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Disease and Poverty
Poverty and diseases
The third world countries are much known for the negative aspects and the perpetuating of the same. One of the negative news that is heard of from the third world all the time is the problem of diseases that plague the country. It is a problem that has been observed to affect a vast population within the poor countries and especially among the poor sector of the population. There has therefore bee the debate whether these people are plagued by diseases because they are poor, or is it that they remain poor because they are plagued by diseases.
The paper seeks to divulge the information on the third world countries, Kenya as the study sample. The research seeks to indicate the economy of the country and the rate of diseases that are found within therein, and the demography of the diseases, hence trying to…
Australia Bureau of Statistics, (2011). Life Expectancy Trends -- Australia. Retrieved April 28, 2012 from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features10Mar+2011
Fountain of Hope, (2008). Easing The Pain of Poverty & HIV / AIDS' in Kenya. Retrieved April 28, 2012 from http://fountainofhopekenya.wordpress.com/2008/01/20/about-kibera-slums/
Index Mundi (2012a). Kenya Major infectious diseases. Retrieved April 28, 2012 from http://www.indexmundi.com/kenya/major_infectious_diseases.html
Indexmundi, (2012b). Kenya GDP- real growth Rate. Retrieved April 28, 2012 from http://www.indexmundi.com/kenya/gdp_real_growth_rate.html
Diseases and Pathogens
Pathogens are disease-causing or infectious microorganisms (EPA 2011, Kennedy 2012). Some of them are often found in water from sewage discharges, leaking septic tanks, or runoff from feedlots. They enter the body and cause disease every day through the air we breathe, food, water or direct personal contact. The body's immune system is able to destroy many pathogens. When it cannot, infection occurs and the person gets sick. There are different types of pathogens, but the most common are the virus, bacteria, the fungus and protozoa (EPA, Kennedy).
Most Common Types and Their Differences
acteria are single-celled microorganisms, which have no nucleus (DHSS 2012, Kennedy 2012). They cause many diseases, many of which can be prevented by vaccination. acteria do not usually kill the infected person and only weaken him a lot. These non-fatal bacteria do not spread easily. Examples of bacteria are anthrax, Escherichia coli,…
DHSS, 2012. 'Chain of infection,' Principles of Infectious Disease Epidemiology,
Department of Health & Senior Services, [Online] Available at http://health.ml.gov/training/epi/DiseaseProcess.html
Earthtym, 2012. 'Ringwor fungal infections, 'Earthtym, [Online] Available at http://www.earthtym.net/ref-ringworm.htm
EPA, 2011. 'Pathogen Information,' Information Collection Rule: U.S. Enviromental
Most people suffering from Schizophrenia are depressed and lose interest in mostly anything which they previously enjoyed. Some people suffering from Paranoid Schizophrenia may also become more active and develop an obsession for a certain activity.
One of the greatest people diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia had been Nobel Prize winner John Forbes Nash Jr. His biography had been adapted to the plot of the movie "A Beautiful Mind." The movie presents the life of a person suffering from Paranoid Schizophrenia as he struggles to fight the disease.
1. Kenyon, C.A.P."Evidence for Biological Basis of Schizophrenia." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from flyfishingdevon eb site: http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year3/PSY337atypical_classic_antipsychotic_drugs/PSY335SchizophreniaDrugTreatments.htm
2. einer, Irving B. "Psychodiagnosis in schizophrenia." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
3. (2007), "How Schizophrenia Affects the Life of the Patient," Retrieved April 8, 2009, 2009, from Articles base eb site: http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/how-schizophrenia-affects-the-life-of-the-patient-136075.html
4. (2008), "How to Overcome Paranoid Schizophrenia," Retrieved April 8, 2009, from…
1. Kenyon, C.A.P."Evidence for Biological Basis of Schizophrenia." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from flyfishingdevon Web site: http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year3/PSY337atypical_classic_antipsychotic_drugs/PSY335SchizophreniaDrugTreatments.htm
2. Weiner, Irving B. "Psychodiagnosis in schizophrenia." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
3. (2007), "How Schizophrenia Affects the Life of the Patient," Retrieved April 8, 2009, 2009, from Articles base Web site: http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/how-schizophrenia-affects-the-life-of-the-patient-136075.html
4. (2008), "How to Overcome Paranoid Schizophrenia," Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Articles base Web site: http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/how-to-overcome-paranoid-schizophrenia-370524.html
Disease Prevention Strategies
For as long as human beings have fallen ill and succumbed to the ravages of disease, society has struggled to comprehend the invisible menace of microbial germs. The spread of infectious disease from person to person, from home to home, and within entire communities, has always wreaked havoc on humanity, and the field of medicine has struggled to counter the consequences of passable infections. From the Black Death of the 14th century in which over 25 million Europeans, or a third of the continent's total population, were felled by an outbreak of bubonic plague, to the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic that claimed more than 50 million lives globally (Fee, Brown, Lazarus & Theerman, 2001), infectious diseases have managed to adapt to medical advances while becoming increasingly virulent. Even with the major technological advances afforded to modern medicine, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently reported…
Associated Press. (2007, October 02). U.S. labs mishandling deadly germs. MSNBC.com. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21096974/ns/health - infectious_diseases/t/us-labs-mishandling-deadly-germs/#.UD5hY8FlRMs
Fee, E., Brown, T.M., Lazarus, J., & Theerman, P. (2001). The influenza pandemic of 1918. American Journal of Public Health, 91(12), 1953. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446912/
Frieden, T.R., & Khabbaz, R.F.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). A cdc framework for preventing infectious diseases: Sustaining the essentials and innovating for the future. Retrieved from CDC website: http://www.cdc.gov/oid/docs/ID-Framework.pdf
Shane, S. (2005, January 24). Exposure at germ lab reignites public health debate. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/24/national/24lab.html
Additionally, those who consume poultry that is either raw or undercooked are stated to be "at an increased risk for avian influenza." (The New York Times, 25 Feb 2009)
Viruses such as the avian flu viruses which are highly infectious are shown to "survive in the environment for long period of time." (he New York Times, 25 Feb 2009) Additionally the article relates that one may become infected through "touching contaminated surfaces." (he New York Times, 25 Feb 2009) Another problem is that birds that somehow recover from the bird influenza "can continue to shed the virus in their feces and saliva for as long as 10 days." (he New York Times, 25 Feb 2009) Additionally workers in health care and the household contact "of patients with avian influenza may also be at an increased risk of the bird flu." (he New York Times, 25 Feb 2009)
Avian Influenza (2009) The New York Times. 25 Feb. Reviewed by Vorvick, Linda, MD. Online available at http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/avian-influenza/overview.html
However, since the patient is a 5-week-old male, he should be kept away from anyone who is coughing since they are at higher risk of life-threatening consequences.
3. What therapy would you suggest for this patient?
Hospital admission is indicated for this patient since he is a 5-week-old infant and has not received the vaccine against pertussis. ecommended treatment by the 2005 CDC Guidelines include a 5-day course of azithromycin given at 10 mg/kg/day. Other macrolide treatment such as clarithromycin and erythromycin is not recommended for infants for development of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). It is important also to treat a patient below 12 months within 3 weeks of onset of cough to avoid complications such as pneumonia, otitis media and meningitis.
4. Clinically, the cough may persist for some time following therapy. Give possible reasons why a cough may persist in the face of therapy?
Coughing may persist…
Berhman, R. et. al. (2007). Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics 17th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Brocka, J. (2008) Pediatrics, Pertussis. Retrieved on April 24, 2008 from EMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/EMERG/topic394.htm
Tewari, T., et al. (2005) Recommended Antimocrobial Agents for the Treatment and Post-exposure Prophylaxis of Pertussis 2005 CDC Guidelines. Retrieved on April 24, 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5414.pdf
Some of these illnesses have unique features which make them particularly difficult to track as subjects of surveillance. For example, Lyme tests are often unreliable. Also, "many viruses and bacteria cause nonspecific syndromes or symptom complexes that include most diarrheal and respiratory symptoms" (itz, Tager, & Balms 2005). This is also true of tracking the efficacy of treatments: "in cases where there are long delays between the implementation of an intervention and the reduction in disease incidence or morbidity, it may be difficult to quantitate precisely (or even accurately) the extent to which the intervention altered the outcome of the disease" (itz, Tager, & Balms 2005). This is particularly manifest in treatments which are multifaceted and are taken over time (like AIDS 'drug cocktails') or require environmental controls to be effective (like preventing malaria or other mosquito-borne illnesses).
