is the very common approach of imparting thoughts and knowledge to anyone. It is the easiest way of expressing ideas, of presenting information, and of allowing the mind to picture what is being explained through verbalized characterization of the subject. Aside…
Begley, Sharon. (1998). Living Hand to Mouth.
Newsweek Vol 132(44), 69.
Flevares, L., Perry, M. (2001). How Many Do You See? The Use of Nonspoken Representations in First-Grade Mathematics Lesson.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 93.
Adopting Speial Needs Children
When it omes to adoption, parenting styles for speial needs hildren is really no different. There are hundreds and thousands of hildren that are urrently living in the foster are system that are put into the group of "Speial Needs" waiting for a household to support and love them. The word speial need promptly brings to mind the idea of a hild with inability, in adoption terms the word inludes a larger sense. The word speial needs relating to adoption basially is saying that a hild that is hard to plae by the state adoption agenies or adoption unit. Most of these hildren do not have muh health or temperament issues; they are just measured "hard to position" by a lot of adoption organizations. The hoies of ages for hildren that are in this group are from babies all the way up to the age of…
cited in Gray, 2003) on the subject of parents with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome shows how parents cope with their child's disability. The mother and the father each draws from different resources to cope with how they react toward their child. Furthermore, the research has shown that coping strategies varies for women and men.
Time-Outs in the Classroom
Time-Outs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Time-Outs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
On the second page of a 2010 report published by the National Disabilities ights Network (NDN) called School is Not Supposed to Hurt is a picture of a 7-year-old girl who died while being restrained and secluded in a Wisconsin school. This report went on to describe the wide-spread used of restraints and seclusion by schools in the United States and its publication triggered a congressional investigation. The Government Accountability Office (GAO, 2009) published its own report a few months later, which examined 10 court cases resulting in criminal convictions, civil adjudications, or settlements. These 10 cases formed the basis for judging the veracity of hundreds of allegations of mistreatment, injuries, and death resulting from children being restrained or secluded by school personnel. Even more troubling was the…
Benshoof, S.R. (2012). The Use of Time-Out with Escape Extinction to Reduce Noncompliance Maintained by Escape or Attention (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. (No. 3534847).
Donaldson, J.M., Vollmer, T.R., Yakich, T.M., & Van Camp, C. (2013). Effects of a reduced time-out interval on compliance with the time-out instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46(2), 369-78.
Everett, G.E., Olmi, D.J., Edwards, R.P., Tingstrom, DH, Sterling-Turner, H.E., & Christ, T.J. (2007). An empirical investigation of time-out with and without escape extinction to treat escape-maintained noncompliance. Behavior Modification, 31(4), 412-34.
Fabiano, G.A., Pelham, W.E. Jr., Manos, M.J., Gnagy, E.M., Chronis, A.M., Onyango, A.N. et al. (2004). An evaluation of three time-out procedures for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Therapy, 35, 449-69.
Case Study:Jose School Social Worker
What type of group would suit Jose based on the information that is presented? For example, social/emotional/academic focused?
Jose has undergone treatment for over six years and while he was there, he managed to reduce his aggressive behavior incidences. However, there were still times when he would become aggressive to his peers and adults. This is a demonstration of a person who needs more emotional support than academic. The group should be emotionally focused, which will allow the group to address the emotional challenges and aggressive behavior being displayed by Jose. Even if Jose is placed in a normal classroom, he might be faced with challenges that would result in him losing his self-control and harming other students or teachers. Jose is developmentally disabled and while he might be smarter than the other students in the special education class, he still has not matured emotionally.…
Organizational Behaviour in Action
esolving Conflict in a Carpool
Carpooling involves two or more commuters who share the driving and expenses of commuting to work or other mutually desirable destinations on a regular basis with the overarching goal of saving money as well as helping the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These goals has become more important in recent years as gas prices continue to drain the pocketbooks of many working Americans who lack personal conveyances or access to reliable public transportation alternatives and growing concerns over global warming. Despite the savings and the reduced carbon imprint that can be achieved by participating in a carpool, though, traveling for lengthy periods of time with others in close physical proximity inevitably introduces some type of conflict which, left unresolved, can result in the dissolution of the carpool. Thoughtfully resolved, though, even major conflicts can be addressed as needed in ways…
Askari, M. & Noah, S. B. (2012, March). Comparison the effects of communication and conflict resolution skills training on marital satisfaction. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 4(1), 182-185.
Benkler, Y. (2004, November). Sharing nicely: On shareable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production. The Yale Law Journal, 114(2), 273-277.
Langton, N., Robbins, S. P. & Judge, T. A. (2015). Organizational behaviour (7th Canadian ed.). Pearson Canada.
Pisarki, A. E. (2007, Winter). Commuting in America. Issues in Science and Technology, 23(2), 76-79.
Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities
Child With Disability
Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class
Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.
The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.
What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.
Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…
Berry, R.A.W. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489-529.
Cawthon, S.W. (2007). Hidden Benefits and Unintended Consequences of 'No Child Left Behind' Policies for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 460-492.
Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S.-R. (2003). The Effect of Early Childhood Intervention and Subsequent Special Education Services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95.
Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 307-320.
Vaughn et al. (2003) report that the identification of LD students has increased upwards of 200% since 1977, with explanations ranging from a likely outcome of the growing knowledge field, to LD as a field serving as a sink for the failures of general education to meet the needs of students of varying abilities. The study investigators find that not only is the heterogeneity of the identified students quite wide, they also find that many students are overrepresented (misidentified) or underrepresented (unidentified). One large problem is the use of IQ tests to identify those students as learning disabled. Using standardized tests fails to accurately identify those students who either have reading difficulties or those students whose first language is not English. More emphasis is needed on response to instruction type models of assessment and intervention to replace ineffective normalized standards for identifying students at risk and properly placing students for…
Aaron, P. (1997). The Impending Demise of the Discrepancy Formula. Review of Educational Research, 461-502.
Abedi, J. (2008). Psychometric Issues in the ELL Assessment and Special Education Eligibility. Teachers College Record, 2282-2303.
Ang, S., Van Dynne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K., Templar, K., Tay, C., et al. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 335-371.
August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 50-57.
country's public schools are experiencing dwindling state education budgets and increased unfunded mandates from the federal government, the search for optimal approaches to providing high quality educational services for students with learning disabilities has assumed new importance and relevance. In an attempt to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a growing number of special educators agree that full inclusion is the optimal approach for providing the individualized services needed by young learners with special needs. Known as "mainstreaming" in the past, full inclusion means integrating students with special physical, cognitive or emotional needs into traditional classroom setting. Practices that promote full inclusion for students with special needs assist educators in focusing instruction in innovative ways to help meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population with a wide array of specialized needs. Critics of full inclusion argue that in many if not…
Allen, M., Burrell, N., Eayle, B.M., & Preiss, R.W. (2002). Interpersonal communication research: Advances through meta-analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235.
Baskin, T.W., & Enright, R.D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: A meta-analysis.
Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Considerations Involved in the Provision of Physical Education Activities to Students with Mental Retardation with Autism
An Examination of the Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Considerations Involved in the Provision of Physical Education Activities to Students with Mental Retardation ith and ithout Autism
To excuse students from physical education is the safe way out, but it does not meet their needs since it becomes costly to them in the long run. The inference here is not to say that physical educators advocate placing children in a program of physical education which will aggravate an injury, cause frustration, or to make him do things which are beyond their ability. -- Nancy Allison Close, Donald K. Matthews, 1973
This paper provides an overview of what physical education (PE) teachers should consider when developing activities and lesson plans for students with the cognitive and physical constraints associated with…
Ammerman, Robert T. And Michel Hersen. Advanced Abnormal Child Psychology. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Bauman, Joanne. (2004). Benefits and Barriers to Fitness for Children with Disabilities. The National Center on Physical Activity and Disability. Available: http://www.ncpad.