However, despite the innate challenges in tracking diseases, a number of new…
Historical perspectives notifiable disease surveillance and notifiable disease statistics -- United
States, June 1946 and June 1996. (1996). MMWR, 45(25); 530-536. Retrieved:
Pelat, C. (2009). More diseases tracked using Google trends. Emerging Infectious Disease
Diseases and Risk Factors
Diseases Risk Assessments
Breast cancer is a type of cancer that originates from the inner tissues of the breast. There are two significant categories of breast cancer: Ductal carcinomas and Lobular carcinomas. Ductal carcinomas start from the breast tubes while the lobular carcinomas originate from the lobules, which produce milk in mothers. There are other rare types of breast cancers, which originate from other parts of the breast. Breast cancer can spread to other parts of the breast or remain only in the infected area. Breast cancer although common in women has been known to be found in men too. Women have a higher chance of contracting the disease as compared to men.
Cancer in general has many risk factors. These factors are highly dependent on the position, and the lifestyle of an individual as it enhances the susceptibility of the person.…
Disease a major health issue world today. Epidemiologists "front line" advocating safe healthy living. This paper designed introduce a disease ways prevented. 1. esearch a disease (history, treatment, .
Although it is presently a worldwide problem, obesity is not actually a new phenomenon. Experts in Europe and the Middle East found obese figures dating from 23,000 to 25,000 years ago. These figures were likely to be deities from the Paleolithic era. In Neolithic these corpulent figures invoked fertility for people and plants and they were often named Mother Goddesses. In the Modern era figures of obese women continued to appear not only as figurines, but also in paintings.
Obesity was considered to be a problem that needed to be treated before 1500 CE. In Ancient Egypt, obesity was seen as a horrible disease. The Chinese used acupuncture as treatment for obesity. "Ancient Tibetan medicine administered enemas and compresses to…
1. Eckel, Robert H. MD "Obesity and Heart Disease- A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee," Retrieved November 29, 2012 from the American Heart Association: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/96/9/3248.full
2. Kelly, Evelyn B. Obesity, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006
3. Pearce, Jamie, and Witten, Karen Geographies of Obesity: Environmental Understandings of the Obesity Epidemic, Ashgate Publishing, Mar 16, 2010
4. Wolin, Kathleen Y. And Petrelli, Jennifer M. Obesity, ABC-CLIO, Aug 10, 2009
Disease Trends in the United States
About 4.5% of the world's population comprises of the people of United States (U.S.). The country has the world's third largest population and statistical analysis shows that approximately 155 million people have been added to the U.S. population and figures have increased by nearly 105% in the past 50 years (Kotkin, 2010). In addition, the U.S. population has also experienced a qualitative change. According to the Population Reference ureau, it has become greater, older and increasingly varied (Kotkin, 2010). Females over the age of 45 continue to outnumber the males in similar age groups; however, this ratio is decreasing day by day. ut the most significant change in U.S. population trends is the increase in the size of the bands of 70+ and 80+ in the demographic models, which shows that average life expectancy is increasing and is predicted to do so even…
AHRQ Task Force on Aging., Bierman, A.S., Spector, W.D., & United States. (2001). Improving the health and health care of older Americans: A report of the AHRQ Task Force on Aging. Rockville, Md: Dept. Of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Hearthealthywomen.org. (n.d.). Aging and heart disease. Retrieved from http://www.hearthealthywomen.org/am-i-at-risk/age-a-menopause/age-a-menopause.html
Finkelstein, E., & Zuckerman, L. (2008). The fattening of America: How the economy makes us fat, if it matters, and what to do about it. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Kotkin, J. (2010, August). The changing demographics of america. Smithsonian magazine, Retrieved from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/specialsections/40th-anniversary/The-Changing-Demographics-of-America.html
Always question and do whatever is necessary to protect yourself.
Life is too fragile not to consider it in every decision that one makes. Casey is living her life healthy and happy now, but not too long ago, she was in a hard position where the results could have been even more devastating and life altering then they were. This leads the interviewer to understand how delicate the conversation about sex and safe practices is, as well as how important it is to have this very sensitive talk with one's children and explain how regardless they need to take precautions. In addition, honestly in a case like this one the best safe sex in no sex at all, however once you have entered a marriage or a long-term relationship, and then what should one do? That is a question that needs more thought and understanding. Where are we as…
Center for Disease Control (2006, April). Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet. Retrieved 12/2/07, at http://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/STDFact-chlamydia.htm#whatIs
Specific population disease trend change in the past 50 years:
Smoking, lung cancer, and the aging of the population
By the time the U.S. Surgeon General released its report Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General in 1964, smoking was an ingrained part of American culture. Before the report was released, doctors endorsed certain brands of cigarettes as more healthful than others in advertisements; cigarette companies were popular sponsors of family broadcasting and smoking was glamorized on the silver screen. A mere 44% of Americans believed smoking was linked to lung cancer (The reports of the Surgeon General, 2013, NM). However, the Report "held cigarette smoking responsible for a 70% increase in the mortality rate of smokers over non-smokers" (The reports of the Surgeon General, 2013, NM). An intensive anti-smoking public health campaign resulted and reducing smoking rates became an accepted part of…
Lung cancer is a progressive illness: its effects are visible only over time. One puff of a cigarette does not cause cancer but the effects of smoking are manifested due to habituated use. As the population as a whole ages, rates of lung cancer have actually increased, despite an extensive anti-smoking public health campaign. "Mortality attributable to malignant neoplasms of the lung and associated organs has risen sharply since 1950. Here again mortality rises with age, in this instance is significantly higher in general among males as compared to females, and has a multitude of etiologies, although the consumption of tobacco products and exposure to second-hand smoke are important risk factors in the epidemic of this form of cancer" (Williams n.d.: 24). Although smoking has gone down overall, lung cancer remains the most common deadly kind of cancer for both men and women. While the rates of mortality for men still are higher than that of women, the rates of women contracting lung cancer are increasing (Newest stats show lung cancer rates dropping for men, but still going up for women, 2007, Lung Cancer Alliance). The reasons for this are unclear: women's generally longer lifespans may mean that the cancer has longer to manifest itself. Even though quitting reduces the likelihood of contracting lung cancer, the increased risk is not eliminated.
To guard against the rise of lung cancer, graphic anti-smoking campaigns have been instituted by the federal government. 20% of the U.S. population still smokes: on one hand, this is a sharp decline relative to fifty years ago; however, given the link between smoking and preventable diseases, it is still far too high (Fox, 2013, Graphic anti-smoking). Recent media campaigns have featured persons who have lost the ability to speak due to smoking-related cancers as well as reminders of the link between smoking and mortality (Fox, 2013, Graphic anti-smoking).
Education alone cannot be attributed to the decline in smoking rates. Smoking has become increasingly less acceptable legally and socially: in some cities, smoking
This is called acute adrenal failure or an Addisonian crisis. It can be fatal if it isn't cared for. The indications may include:
Pain in the abdomen, lower back or legs
Severe vomiting and diarrhea
Low blood pressure
Loss of consciousness (Addison's disease, 2010).
Secondary adrenal deficiency takes place when the pituitary gland fails to manufacture adequate adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), a hormone that rouses the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. If ACTH production is too low, cortisol production decreases. Ultimately, the adrenal glands can get smaller due to lack of ACTH stimulation. Secondary adrenal deficiency is much more widespread than Addison's disease (Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's disease, 2009).
If a doctor thinks that one may have Addison's disease, they may go through some of the following tests:
Blood test - assessing ones blood levels of sodium, potassium, cortisol and ACTH. This gives the physician a preliminary indication of whether adrenal…
Addison's disease. (2010). Retrieved from http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/hormone/910.html
Addison's disease. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/addisons-disease/DS00361/DSECTION=tests-and-diagnosis
Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease. (2009). Retrieved from http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/addison/addison.htm
Anatomy of the Endocrine System. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/anatomy_of_the_endocrine_system/article_em.htm
However, because the source of the most useful type of stem cells is fetal tissue, political opposition, predominantly from the religious right, has successfully lobbied for restrictions on their use, culminating in the 2001 federal ban on publicly funded medical research into their use. As a result, almost a decade of valuable research has largely been lost into an effective cure for millions suffering from Alzheimer's and other debilitating human diseases (Kinsey 2007).