Doyle ( 2003) states that the educator has an obligation to identify and provide adequate attention to those with special needs and at the same time not deal with these children in a prejudicial way.
Doyle uses the example of students who may have autism, which is a disorder related to special learning need. In order to reduce the possibility of any bias and prejudice the following steps are advised, among others.
It is of the utmost importance to identify and support students in the autism spectrum and students with other special learning needs as early as possible. Do not allow children who may have special needs to go from one grade to another without a professional team assessing the student for eligibility for services and supports. "Waiting" is NOT an effective, educational practice. Although the process of referral can be cumbersome, it is well worth it when it identifies…
Campbell F. ( 2008) Refusing Able (ness): A Preliminary Conversation about
Ableism. M/C Journal, 11(3). Retrieved from http://journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/viewArticle/46
Cheng D. (2010) Prejudice top obstacle for special needs pupils: Hide. Retrieved from http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10681999
Coutinho, M.J., & Repp, A.C. (1999). Inclusion: The integration of students with disabilities. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Every special needs student has different strengths and weaknesses. Under IDEA, the IEP is forms the educational standard for all special needs students. The IEP determines the course of their education, goals, and method of teaching. The standards are adjusted to the needs of the student. This differs from the nationalized standards that dictate the educational needs of the general population.
Quantitative assessment is the rule of assessment of the general population. However, assessment of the special needs population is largely qualitative. The problem in assessing the success of life skills classrooms must consider whether the individual goals of the students are being met. However, there are many variables that can impact this success. For instance, a student may develop unexpected medical conditions during the course of the year that impact the ability to meet IEP goals. These factors must be considered in order to make a fair assessment of…
Bellini, S., Peters, J., Benner, L., & Hopf, a. (2007). A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Social kills Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Remedial and Special Education 28 (3), 153. Retrieved from Questia Database on April 20, 2008.
Bouck, E. (2004). Exploring Secondary Special Education for Mild Mental Impairment: A rogram in Search of Its Place. Remedial and Special Education. 25 (6), 367. Retrieved from Questia Database on April 20, 2008.
Coster, W. & Haltiwanger, J. (2004). Social-Behavioral Skills of Elementary Students with physical Disabilities Included in General Education Classrooms. Remedial and Special education. 25 (2), 95. Retrieved from Questia Database on April 20, 2008.
Heron, T. Welsch, R. & Goddard, Y. (2003). Applications of Tutoring Systems in Specialized object Areas: An Analysis of Skills, Methodologies, and Results. Remedial and Special education. 24 (5), 288. Retrieved from Questia Database on April 20, 2008.
Parental consent will also be sought for an individual to be a participant in the project. It is expected that 110 persons would participate in the project; this will be the final number after the initial screening has taken place and the unsuitable candidates removed from the initial listing.
The data will be collected using questionnaires which will be administered at the beginning of the program to establish a baseline position. Then a similar questionnaire will be administered at the end of the project so that values can be compared and variation in responses observed.
Action steps and time frame
I. Clarification of concepts (Two weeks)
II. Development of data collection instruments (Two weeks)
III. Training of personnel (One week)
IV. Identification of schools and contact with schools (One Week)
V. eception and Orientation of participants (One day)
VI. Development of baseline assessment (One day)
VII. Conduct of…
Lu, W., Daleiden, E., & Lu, S. (2007) Threat Perception Bias and Anxiety Among
Chinese School Children and Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent
Mueser, Kim T. et al. (2008). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in severe mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Instructional Practices for High Level Learners
hen it comes to the right curriculum (instructional practices) that teachers and administrators should be developing -- that are effective in helping students achieve a high level of learning -- this paper points to a standards-based system (combined with creative curricula) as the most effective. There are a number of ways in which teachers can implement those practices that lead to a high level of learning in students -- and this paper reviews those strategies.
Explain various instructional practices designed to achieve high-level learning for all students in a standards-based curriculum.
Instructional practices in schools rarely stay static, according to a peer-reviewed article in the journal Computers in the Schools. In fact, many schools over the past few years have been actively engaged with "fundamental restructuring efforts" because teachers appear willing in many instances to try "…a range of instructional practices" that will be…
Copeland, S.R., and Cosbey, J. (2008-2009). Making Progress in the General Curriculum:
Rethinking Effective Instructional Practices. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe
Disabilities, 33(4), 214-227.
Liu, L., Jones, P.E., and Sadera, W.A. (2010). An Investigation on Experienced Teachers'
Transition Experiences for Students with Disabilities
Several years ago I was privileged to teach students with cognitive disabilities in Korea. I taught in an after school program for high school students. As I thought about the subjects that were being taught, I realized that no provisions were made to provide opportunities for the students to interact within the community setting.
Even though most of the students were going to work in a sheltered workshop after graduation, a need existed for them to learn "community skills" such as paying for things with their own money, using public transportation, and interacting with various residents of the neighborhood. It was there that my strong belief that cognitively impaired students should have chances to engage in as many "normal" activities as possible as long as the students were not confused or upset by the situation or were subject to negative comments, etc. from others.…
There is a growing body of support that indicates that while inclusion may be the best answer for mildly autistic children, it may not be the best setting for those with moderate to severe autism. Until now, research into the autistic child in the classroom has focused on taking the position of either for or against inclusion in the general classroom. However, when one takes the body of literature as a whole, it appears that inclusion is good for some and bad for others. This leads to the logical conclusion that differences exist between children who are successful under inclusion and those that are not. Understanding these differences is the key to taking the proper action for an individual.
Literature regarding autism and inclusion missed the important point that in order to make the program a success, we must decode the keys to success. One of these keys lies in…
Dybvik, a (2004). Autism and the inclusion mandate: what happens when children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms? Daniel knows. Education Next. Winter 2004. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJG/is_1_4/ai_111734750
Fighting Autism (2003). Autism Prevalence Reports, School Years 1992-2003. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://www.fightingautism.org/idea/autism-prevalence-report.php
Horrocks, J., White, G., & Roberts, L. (2008). Principals' attitudes regarding inclusion of children with autism in Pennsylvania public schools. J Autism Dev Disord. 38(8):1462- 73.
Humphrey, N. & Lewis, S. (2008). Make me normal': the views and experiences of pupils on the autistic spectrum in mainstream secondary schools. Autism. 2008 Jan;12(1):23-46.
Transitions occur in many different educational, societal, and familial situations. Among the more common situations where problems of adjustment might be encountered are changing from one school to another, a change in grades, the shift to regular participation in afterschool programs and childcare, and going from school (non- special education) into the workplace.
(Taylor & Adelman, 2003, p. 122) Various programs have been devised, and services provided, that meet each of these import transitional needs. Children with emotional or behavioral disorders may be as much in need of transition services and programs as those challenged by physical or cognitive disabilities. Children with such conditions are frequently moved from school to school, or form program to program, either through the actions of their own families, or in an attempt to find the right form of treatment for the difficulties they face. These constant changes may, in and of themselves, result in…
Further evidence for the possible value of noise for children with ADHD is presented by Abikoff et al. (1996). These researchers evaluated the effect that extra-task auditory stimulation had on academic task performance of children with ADHD. This was executed by studying both children with ADHD and normal students during the performance of arithmetic tasks during three different auditory stimulus conditions: high stimulation (music), low stimulation (speech) and no stimulation (silence). The findings indicated that the normal subjects performed similarly under all three conditions, while the ADHD subjects performance was significantly better under the music condition that the silence or speech conditions. This information could prove to be valuable for teachers in the classroom environment. The presence of music in the classroom during tasks such as arithmetic might facilitate the performance of students with ADHD. Since normal students performed equally well under all auditory conditions, the presence of music would…
Abikoff, H., Courtney, M.E., Szeibel P.J., Koplewicz, H.S. (1996). The effects of auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of children with ADHD and nondisabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(3), 238-46.