The federal ban on stem cell research has forced researchers to explore other avenues, such as two unrelated studies announced in late 2007 announcing methods of coaxing adult stem cells into the type of use for which only fetal stem cells had previously exhibited potential (Kinsey 2007). More recently, a study published in the March 2008 issue of Stem Cells and Development announced the results of studies evidencing the usefulness of stem cells derived from umbilical cord…
Kinsley, M. Commentary: Why Science Can't Save the GOP; Time Magazine (Dec. 10/07), p. 36.
Phan, K. (2008) Umbilical Cord Stem Cells Slow Down Alzheimer's Progression in Mice. Christian Post Reporter. Retrieved July 26, 2008, at http://www.christianpost.com/article/20080330/umbilical-cord-stem-cells-slow-down-alzheimer-s-progression-in-mice.htm
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Public Health Service - National Institutes of Health - National Institute on Aging (2006) Alzheimer's Disease Fact Sheet. Retrieved July 26, 2008 from the National Institute on Aging public website (last updated 2008), at http://www.nia.nih.gov/Alzheimers/Publications/adfact.htm
It ranges from 31.9% in the mid-Atlantic to 67.2% in the south Atlantic regions. The increased occurrence also varies considerably by state ranging from 11.3% in Delaware to 101.8% for Georgia. Other studies have shown that the magnitude of the increase is greatest in 18 to 29-year-olds, those with some college education and those of Hispanic ethnicity (Lifestyle Management of Adult Obesity, 2010).
The yearly economic costs of obesity are estimated to be more than 70 billion dollars. Despite the health and economic burden of obesity, studies show that health professionals do not constantly advise overweight and obese patients that they should lose weight. There is undoubtedly a global epidemic of overweight and obesity. It can be projected that, at the present rate of increasing prevalence of obesity, by the year 2030, 90% of U.S. adults will be obese (Lifestyle Management of Adult Obesity, 2010).
The epidemic of obesity really…
An Epidemic of Obesity. (2004). Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Web site:
Canoy, D. And Buchan, I. (2007). Challenges in obesity epidemiology. Obesity Reviews.
Supplement, 8, p1-11.
diseases West Nile virus, malaria, plague, and yellow fever. Specifically, it will discuss the history and distribution of the diseases in the United States or worldwide, and compare each of the diseases based on the categories above, as to which is most important individually and overall in terms of relative impact.
West Nile virus only appeared in the United States in 1999, but it has become quite a feared disease since then. The virus is contracted in humans from infected mosquito bites, and it can be deadly in people with weakened immune systems, like children and senior citizens. The symptoms of the disease can be minor, like headaches and an insignificant fever. These can increase to confusion, muscle weakness, high fever, and severe headache ("West Nile," 2004). They usually show up 3 to 14 days after being bitten. Symptoms that are more serious include brain swelling, coma, numbness, vision loss,…
Barwick, Rachel, Martin Cetron, Anthony Marfin, Thomas Monath. (2004). Traveler's health: Yellow fever. Retrieved from the Center for Disease Control Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/yellowfever.htm20 May 2004.
Boston, Gabriella. HIV link not clear in 'Black Death'; Gene mutation saved plague victims. (2002, October 26). The Washington Times, p. D03.
Campbell, Grant L., Anthony A. Marfin, Robert S. Lanciotti, and Duane J. Gubler. (2002). West Nile virus. Retrieved from the Center for Disease Control Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/resources/wnv-campbell-etal.pdf20 May 2004.
Editors. (2004). Communicable disease fact sheet. Retrieved from the New York State Health Department Web site: http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/communicable_diseases/en/yellow.htm20 May 2004.
Disease Control and Prevention
From its headquarters in Greater Atlanta, Georgia, the Department of Health and Human Services operates its nationwide agency known as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This agency was officially formed in 1992 as part of a long standing tradition of the federal government in its mission to combat the spread of disease. Begun in 1942 with the Office of Malaria Control Activities, the government's function went on to incorporate within its scope the study of other communicable diseases, finally establishing the Centers for Disease Control in 1980. Prevention became part of the agency's overview twelve years later: thus the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention were born. This paper will provide a thorough description of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the demographics of those they serve, the types of services this agency offers, and a reason one might have for choosing this…
Abortion Surveillance -- United States. (2008). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5713a1.htm
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (2010). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/
CDC eHealth Metrics Dashboard. (2010). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/metrics/
CDC Reports Vital Information on Smoking. (2011). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/Features/VitalSigns/AdultSmoking/
(Prognosis for HIV / AIDS Patients Could Be Better Determined After Patients Begin Antiretroviral Treatment, Study Says)
The progress of infection as a result of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 called HIV-1 is highly volatile. Cohort studies have estimated that the median time, which is free of serious levels of complications after HIV-1 infection, is from 7 to 11 years. The life-threatening complications of immunosuppression mostly occur after a short period of clinical latency in some HIV-1 infected persons. Contrary to this other persons depict little if any, reduction or loss of immune functions or clinical difficulties during a duration of 8 or above years. (Estimating Prognosis in HIV-1 Infection)
The treatment of HIV as approved by FDA involves antiretroviral medication that operates by inhibiting one of three steps in the life cycle of HIV and they involve: blocking of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, blocking of the protease…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV Prevention Strategic Plan through 2005.
January, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/prev-strat-plan.pdf . Accessed 31 October, 2005
Hare, Bradley C. Clinical Overview of HIV Disease. Retrieved at http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-03&doc=kb-03-01-01 . Accessed 31 October, 2005
HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet-Latinos and HIV / AIDS. February, 2005. Retrieved at http://www.kff.org/hivaids/upload/Fact-Sheet-Latinos-and-HIV-AIDS-UPDATE.pdf . Accessed 31 October, 2005
diseases of Indians on virgin soil. There is one reference used for this paper.
Over the course of time, the aborigine populations have declined due to disease. It is important to look at factors which may have contributed to this declines, as well as possible rebounds in the populations.
Many historians believe that the arrival of Europeans and the Spanish resulted in Indian populations being exposed to a number of diseases which had previously wrecked havoc overseas.
Virgin Soil Epidemics
There is "no doubt that chronic disease was an important factor in the precipitous decline and it is highly probable that the greatest killer was epidemic diseases, especially as manifested in virgin soil epidemics. Virgin soil epidemics are those in which the populations at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologically almost defenseless. The importance of virgin soil epidemics…
(Crosby, Alfred W. "Virgin Soil Epidemics as a Factor in the Aboriginal Depopulation in America." The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 33, No. 2. (April, 1976).
pp. 289-299. (accessed 13 November, 2004).
A number of risk factors have been identified as possible causes of gout. For example, genetics may play an important role in determining a person's predisposition towards a disease as about 18% of people with gout have a family history of the disease.1 Gender and age are also important risk factors since gout is more common in men and adults. Obesity and excessive drinking of alcohol, which interferes with removal of uric acid from the body, are also important risk factors. Eating foods rich in purines and exposure to lead are other risk factors that may cause or aggravate gout. Certain medicines that interfere with the body's ability to excrete uric acid are also listed as risk factors for the disease. These include diuretics, low-dose aspirin, niacin, cyclosporine (a medicine used to suppress the body's immune system) and tuberculosis medications such as pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Diseases such as leukemias, lymphomas,…
Questions and Answers about Gout." National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) Website. March 2002. Available at http://www.niams.nih.gov/hi/topics/gout/Gout.pdf . Accessed August 9, 2006.
Shiel, William C. Jr. "Gout and Hyperucemia." Medicinenet.com. July 19, 2006. Available at http://www.medicinenet.com/gout/article.htm . Accessed August 9, 2006.
Disease Control. You have been called to a remote area of Uganda to study a mysterious disease that is causing respiratory ailments in a small village. You isolate a bacterium from several patients that seems like a good candidate for the pathogen. How can you determine if this bacterium is causing the illness?
I would investigate the bacteria to determine if it had genetic markers consistent with known disease-causing bacteria. I would first prescribe antibiotics to patients and if this cleared up the respiratory ailments then I would assume this bacteria is the cause of the disease.