Baumgaertal, A. (1999). Alternative and controversial treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46(5), 977-92.
Gray, L.C., Breier, J.I., Foorman, B.R., Fletcher, J.M. (2002). Continuum of impulsiveness caused by auditory masking. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 66(3), 265-72.
Jackson, N.A. (2003). A survey of music therapy methods and their role in the treatment of early elementary school children with ADHD. Journal of Music Therapy, 40(4), 302-23.
The "least restrictive environment" clause of the IDEA requires the student be placed in a standard learning environment whenever it is practical (Beard, Carpenter, & Johnston, 2011).
Technology allows students who have visual impairments to be able to admission to the general curriculum, to increase their options towards literacy, and to improve communication. There are a variety of assistive technology tools that are designed for students with visual impairments, but most require specialized instruction. Depending on the level of the child's visual level of impairment such devices include range from electronic Braille note takers to video magnifiers to screen reader software to auditory conversion devices.
eading and writing are the fundamental tools that young students learn in the early grades and assistive devices for Emily should concentrate on developing these skills. Students with impaired vision that are not blind may benefit from changes in the size of print…
Beard, L.A., Carpenter, L.B., & Johnston, L.B. (2011). Assistive technology: Access for all students (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Clark, R. (1983). Reconsidering research on learning from media. Review of Educational Research, 53(4), 445 -- 459.
Cramer, M., Hirano, S.H., Tentori, M., Yeganyan, M.T., & Hayes G.R. (2011). Classroom- based assistive technology: Collective use of interactive visual schedules by students with autism. Proceedings of the CHI 2011, 1-10.
Hasselbring, T.S., & Bausch, M.E. (2006). Learning in a digital age: Assistive technologies for reading. Educational Leadership, 63(4), 72-75.
Interview with a Principal
List the ten most important tasks / duties performed by a principal.
In the interview conducted with the principal, she suggested there are more than ten important tasks a principal must perform, but in general she was very forthcoming and helpful. She pointed out that the ten mentioned are not necessarily in any particular order, because when comparing one principal's tasks in a small rural elementary school (with 86 students) to the principal's duties in a big city middle school with 1,200 students, there are vast differences in the priorities and duties of both principals.
First Important Task: asically, she described a principal's main job as having to do with supervising teaching so that real learning is taking place. The principal must be responsible for the implementation of the curriculum, which are the nuts and bolts of what students are expected to learn while in school.…
Bibliography -- References Used
Johnson, J. (2008). Special Topic / The Principal's Priority 1. Educational Leadership, 66(1).
State University. (2011). School Principal -- The Role of Elementary and Secondary School
Principals, Principal Duties and Responsibilities, Principal Qualifications. Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://education.stateuniversity.com .
Still other states, such as Nevada and North Carolina, require four weeks or more for eligibility for home instruction (See Appendix C).
In terms of providing instruction, the states vary greatly in their requirements. In some states, such as Alaska and Hawaii, the homebound or hospital instructors are not required to hold certified teaching certificates, but act as tutors alone. They obtain regular classroom materials from the student's regular instructor, and act as a tutor, delivering assignments and assisting the student in learning the material. In other states, such as New York and Texas, the individual responsible for providing instruction to the disabled student is required to hold a valid certified teaching certificate in the state of the services, and in some states, is even required to hold special education training certification (See Appendix C).
In terms of hours per week required for instruction, the states again vary greatly. In…
AL - Clarksville County School System. (2004). Requesting and Receiving Homebound Instruction Procedure. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.cmcss.net/iso9000/sts-p002.pdf .
AK - Lathrop School District. (2006). Homebound Instruction. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.northstar.k12.ak.us/schools/lth/doc/handbook/Page14.html.
AZ - Arizona Dept of Special Education. (2006). Homebound Instruction Procedures. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://specialed.peoriaud.k12.az.us/manual6c.htm.