As a U.S. Department of Agriculture field representative, you counsel a young farmer to plant alfalfa in fields with soils that have low nitrogen levels. You know alfalfa can host certain bacteria.
a. Explain your reasoning.
The growth of alfalfa will ultimately improve the soil, adding much-needed nitrogen and producing a better harvest.…
The modern legal definition of disease provides a useful starting point for an examination of the concept of disease and how it is regarded by various disciplines. According to Black's Law Dictionary (1990), disease is a "deviation from the healthy or normal condition of any of the functions or tissues of the body. An alternation in the state of the body or some of its organs, interrupting or disturbing the performance of the vital functions, and causing or threatening pain and weakness" (p. 467). To ensure that the concept is readily understood by legal practitioners, the editors add that disease is also called "illness, sickness, disorder, malady, bodily infirmity," and disease is, "An illness or an abnormal state having a definite pattern of symptoms" (Black's, 1990, p. 467). This comprehensive definition would also likely satisfy most lay observers today, but over time, the concept of disease has experienced some…
Baldwin, Peter. (1999). Contagion and the State in Europe, 1830-1930. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Black's Law Dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Boorse, Christopher. (1977). "Health as a theoretical concept." Philosophy of Science, 44, 542- 73.
Brown, Jonathan S. (2001). Genetic manipulation in humans as a matter of Rawlsian justice. Social Theory and Practice, 27(1), 83.
This is especially true to the extent that various aspects of the natural response to stress are learned rather than functions of innate genetic predisposition.
Typical methods of behavioral conditioning capable of reducing the secondary consequences of stress include coping mechanisms for the recognition of the earliest symptoms of stress and training to respond to stress in more positive ways instead of either repressing it or overreacting to it (Acosta, 1990; Selye, 1956). Furthermore, Sarno
(2007) reports that merely teaching patients to use their awareness of physiological symptoms as a method of recognizing their natural responses to stress significantly improves their ability to redirect negative emotions and prevent them from contributing toward their manifestation in physical symptoms.
Furthermore, Sarno (2007) also suggests that emotional awareness of physical pain as a symptom of stress provides a valuable biofeedback tool. In addition to learning how to alter one's immediate psychological response in…
Acosta S. "The interrelationship of stressors, hardiness personality and social support on the severity of manifestations of stress symptoms among high-income men."
University of Maryland College Park, MD. Ph.D. Dissertation (1990). Retrieved
April 15, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database (Pub. No AAT
disease or something genetic? What will one discover through this process? Are there different perspectives in this matter? One will discuss both sides of the issues, and draw conclusions from the data.
Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) or percentage body fat in excess of some cut-off value, though clearly a threat to health and longevity, lacks a universal concomitant group of symptoms or signs and the impairment of function which characterize disease according to traditional definitions. While it might nevertheless be possible to achieve a social consensus that it is a disease despite its failure to fit traditional models of disease, the merits of such a goal are questionable. Labeling obesity a disease may be expedient but it is not a necessary step in a campaign to combat obesity and it may be interpreted as self-serving advocacy without a sound scientific basis.
(Heshka & Allison, 2001).…
Ball, S.D. (2011). Is obesity a disease? Retrieved June 25, 2011, from Missouri Families: http://missourifamilies.org/features/nutritionarticles/fit3.htm .
Heshka, S., & Allison, D.B. (2001). Is obesity a disease? International Journal of Obesity, 1401-1404.
Medical News Today. (2003). Is obesity a disease? Retrieved June 25, 2011, from Medical News Today: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/4650.php .
ProCon. (2011). Is obesity a disease? Retrieved June 25, 2011, from ProCon: http://obesity.procon.org/#pro_con .
Scratching at the irritated skin often causes sores, which may become infected with bacteria. In incubation period from infestation to when symptoms will begin to appear is generally around four weeks, or up to six weeks, if the person has never been infected previously. People who have been infested with scabies before will have symptoms begin to appear much more rapidly, sometimes within a few hours of infestation. This is due to the increased sensitivity of the skin from previous infestations. People do not become immune to infestation after treatment.
Diagnosis of scabies is most commonly made by an observation of the irritated skin and locating a scabies-like rash or skin burrows. The burrows are often difficult to see themselves, as they are only between five to fifteen millimeters long and about the width of a thread. There may be a blister at the end of the burrow, but not…
Childhood Obesity Epidemic
Tackling the Childhood Obesity Epidemic through School eforms
Tackling the Childhood Obesity Epidemic through School eforms
A current health crisis facing developed nations is the obesity epidemic. In the United States, the prevalence of obese adults has doubled over the past fifty years (reviewed by Hurt, Kulisek, Buchanan, and McClave, 2010). Today, close to a third of Americans are obese and another third are overweight. The increase in childhood obesity is also a major concern, with the prevalence rising from 6% to 19% between 1985 and 2010. Current estimates suggest that close to a third of U.S. children are obese or overweight (reviewed by Salvy, de la Haye, Bowker, and Hermans, 2012). With an estimated yearly healthcare cost of $150 billion, obesity has become a major public health issue and is expected to soon overtake tobacco as the number one cause of preventable disease and…
Hurt, Ryan T., Kulisek, Christopher, Buchanan, Laura A., and McClave, Stephen A. (2010). The obesity epidemic: Challenges, health initiatives, and implications for gastroenterologists. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 6(12), 780-792.
Magdalena, Berger. (2011). Obesity in K-8 students -- New York City, 2006-07 to 2010-11 school years (Reprinted from MMWR, vol. 60, pg. 1673-1678, 2011). Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(4), 352.
Perlman, Sharon E., Nonas, Cathy, Lindstrom, Lauren L., Choe-Castillo, Julia, McKie, Herman, and Alberti, Philip M. (2012). A menu for health: Changes to New York City school food, 2001 to 2011. Journal of School Health, 82(10), 484-491.
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne, de la Haye, Kayla, Bowker, Julie C., and Hermans, Roel C.J. (2012). Influence of peers and friends on children's and adolescents eating and activity behaviors. Physiology & Behavior, 106, 369-378.
Another modern diagnosis system which enables rapid identification of members of the Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteus vulgaris is through the AP 20E system. t involves the use of plastic strips consisting of 20 small wells containing dehydrated media components; the bacterium to be tested is suspended in sterile saline and added to each well, then the strip is incubated for 16-24 hours and the color reactions are noted as either positive or negative. The test results are then entered into a computer program identify the bacterium. (bid.)
The standard treatment of Proteus vulgaris is through a course of antibiotics. However, it should be noted that P. vulgaris (and P. penneri) are more difficult to treat than the commonly occurring Proteus specie -- Proteus mirabilis. Both these strains (P. vulgaris and P. penneri) are resistant to ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins. However, antibiotic drugs such as mipenem,…
In a study by Senior and Leslie (1986), out of 220 fecal isolates from 219 individuals, most (96%) isolates were either Proteus mirabilis (62%) or Morganella morgani (34%), while P. vulgaris was found in only one (0.45%) fecal specimen vaccine derived from purified mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae proteins has been proven to prevent infection in mouse models and is under clinical research, but it is not available commercially
Cystitis is an infection of the bladder
Depression can be a warning sign that there are more serious potential consequences unless the depression is treated.
Background factors that contribute to the issue: The HP2010 offers ten leading health indicators, and within those are sub-categories that add up to "467 science-based objectives" (HP2010). All the objectives are designed to eliminate or reduce some of the pivotal problems relating to the following background issues.
Too many disabled people are "limited by environmental factors" (they don't have access to buildings, recreational activities or transportation); there are too many people with "negative attitudes" about disabilities (this affects the social climate for those who are disabled); many disabled people are either limited in their access to educational opportunities or have no access at all; persons who are disabled too often have limited access to "career development, career opportunities, job placement and job satisfaction"; many disabled people have "limited or no participation in…
Be Healthy Delaware. (2009). What is the Healthy Delaware 2010 Plan? Retrieved July 25,
2009, from http://www.behealthydelaware.org/2010plan.html.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Disability and Health. Retrieved July 25,
2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dh/hp2010.htm .
A small number of peripheral vascular disease patients may have no symptoms. Common ones typically involve cramping and weakness in certain parts of the body, slow healing for injuries like ulcers, as well as variation in temperature and color between limbs. Treatments for this condition usually require management of cholesterol and lifestyle changes like cessation of cigarette smoke, ibuprofen, antipalet drugs, and regular exercise.
One of the most common forms of heart disease is a heart attack. Symptoms include tiredness, palpitations, stertorously breathing, and chest pain. For some patients, the chest pain can actually be unstable and increase with greater amounts of physical activity. . Also, there are a number of instances in which individuals have died extremely suddenly that have been linked to heart attacks. Common treatments for this condition include lifestyle changes such as physical exercise, healthy eating to lower cholesterol, as well as reducing stress. Smoking, of…
A gene is basically a one dimension sequence of nucleotides that signals for the production of a protein. (eynaud, 2010) The protein itself is merely a sequence of amino acids arranged in a specific manner. The sequence of the gene is linear and so is the sequence of the protein. DNA, which is a common term heard now and then is merely a collective term for all the genes of the body. The mechanism by which genes on the DNA work its action and are expressed in the body is known as translation. (eynaud, 2010) Through translation, the genes come out as proteins and thus do specific actions in the body. The amino acid sequence mentioned earlier basically is a blue print that tells how the protein is going to be made and what specific function it will do.
The genetic material that we have is present in…
Appella E., & Johansson J. (2011) Special Issue: Protein Structure and Proteomics. FEBS Journal. 278(20), 3795 -- 3795.
Botelho M.G., & Lupi O.(2008) Protein folding and cutaneous diseases. International Journal of Dermatology, 47(12), 1225 -- 1233.
Dunn, D.A., Cannon, M.V., Irwin, M.H., & Pinkert, C.A. (2012) Animal models of human mitochondrial DNA mutations. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, 1820. (5), 601 -- 607.
Genome.gov (1996). Learning About Parkinson's disease. [Online] Retrieved from: http://www.genome.gov/10001217 [Accessed: 15 Dec 2012].
The immune system of the body must differentiate itself from harmful to repel invaders and to protect the integrity of the host without inducing autoimmunity. Any deficit in this function can cause the body to be vulnerable to infections, malignancies or over-reactivity to innocuous antigens, resulting immunopathology and autoimmunity.
Autoimmunity is defined by pathological immune-based reactions which are usually persistent and have long duration, which involve self-antigens (autoantigens). Its clinical expression is the result of organic or functional alteration of cells or the antigen involved in the reaction (organ-specific autoimmune diseases). When complex autoantigen-autoantibody circulate in the blood and deposit in various parts of the body, form the basis of so- called systemic autoimmune disease or organ specific disease. The idea implies pathological autoimmunity, which can be physiological or natural (ioux, Abbas, 2005). A number of mechanisms allow those potentially dangerous auto-reactive lymphocytes to be eliminated physically or functionally.…
Munz C, Lunemann JD, Getts MT, Miller SD (2009) Antiviral immune responses: triggers of or triggered by autoimmunity? Nat Rev Immunol; 9: 246-258.
Rioux JD and Abbas AK (2005). Paths to understanding the genetic basis of autoimmune disease. Nature 435: 584-589.
Wucherpfennig KW (2001) Mechanisms for the induction of autoimmunity by infectious agents. J Clin Invest 108: 1097-1104.
Emergent human diseases are considered as either new kinds of pathogens or old pathogens that have changed to become novel just like flu does on an annual basis. Generally, diseases have usually originated from wildlife and woods and penetrated into human populations such as malaria and plague. In last five decades, emerging human diseases have quadrupled mainly because of the increasing human encroachment into habit. These trends have specifically been worse in areas that are considered as disease hot spots across the globe, particularly in tropical regions. Notably, the potential for a severe outbreak in large populations is huge because of the modern air travel and enormous market in wildlife trafficking. As a result, the key to predicting and preventing the next pandemic is understanding the protective effects of nature intact as stated by experts.
An example of an emergent human disease and infectious disease is Hendra virus in Australia,…
Gutierrez, D. (2008, January 5). WHO Warns of High Risk of Global Epidemic from Emerging
Diseases. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.naturalnews.com/022457_emerging_disease_World_Health_Organization.html
Robbins, J. (2012, July 14). The Ecology of Disease. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/15/sunday-review/the-ecology-of-disease.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
S. commercial and Medicaid health plans. easons women resisted screening included "1) inability to pay the copayment of a screening test, and 2) lack of knowledge of the asymptomatic nature, high prevalence, and possible adverse long-term reproductive effects of Chlamydia infection" (Ahmed et al. 2009). Eliminating co-pays for STD tests might be one way to increase detection, as well female-specific education strategies.
While screening for some STDs, such as HIV / AIDS, has increased, individuals may still resist because of 'not wanting to know' or fear of social stigma. The effects of HIV / AIDS can be mitigated with early drug intervention. This underlines the fact that detection and screening must become routine amongst high-risk populations for all STDs, regardless of the type of disorder.
Tertiary: Limiting disability/epidemic spread
Community-specific intervention may be required to make major strides in the prevention of STDs across the nation. For example, racial and…
Ahmed, K, & S. Scholle, H. Baasiri, K.W. Hoover, R. Romaguera, & G. Tao. (2009, April 17).
Chlamydia screening among sexually active young female enrollees of health plans:
United States, 2000 -- 2007. MMWR 58(14); 362-365. Retrieved January 21, 2009 at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5814a2.htm?s_cid=mm5814a2_e
Faculty Notes: Ready-to-use STD curriculum. (2009). Chlamydia. CDC.
Blood Diseases and Disorders
There are dozens of blood diseases and disorders with the blood disorders affecting any of the three major components of the blood. These three components of the blood include red blood cells (carry oxygen to the body's tissues), white blood cells (fight infections), and platelets (assist blood to clot). Additionally, blood disorders can affect plasma, which is the liquid segment of the human blood. The diagnosis and treatment of blood diseases and disorders varies based on the blood situation and its severity. These diseases usually affect the production of blood and its components like hemoglobin, coagulation mechanisms, blood cells, and blood proteins. Blood disorders can be caused by imperfections in the blood vessels and abnormalities in the blood itself. Some of the major symptoms of blood disorders include ongoing bleeding and poor blood clotting.
Categories of Blood Diseases and Disorders:
As mentioned earlier, blood diseases and…
Chang, L. (2010, August 10). Types of Blood Disorders. Retrieved August 31,
2011, from http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/blood-disorder-types-and-treatment?page=3
Thomas, M. (2009, September 11). A Summary of Blood Disorders. Retrieved August
31, 2011, from http://www.articletrader.com/health/a-summary-of-blood-disorders.html
According to a study conducted to "explore the feasibility and potential of 3D reconstructions of the aorta," 36 studies in both adults and children via 3D echocardiographic imaging revealed "six atheromatous lesions, four aortic dissections, ten coarctations, one aneurysm with a thrombus and one dilated aortic root" (Suqeng, Cao, et al., 1997, 120). Obviously, this highly-specialized technique allows clinicians and researchers to depict aortic lesions and abnormalities "in their true form that could be viewed in many different perspectives in all patients" afflicted with aortic disorders. In essence, the potential of this technique is only limited to "further improvements in computer and ultrasound technology" which will inevitably serve as a "viable diagnostic tool (for) the evaluation of aortic disorders" (Suqeng, Cao, et al., 1997, 120).
Glanze, Walter D., Ed. et al. (1990). Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Encyclopedia. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company.
Henein, Michael Y. (2004). Echocardiography.…
Glanze, Walter D., Ed. et al. (1990). Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Encyclopedia. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company.
Henein, Michael Y. (2004). Echocardiography. London: Springer-Verlag.
Lindsay, J. (2007). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of the Aorta." Cardiology. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.rjmatthewsmd.com/Definitions/aorta.htm .
Otto, Catherine M. (2004). Textbook on Clinical Echocardiography. UK: Saunders, Ltd.
The presence of cardiac enzymes in the blood often indicates myocardial necrosis. Medical experts generally view MI as one among acute coronary syndromes. Unstable angina and non-ST-elevation MI are among the syndromes. Statistics said that approximately 1.5 million cases come up each year. MI is a cardiovascular condition. About 12 million deaths worldwide each year are attributed to cardiovascular diseases as cause, according to the World Health Organization. These diseases are blamed for half of all deaths in many developed countries and one of the causes of death in many developing countries. On the whole, they are the major cause of adult deaths everywhere in the world (Garas and Zafari).