AR - North little Rock School District. (2005). Instruction (Section D). Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.nlrsd.k12.ar.us/NLRSD%20Policy/instruction.htm#INSTRUCTIONAL%20ARRANGEMENTS.
It can be used to establish language dominance, to determine whether a student is performing at grade level in academic subjects in his native language, and to distinguish whether or not a student's weaknesses are due to limited English proficiency or to a specific learning disability. The test has the following sections: 1) eadiness; 2) Speech; 3) Functional Word ecognition; 4) Oral eading; 5) eading Comprehension; 6) Word Analysis; 7) Listening; 8) Writing and Alphabetizing; 9) Numbers and Computation; and 10) Measurement. Not all parts of the test are administered to every student because the teacher/test administrator is encouraged to check off skills that she knows the student has mastered (Brigance Diagnostic Assessment of Basic Skills).
Obstacles Associated with the research
As it relates to conducting and carrying out the aforementioned research there are certain potential obstacles that exist. The first of which has to do with receiving the appropriate…
Brigance Diagnostic Assessment of Basic Skills. http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/databases/EAC/EAC0056.htm
Lombardi, T.P. (Ed.). (1999). Policy and Practice. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
Odom S.L. (2000) Preschool Inclusion: What We Know and Where We Go from Here. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Volume: 20 (1). Pg. 20.
Snyder, R.F. (1999). INCLUSION: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INSERVlCE GENERAL EDUCATION TEACHERS' ATTITUDES AND CONCERNS. Education, 120(1), 173..
children in the United States suffer from learning disabilities and disabilities that impair their ability to socialize properly with others. Social skill interventions are designed to help students with…Read Full Paper ❯
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Teaching - Technology
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Education - Social Issues
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Sports - College
Despite increased student fees, the UC still encountered a $500 million shortfall or $2,500 per student. It has been undergoing severe pressure from the impact of the cuts. The…Read Full Paper ❯
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Sociology - Social Work
Case Study:Jose School Social Worker What type of group would suit Jose based on the information that is presented? For example, social/emotional/academic focused? Jose has undergone treatment for over…Read Full Paper ❯
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Vaughn et al. (2003) report that the identification of LD students has increased upwards of 200% since 1977, with explanations ranging from a likely outcome of the growing knowledge…Read Full Paper ❯
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Every special needs student has different strengths and weaknesses. Under IDEA, the IEP is forms the educational standard for all special needs students. The IEP determines the course of…Read Full Paper ❯
Parental consent will also be sought for an individual to be a participant in the project. It is expected that 110 persons would participate in the project; this will…Read Full Paper ❯
Instructional Practices for High Level Learners hen it comes to the right curriculum (instructional practices) that teachers and administrators should be developing -- that are effective in helping students…Read Full Paper ❯
Transition Experiences for Students with Disabilities Several years ago I was privileged to teach students with cognitive disabilities in Korea. I taught in an after school program for high…Read Full Paper ❯
There is a growing body of support that indicates that while inclusion may be the best answer for mildly autistic children, it may not be the best setting for…Read Full Paper ❯
Transitions occur in many different educational, societal, and familial situations. Among the more common situations where problems of adjustment might be encountered are changing from one school to another,…Read Full Paper ❯
Further evidence for the possible value of noise for children with ADHD is presented by Abikoff et al. (1996). These researchers evaluated the effect that extra-task auditory stimulation had…Read Full Paper ❯
Assistive Technology The "least restrictive environment" clause of the IDEA requires the student be placed in a standard learning environment whenever it is practical (Beard, Carpenter, & Johnston, 2011).…Read Full Paper ❯
Interview with a Principal List the ten most important tasks / duties performed by a principal. In the interview conducted with the principal, she suggested there are more than…Read Full Paper ❯
Still other states, such as Nevada and North Carolina, require four weeks or more for eligibility for home instruction (See Appendix C). In terms of providing instruction, the states…Read Full Paper ❯
It can be used to establish language dominance, to determine whether a student is performing at grade level in academic subjects in his native language, and to distinguish whether…Read Full Paper ❯