Mortality, Morbidity, Risk Factors
Cardiovascular disease is the number-one cause of death in the United States with approximately 500,000-700,000 of these relating to coronary artery every year (Garas & Zafari, 2009). More specifically, ischemic heart disease is the leading cause…
Agraharkar, M., et al. (2009). Acute renal failure. eMedicine Specialties: Medscape.
Retrieved on November 23, 2009 from http://emedicin.medscape.com/article/243493-overview
Brochard, L., et al. (1995). Respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation. New England
Journal of Medicine: Massachusetts Medical Society. Retrieved on November 22,
The proliferation of antibiotic-resistant organisms has been the topic of much debate for many years. The overuse of antibiotics has created new strains of disease that no longer respond to antibiotics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss two of the most common antibiotic-resistant organisms; Methicillin-esistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MSA) and Vancomycin-esistant Enterococci (VE). (Control of Antibiotic esistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003)
Methicillin-esistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MSA)
Staphylococcus aureus is a germ that is often found in wounds or in the nose. Methicillin is the antibiotic that can effectively treat this bacterium, but in some cases the bacteria has become resistant to Methicillin. (Control of Antibiotic esistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003) An article in the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, explains that MSA was first discovered in the 1960's when physicians first begun to use Methicillin. (Tiwary 2003) The journal asserts that by 1992 40% of…
Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings, Specifically Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). (March 2003). Virginia Department of Health. http://www.vdh.state.va.us/epi/mrsavref.htm
Levy, Stuart B.(1992) Antibiotic Paradox: How Miracle Drugs Are Destroying the Miracle. Plenum Press: New York.
Neuman, Karen. (1998) Transmission of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Among Family Members: a Case Study. Journal of Community Health Nursing.V 15.:1.
Tiwary, Devesh. (2003) Drug Labeling: FDA Requires New Label for Antibiotics to Prevent Overuse. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. V: 31: 3.
Topic 5 DQ 1
Obesity is a health condition that emanates from having excess fat in the body exceeding the normal amount for their particular height. It progresses over time through the intake of more calories than recommended by a physician. The chance of getting cardiovascular diseases increases amongst obese people, as well as specific types of cancer and depression. Nonetheless, nutrition can affect positively overweight people and help them regulate the amount of fat in their body. By nourishing the body with the correct nutrients such as proteins, vitamins and minerals, stored up fat can be effectively broken down. Additionally, including high fiber in the dietary consumption of patients afflicted with obesity assists in reducing their appetite and ensuring fat is absorbed appropriately. However, nutrition can impact this condition negatively since an increased intake of high energy foods containing sugar and processed fat leads to obesity.
Khalil, H., Chambers, H., Munn, Z., & Porritt, K. (2015). Improving Chronic Diseases Management Through the Development of an Evidence-Based Resource. Worldviews On Evidence-Based Nursing, 12(3), 139-144.
Kirk, M., Calzone, K., Arimori, N., & Tonkin, E. (2011). Genetics-Genomics Competencies and Nursing Regulation. Journal Of Nursing Scholarship, 43(2), 107-116.
Kucherlapati, R., & Cabot, P. (2015). Personalized Medicine — How Genetics and Genomics are Transforming Healthcare. Quest Diagnostics Education Center. Retrieved 9 November 2017, from https://education.questdiagnostics.com/insights/86
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2014). Nurses Lead Innovations in Geriatrics and Gerontology. RWJF. Retrieved 9 November 2017, from https://www.rwjf.org/en/library/articles-and-news/2014/07/nurses-lead-innovations-in-geriatrics-and-gerontology.html
The International Classification of Diseases is a means of differentiating, organizing, and recording epidemiological and morbidity data. Commonly known as the ICD, this guide is published by the World Health Organization. The ICD was developed to make meaningful the mortality data collected by member states in hopes of identifying trends such as access to healthcare, the prevalence of disease among a specific population, regional epidemics, etc. Whereas the ICD is used to code and classify mortality data, the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD-CM) is a means of assigning the diagnostic and procedure codes used in the provision of healthcare in the United States. (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], Classification of Diseases, Functioning, and Disability, 2011) As American healthcare evolved over the 20th century and insurance providers, rather than patients, bore responsibility for the direct costs of care, nosology, or the systematic classification of disease, acquired a…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/icd/icd9cm.htm
Hill, Emily. (1999). Improve Your ICD-9 Coding Accuracy. Family Practice Management, 6(7), 27-31. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/fpm/1999/0700/p27.html
ICD-9 Coding 101: Nail Your Dx Codes in 4 Easy Steps. (2004). Optometry Coding Alert, August 2004. Retrieved from http://www.supercoder.com/articles/articles-alerts/opt/icd-9-coding-101-nail-your-dx-codes-in-4-easy-steps/
O'Malley, Kimberly J., Cook, Karon F., Price, Matt D., Raiford Wildes, Kimberly, Hurdle, John F., & Ashton, Carol M. (2005). Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy. Health Services Research, 40(5), 1621-1624. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1361216/pdf/hesr_00444.pdf
Pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome
So far as pathophysiology is involved, boty basal and food-activated colonic motility, in addition to sensory awareness are changed in Inflamed bowel disorders (IBD) and resemble shifts present in individuals with Inflamed bowel syndrome (IBS) (Fiocchi, 2015). IBD tend to be a grouping of inflammation related disorders where the body’s very own defense mechanisms attacks areas of this enzymatic system whilst IBS is a disorder that impacts the functionality and actions of the digestive system. Both IBD as well as IBS are typically considered dichotomous problems. The first is regarded as an average natural illness, while the second is considered a condition of gut functionality powered by feelings (Barbara, Cremon And Stanghellini, 2014; Huether And McCance, 2017).
Both of these illnesses tend to be viewed as one due to several commonalities, such as intestinal irritation, waning and waxing intensity and…
Barbara, G., Cremon, C., & Stanghellini, V. (2014). Inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome: similarities and differences. Current opinion in gastroenterology, 30(4), 352-358.
Faramarzi, M., Shirvani, J. S., Kheirkhah, F., Kianian, M., & Ghadiri, M. (2015). Comparison of Psychological Factors in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research 5(2): 213-220
Fiocchi, C. (2015). Inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis: Where are we? Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 30(S1), 12-18.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Sobczak, M., Fabisiak, A., Murawska, N., Weso?owska, E., Wierzbicka, P., Wlaz?owski, M., ... & Fichna, J. (2014). Current overview of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in etiology and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases. Pharmacological Reports, 66(5), 766-775.
Comparing resources for maladies
1. Choose a population
The population I have chosen is families with children with Phenylketonuria. Typically these families have young children, because symptoms of this condition manifest within months. The primary concern of these families is to get their children the care they need to have healthy lives. Those needs include proper dietary measures (Diesen, 2016, p. 1002) and ways to counteract the accumulation of phenylalanine (Jha et al, 2017, p. 187). This population needs to know what options are available.
2. I: The intervention is a web-based parent/child/family resource. When evaluating the chosen source, begin with these questions:
Is the chosen parent/child/family resource valuable? Does it serve a perceived need?
The web-based intervention selected is Mayo Clinic. This particular resource is of considerable value. It serves the perceived need of providing information that acts as the foundation for the assistance required of children who have…
Diesen, Plata. (2016). ‘I feel lucky’: Gratitude among young adults with phenylketonuria (PKU). Journal of Genetic Counseling. 25(5), 1002-1009.
Jha, P., Chaudhaury, N., Abhinav, P. (2017). A case report: Phenylketonuria in a one year-old child from India. International Archives of Integrated Medicine. 4(9), 187-190.
The Multiple Benefits of Saliva for Humans
Besides the more commonly known benefits of minimizing halitosis, keeping the mouth moist and comfortable,, making food taste better and easier to swallow, there are also a number of other lesser-known but still highly important benefits of saliva for humans as well. These benefits include most especially the ability of scientists to use human saliva to assess individual health status and to identify potential and existing disorders in ways that facilitate efficacious treatments. Given the need for this type of accurate and rapid immunoassay techniques have assumed new importance and relevance today. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of a selected article by Maniga and Golinsky (2001) concerning the benefits of using saliva for health status analyses, followed by a critique of the study’s format. Finally, a summary of the research and key findings concerning the benefits of saliva…
Maniga, J. N. & Golinsky, S. (2001, March/April). Remarkable insights into health and disease are offered through analysis of saliva. Total Health, 23(2), 37-41.
The Zika virus has come to the United States. A virus from the Flaviviridae, is spread via the A. albopictus or A. aegypti mosquitoes that feed and transmit the virus to humans during feeding. Related to the West Nile, yellow fever, and dengue viruses, it spread eastward and eventually made its way to the Americas where it created the 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic. While the virus itself does little to the person infected, it can have horrible and permanent consequences for the child that was born while exposed to the virus.
Microcephaly is a common birth defect in babies exposed to the Zika virus. They may even be born with a partially collapsed skull. Babies exposed to the virus may also experience severe brain deformations leading to lifelong disability for the infant. There is hope however. The Zika virus vaccine is in the works and people may receive vaccinations within…
Abbasi, J. (2016). Zika Vaccine Enters Clinical Trials. JAMA, 316(12), 1249. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.12760
Becker, R. (2016). Missing link: Animal models to study whether Zika causes birth defects. Nature Medicine, 22(3), 225-227. doi:10.1038/nm0316-225
Bell, T. M., Field, E. J., & Narang, H. K. (1971). Zika virus infection of the central nervous system of mice. Archiv f?r die gesamte Virusforschung, 35(2-3), 183-193. doi:10.1007/bf01249709
CDC. (2017, September 25). Hurricanes Irma and Maria in the Caribbean - Alert - Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions - Travel Health Notices | Travelers\\' Health | CDC. Retrieved from https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/alert/hurricane-irma-in-the-caribbean
Honein, M. A., Dawson, A. L., Petersen, E. E., Jones, A. M., Lee, E. H., & Yazdy, M. M. (2017). Birth Defects Among Fetuses and Infants of US Women With Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy. JAMA, 317(1), 59. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.19006
Howell, T. (2017, August 27). Hurricane Harvey could cause increase in Zika infections, say experts. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2017/aug/27/hurricane-harvey-could-cause-increase-in-zika-infe/
Schmidt, C. W. (2016). Erratum: “Zika in the United States: How Are We Preparing?”. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(11). doi:10.1289/ehp1096
The Human Genome Project was the global, collaborative research program with the main purpose of completing the mapping and comprehension of all the genes of human beings. In delineation, genome encompasses all of the genes put together (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2018). The undertaking of the Human Genome Project has permitted researchers to start to comprehend the scheme and outline for building a person. With the progression and advancement of learners gaining more information regarding the functions of genes as well as proteins, this insight will have significant influence in the fields of life science, medicine as well as biotechnology (National Library of Medicine, 2018). The major accomplishment of the Human Genome Project is that in 2003, researchers made the proclamation that the Human Genome Project had finished a sequence of high quality of fundamentally the whole human genome. In addition, this sequence filled the holes from a working…
Friendship Circle. (2012). 13 chromosomal disorders you may not have heard of. Retrieved 17 July, 2018 from: https://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2012/05/22/13-chromosomal-disorders-youve-never-heard-of/
National Human Genome Research Institute. (2018). An Overview of the Human Genome Project: What was the Human Genome Project? Retrieved 17 July, 2018 from: https://www.genome.gov/12011238/an-overview-of-the-human-genome-project/
National Library of Medicine. (2018). What were the goals of the Human Genome Project? Retrieved 17 July, 2018 from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/hgp/goals
The Normal Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production
In the words of Phan, Benhammou, and Pisegna (2015), “gastric acid secretion by parietal cells occurs in the fundus of the stomach, and is intricately regulated by various neuronal (vagal), paracrine (histamine, somatostatin) and hormonal factors” (387). As the authors further point out, there are two key phases in gastric acid secretion. These are the cephalic phase and the gastric phases. While the former takes place as a consequence of neurological signals and prior to the entry of food in the stomach, the latter phase could be conceptualized as the period involving the activation of gastric activity in the stomach after food is swallowed. More specifically, gastric secretion in the cephalic phase is the result of several factors including, but not limited to the smell, thought or taste of food. Thus, it follows that this is largely a conditioned reflex. Its…
3. BMR stands for basal metabolic rate. It generally refers to the body's metabolism at stasis: while doing nothing. The BMR is the basic energy level needed to sustain life. A person's basal metabolic rate usually decreases with age. The best way to increase the BMR is to exercise regularly. Eating less does not raise the BMR but rather, usually lowers it. Therefore, exercise is in many ways more important than eating less if a person hopes to lose weight. A higher body fat percentage is also correlated with a lower basal metabolic rate. Therefore, individuals with a lot of muscle mass tend to have higher basal metabolic rates than individuals who do not because muscles are metabolically more active than fat. Fat is burned off when muscles are used, during intensive exercise when the intake of calories is less than the expenditure of energy.
Centers for Disease…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Obesity and Overweight: Health Consequences." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/consequences.htm
Metabolism." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.fatfreekitchen.com/weightloss/metabolism.html
Paget's Disease Of Bone
James Paget, 1877
Paget's disease of bone
general information about disease
Effects of disease
Diagnosis of Disease
Treatment and Prognosis for patient
disease can be treated but not cured.
Paget's Disease of Bone
In 1877, Sir James Paget first described a disease that he had identified in a small number of patients who had been described as "having overly large heads and enlarged or deformed extremities with a higher likelihood of fracture." (Chaffins) hile Paget believed that this disease was a relatively new one, archaeological studies have since found evidence of it in skeletons from the first century A.D., as well as from the Medieval period. "Paget's disease of bone (PDB), also called osteitis deformans, "is a nonmalignant disease of bone that causes accelerated and abnormal bone remodeling." (Chaffins) In other words,…
Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+.
Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.
Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb.
Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…
Arjunan, M. & Al-Salamah, A.A. (2010, April 29). Typhoid Fever with Severe Abdominal Pain:
Diagnosis and Clinical Findings using Abdomen Ultrasonogram, Hermatology-cell Analysis and the Widal Test. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 4(9), 593-596. Retrieved from http://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1010/445
Hammad et al. (2011). Ceftriaxone vs. Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid
Fever. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 100-105. Retrieved from http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life0802/14_4757life0802_100_105.pdf
Genetic Components of the Disease
Metabolic Components of the Disease
Causes of the disease
Symptoms of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
Treatment of the disease
Cord lood Transfusion
Treatment for Late on-set Form
Incidence and Longevity of the disease
Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)
Genetic Components of the Disease
GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…
(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/krabbe-disease/DS00937/DSECTION=risk-factors
Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.
Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Huntington's disease, also known as HD, is an uncommon degenerative disorder that greatly impacts the central nervous system of the individual. It is often characterized by surplus and unneeded choreatic movements, unusual behavioral patterns, disturbances in the mental level and dementia. (Sheth 2013) As far as the Caucasian population is concerned, the Huntington's disease is prevalent in one out of ten thousand persons. The symptoms start to appear when the individual is thirty to fifty years of age. In a few cases, adolescents start to show symptoms of HD (known as JHD or Juvenile Huntington's disease) before the age of twenty by demonstrating behavioral disorders and learning difficulties at school. However, chorea is the major sign of the onset of HD that spreads to all muscles with the passage of time. The affected individual becomes severely retarded as the psychomotor processes are affected gradually. he/she also suffers decline of cognitive…
DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. 2010. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases and Clinical Challenges [Internet]. 1. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; [cited 2013 Nov 10] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=Qx2cWaAk2pEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Prenatal+Diagnosis:+Cases+and+Clinical+Challenges&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9jCCUufnNZOrhQfh0YDACg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Prenatal%20Diagnosis%3A%20Cases%20and%20Clinical%20Challenges&f=false
Knowles J. 2007. Huntington's Disease [Internet]. 1. New York: Rosen Pub. Group; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RX2Er7NpMSUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ameBUqWBDYjBhAfy9YDQCQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease&f=false
Lemiere J. 2004. Huntington's disease: Early Detection and Progression of Cognitive Changes in Patients and Asymptomatic Mutation Carriers [Internet]. Leuven: Leuven University Press; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vdhgGGgLQSIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease:+Early+Detection+and+Progression+of+Cognitive+Changes+in+Patients+and+Asymptomatic+Mutation+Carriers&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aGqBUqDzJ6XG7AbVz4CIDQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease%3A%20Early%20Detection%20and%20Progression%20of%20Cognitive%20Changes%20in%20Patients%20and%20Asymptomatic%20Mutation%20Carriers&f=false
Roos R. 2010. Huntington's Disease: A Clinical Review. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases [Internet]. [cited 2013 Nov 12] 5:40. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1750-1172-5-40.pdf
Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem
Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.
This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…
references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.
Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.
Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
Communicable Disease: Influenza
Description of the Disease
Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…
Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.
Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.
Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.
Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
Communicable Disease: Measles
Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…
Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The
Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.
Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…
Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:
PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694
EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf
Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
The disease commonly known as "Elephantitis" is actually scientifically termed Elephantiasis. It is a disease of the skin that is caused by a number of crucial factors which, when working in conjunction with one another, cause human tissue to thicken and swell. This paper will examine Elephantiasis, provide a background of the disease, and describe current methods of treatment.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Elephantiasis cannot occur without the help of a small parasite, which may be passed into the blood stream through contact with mosquito carriers. Such parasites which assist in the onset of Elephantiasis are B. timori, uchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi ("Lymphatic Filariasis"). Yet, while these parasites help in the onset of the disease, they are not the sole cause. On the contrary, Elephantiasis requires a number of factors before it can actually develop. First, it requires the introduction of the parasite…
Hajdu, Steven. "A Note from History: Elephantiasis." Annals of Clinical & Laboratory
Science, vol. 32, no. 2 (2002): 207-209. Web.
"Lymphatic Filariasis." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Web. 6
June 2013. < http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/lymphaticfilariasis/index.html >
Communicable Disease - HIV
Since its discovery as a wasting disease, "gay-related immune deficiency" and "slim" in the mid-1980's, HIV has posed a significant health problem for the United States and the World. Initially considered mysteriously devastating, HIV ultimately caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands, yet failed to attract sufficient funding and attention. hrough the efforts of health professionals and activists, HIV was finally accorded the funding and attention it deserved. oday, HIV is addressed globally, federally and locally through multiple well-funded programs/groups and agencies.
History of HIV
According to the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, blood analysis showed that the HIV virus existed in humans as early as the 1940's and that HIV-1 -- the most common viral strain -- was transmitted from chimpanzees to humans at some point in the early to mid-20th Century (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In the early 1980's medical professionals noticed that a "wasting disease"…
The nurse's role in education about and prevention of HIV stems from his/her core value of becoming a knowledgeable, effective advocate for the highest attainable quality of patient care. This core value requires several key activities by nurses, presented here numerically but in equal order of importance. First, the nurse must become educated about HIV-related issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012). Secondly, the nurse must make his/her voice heard. Nurses can make their voices nationally and regionally heard by: joining professional organizations that exert greater impact on the response to HIV / AIDS issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); contacting public officials (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); calling media attention to HIV / AIDS to the epidemic and in pressuring for a more aggressive governmental response (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 4); taking a clear-cut stance on effective education and prevention (Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 2012). Nurses can make their voices locally and specifically heard by: participating in community programs, organizations and support groups dedicated to education, prevention and high quality treatment. In their professional lives, nurses can contributed to prevention by educating patients about the causes, prevention, treatment and day-to-day aspects of living with of HIV / AIDS. Some use a widespread approach, such as published materials like What nurses know…HIV and AIDS (Farnan & Enriquez, 2012); others directly address those issues with their individual patients, such as forming an alliance with the patient to enhance adherence to treatment (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 47).
Community Programs / Organizations / Support Groups
As HIV / AIDS awareness increased, the numbers of community programs, organizations and support groups also increased. Given San Francisco's large at-risk gay/bisexual male population, for example, there are several key programs, organization and support groups. There is, of course, the San
Huntington's disease affects families
What is Huntington's disease, and how does it affect the patient and his family? How does one deal with the patient? Is there any cure for the disease, and what is it? When was the disease discovered? Who discovered it, and how was it discovered? What way is support offered from external sources for the disease, and how can one avail of the support? What, exactly is Huntington's disease? It is a genetic disease that affects the central nervous system, in individuals who are thirty years and above, though it does occur sometimes in people younger than this. When the disease occurs, it occurs as an inherited autosomal dominant condition, and it affects all or most of the family members within the same family. The onset of symptoms and of the rate of the progression of the disease may differ between the different family members, and…
A Brief History of Huntington's disease. 8 July, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/basics/timeline/r2.html Accessed on 22 March, 2005
Abuse of the patient. Retrieved From
http://www.kumc.edu/hospital/huntingtons /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
HD is extremely debilitating, and if the patient lives long enough, the symptoms can become extremely severe. It is not uncommon for patients who suffer from the disease to suffer extreme depression and sometimes suicide, so developing medications that could delay or slow the disease are extremely important, and laboratory testing should definitely continue in this area.
Laboratory work in the past decades has helped develop a much deeper understanding of the disease. A group of writers note, "Within the last 4 decades, great strides have been made that have furthered our understanding of the neural bases of HD" (Montoya, Price, Menear and Lepage 2006). This is also extremely important in the understanding and eventual eradication of the disease.
All of these results are extremely positive for families who know they suffer from the disease, and for hopefully preventing the disease in the future. Without laboratory testing and research, many…
Editors. 2010. Huntington's Disease. [Online] Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm [Accessed 18 May 2010].
Goolkasian, Virginia. 2001. Delving into Huntington's Disease. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), September, 34.
Klager, Joseph, Ayana Duckett, Susan Sandler, and Carol Moskowitz. 2008. Huntington's Disease: a Caring Approach to the End of Life. Care Management Journals 9, no. 2: 75+.
Lechich, Anthony J., Deborah Lovecky, Carol Moskowitz, Sybil Montas, Ayana Duckett, Anne Pae, Kathy Knoblauch, David Saks, Dorothy Toliver, Eileen Fogarty, and James Pollard. 2008. Survey of Community-based Programs Serving U.S. Families with Huntington's Disease: Perceived Barriers and Facilitators in the Residential Placement Process. Care Management Journals 9, no. 2: 65+.
Though there are state laws and federal laws that militate against discrimination at any levels, the application of this law is a challenge and the patients end up being discriminated against anyway. The victims will most likely end up in nursing homes where they will receive treatment but this separates them from the family life.
The other factor is the cost that weighs down the concerned people in terms of medical bills. It is a disease that is expensive to manage since there are numerous scans that one must get and the cost of specialized care doesn't make it any better. The good news however is that there are several organizations that have volunteered to help the victims of this disease like Hunters Hope (2009) which was purposefully formed to cater for patients of the disease in terms of support and information among many other organizations.
Alexander C. Guo,…
U.S National Library of Medicine (2011). Krabbe Disease. Retrieved April, 11, 2011 from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/krabbe-disease
University of Maryland Medical Center (2009). Krabbe disease - Overview . Retrieved April, 11,
2011 from http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/001198.htm
" (Fleming et al., 1994)
B. Genetic Factors
hile environmental factors are shown to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease there are also specific mutations linked to the development of PD in certain populations. For example it is reported that a study conducted on Parkinson's Disease and hereditary genetic risks of developing this disease states findings that researchers in the study "...found that ethnic Chinese individuals carrying a mutation they indentified in the LRRK2 gene are over two times more likely to develop the disease than non-carriers." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004) the study was conducted at Mayo Clinic in 2004. The research team not only discovered the LRRK2 gene and the role it plays in Parkinson's disease but as well discovered "...a number of mutations in LRRK2 a gene that codes for poorly understood protein, leucine-rich repeat kinase." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004)
One of the mutations 'G209S…
Wood-Kaczmar, a., Gandhi, S. And Wood, NW (2006) Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease Trends Mol Med. 2006 Nov;12(11):521-8. Epub 2006 Oct 5. Links
Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease.
Priyadarshi, a., Khuder, SA, Schaub, EA and Priyadarshi, SS (2001) Environmental risk factors and Parkinson's disease: a metaanalysis. Environe Res. 2001 Jun; 86(2):122-7.
How yeast is helping us to understand Parkinson's Disease (2009) Psysorg 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.physorg.com/news154950981.html